United Nations


General Assembly
Economic and Social Council

Distr. GENERAL  

3 July 1995


Fiftieth session  Substantive session of 1995
Item 12 of the preliminary list*  Item 8 of the provisional


           Economic and social repercussions of the Israeli settlements
           on the Palestinian people in the Palestinian territory,
           including Jerusalem, occupied since 1967, and on the Arab
population of the Syrian Golan

Note by the Secretary-General

  In its  resolution 1994/45 of 29 July 1994, entitled  "Economic and social
repercussions of  the Israeli settlements on  the Palestinian  people in the
Palestinian territory, including Jerusalem, occupied since  1967, and on the
Arab population  of  the Syrian  Golan",  the  Economic and  Social  Council
requested  the Secretary-General to  submit to  the General  Assembly at its
fiftieth  session, through the  Council, a  report on  the implementation of
the  resolution.   The  General Assembly,  in  its resolution  49/32  of  19
December 1994, repeated that request.   The Secretary-General has the honour
to  submit to  the  members of  the Assembly  and  the Council  the  annexed
report,  covering the  period  from  April  1994 to  March  1995, which  was
prepared by the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA).


  *  A/50/50/Rev.1.

    **  E/1995/100.

95-19952 (E)   140795/...

             Economic and social consequences of the establishment
             of settlements by Israel in the Palestinian territory,
             including Jerusalem, occupied since 1967, and the
Syrian Golan

Report prepared by the Economic and Social Commission
for Western Asia

1.  The establishment  of Israeli settlements  in the Palestinian and  other
Arab  territories  occupied since  1967  has  been  the  subject of  various
resolutions of  the  Security Council  and the  General  Assembly.   In  its
resolution 446  (1979) of  22 March  1979, the  Security Council  determined
that the  Israeli policy and practice  of establishing  settlements in those
territories had no legal validity and  constituted a serious obstruction  to
achieving a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in  the Middle East.  That
position  was reaffirmed  unanimously  in Security  Council  resolution  465
(1980)  of 1  March 1980, in  the preamble  of which  the Council  took into
account the  need  to consider  measures  for  the impartial  protection  of
private and  public land and property, and water resources, and affirmed the
applicability  of  the  Geneva Convention  relative  to  the  Protection  of
Civilian Persons  in  Time  of  War, of  12  August  1949, 1/  to  the  Arab
territories occupied  by Israel since 1967,  including Jerusalem.   In 1980,
the International  Labour Conference  also expressed  concern regarding  the
establishment of settlements and called for an end  to that policy, as  well
as the dismantling of existing settlements.

2.    At its  forty-ninth session,  in  1994,  the General  Assembly, having
considered  the reports  of  the Special  Committee  to  Investigate Israeli
Practices  Affecting the Human  Rights of  the Palestinian  People and Other
Arabs of  the Occupied Territories (A/49/67, A/49/172 and A/49/511), adopted
resolution 49/36 of 9  December 1994, in which, inter alia, it expressed its
concern  about  the  continued  violation  of   the  human  rights  of   the
Palestinian people by Israel and reaffirmed  in particular that the  Israeli
settlements in the occupied Palestinian territory, including Jerusalem,  and
the  other Arab territories occupied  by Israel since 1967, were illegal and
an obstacle to a comprehensive settlement.

3.   The General  Assembly, in its  resolution 49/132 of  19 December  1994,
took note of the  note by the Secretary-General  on the economic  and social
consequences  of  the  establishment   of  settlements  by   Israel  in  the
Palestinian territory,  including Jerusalem,  occupied since  1967, and  the
Syrian  Golan  (A/49/169-E/1994/73);  recognized  the  economic  and  social
repercussions of  the Israeli settlements on  the Palestinian  people in the
Palestinian territory  occupied by Israel  since 1967, including  Jerusalem,
and on the Arab  population of the Syrian Golan; reaffirmed the  inalienable
right of the Palestinian  people and the  population of the Syrian Golan  to
their  natural   and  all  other  economic   resources,  and  regarded   any
infringement thereof as  being illegal; and requested the  Secretary-General
to  submit to  the General  Assembly at  its  fiftieth session,  through the
Economic  and  Social  Council,  a  report  on  the  progress  made  in  the
implementation of  the  resolution.   The  present  report is  submitted  in
response to that resolution.

4.   The building  of settlements  began shortly after  the Six  Day War  in
1967, with  the first  being established  in the  Syrian Golan.   Since that
time,  that policy  has been  developed  more or  less intensively  and  has
accelerated  since the beginning  of 1990. 2/   Financial and tax incentives
offered  by the  Government encourage  settlers to  make their homes  in the
occupied territories.

5.   The signature on 13 September 1993 by the  Government of Israel and the
Palestine  Liberation  Organization of  the  Declaration  of  Principles  on
Interim  Self-Government   Arrangements  (A/48/486-S/26560,   annex)  was  a
landmark  in the history  of Israeli-Palestinian relations.  The Declaration
states  in   its  article  I  that   the  aim   of  the  Israeli-Palestinian
negotiations  is  "to  establish   a  Palestinian  Interim   Self-Government
Authority, the elected  Council ... for the  Palestinian people in the  West
Bank  and  the Gaza  Strip, for  a  transitional period  not exceeding  five
years,  leading   to  a  permanent  settlement  based  on  Security  Council
resolutions  242  (1967)  and   338  (1973)".     The  Declaration  deferred
discussion of the issue of settlements  until the negotiations on  permanent
status, which should start  not later than the  beginning of the  third year
of the interim period, i.e., in May 1996.

6.   On 4 May 1994,  the Government of  Israel and  the Palestine Liberation
Organization concluded an agreement in Cairo  for the implementation of  the
Declaration  of Principles  signed in  September 1993  (A/49/180-S/1994/727,
annex).  Soon after  the Cairo  agreement,  the  Israeli army  completed its
withdrawal   from  the  Gaza  Strip,  but  left  some  forces  in  the  area
surrounding  16   Israeli  settlements   occupied  by   approximately  4,000

7.   In July  1992,  the Prime  Minister of  Israel  announced  a freeze  on
official settlement activities.  During the  period under review, the  Prime
Minister has continued to assert his  Government's commitment to the freeze.
At a  meeting  of  the  Knesset Foreign  Affairs  and Defence  Committee  in
January 1995 he  said: "We stand  by our  obligation that  no building  will
take place outside Israeli sovereign territory except for  cases where it is
necessary in  live settlements,  and the  building of  10,000 housing  units
which had already been started". 3/

8.  Despite such declarations, official  and private settlement activity  in
the occupied Palestinian  territories has continued.  International  concern
about the  issue was demonstrated  by the  debate convened  in the  Security
Council on 28 February 1995,  in response to a letter dated 22 February from
the Permanent Representative of Djibouti addressed  to the President of  the
Security Council (S/1995/151). 

9.   During that debate,  the Permanent Observer  for Palestine  stated that
Israeli  settlements had  been established  on occupied  Palestinian  lands,
including  Jerusalem,  since   1967,  in  violation  of  the  Fourth  Geneva
Convention. In numerous resolutions, the  General Assembly and  the Security
Council had  reaffirmed  the applicability  of  the  Convention to  all  the
territories  occupied  by  Israel  since  1967  and  called  on  Israel, the
occupying  Power,  to  abide by  its provisions.    Nevertheless, settlement
activity had  continued until the present  date, resulting  in the existence
of approximately  140 settlements in  the occupied Palestinian  territories,
inhabited  by  approximately  300,000  settlers,  including  those  in  East
Jerusalem.   The Permanent  Observer stated  that a  continuation of Israeli
settlement policy could not  be reconciled with seeking  to move forward  in
the  peace  process.   While  the  Declaration  of  Principles  led  to  the
postponement  of negotiations  on a  number of  important  issues, including
settlements,  this   did  not  mean  any   change  in   the  Palestinian  or
international community's  position on the  status of the settlements, which
were illegal  and  constituted a  real  obstacle  to  the achievement  of  a
comprehensive peace.

10.   The Permanent Representative of Israel prefaced his remarks by stating
that  the  debate  in  the  Security   Council  was  incompatible  with  the
agreements signed by  the Palestine  Liberation Organization  and Israel  to
resolve all  outstanding permanent status  issues, such  as settlements  and
Jerusalem, in direct and bilateral negotiations.   In these same agreements,
the  Palestine Liberation  Organization  had committed  itself  to  settling
these issues at  a specific time,  in the negotiations on  permanent status,
at the final stage  of the process.  The Permanent Representative of  Israel
stated  that, at  the  time of  its  formation  in  July 1992,  the  present
Government  of  Israel  substantially  changed  Israel's settlement  policy.
This  was not done because of any external pressure or legal claims, and the
new  policy  was adopted  long  before  the  agreements  with the  Palestine
Liberation Organization.  Israel had not  established any new settlements in
the  occupied territories since that time  nor would it in the  future.  The
Government had stopped allocating public  resources to support the extension
of existing settlements, and  no land had been confiscated to establish  new

11.  The Israeli Prime Minister, in a written reply  to a question addressed
to  him by  the  Chairman of  the Legal  Affairs  Committee of  the  Israeli
Parliament (Knesset), stated that, since the  signing of the Declaration  of
Principles, the  Israeli army had closed  off areas  totalling 38,000 dunums
Dunum is a measurement that equals approximately 1,000 m2. in the West  Bank
for  the  purpose  of  expanding  its  training  grounds.    The  army  also
expropriated 750  dunums  in order  to  establish  camps and  local  command
centres and  2,560 dunums  to build  six  military roads.  4/   In the  Gaza
Strip, moreover,  from the signing  of the Declaration  to the  end of 1994,
the Israeli  army expropriated  71 dunums,  which it  used for  establishing
military positions. 5/

12.  According to  a report prepared by  an expert and based  on sources  in
the Israeli  Civil Administration in the  West Bank  and documents published
by  that Administration,  since  the  1991  Madrid Conference,  the  Israeli
authorities have expropriated some 12,000 dunums  on the pretext of  setting
up nature preserves. The  report notes that most of the quarries and  stone-
crushing mills established  in the West  Bank since  the Oslo Agreement  are
situated in  the western  part near  the Green  Line,  which indicates  that
there is a plan to shift  the Line east of its  present location in order to
annex  additional  West Bank  land.   The  report  indicates that  the  land
expropriated for that purpose  comprised a total area  of 16,733 dunums.  On
23  December 1993, building plan  No. 16/52 was  filed, which included 2,677
dunums  of land  belonging to  Tarkumiye, Dura  and  Khirbet Jamrura  in the
Hebron region.  On  11 August 1994, building plan  No. 24/55 was filed for a
digging and stone-cutting  project covering an area  of 9,685 dunums in  the
Tulkarm region.  On 26  August 1994, building plan No.  29/52 was filed  for
the Telem  quarry covering  an area  of 1,744  dunums and situated  on lands
belonging to Dhahiriyya  and Dura in  Hebron.   The enterprises situated  in
the eastern portion  of the West Bank, moreover,  pose a real threat to  the
agricultural lands in the  Jordan Valley region, owing to the fact that they
produce environmental  pollution, especially since  the prevailing winds  in
the  region  are  from  the west  throughout  the year.    These enterprises
include  the  Mabsur Basa'il  quarry,  situated  on  land  belonging to  the
village of Majdal Bani Fadil, for which the related building plan No.  10/52
was  filed on 31 March 1994 and which covers an area  of 127 dunums; and the
Kawkab al-Sabah stone-grinding enterprise,  covering 2,500 dunums on land of
Kafr Malik, for which the building plan was filed on 20 May 1994. 6/

13.   The Israeli authorities issued  a military decree  carrying the number
93/4 on Saturday, 30  July 1994, 7/ closing an area of approximately  12,000
dunums of  agricultural land in the  Jiftlik/Jordan Valley  district, in the
pretext of security reasons, forbidding Palestinian inhabitants and  farmers
to enter their lands for a period of 10 months  (from September 1994 to June
1995),  precisely the  period during  which winter  crops are  grown in that
warm  region.  The  area that was closed off  contains 17 artesian wells and
is considered  the principal source of  agricultural products  to supply the
markets of  the West Bank  during the winter  season.   This closure decree,
which,  according to Palestinian  sources, will  be repeated  every year, 8/
will  deprive approximately  3,000 Palestinian  farmers of  their  principal
livelihood, and will create many difficulties  for families that own  houses
within  the  closed area.    It  will also  have  a negative  impact  on the
Palestinian economy  in general, with the  loss of  the agricultural season,
higher prices, increased importation of agricultural  products and a rise in
the number of unemployed persons. 9/

14.   With  regard to  settlement  roads,  the Israeli  authorities continue
their  policy  of expansion  of roads  throughout  the occupied  Palestinian
territories. It  is  estimated that  more  than  a billion  Israeli  shekels
(approximately 331  million United  States dollars)  will be  spent for  the
building  of a network  of settlement  roads during the next  three years in
preparation for  the application of the  second stage of  the Declaration of
Principles. 10/  The  purpose of the expansion of  these roads is to build a
network  of roads and  streets connecting  the Israeli  settlements with one
another, on  the one hand, and  to link those  settlements to cities  within
Israel, on  the  other hand.  However,  the  roads will  bypass  Palestinian
cities,  villages  and  agglomerations,   so  as  to   ensure  the  greatest
protection for the Jewish settlements.   Palestinian experts view this  plan
as  an  attempt  to  prejudice  in  Israel's  favour  the   results  of  the
negotiations on the occupied  lands in the final  stage, inasmuch as it will
tend to  consolidate a new geographical  situation that will be difficult to
change and whose implementation will  involve the expropriation of thousands
of dunums of land in Arab districts. 11/

15.   With a view to  the execution of the  plans for  settlement roads, the
Knesset Foreign  Affairs  and  Defence  Committee has  budgeted  30  million
Israeli shekels (approximately 10 million United  States dollars) to build a
settlement road  in the Ramallah  area during  the current year  (1995). 12/
In a  report  that  it  published in  early  1995,  the Peace  Now  movement
affirmed that a plan existed  to build such a settlement  road, which is  to
make  a detour  around the  city of  Ramallah  on  the east,  connecting the
settlements of Ofra, Pesagot  and Adam with highway  number 60, and that the
plan calls for the expropriation  of 2,640 dunums. 13/  On 17 January  1995,
Palestinians from the town of Bira staged a  protest against this project in
the  areas threatened with  expropriation.   The Israeli  army intervened in
order to  disperse the  protesters, the  soldiers using  tear-gas bombs  and
beating  participants. 14/   Israeli  analysts feel that  this road  and the
three  other  roads  whose  creation  has  been  announced  by  the  Israeli
authorities,  in addition to  involving the  expropriation of  vast areas of
Arab  land,   will  encourage  more  Israelis   to  reside   in  the  Jewish
settlements, which  will offer them  safe routes  that do  not pass  through
Palestinian towns. 15/

16.    The execution of the  building plans for settlement roads did in fact
begin  in the southern part of  the West Bank  in mid-December 1994.  One of
these  is plan No. 956 for highway 356, which forms  part of highway 80, and
another  is the project  for highway  35, which will link  Taqwa` and Hebron
without passing through the Arab villages of Si`ir and Shuyukh. 16/

17.   Regarding the expansion  of Jewish  settlements, a report  prepared by
the Peace Now  movement disclosed the filing of  11 building plans with  the
Israeli Civil  Administration in  1994, including the creation  of thousands
of  new housing  units  in  the Jewish  settlements  over an  area of  4,000
dunums.    This  indicates the  intention  to provide  housing  for tens  of
thousands of  new settlers.   The  report states  that it  appears from  the
study  of those  plans  that the  aim  behind them  is  to  create a  Jewish
demographic settlement  bloc  along the  entire  line  from the  Kafr  Kasem
interchange  to   Givat  Ze'ev,  north   of  Jerusalem,   by  expanding  the
settlements  of Kedumim, Elkana 2, Nahleil, Dolev and Beit Horon, which will
result  in  the  creation  of  an  enclave  containing  tens  of Palestinian
villages peopled by thousands of Palestinians, cut off  from the rest of the
West Bank. Building in the vicinity of  Efrat, south of Jerusalem, moreover,
and  the  improvement of  the  Jerusalem-Gush  Etzion  road, which  includes
tunnels and  bridges, reveals  a plan  to create  a similar  enclave in  the
southern area. 17/

18.  In  September 1994, the  Israeli Ministry  of Construction and  Housing
announced  that  87  apartments  were  being   offered  for  rent  in  three
settlements located  near the Green  Line.  In  addition, the Israeli  Prime
Minister  approved  the  preparation  of  new   land  for  the  building  of
additional housing units in Alfe Menache,  a settlement located 3 kilometres
from the Green Line. 18/

19.   The results of a study done by two  Israeli experts for Knesset member
Dedi  Zucker  showed  that  settlement-building  operations  in  West   Bank
settlements  were proceeding at  an unprecedented  rate, in  contrast to the
policy adopted by the  Israeli Government.  The study, which was carried out
at the beginning  of 1995 and  included 49  settlements, indicated that  the
building operations were  being carried  out by  private companies,  without
any financing  by the  Israeli Government but  with permits  from the  local
councils  and Israeli ministry officials.   Thus, at present 325 new housing
units are being  built in the settlements  of Elkana, Alfe Menache, Saffarin
Tekfa, Berman,  Ari'el and Hashne'em.   Knesset member  Zucker believes that
private  building  has been  practised since  1992  as  an effective  way of
circumventing the government decision to freeze the building of  settlements
and turn  that decision into  a concept devoid  of content.   The study,  he
went on  to say,  showed not  merely that  the Israeli  ministries turned  a
blind eye to what  was going on, but  that they cooperated  effectively with
the settlers in the  attempt to thwart the government decision to freeze the
construction of  settlements.  The  findings of the  study also  showed that
the  Government was  facilitating the  sale of  the housing  units built  by
private enterprise  and continued  to install  public utilities  and provide
the necessary  infrastructure on  an open,  regular basis,  thus helping  to
stimulate the settlement movement. 19/

20.  Of  particular importance from  the standpoint of  expansion of  Jewish
settlements is the report prepared by  the Israeli Ministry of  Construction
and  Housing,  details  of  which  were  published  by  the  Israeli  press.
According to  the report,  during 1994  the Ministry  allocated 140  million
shekels to  infrastructure development  and construction  in settlements  in
the West  Bank.   During the  current year,  the Ministry  will allocate  95
million shekels for the  same purpose, including 60 million shekels for  the
building  of 3,200 housing units  in three settlements in the Jerusalem area
and  19  million  shekels  for  the   construction  of  housing  units   and
infrastructure  works in settlements in  the Jordan Valley.  20/  The report
stated  that  in 1994  the  Ministry  had  built  1,833  new housing  units,
including  1,026 in  Betar,  796  in Ma'aleh  Adumim  and 10  in the  Jordan
Valley.  During the current year, 900 units  are to be built in Betar, 1,080
in Ma'aleh Adumim,  400 in Kiryat Sefer,  800 in Givat  Ze'ev, 300  in Givat
Hezet and 50 in  the Jordan Valley.  This intensive construction is expected
to result in an  increase in the number of Jewish settlers by  approximately
12,000. 21/

21.  Furthermore,  the Jewish settlers, through their various organizations,
the  most  important  of  which  is  the  Jewish  Settlements  Council, have
prepared a master plan for  promoting Jewish settlement during 1995 based on
enterprises  either already  carried  out  or currently  being  planned  and
including the  construction of 6,262 new housing units in  20 settlements in
the north, centre and south of the West Bank. 22/

22.   The plans for  settlement in Jerusalem  for 1995  involve the proposed
building  of  thousands  of  housing  units  in  Jewish  settlements  on the
outskirts of Jerusalem within a circle about the city of Jerusalem having  a
diameter  of 23 kilometres.  23/   As Israeli  authorities issue conflicting
statements regarding  the legitimacy of  the term  "Greater Jerusalem",  the
work  of  expanding   existing  Jewish  settlements  and  establishing   new
settlements within  the confines of  the map  of Greater Jerusalem  is being
stepped  up.  At the same time that the Israeli Minister for Foreign Affairs
declares  that  "Greater Jerusalem"  is  "not  a  political  term" and  that
Jerusalem's  borders are those  defined by  the government  decision of 1967
and  the 1981  Jerusalem  law,  which does  not include  such places  as the
settlements  of  Ma'aleh   Adumim,  Givat   Ze'ev  or  Betar,  the   Israeli
Construction  and Housing Minister  reaffirms his  commitment to  the map of
Greater  Jerusalem  and  to efforts  to  strengthen  the  surrounding Jewish
settlements. 24/

23.  The settlement of Ma'aleh Adumim, which lies 7 to 8  kilometres east of
Jerusalem, is  an  example of  the  intensified  settlement activity  taking
place on  the outskirts  of  Jerusalem.   At the  end of  1994, the  Israeli
Ministry of  Tourism approved the  building of  4,000 hotel  rooms in  areas
belonging  to  the  settlement.  The Israeli  Ministry  of  Construction and
Housing,  moreover, has begun  the construction  of 2,000  new housing units
there  and is planning to build 3,000 more units and  to use 6,000 dunums of
land  added to  the settlement  in  December  1994, pursuant  to a  military
decree issued by  the Military Commander  of the  Central District.  25/   A
main  bypass is  being built  at  the junction  leading to  the  settlement,
involving  a government  investment amounting  to  15 million  shekels,  and
newspaper sources  have noted that  the Israeli Civil Administration intends
to  transfer the present  military checkpoint,  located near  the village of
Ze'em on the  road to Jerusalem several kilometres  to the east, beyond  the
settlement.   The  Israeli  Deputy  Minister of  Construction  and  Housing,
commenting on these reports,  said that as far  as he was concerned, Ma'aleh
Adumim and its area  of influence were not  part of  the West Bank but  were
considered a settlement in the centre of the  country.  Thousands of housing
units would be erected in Ma'aleh  Adumim every year, including  the current
year, he said, in order to link the town to Jerusalem. 26/

24.  In  addition, there  have been repeated reports  of plans to build  new
settlements  in  the area  surrounding  Jerusalem,  including  Har Homa  and
Rekhis Shuafat.  27/   The  Israeli press  has  carried  reports of  a  plan
prepared by the Israel Land Department involving  the building of more  than
30,000 housing units in Jerusalem over the next five years,  most of them in
Arab areas of the  city and its surroundings.   Construction is  expected to
begin on 10,000 housing units during the current year. 28/

25.  The number of settlers living in  Jewish settlements increased over the
past year, the bulk  of this increase  being recorded in settlements in  the
area around Jerusalem. 29/  According to the Jewish Settlements Council,  as
of October  1994  the total  number  of  Jewish settlers  was  approximately
140,000, including 135,000  living in 125  settlements in the West  Bank and
6,000 in 20  settlements in the Gaza Strip.  The information provided by the
Settlements Council,  which  is based  primarily  on  the payment  of  local
taxes, conflicts  with the figures announced  by the  Israeli Central Bureau
of Statistics  in its  bulletin of  21 March  1995, according  to which  the
number of Jewish settlers in the West Bank and the  Gaza Strip had undergone
a 9  per cent  increase over the  past year, reaching  127,000. 30/   In the
first half of 1994, 1,637 new Jewish immigrants moved to East Jerusalem  out
of  a total of  41,291 who arrived  in Israel during  that period.  31/  The
number  of Israeli settlers  in East  Jerusalem, according  to "official and
unofficial Israeli sources,  together with press  reports", has reached till
the  end of 1994, more than 170,000 settlers.  This brings the total Israeli
settler  population living  in East  Jerusalem, the  West Bank  and the Gaza
Strip to more than 300,000. 32/

26.  The policy of stepped-up Jewish settlement and relocation of  thousands
of Jews  to the city  of Jerusalem is  being implemented at  the expense  of
Palestinian residents of the  city and Arab villages.  The clearest evidence
of  this is  furnished by  the  operations  of destroying  Palestinian homes
built without  permits in  the Jerusalem area.   Owing to  the limited  land
allocated for  building by  Arabs, the  difficulty of  obtaining a  building
permit  and  the high  cost of  such permits,  Palestinians usually  have no
choice but to build  their homes without a legal permit.  In September 1994,
hundreds of  Palestinians and sympathetic Israelis held a demonstration near
homes in the Tur  district whose destruction had been ordered by the Israeli
authorities.    In a  joint  statement  issued  by  them, the  demonstrators
affirmed that since  1986 the Israeli authorities  had destroyed a total  of
210  Arab homes in  the city  of Jerusalem for reasons  relating to permits,
and that destruction of homes was  currently going on at the  rate of 50 per
year.     The  statement  added:     "Increased   building  of  settlements,
expropriation  of Palestinian  land and  destruction of  homes  constitute a
carefully  thought-out  [Israeli]  policy aimed  at  driving  out  the  Arab
population and  upsetting the demographic balance  in favour  of the settler
presence  in Jerusalem".   The number  of Palestinian  families in Jerusalem
who have  no shelter or live in inadequate housing as a result of the policy
of  destruction   and  expulsion   followed  by  Israel   is  estimated   at
approximately 21,000. 33/

27.  In  the occupied Syrian  Golan Heights,  a new  Israeli settlement  was
established in August 1994  and named "Dor Ha Golan", bringing the number of
Israeli  settlements  built in  the  Golan  Heights  since 1967  to  33. 34/
Construction work  to expand existing  settlements continued,  and 2,000 new
housing units, the construction of which began before 1992 during the  Likud
rule, are near completion.  Construction work in those units was halted  for
about seven months, from July 1992 when the  new Labour Government issued an
order to freeze construction work  until March 1993, when the freezing order
was  rescinded  in  the  Golan.    Work   also  continued  to  develop   the
infrastructure  of  the  settlements, and  private  and  public  funds  were
invested  in  roads as  well  as  in  agricultural,  industrial and  tourism
enterprises.   The Israeli  Minister of  Industry confirmed  in October 1994
the Government's continued support  for the development of  the Golan:  "The
government policy by which the Golan  Heights was termed a national priority
'A' region [entitled to the most  generous development and housing benefits]
must be upheld". 35/

28.   Israeli sources  estimated that the  number of settlers  in the  Golan
increased during 1994 by  10 per cent.   A study  carried out by the  Jaffee
Centre for Strategic Studies in  Tel Aviv in 1994 reveals that the number of
settlers during the  period July 1991 to March  1994 increased by 2,143,  as
their number  rose from  11,017 in July 1991  to 12,000 in 1993  and reached
13,160 in March 1994. 36/

29.  In  addition to land  seizure and  the establishment  and expansion  of
settlements, the utilization of  water resources in the occupied Palestinian
territories  is an  important issue  that  negatively  affects the  lives of
Palestinians  and  their  economic and  social  conditions.    According  to
Palestinian estimates, the  per capita water consumption among  Palestinians
in the West Bank ranges between 22 and 28 cubic  metres as compared with 165
cubic metres for the Israeli population.  This  great disparity is due to  a
series of military orders that restrict  the utilization of available  water
resources by  Palestinians  and prevent  them  from  drilling new  wells  or
developing existing ones while allowing Israeli  settlers to drill new wells
in their settlements and  pump large quantities of  water without control or
restriction. 37/

30.  According to  Palestinians, the Israeli water  policy in the Gaza Strip
has led  to a  "dangerous" and  "distressing" situation.   Riad  al-Khodary,
Head  of the  Palestinian Delegation  to  the  Multilateral Talks  on Water,
says:   "Israel's infringement  on  water  resources in  the Gaza  Strip  is
embodied in the  following three major steps:   first, diverting  the course
of the Gaza  river before it reaches the  Green Line, which entails the loss
of 20 million cubic  metres of rainwater;  second, the drilling of 25  wells
along the  eastern border of  the Strip, which  deprives it of  half of  the
water flowing to  it from  the West;  third, the pumping  by the Gush  Katif
settlements  of  Palestinian groundwater  through the  14 wells  existing in
those  settlements". 38/  Water experts believe that  the depletion of water
reserves in the Gaza Strip and sea-water intrusion have caused the  salinity
of the water to  be six times higher than the internationally accepted level
and  thus 60 per  cent of the  water is no  longer suitable  for drinking or
irrigation purposes. 39/

31.  The uprooting of fruit trees by the Israeli occupation authorities  and
Israeli settlers is  a daily Israeli practice in the West Bank as  it was in
the Gaza Strip  previously.  It is estimated  that, during the period of the
intifadah, the Israeli  authorities uprooted  more than 117,000 olive  trees
in order  to build  settlements and  for security  reasons.   Sewage leaking
from Israeli settlements spoiled  more than 500 dunums  of vineyards in  the
West Bank. The annual  loss resulting from these practices was estimated  at
$1.5 million, the overall loss exceeding $10 million. 40/

32.   The occupied Palestinian  territories were  sealed off by  the Israeli
army several times during  1994 and the  first months of 1995.   The closure
led to the breakdown  of all productive  sectors and public services in  the
Palestinian  areas,  in   addition  to  preventing   tens  of  thousands  of
Palestinian workers employed in Israeli  economic sectors from reporting for
work,  which contributed  to raising  unemployment rates, especially  in the
Gaza Strip, where 65 per cent of the active population is unemployed.

33.  After a suicide attack carried out  by Palestinians in October 1994  in
Tel  Aviv, the Israeli Prime Minister called for "complete separation of the
Israeli and Palestinian peoples  in order to curb  terrorism".  In  the wake
of another  suicide  attack carried  out  last  January, the  Israeli  Prime
Minister established a  military security committee  headed by  the Minister
of Police and entrusted with the task of formulating  plans for implementing
the total  separation of Israel  and the Palestinian  areas.  The  committee
submitted  a  plan  that includes  the  building of  a  security fence,  the
deployment  of soldiers and  border guards  as well as  the establishment of
checkpoints and an early  warning system and  barbed wire.  In addition,  it
prohibits  Palestinians  from   working  in  Israel,  bans  travelling   and
transport and shuts off  Jerusalem.  The proposed  security zone will  be 30
kilometres long to the  east of the Green  Line, where Israeli soldiers will
be stationed, and  will use advanced technological  means as well as trained
dogs.  Eight to 10 crossing points will  be established along the separating
zone.   The  implementation  of  the plan  will cost  half a  billion United
States dollars. 41/


Encroachment and seizure of Palestinian lands and the building
of settlements on them

(April 1994-March 1995)

(in dunums)MeasuresSourceRantis village/
Ramallah  districtHundreds of dunumsLands that were seized  in November 1993
were cleared, and dozens of  olive trees were uprooted in order to build two
roads  to   serve  the  settlers.Al-Quds,  14  April  1994Shuafat  and  Beit
Hanina380Land and real estate  were seized pursuant to the decision taken by
the Organization  and Construction Committee  of the Jerusalem  Municipality
in order to  complete the building of road  No. 1, which links the  southern
and northern parts of Jerusalem.Al-Nahar, 20 April 1994Al-Musafir village/
Yatta/Hebron  district30 000The village was  sealed off by the army, and its
8,000  inhabitants grouped in  12 units  were evacuated  and prohibited from
undertaking   agricultural  and   pastoral   activities.Al-Quds,   23  April
1994Taquu village/  Bethlehem12The land, which is  planted with hundreds  of
fruit trees and contains a cemetery belonging to  one of the families living
in the village, was seized and  fenced.Al-Quds, 4 May 1994Yasuf village30The
land, which  is planted  with olive trees,  was sealed off  by the  army.Al-
Quds, 27 April 1994Qaryut villageUnspecifiedSettlers from the nearby  Raheel
settlement built  a road  4 kilometres  long  and uprooted  dozens of  olive
trees,  whereas settlers from  the "Ilia"  settlement built  another road to
the east of the village.Al-Quds, 31 May 1994Siniria village/
Tulkarm district400The Civil Administration informed the inhabitants of  the
village of its  intention to close the  site for security reasons.Al-Quds, 9
June 1994Area of Wadi Shubash  between Mghir and Raba villages32 000The area
was  sealed  off by  the  army,  and  farmers  and  shepherds were  expelled
forcibly.Al-Quds,  10  June 1994Al-Walja18The  land  was  seized  under  the
pretext that it was  situated behind the Green  Line.  The  confiscated land
is planted  with olive and apricot  trees.Al-Quds, 24  June 1994Kafr Qaddum1
000It  was announced  that  the land  had been  seized  and annexed  to  the
"Kadumim" settlement in the context of  the general organization plan of the
Mutsibih  Kadumim district  in the  settlement.Al-Quds, 23  June  1994Taqwa`
Bethlehem  district5Settlers from the  neighbouring Taqwa` settlement seized
the  land  and  erected  power  lines   on  it.Al-Quds,  4  July   1994Haris
village/Nablus district100The land seized was fenced  with barbed wire,  and
its owners were prohibited from entering it; work  started in order to build
a road to serve the settlers.Al-Quds, 14 July 1994Jiftlik
North Jericho Jordan  Valley12 000The area was  closed by the army  pursuant
to military  order 93/4, which prohibits  the inhabitants and farmers of the
region from entering it during the  period 1 September 1994 to  1 June 1995,
the period during  which winter crops  are cultivated  in this warm  region.
Some 500 families will  be affected by this  decision, which will  also lead
to  the closure  of  a primary  school  managed by  UNRWA.Al-Quds,  31  July
1994Kafr Laqif60Settlers from  the "Kerneh Shamron" settlement are  building
sports  fields  on  the  land,  which  belongs to  the  inhabitants  of  the
village.Al-Quds, 5 August 1994Khidr village/
Bethlehem  districtHundreds of  dunumsThe  cultivated area  was  cleared  in
order to build road No. 60 to serve  the settlers.Al-Quds, 2 August 1994Kafr
Tulkarm200The  land  was seized  in  order  to  expand  the Anab  settlement
situated    to    the   east    of    the    village.Al-Quds,    8    August
1994HusanUnspecifiedThe Israeli army built a fence  2 kilometres long and  6
metres  high around  a  large  area of  the  village under  the  pretext  of
protecting  the inhabitants  of  the neighbouring  "Bitar"  settlement  from
stonethrowing.   The  land that was  fenced is planted  with olive trees.Al-
Quds,  28 August  1994Deir BalutUnspecifiedThe  inhabitants of  the  village
received an order from the military  authorities authorizing the seizure  of
an  unspecified  area  of  their  lands  in order  to  use  it  for military
purposes.Al-Quds,  23  August  1994Al-Dhahiriya40Settlers  from  the  nearby
"Tineh" settlement seized the land and  fenced it with barbed  wire.Al-Quds,
11 September 1994Beit Anan/Ramallah350The land was seized  under the pretext
that  it was  situated behind  the Green  Line in  no man's  land, and  work
started in order to  build a road to  serve the settlers.Al-Quds,  9 October
1994Dura  and  al-Dhahiriya/Hebron4  000The  land  was  seized  in order  to
establish a  quarry.Al-Quds,  29  October  1994Aqraba/Nablus1  500The  land,
which includes three drinking-water wells, was seized by  settlers.Al-Nahar,
15 December 1994Kafr  Qaddum6The land was seized by settlers from the nearby
Kadumim settlement.Al-Quds, 20 December 1994Iskama70The land was cleared  in
order to build a security fence  around the nearby Areel settlement.Al-Quds,
28 December 1994Husan and ar-Rachaida/
Bethlehem district100The  land was closed by  the army in  order to build  a
road linking the settlements of the region to road No.  60. Some 2,286 olive
and  fruit  trees  and  vines  were  uprooted.Al-Quds,  30 December  1994Al-
Jerusalem6 000The governor of the central  region ordered the annexation  of
this area to the  Ma'aleh Adumim settlement in order to build a new district
for  the settlers.Al-Quds,  9 December  1994; Ha'aretz,  21 December 1994Al-
Lubban al-Sharqiya/
NablusUnspecifiedLands  were cleared,  and more  than 700  olive  trees were
uprooted in order  to build a road  linking the nearby  Areel settlement.Al-
Quds,  6 February  1995BiraUnspecifiedThe municipality  of Bira  received  a
notification regarding  the seizure of  an unspecified area  of land to  the
north of  the town  in order  to build  a road  11 kilometres  long and  100
metres  wide.   The road  will also  cross the  lands of  Yatin, Ain Yabrud,
Salwad, Barqa and Deir Dabwan villages.Al-Quds, 26 December 1994

  1/  United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 75, No. 973.

  2/  Clyde Mark, "Soviet Jewish  emigration", CRS Issue Brief  (Washington,
D.C., Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 1994).

  3/  The Jerusalem Post, 18 January 1995, p. 2.

  4/  Al-Quds, 6 March 1995, p. 1.

  5/  Land  Research Committee of the  Arab Studies Society, Special  report
on  land confiscation and settlement in the West Bank -Palestine (in Arabic)
(Jerusalem), p. 11.

  6/  Al-Nahar, 5 September 1994,  report by Khalil Al-Tafakaji,  settlement
affairs expert, Jerusalem, pp. 1-9.

  7/  Al-Quds, 31 July 1994.
  8/  Ibid., 8 August 1994, p. 6.

  9/  Ibid.

  10/   Foundation  for Middle East  Peace, Report on  Israeli Settlement in
the Occupied Territories (Washington, D.C., May 1995), p. 1.

  11/  Ibid., 3 December 1994, p. 6.

  12/  Ibid., 13 December 1994, p. 6.

  13/   Peace Now,  Report on  Planned Expansion  of Settlements (Jerusalem,
January 1995), p. 2.

  14/  The Jerusalem Post, 18 January 1995, p. 1.

  15/  Ibid., p. 2.

  16/  Al-Quds, 13 December 1994, p. 5.

  17/   Peace Now,  Report on  Planned Expansion  of Settlements (Jerusalem,
January 1995), p. 1.

  18/  Al-Quds, 1 October 1994, p. 9.

  19/  Ibid., 18 January 1995, p. 6.

  20/  The Jerusalem Post, 18 January 1995, p. 1.

  21/  Al-Quds, 18 January 1995, p. 6.

   22/  Yedioth Aharonoth, 18 January 1995, report by K. Petersburg, p. 1.

  23/  Ibid., 20  January 1995, "Map of settlement in Greater Jerusalem", p.

  24/  The Jerusalem Post, 19 January 1995, pp. 1-2.

  25/  Al-Quds, 22 December 1994, p. 23.

  26/  Ibid., 6 January 1995, p. 24.

  27/  The Jerusalem Post, 13 December 1994, p. 1.

  28/  Al-Quds, 25 November 1994, p. 7.

  29/  Ha'aretz, 14 November 1994.

  30/  Ar-Rai, 22 March 1995, p. 1.

  31/   Foundation for Middle  East Peace,  Report on Israeli  Settlement in
the Occupied Territories (Washington, D.C., November 1994), p. 2.

  32/  Ibid., p. 8.

  33/  Al-Quds, 11 September 1994, p. 6.

  34/   Foundation for Middle  East Peace, Report  on Israeli  Settlement in
the Occupied Territories (Washington, D.C., February 1995), p. 9.

  35/  Ibid.

  36/  Ibid.

  37/  Al-Quds, 25 August 1994, p. 9, and 22 April 1994.
  38/  Ibid., 26 September 1994, p. 4.

  39/  Ibid., 19 April 1994, pp. 1 and 18.

  40/  Ibid., 2 March 1995, pp. 1 and 22.

  41/  Ar-Rai, 18 March 1995, p. 26.



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