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Economic Aspects | Natural Resource Aspects | Institutional Aspects | Social Aspects |Kazakhstan

NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN KAZAKHSTAN

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AGRICULTURE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Ecology and the Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for agricultural development.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Structural changes have been made with a view to implementing integrated national policy in the regulation of the agrarian complex development. To achieve stability and forthcoming growth of agricultural efficiency, the Ministry of Agriculture has worked out Conception on Development of Agricultural Manufacture for 2000-2002, which was sent for consideration and approval by the corresponding ministries.
Main objective of the Conception is to assure agricultural growth (increasing of sales volume) in competitive branches of agricultural manufacture and to stabilize production of main types of agricultural plant growing and live-stocking farming outputs with the help of efficiently realized measures of national support of a general character.
The Conception envisages mobilization of available necessary measures. It means development of export/import policy, implementation of regional aspects of the agrarian policy, national support of the agrarian sector and rural social support.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

The Ministry of Agriculture has worked out a National Program on taking preventive measures and liquidation of centers of most dangerous pests and plant diseases breeding and spreading. The Program is sent for approval. At present in the Republic of Kazakhstan, pest control is entrusted upon: the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection for protection from pest pollution; the Agency of Healthcare Affairs, in charge of pest use impact on human health; and the Ministry of Agriculture, in charge of maintenance of pest use regulations, pest tests and registration.
To realize National Program on appropriate (proper and safe) pest use in the country the following measures were taken:

  1. The Laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan "About sanitary and epidemiological welfare of population", "About environmental protection" were confirmed. Much attention is paid to safe pest use;
  2. Government Resolution No. 439 of the Republic of Kazakhstan of April 15, 1996 was confirmed "About prohibition of use in the Republic of Kazakhstan environmentally detrimental pests and procedures of their burial;
  3. "Instruction on procedure of burial or destruction of forbidden and used pests and their packing" was approved;
  4. "List of chemical and biological means to combat pests, plant diseases and weeds, defoliants and plant growth regulators allowed for use in agriculture and forests of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the period of 1997-2001" was confirmed;
  5. "National Program on taking preventive measures on breeding and spreading of most dangerous pests and plant diseases of agricultural crops and combat with them" has been worked out and sent for consideration. Efficient, rational and safe pest use is envisaged in the Program;

Activities on enhancement of economic reforms and financial improvement of the agricultural sector are being undertaken in Kazakhstan. As the result of the implemented activities, debts of agricultural goods producers have decreased by 35% from the beginning of 1998, by means of following up bankruptcy procedures for bankrupt farms. New agricultural manufacturing subjects without debts have been formed.
Activities aimed at attracting investors into the agricultural manufacturing sector are being implemented on the territory of Kazakhstan. 561 agricultural manufacturing subjects were given the administration. Investors have given about 17.4 billion tenge to the agricultural manufacturers. Activity on presenting certificates for conventional land share has been completed. 2259.3 thousand people were provided with certificates and 1957.4 thousand (87 %) made use of them.
Acts on the right of permanent land use have been applied to 80, 389 farms out of 90,111 farms (amounting to 89 %).

The Ministry of Agriculture has worked out recommendations on agricultural practices of getting high cereal harvest by agricultural enterprise "Zarechnoe" of Kostanay region. The recommendations were sent to regional agricultural departments.
The structure of area under crops was optimized and low productive lands were taken out of the use.

Status

Kazakhstan is an agrarian country and the agro-industrial complex is the main branch of its economy. The level of development level of the agrarian sector of the economy is one of the main factors of the society's economic, social and political stability.
Since agricultural production has decreased, there has been a corresponding decrease in pesticides and nitrates in the environment of Kazakhstan. Some problems with nitrate remain, however, e.g. in Almatinskaya oblast, Mangistauskaya oblast, and Kokshetauskaya oblast.

Challenges

One of the main issues demanding immediate measures is protection of crops from weeds, diseases and pests. The area of agricultural crops and lands inflicted by most dangerous plant diseases and far-spread pests (such as locust cutworm, grain cutworm, mildew, etc.) has increased lately. Measures to combat with them are financed from the republican budget.
Annual insufficient and inopportune financing of the plants protection program and appearance of a large area of uncultivated arable lands caused a very serious situation in the country in the current year. That caused increase of area inflicted by the far-spread pests. Lack of financing in the current year made it impossible to cultivate more than 2 million hectares of lands. In 2000 area of cultivation will amount to 4,9 million hectares.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

The Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) collects and analyses information on pollution, land erosion and pasture degradation in order to best decide the most efficient way the land can be used or to return to its former state. Agriculture problems, projects and activities will be discussed and priorities will be identified at the Republic Seminar.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Government of Republic of Kazakhstan has never called for help from the Global Integrated Pest Management Facility for preparation of the IPM program for plant protection.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Kazakstan to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1999.

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Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR.

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ATMOSPHERE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Ecology and the Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for protection of the atmosphere.
The Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) coordinates activities of ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures to implement work for the protection of the atmosphere. It coordinates activities on environmental assessments of power plants, industry and transport. The Centre of NEAP/SD collects information on monitoring of SO2, NOx, dust and other hazardous substances, emissions, deforestation, desertification and climate change, it also analyses their impact on health risk.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

Recent instruments are the licensing system for polluting activities determining emission limits for pollution, regulations of atmosphere protection control, methods of damage calculation and payment determination for air pollution.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

An Agreement on Cooperation in Implementing the Rolling Framework Program for Sustainable Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan was signed on the 31 of March. Ecological problems, projects and activities are discussed and priorities identified at the Republic Seminar.
Kazakhstan is ready to establish a National Cleaner Production Centre (NCPC) within the framework of the NEAP/SD Project approved by the RK Government. The NEAP/SD Centre is capable of serving as the nexus for research and dissemination of cleaner production processes for major industrial sectors. The NCPC will have a coordinating and catalytic role in regard to cleaner production. Activities cover four areas: in-plant demonstration, training, information dissemination, and policy assessment.

Status

The Montreal Protocol and its Amendments have not been ratified.
In 1995, 3,79 billion tenge were spend on protection of the atmosphere.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1995.

 

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This information is based on Kazakhstan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

Click here for national information from the Web site of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
For the access to the Web Site of the Ozone Secretariat, click here:

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BIODIVERSITY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Ecology and the Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD)are responsible for the protection of biodiversity and forest genetic resources.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Group Involvement

Besides Ministries and departments, local agencies, public organizations and business structures are involved in activities to protect biodiversity.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

Protected areas cover about 2.3% of Kazakhstan territory. The development of a data bank of nature resources is under way. There are 835 species of animals and birds in Kazakhstan, 229 of which are in the Red Book. The Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) collects and analyses information on biodiversity in order to develop measures and to coordinate activities directed towards biodiversity protection and an increase in the number of animals. Biodiversity problems, projects and activities will be discussed and priorities will be identified at the Republic Seminar.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Convention on Biological Diversity was signed in 1992 and ratified in 1994.

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora has not been signed.

 

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This information is based on Kazakhstan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

For access to the Web Site of the Convention on Biological Diversity, click here:
For access to the Web Site of the CITES Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the CMS Convention, click here:
For the Web Site of the Convention on the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, click here:
For the country-by-country, Man in the Biosphere On-Line Query System, click here:
Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to go to the Web Site of UNEP's International Register on Biosafety.
Click here for the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Biosafety WebPages

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DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Ministry of Ecology and the Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for the sustainable development of arid regions and for the coordination of activities directed toward combating desertification.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regualtions

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

A National Activity Program on Combating Desertification in Kazakhstan was developed by the Ministry of Ecology, with the support of UNEP.

The Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) continues to collect information and assess damages from desertification, and it develops and coordinates measures to combat desertification. Deserts problems, projects and activities are discussed and priorities identified at the Republic Seminar.

Status

The climate in Kazakhstan is distinctly continental with frequent drought, so 179.9 million hectares or 60% of the territory of Kazakhstan suffer from desertification. Further environmental degradation will lead to irreparable losses of biodiversity, a loss of agricultural production and deterioration of living conditions.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought and/or Desertification Particularly in Africa was signed in 1994 and ratified in 1997.

 

 

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This information is based on Kazakhstan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

For access to the Web Site of the Convention to Combat Desertification and Drought, click here:

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ENERGY

No information available.

 

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FORESTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Ecology, the Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) and the Forest Committee are responsible for the forestry sector.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

The following activities for sustainable forest management in the Republic of Kazakhstan have been carried out since the UNCED:

  1. Forest code of the Republic of Kazakhstan was accepted in 1993,
  2. Payment on forest resources has been introduced.

The Committee prepared a draft Conception on Sustainable Forest Management for up until 2003. A new publication of the Forest Code is planned to be prepared in 2000, owing to the changes in Kazakhstan's legislation.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

Forestry development in the Republic of Kazakhstan will increase rural employment and it will consequently contribute to poverty reducing.
One of the main objectives of the forestry of Kazakhstan is organization of continuous and sparing forest use. Timber is one of the main forest resources. Its laying-in is performed by felling forests of main use in ripe plantations and of selective use (care and sanitary felling). Felling is performed in all forests except for preservers and inaccessible forests.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

The scientific program Sustainable Conservation and Rational Use of Biodiversity of Forests and Vegetation Resources of Kazakhstan was developed by the Forest Committee and the Academy of Science.

Status

In January 1993 the entire area of forest land in the Republic of Kazakhstan was 24.56 million hectares including 10.25 hectares covered by forests. In January 1998 it was 25.6 million hectares and 11.4 hectares, correspondingly. Forest area has increased by 1.1 million hectares, owing to the agriculture lands and forests covering state land resources, which directly affected the woodiness index, that has grown from 3.8 % to 4.2 %.
Depending on their practical importance, the forests of the Republic can be divided into two groups. The first group consists of forests performing water, sanitary and health protecting functions. This group forms about 95% of the entire area of forestland. The second group consists of forests, which have restricted practical use and demand a restricted forest use regime for preservation of their environmental functions. Such forests can be found only in the mountain forests of Altai.
The whole annual timber-felling amount on all kinds of use is about 700,000 m3. Most of timber is processed by state forestries and hunts, which have more than 130 sawmills and timber processing workshops. They produce more than 300 types of products including 80-100 thousand m3 of saw-timber, up to 1,5 thousand m3 of caisson kits, a great number of joinery and souvenir goods, folding country cottages and other consumer goods.
On the territory of the forest fund gallipot collection is carried out (feasible amount is up to 200 tons a year), hay-mowing (330,000 hectares), live-stock pasturage (2 960,000 hectares), bee-hive and apiary placing, collection of wide-growing fruits and cedar nuts (more than 1,3 thousand tons), herbs (up to15, 000 tons); forest use for recreation and R&D purposes; forest use for hunt needs. Except the above-mentioned activities enterprises of the branch produce 4-5 tons of fir-wood oil, more than 2,000 tons of game meat, 1,000 tons of melons and gourds, up to 30,000 tons of hay, 20,000 of honey.

Challenges

Combating forest fire, pests and diseases has lately gained a great importance in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Thus, in 1999 nine hundred and forty-six cases of forest fire took place on the territory of 26.5 thousand hectares including 20.7 thousand hectares of forest area. Direct damage was 89 million tenge. In 1998 one thousand and fifty-three cases of forest fire took place on the territory of 16,3 thousand hectares including 15 thousand hectares of forest area. Damage was 70,7 million tenge.
Diseases and pests affected 75 thousand hectares of forest area in 1998.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

The Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) collects and analyses information on forests in order to assess damage from deforestation and to coordinate activities of the Forest Committee and other local agencies, public organisations and business structures. Forest problems, projects and activities are discussed and priorities identified at the Republic Seminar.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No compensation is provided for forest owners who provide non-market environmental benefits to society by managing their forests sustainably. All the forests are the property of the state. Protection and realization of all forest activities are implemented at the expense of the state budget.

Cooperation

Kazakhstan doesn't take part in any of regional initiatives such as the Pan-European Process, Montreal process, the Dry Zone Africa, North Africa and Near East, and Central America initiatives, the Tarapoto Proposal, the initiatives of the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and African Timber Organization, with regard to the criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Kazakstan to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1999.

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FRESHWATER

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Ecology and the Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for water resources protection.
The Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) co-ordinates activities of ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures to implement work for the water resources rational use and protection. It co-ordinates activities on environmental assessment of power plants and industry. The Centre of NEAP/SD collects information on monitoring of water pollution, and analyses their impact on health risk.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available.  

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status

Kazakhstan is supplied with surface and underground water. In 1995, the annual withdrawal of water from rivers was 28.81 km3, 22.24 km3 of water were used and 5.52 km3 were lost. Discharge of wastewater was 7.07 km3 : 5.78 km3 were discharged in surface water, 1.27 km3 in special ponds and 0.02 km3 in underground waters. Water resources are polluted with various chemicals of industrial-agricultural origin. Pollution problems are particularly severe in the vicinity of urban and industrial centres where adequate and fully operational wastewater treatment facilities do not exist either for municipal or industrial effluents.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

In 1996, the German government funded a project on sustainable water use with a grant of US$ 1.5 million.

Cooperation

An Agreement on Cooperation in Implementing the Framework Program for Sustainable Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan was signed on the 31 of March. Ecological problems, projects and activities are discussed and priorities identified at the Republic Seminar.

 

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This information is based on Kazakhstan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

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LAND MANAGEMENT

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Ecology and the Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for rational use of land resources.
The Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) coordinates activities of ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures to implement work for the planning and management of land resources.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

Under the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan " On Introduction of Changes and Addenda in Certain Legislative Acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan on Tax Issues", a new tax procedure was introduced concerning farms with plots for permanent use. Under the law, the subject of taxation is the estimated cost of the plot. In accordance with the Government Resolution it was decided that the estimated cost is to be defined based on the availability of land ownership certificate. Absence of the certificate can entail delay in defining the estimated cost of farm lands, which in its turn will have a negative impact on implementation of activities to estimate the cost (rate) of license paid by them.

The Agency of Land Resources Management of the Republic of Kazakhstan was established under the Decree of the President of RK of October 13, 1999, with the purpose of land reform.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies, and Plans

The main part of the agrarian reforms implemented in Kazakhstan is the land reform, which is being implemented across the country. The principle objective of the land reform is: (a) to restore landowner, (b) to provide the farmer with right of choice, (c) to overcome industrial crises based on producer’s personal interest. The main objective of the land reform is to provide landowners and users with certificates identifying their rights to land. Opportune implementation of this activity is the basis for establishment of land use and land ownership legislation, involvement of bank investments and credits, development of mortgage credit system and realization of land transactions.
A Target-plan (by years) on personification of land shares on location was worked out and approved.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

The Kazakhstan Service of Land Use Organization performs activities on providing people with plots for gardening, truck farming, summer cottage building, subsidiary small-holding. The area of lands given by the Government to people during the entire period of the land reform implementation has increased from 59 thousand to 97.5 thousand hectares for gardening and summer cottage building; from 193.7 thousand to 355.9 thousand hectares for subsidiary small-holding and individual house-building; and from 42.7 thousand to 69.4 thousand hectares for truck farming. Apportionment of extra lands for expansion of rural settlements has been undertaken, which resulted in allotting 17.7 million hectares of lands for 7,500.000 settlements. As a result, people can freely use these lands for livestock pasture, hay mowing, subsidiary small-holdings and for other activities.
The Agency for Land Resources Management performed activities on land use organization on the territory of 404 rural settlements. One of the priority trends of the land reform was the personification of plots in reforming agricultural organizations. The activity was launched in the middle of 1995. It was implemented based on the Decree of the President of RK No.1585 of March 9, 1994 "About transmission of part of collective farms property in property of directors"; on the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan of February 24, 1994 "About selling public agricultural units into private property"; and on "Approval of Regulation on transmission of the right of land share during privatization of public agricultural units" of June 10, 1994.
The above-mentioned normative and legislative acts made it possible to realize personification throughout the country. During the implementation of this activity about 2.3 million people became holders of the right to conventional land share and were given corresponding certificates. At present, about 2.0 million transactions of the right to conventional land share on the territory of 108.1 million hectares were drawn and registered.
1407.6 thousand people engaged in transmission of the right to conventional land share on the territory of 78.7 million hectares, by means of selling. 457.5 thousand people engaged in transmission of the right to the territory of 24.7 million hectares by means of renting, and 49.1 thousand people engaged in transmission of the right to the territory of 4.3 million hectares by means of presenting it to other people. 855.8 thousand people engaged in transmission of the right to the territory of 46.0 million hectares by means of transmitting it to the authorized fund. Besides the above-mentioned activities a number of farms were established with the help of 638.4 thousand land shares.
However, not all owners of land shares can make use of their right on land to the fullest level. That’s why the Message of the President of Kazakhstan set a task for year 2000 concerning realization of farm privatization with exact personification on the location of private property and plots. It will make it possible for every plot owner to see the bounds of his plot and to make the best of it. Consequently it will make people leave manufacturing cooperatives, towards establishment of new farms and formation of real landowners.

Status

There are about 3.1 million landowners and land users in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In 1999 about 2,7 million certificates identifying right to land were obtained, which makes up 81% of the requested number. About 79.1 thousand (90 %) of them were given to farms. 100% public agricultural units and 97% of private agricultural units with constant land use have been provided with acts. In addition, there are 42 thousand subjects of small-scale undertaking that stand in need of land certificates. Of that number, about 38.8 thousand are provided with such documents, amounting to 92% of the total number. Inopportune issuance of land ownership certificates is one of the deterrents of mortgage credit development.
There are 200 thousand people who didn’t make use of their right of land ownership given to them by the Government.

Distribution of land of the Republic of Kazakhstan
by different types of agricultural resources, for November 1, 1999

Name of resources

Area (thousand, hectares)

Total

Including irrigated

Arable lands

21,786.7

1363.9

Perennial plantations

138.6

94.7

Fallow lands

10,269.5

656.5

Hay mowing lands

5,021.5

21.1

Pastures

185,187.9

114.9

Total area of agricultural resources

222,491.7

2,283.4

 
Forest area

12,944.8

 
Tree and scrub lands

1,389.3

 
Wetlands

1,105.9

 
Under water

7,716.3

 
Other resources

26,842.2

 

 

 Distribution of lands in the Republic of Kazakhstan
by regions and cities of republican significance, for November 1, 1999

Name of regions and cities of republican significance

Area (thousand, hectares)

Total Including irrigated
Akmola region

14,667.1

48.5

Aktubinsk region

30,062.9

48.8

Almaty region

22,396.2

648.5

Atyrau region

11,863.1

44.7

East-Kazakhstan region

28,322.6

219.1

Zhambyl region

14,426.4

239.6

West-Kazakhstan region

15,133.9

55.8

Karaganda region

42,798.2

97.4

Kyzyl-Orda region

22,601.9

277.7

Kostanay region

19,600.1

41.6

Mangystau region

16,564.2

2.0

Pavlodar region

12,457.5

59.5

North-Kazakhstan region

9,799.3

23.2

South-Kazakhstan region

11,724.9

500.4

Almaty

28.0

5.0

Astana

25.8

2.3

Total:

272,490.2

2,314.1

Challenges

Certain practice of personification on location revealed some drawbacks. Personification on location contradicts the requirements of regional land use in the regions of goods production, where farms have a considerable area of arable lands and a crop rotation system with equal fields (200-400 hectares). Lot division interferes with the process of hay rotation, hampers the use of highly productive technology, impedes the process of production concentration, etc.
The same situation of land share personification in rice farms and irrigation units is to be observed. Indivisibility of rice fields and use of irrigation constructions make division impossible. Use of permanent and temporary irrigation constructions and irrigation regime are intended for a mutual system of use. Their division is impossible.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

The Centre of NEAP/SD collects information on monitoring and stimulates activity on the rational use of land resources. Ecological problems, projects and activities will be discussed and priorities will be identified at the Republic Seminar.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information was provided by the Government of Kazakstan to the 5th and 8th Sessions of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Last Update: December 1999.

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MOUNTAINS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Ecology and the Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for mountain development.

The Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) is going to collect information in order to develop measures and to coordinate activities directed toward the prediction of mud flows, landslides and avalanches. The Centre of NEAP/SD is also going to study glaciers and their influence on climate change.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

Mud flows, landslides and avalanches inflict a lot of damage in the mountains of Kazakhstan.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information is based on Kazakhstan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

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OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Ecology and the Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for the protection of seas and related problems..
The Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) is going to coordinate activities directed toward Caspian Sea and Aral Sea problems.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

The Aral Sea Basin Program includes various activities to develop sustainable water and land management strategies.
The Caspian Sea Environmental Program was developed by the World Bank and the UN in order to identify activities and to coordinate international donors.

Status

There are three big lakes on the territory of Kazakhstan: Aral Sea, Caspian Sea and Balhash lake. Approximately 1.4 million people in Kazakhstan are affected by one of the most acute environment disasters in the world. Manifestation of this crisis include desiccation of the Aral Sea, environmental degradation in the upper and middle water shed, especially deforestation, soil erosion, increasing vulnerability to large-scale landslides, distraction of wetlands, loss of livehoods, and the gradual increase of poverty and illness among those living in deltas of Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers.

Challenges

The main problem of the Caspian Sea is the fluctuation in water levels. It has increased the threat of water pollution through inundation and hazardous industrial wastewater stored in stabilisation ponds close to the water's edge. In Kazakhstan, the expanding Caspian Sea flooded a large stretch of farmland in the country and poses serious threats to the country's ports and to power and oil industries. As a result of pollution the rich Caspian Sea fisheries are threatened.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea has not been ratified.

 

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This information is based on Kazakhstan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

To access the Web Site of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, click here:

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TOXIC CHEMICALS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Ecology and the Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for the management of toxic chemicals.
The Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) co-ordinates activities of ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures to implement work for control and management of toxic chemicals and dangerous products. The Centre of NEAP/SD also collects information on substances distribution and analyses their impact on health risk. Ecological problems, projects and activities will be discussed and priorities will be identified at the Republic Seminar.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information is based on Kazakhstan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

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WASTE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

SOLID WASTE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Ecology and the Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for waste management.
The Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) coordinates activities of ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures to implement control and management of solid waste dumping and directs activity towards waste recycling.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

The Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) coordinates activities directed towards waste water management and supplying the population with sewerage. The Centre of NEAP/SD collects information on monitoring of water pollution, and analyses health risks.
Ecological problems, projects and activities will be discussed and priorities will be identified at the Republic Seminar.

Status

Pollution problems are particularly severe in the vicinity of urban and industrial centres where adequate and fully operational wastewater treatment facilities do not exist either for municipal or industrial effluents. Of the nearly 1,200 major industrial enterprises in the country, fewer than half have functioning pre-treatment facilities. Municipal wastewater is commonly treated in unlined lagoons, which receive untreated or poorly treated industrial effluents as well. Approximately 8 billion cubic metres of wastewater are presently being held in lagoons in 8 major cities, causing contamination of surrounding soil as well as surface and groundwater resources through overflow and seepage.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information is based on Kazakhstan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

 

HAZARDOUS WASTE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Ecology and the Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for the management of hazardous waste.
The Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) coordinates activities of ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures to implement work for control and management of hazardous wastes.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

It has been estimated that 800 million tons of hazardous wastes are generated in Kazakhstan every year, and nearly 17 billion tons of these waste are presently being held in landfills in the country. While there is no comprehensive inventory of ranking as to what risk they pose to human health, hazardous waste is disposed primarily in unlined landfills that are not well-managed. Moreover, there is little systematic waste recycling by the industry. The presence of such metals as gold, platinum, vanadium and copper in some of this waste indicates the need for cleaning up the landfill sites and for the introduction of resource recovery.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies  

No information is available.

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal has not been signed.

 

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This information is based on Kazakhstan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.

For direct link to the Web Site of the Basel Convention, click here:

 

RADIOACTIVE WASTE

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies

The Ministry of Ecology and the Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) are responsible for the management of radioactive waste.
The Centre of National Environmental Activity Plan for Sustainable Development (NEAP/SD) co-ordinates activities of ministries and departments, local agencies, public organisations and business structures to implement work for control and management of radioactive waste. The Centre of NEAP/SD collects information on monitoring of radioactive waste and analyses resulting health risks.
Ecological problems, projects and activities are discussed and priorities identified at the Republic Seminar.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status

The problem of radioactive waste is very serious in Kazakhstan as there are a lot of uranium mines in the country. Between 1949 and 1989, 470 nuclear devices were detonated in the Semipalatensk range which occupies an area of some 1.8 million hectares in the oblasts of Semipolatensk, Pavlodar, Karaganda, East Kazakhstan. Archival materials now indicate that there were exposure levels one hundred times above permissible levels. The epidemiological studies indicate high levels of cancer and mental illness among the people in the region.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

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This information is based on Kazakhstan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: June 1997.


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