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SOCIAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN JAPAN

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POVERTY

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

Although poverty is not an issue in Japan, the Government recognizes that the relief of poverty in developing countries is an important task. Therefore, assistance to fulfill the basic human needs of poverty-stricken people accounted for about three-quarters ($2 billion) of Japan's grant aid in 1995. Japan promotes Official Development Assistance to combat poverty in developing countries, taking into account the results of relevant major United Nations conferences and summits such as the World Summit for Social Development.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available. 

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Japan also works directly in the field of Forest Conservation and Combating Desertification, where it conducts afforestation projects with the participation of local authorities and relieves the poverty of the local population in Nepal, Thailand, Tanzania, Senegal, and Kenya. Japan attaches importance to networks of NGOs between developing countries and Japan in combating poverty as well as to the active participation of poverty-stricken people and women in this process.

Japan supports international organizations such as the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-Ordinator (UNDRO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).

 

 

 

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This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For information on Poverty in Japan's Agenda 21, click here.

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DEMOGRAPHICS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

The Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare is the body most directly concerned with demographic issues. The Government provided information for the Population Conference in Cairo.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

Women, local communities and the media participate in public debates regarding this topic. Japan places considerable emphasis on making use of NGOs in its assistance programmes in this area, because they are able to work directly with local people at the grass-roots level.


Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

The population in Japan has remained the same since 1994, at 125 million. There is no formal National Population Policy, though there are some national programs in which population and environment are linked. There has been a national debate on population/environment linkages both in parliament and at the government level.

Among the activities that Japan attaches importance to in this area are the following: (1) promotion of the settlement of population in rural areas through the development of those areas, and (2) continuing research, begun in 1993, into the relationship between demographic trends and socio-economic conditions and their effects on environmental problems in the region of Asia and the Pacific.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

Population and HIV/AIDS is one of the areas where Japan and the U.S. have jointly taken initiatives under the Common Agenda for Cooperation in Global Perspective within the context of the U.S.-Japan Framework for a new Economic Partnership (see Health section below).

 

 

 

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This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For information on Demographics in Japan's Agenda 21, click here.

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HEALTH

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

Japan's Ministry of Health and Welfare is most directly concerned with this area.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

Japanese legislation concerning the protection and the promotion of human health consists of laws regarding: Communicable Disease Prevention; Preventive Vaccination; Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention; Tuberculosis Prevention; AIDS Prevention; Compensation and Prevention of Pollution-Related Health Damage; Air Pollution Control; Water Pollution Control; Automobile NOx Reduction; Agricultural Chemicals Regulation; and Noise Regulation.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects

No information is available. 

Status 

With brisk industrial and commercial activities in urban areas, there is concern over the deterioration of various aspects of the living environment, including the air and water, which accompany concentrations in population. Japan is therefore currently devising a variety of pollution prevention and clean-up measures to promote public health. Epidemiological research is conducted on the effect of nitrogen oxides on health, and long-term monitoring is carried out on air pollution and its effects on health. Measures are also being implemented to control production of ozone-depleting substances. In addition, Japan is making an effort to compensate sufferers of pollution-related health damage.

In rural areas, to compensate for the lack of sufficient medical institutions, Japan has established Rural Medical Examination Centers. Japan continues to promote measures to deal with contagious diseases and protection of vulnerable groups. For example, long-term strategies have been developed to address the public health issues of both the aged and persons with disabilities. In addition, since 1993, Japan has carried out the technological development of vaccines corresponding to the Children's Vaccines Initiative (CVI).

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

Japan has greatly increased its budget for dealing with the issues of AIDS, in order to cope with social demand for appropriate treatment of persons with AIDS, to promote social enlightenment on the nature of AIDS, and to promote AIDS counseling, research on AIDS, and international co-operation.

Cooperation

In the area of international cooperation, Japan, as the largest donor of ODA, announced the "Global Issues Initiatives on Population and AIDS" (GII) in February 1994 for cooperation with developing countries by allocating US$ 3 billion within ODA programmes during the 7-year period from FY 1994 to FY 2000. GII has supported multilateral and bilateral cooperation since its initiation in FY 1994 and has reached US$ 1 billion in the first years of FY 1994 and FY 1995. GII was begun under the Japan-US framework talks called "The US-Japan Common Agenda for Cooperation in Global Perspective", wherein the two countries agreed to collaborate in 26 fields, including measures for controlling emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and HIV/AIDS. Also regarding AIDS, Japan continues supporting the activities of UNAIDS, which is combating HIV/AIDS and related problems.

Japan has provided technical and financial assistance, through multilateral as well as bilateral cooperation, for the eradication of poliomyelitis, control of tuberculosis, the Expanded Programme on Immunization, the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases and the Diarrheal Disease Control Programme, which are conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO). There has been salient progress occurring in the Western Pacific and in Southeast Asian regions toward the goal of eradicating polio from the earth by the year 2000.

Japan has dispatched experts and provided training courses, such as the "International Seminar for Administrators on AIDS Programme Management", the "Communicable Diseases Control Course for Overseas Experts", the "Water Supply Management Seminar" and the "Training Course on Solid Waste Management".

 

 

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This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For information on Health in Japan's Agenda 21, click here.
Click here to go to the Health and health-related statistical information from the World Health Organization.

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EDUCATION

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations

No information is available. 

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Basic Environment Plan was formulated by the Government in 1994 and remains the national strategy for Sustainable Development. The Plan outlines overall, long-term national policies (Sound Material Cycle, Harmonious Coexistence, Participation, International Activities) toward sustainable development. Under the Plan, the Government has been promoting Environmental Education and Learning, Providing Information, Educational Materials and Methods to encourage voluntary actions by individuals.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

No information is available.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

There are a number of programmes or campaigns geared toward raising the awareness of the public with regard to issues of sustainable consumption and production patterns. Some of these are:

The Environment Agency prepares and provides various materials and programs to help people understand the current state of the environment and to give them incentives to participate in environmental conservation in their daily lives. Furthermore, the Agency provides various opportunities such as Junior Eco Club to help children voluntarily participate in environmental conservation activities for their communities. The Agency also provides information on a variety of nature-contacting-activities such as interpretive service and wood craft through the "Love the Nature Club". The Ministry of Construction also provides opportunities to utilize rivers as play fields in cooperation with local communities.

Following are some examples of innovative education, public awareness or training activities related to sustainable development in Japan:

In order to develop partnerships among educators, scientists, Governments, NGOs, business and industry, youth, the media and other major groups so as to communicate the key messages of sustainable development, the Environment Agency, in cooperation with the United Nations University, opened the Global Environment Information Center in October 1996 as the base for intercommunication. It provides information on environmental education and environmental conservation activities conducted by various organizations including enterprises, NGOs and local governments.

In Japan, education at the primary and the second levels is compulsory and accessible to all. Furthermore, various services and programs are offered free of charge by the administration. School curricula on environmental education have been prepared for every level of schooling. Environmenal education will be further promoted through the drafting and distribution of teaching materials and holding of education symposia and conferences aimed at improving the teaching abilities of educators. Education provided by NGOs will continue to be supported.


The following capacities need to be developed among decision-makers and governmental officers :

To strengthen human resources in this area Japan will undertake the following activities:

Japan will continue to promote the following activities to increase public awareness:

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies

No information is available.  

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.

 

 

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This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th & 6th Sessions of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997 & 1998. Last update: 2 March 1998.

For information on Education in Japan's Agenda 21, click here.
For the National Institute for Environmental Studies, click here.

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HUMAN SETTLEMENTS

Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies   

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations 

No information is available.

Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans  

The Japanese Government has established "The 7th Housing Construction Five-Year Program" as a measure for dealing with housing-related problems. Many of the targets are concerned with more environmentally-sound housing, taking into account energy efficiency and alternative energy technologies, water circulation, and waste recycling. In addition, programmes address improvements on the environment surrounding houses, such as the Blighted Residential Area Renewal Project, the overall Community Living Environment Improvement Project, the Street Improvement Project, and the Small Community Area Improvement Project.

Regarding international cooperation in the area of shelter, Japan has conducted various activities based on the "Policy for Long-Term Action in the Area of Shelter (approved by the Board for the Promotion of the 1988 International Year of Shelter for the Homeless)". In order to further contribute to the alleviation of the severe shelter-related problems confronting developing countries, Japan has improved the level of its cooperation with the United Nations Center for Human Settlements (Habitat), and will also promote such activities as international seminars on human settlement policy and study missions on shelter.

Decision-Making: Major Groups Involvement  

The Government, local authorities and private organizations cooperate to contribute to the stabilization of peoples's living standards and the enhancement of social welfare.

Programmes and Projects 

No information is available.

Status 

No information is available.

Challenges

No information is available.

Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising  

No information is available.

Information

No information is available.

Research and Technologies 

No information is available. 

Financing

No information is available.

Cooperation

No information is available.


 

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This information is based on Japan's submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997.

For information on Human Settlements in Japan's Agenda 21, click here.
For information related to human settlements and refugees, you may access the UNHCR Country Index by clicking here:

Click here to access "BEST PRACTICES FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENTS: ASIA"



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