United Nations


Commission on the Status of Women

13 March 1995

Thirty-ninth session
New York, 15 March-4 April 1995
Item 5 of the provisional agenda*

     *   E/CN.6/1995/1.


               Situation of and assistance to Palestinian women

                        Report of the Secretary-General


     In its resolution 38/4, entitled "Palestinian women", the Commission on
the Status of Women requested the Secretary-General to continue to review the
situation of and to assist Palestinian women by all available means, and to
submit to the Commission, at its thirty-ninth session, a report on the
progress made in the implementation of the resolution.  The present report
responds to that request and highlights the issues of concern for Palestinian
women within the present political context.  It monitors the situation in the
fields of violence, governance, health, education and employment.  Emphasis is
put on the development aspects and the participation of women in political
decision-making.  Preparing for de facto and de jure equality has gained
importance as has the integration of a gender perspective in all areas of
legislation, infrastructure development and human resource and economic


                                                              Paragraphs Page

INTRODUCTION ................................................   1 - 4       3

 I.   VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN ................................   5 - 8       4

II.   POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND GOVERNANCE ................   9 - 17      5

      A.  Women's organizations and committees ..............  10 - 12      5

      B.  Equal rights for women ............................  13 - 14      6

      C.  Women in leadership positions .....................  15 - 16      6

III.  EDUCATION AND TRAINING ................................  17 - 22      7


 V.   HEALTH CONDITIONS AND SERVICE PROVISION ...............  28 - 31      9

VI.   VULNERABLE GROUPS .....................................  32 - 33     10

VII.  PRIORITIES FOR ASSISTANCE .............................  34 - 39     11

VIII. CONCLUSIONS ...........................................    40        12


1.   In its resolution 38/4, entitled "Palestinian women", the Commission on
the Status of Women requested the Secretary-General to continue to review the
situation of and to assist Palestinian women by all available means, and to
submit to the Commission, at its thirty-ninth session, a report on the
progress made in the implementation of the resolution.  It requested the
Commission on the Status of Women to continue to monitor and take action with
regard to the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the
Advancement of Women, in particular paragraph 260 concerning Palestinian women
and children. 

2.   The World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the
United Nations Decade for Women:  Equality, Development and Peace (Nairobi,
1985), considered the issue of Palestinian women and children under the rubric
"peace" and concluded in paragraph 260 of the Nairobi Forward-looking

     "For more than three decades, Palestinian women have faced difficult
     living conditions in camps and outside, struggling for the survival of
     their families and the survival of the Palestinian people who were
     deprived of their ancestral lands and denied the inalienable rights to
     return to their homes and their property, their right to
     self-determination, national independence and sovereignty. ...  The
     special and immediate needs of Palestinian women and children should be
     identified and appropriate provision made.  United Nations projects
     should be initiated to help Palestinian women in the fields of health,
     education, and vocational training.  Their living conditions inside and
     outside the occupied territories should be studied by the appropriate
     United Nations units and agencies, assisted, as appropriate, by
     specialized research institutes from various regions." 1/

3.   In preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women, to be held in
Beijing in 1995, the monitoring of the implementation of paragraph 260 of the
Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies is being undertaken, including
consideration of recent political developments and their impact on the status
of women.  The Arab Regional Preparatory Meeting, convened in Amman from 6 to
10 November 1994, states in its general framework:

     "A comprehensive and just peace and stability in the region are
     prerequisites to development and equality.  A comprehensive and just
     peace would free the human and financial resources that are being spent
     on military equipment and wars, when they could be geared toward
     development that provides women with equal opportunities for
     participation." 2/

4.   Since 1985, reports on Palestinian women have been submitted on a regular
basis to the Commission on the Status of Women, most recently at its thirty-
eighth session.  The present report describes the situation of Palestinian
women related to violence, equal rights, governance, employment, education and
health.  In view of the planned establishment, for a transitional period, of a
Palestinian interim self-government authority and elected council for the
Palestinian people in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, emphasis is placed on
the development aspect and on the enhancement of women's participation in the
elaboration of a permanent settlement of the conflict and the integration of a
gender perspective in all areas of legislation, infrastructure development and
human resource and economic development.  The transitional period began in
Gaza and Jericho, which in May 1994 became self-rule areas under the newly
established Palestinian Authority.  The present report is based on various
recent documents published by the United Nations system and specialized
agencies, as well as other sources.  No information was available on the
specific conditions of women in the self-rule areas.

                          I.  VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN

5.   The period under review was characterized by a decline of the overall
level of violence in the occupied territories following the signing by Israel
and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) of the Declaration of
Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements in September 1993 and the
Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho area (A/49/180-S/1994/727, annex).

Since the beginning of the intifadah, dozens of Palestinian women have been
killed by Israeli soldiers, settlers or collaborators, often random victims of
violent clashes.  Women have been harassed by soldiers, in particular when
their homes were being searched.  A number of female political prisoners
remain in jail, several of them under the age of 18.  Women prisoners have
experienced violence in interrogation and imprisonment.

6.   Sporadic outbreaks of protest and demonstration have been met by the
Israeli authorities with repressive measures against the civilian population. 
Collective punishment such as prolonged curfews and closures has brought with
it economic and social hardship and increased the level of poverty. 3/  In
particular, the sealing of the occupied territories after the Hebron massacre
on 25 February 1994 and its aftermath led to increased economic losses for
Palestinian workers employed in Israel.  Since the movement of goods between
Israel and the occupied territories and within the occupied territories
themselves had also been interrupted, Palestinian manufacturers and farmers
lost considerable income.  During the period under review the United Nations
Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)
distributed food on an emergency basis to 75,000 families in the West Bank and
95,000 families in the Gaza Strip. 4/  In addition, continued confiscation of
land and destruction of houses negatively affected the economic resource of
Palestinian families.

7.   The experience of violence during the intifadah and afterwards has had
negative and chronic effects on the psychological well-being of children and
their mothers.  Children who were subjected to traumatic events such as
torture or who witness the killing of a relative or friend display high levels
of anxiety and psychosomatic illnesses.  Curfews that confine family members
to their home for extended periods, and other measures of collective
punishment, continue to put psychological strain on family members.  There has
been an erosion of male authority within the household, since men were
subjugated and helpless in situations of violence during the intifadah. 
Problems of depression, fear and aggressiveness have increased dramatically
among children.  Manifested symptoms include lack of concentration,
disobedience and increased aggressiveness.  Psychosomatic illnesses and
ailments were reported at epidemic levels among traumatized mothers during the
intifadah and continue to have an impact. 5/  Mental health care projects have
been established in the West Bank and Gaza Strip to offer treatment and
alleviate the harrowing effect of trauma in children and mothers. 6/

8.   Besides the violence arising from the occupation, the Palestinian woman
is confronted with various kinds of physical, sexual or psychological violence
from her family or from society in general.  Women's organizations have begun
to collect evidence of domestic violence against women, which has previously
been a taboo subject.  They denounce traditional forms of social control such
as urging girls to quit school prematurely, wear the veil or get married
against their will.


9.   With the launching of Palestinian self-rule women's contribution to
institution-building and legislation has gained importance.  There is
increased public awareness about women's status, respect for and acceptance of
the work of women's organizations is high, and women are prepared to play an
active role in government.

                   A.  Women's organizations and committees

10.  A historic review shows that Palestinian women's organizations have grown
within the national movement and have been influenced by political events. 
The General Union of Palestinian Women (GUPW) was formed in 1965 as a women's
section within the PLO. 7/  With the beginning of the Israeli occupation of
the West Bank and the Gaza Strip in 1967, traditional charitable organizations
increased their relief activities, but also started to develop income-
generating activities and vocational training for girls and women.  These
activities remained concentrated in the urban areas of the West Bank and were
carried out by middle- and upper-class women.

11.  In the late 1970s, a new generation of women activists, highly
politicized and well-educated, emerged.  Women's committees, relying on the
various political factions and parties, were established to address the
national and social oppression of women.  The unified women's committees
successfully mobilized women throughout the occupied territories, in refugee
camps as well as in remote villages, which has engendered increased awareness
among all women involved.  Barriers between urban and rural, middle- and
lower-class women were overcome.

12.  Women's popular committees have often been considered as alternative
institutions and part of a possible infrastructure within a future Palestinian
Government.  During the intifadah, which began in December 1987, women became
actively involved in agriculture, education, food storage, medical and
guarding committees.  They developed home economy as a community-based form of
self-reliance.  Women continued their former charitable activities such as
food distribution and support of homeless families and families of prisoners
and victims.  Their activities were recognized by the political leadership as
an important support to the uprising. 

                          B.  Equal rights for women

13.  In their early years, women's committees gave priority to the national
struggle for liberation and neglected the issue of emancipation and
achievement of equality in a patriarchal society.  Women did not want to split
their activities and open an internal argument at a time when all efforts were
needed for the resistance against occupation.  Living under occupation had
impelled the Palestinian people to hold onto their customs and traditions as a
mechanism for preserving their national, cultural and social identity.  This
has played a major role in enforcing many stereotypes that are discriminatory
towards women. 8/  The active participation of women of all ages and social
backgrounds in demonstrations and in confrontations with the army contributed
to a change in the public image of women.  Increased awareness and
self-confidence encouraged women to take on leading positions and to publicly
criticize the long neglect of social and gender issues.  Women's participation
in decision-making increased as a result of the experience in the popular
committees. 9/  A new feminist consciousness set up a "gender agenda" for the
women's movement.  Palestinian women increasingly questioned their initial
assumption that they would legally and automatically obtain their rights along
with national independence.  Women's committees and international
organizations, including UNRWA, organized courses to inform women about their
rights and to raise awareness on legal matters. 10/

14.  Women's organizations and human rights groups prepared amendments to the
proposed personal status, social and civil laws.  Efforts were made to include
the provisions of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women into the draft National Authority Law, the
equivalent of a future constitution.  Palestinian women's organizations knew
that they had to grasp the historic moment to ensure that equality was
enshrined in all Palestinian legal instruments.  Leading Palestinian women
inside and outside the occupied territories set up a special committee for the
drafting of a declaration of principles, which was adopted in June 1994.  This
Women's Charter highlights personal status law, socio-economic rights,
education and health. 11/

                       C.  Women in leadership positions

15.  The number of women in leadership positions has been growing.  At
present, women represent about 10 per cent of the Palestinian National
Congress.  From 25 members in 1980, their number increased to 35 in 1986 and
43 in 1992.  Women did not hold any diplomatic position until 1980.  In 1992,
out of 93 women, two reached the level of ambassador.  The 15-member
Palestinian delegation to the Madrid Peace Conference, which began in October
1991, included three women.  The spokesperson for the delegation was a woman. 
After the implementation of the self-rule agreement, a woman was appointed
Minister for Social Affairs of the Palestinian Authority.  A woman was
appointed head of the women police, which enrolled about 70 women. 12/

16.  In preparing for the future administration and establishment of interim
self-government, the Palestinian Authority has set up a number of technical
committees to define policies, and to assist the negotiating team in planning
strategies and policies in all sectors.  At the request of women's
organizations, a Women's Affairs Technical Committee has been established. 
Its objective is to establish a system of governance that eliminates all forms
of discrimination against women and ensures equal participation in the future
legislative, executive and judicial structures. 13/

                         III.  EDUCATION AND TRAINING

17.  Palestinian educational achievement is, on average, the highest in the
region, with 18 college graduates per thousand inhabitants.  The high-quality
human resource base has been recognized as the most important asset for the
sustainable development of the occupied territories. 14/  The considerable
increase - by 74.6 per cent - of the number of students in the past 20 years
is partly due to the higher enrolment of girls.  In 1967/68, girls represented
41 per cent of the school population; in 1989, their number reached
48 per cent.

18.  Gender differences in enrolment appear in the final years of the
preparatory cycle and in secondary schools.  As much as 14 per cent of girls
in the West Bank and 7.3 per cent in the Gaza Strip have not completed
schooling.  The major reasons given for the drop-out of girls above fourth
grade elementary education include slow learning capacity, the political
situation and the need to help at home or marry. 15/  Girls' lack of academic
ability is linked to crowded classrooms, inadequacy of training material and
non-availability of intervention programmes to allow girls a second entry
after drop-out or failure.

19.  Despite the success in providing compulsory primary education for girls
and boys under adverse conditions, the quality of the education system and
educational achievement are not satisfactory because of overcrowded schools,
double shifts at the elementary level, lack of maintenance, inadequate teacher
training, lack of educational material and low salaries. 16/  Girls' education
is doubly affected by these adverse circumstances.  Their enrolment in the
non-compulsory secondary level remains low given the customary restriction on
girls' mobility at the onset of puberty.  Costs for education and the unequal
geographical distribution of secondary schools are an additional obstacle.

20.  The frequent closure of schools during the intifadah has had a long-term
negative impact on educational achievement at the elementary level and will
make it difficult to catch up in higher-level classes.  It resulted in
demotivation for continued education, in particular among girls, and increased
illiteracy rates.  During the period under review, disruption in education as
a result of military closure orders, curfews and general strikes continued to
decline.  In UNRWA schools, only 10 per cent of school-days were lost,
compared to 16 per cent in the previous year.  Students from the Gaza Strip
who were enrolled at UNRWA training centres in the West Bank did not get
permission from the Israeli authorities to attend their classes owing to
movement restrictions imposed in late February 1994. 17/

21.  Illiteracy still persists among members o the adult population who have
had no schooling or less than six years of schooling.  Women of all ages were
more likely than men to be illiterate, especially women over 34 years of age
and those living in rural areas or refugee camps.  In 1990, the data collected
on illiteracy in West Bank villages and the Gaza Strip showed that between 30
and 55 per cent of women and between 10 and 35 per cent of men were reported
as illiterate. 18/  The popular committees, in particular women's committees,
have undertaken a large programme of literacy training for women of all ages
in the rural areas and refugee camps.  Methods of functional literacy training
have been used, linking literacy training to education about health,
nutrition, hygiene and child care.  However, many women after graduating from
a literacy programme gradually lose their skills because of lack of practice.

22.  The opening of various institutions of higher learning in the occupied
territories between 1967 and 1987 brought with it the most significant change
in women's education.  Since the 1960s, eight universities have been set up in
the occupied territories.  In 1991, 25,393 students were enrolled in
universities and other third-level institutions.  Female students comprise 44
per cent of the total student population in the Gaza Strip and 46 per cent in
the West Bank.  Young women, who had no opportunity to pursue their education
previously, could enrol in universities located close to their homes.  This
launched a democratization process which engendered broader participation in
higher education, since the local universities offered educational
opportunities for students from rural areas and refugee camps.  The important
percentage of women in tertiary education has created a new elite of highly
educated women who became politicized during their university education and
have become actively involved in setting up women's committees.  Women still
opted for typical female studies, with 26 per cent in education science and
the humanities and only 5.7 and 0.5 per cent in engineering and agriculture,
respectively. 20/  Local universities were closed by the Israeli authorities
at the beginning of the intifadah and only resumed their full activities in
1992.  Access to universities in 1994 was frequently hampered by the Israeli


23.  Women's access to economic resources is difficult to assess in a society
in which women's participation in the formal labour force has been very low. 
Traditionally, the main mechanism used to ensure women some form of
independent economic resources has been the payment of a dowry at marriage. 
This has continued as an important social practice, although it is no longer a
sustainable source of income or economic support for women, given increased
living costs.  Jewellery, land, livestock, bank savings or tools of the trade
were the main form of women's independent property.  With increasing age,
women are giving away their dowry resources and investing them in the
family. 21/  In times of economic hardship, families have had to fall back on
accumulated resources.  Women's individual resources were used up for family
maintenance, which, in return, increased women's economic dependence on
husbands or male family members.  There is evidence that Palestinian families
exhausted their resources during the years of the intifadah, especially during
periods when they were cut off from any sources of labour income.

24.  Women's participation in the labour force averaged 11.7 per cent in the
West Bank and only 3.9 per cent in the Gaza Strip.  Restriction on women's
mobility has made it difficult to search for employment inside Israel. 
However, a significant number of women, in particular female heads of
household, have worked as migrant agricultural workers despite social
inhibitions.  Israeli enterprises specialized in garment production set up
subcontracting in the occupied territories, and exploited women by paying
wages 50 per cent lower than wages for equivalent work in Israel. 22/

25.  Unemployment has been very high for women with high school, vocational or
university education.  Early surveys of university graduates suggested that
few of the female graduates went on to pursue professional careers.  Women
remained concentrated in secretarial and service work and in the caring
professions, in particular nursing and teaching.  The female concentration in
teaching was very high, especially in primary education. 

26.  In the 1990s, many women's organizations established income- and profit-
generating projects for women. 23/  A survey on Palestinian women's
organizations in the occupied territories conducted in 1992 reported a total
of 174 women's organizations, including cooperatives, voluntary services,
committees, centres and production projects.  They run specialized
educational, training and production projects, day-care centres, kindergartens
and  rehabilitation and health centres.  In the economic and social context of
the occupied territories, income-generating activities provided by women's
organizations offer possibilities for female access to the labour market, even
if they remain in the realm of traditional female occupations. 

27.  There is a lack of information on women in the private sector.  Data
provided by the Chambers of Commerce of five cities in the occupied
territories indicate that women constitute only 2 per cent of investors in
trade offices, most of them operating with very low capital.  Information was
provided on an oil factory, in which 13 per cent of investors were women, and
on a medical company in Jerusalem, where women constituted 65 per cent of the
investors, although no woman was on its board of directors. 24/


28.  Health conditions and provision of services in the occupied territories
have been negatively affected by the political situation since 1967 and
deteriorated during the intifadah.  A recent development assessment suggested
that too little attention was being given by medical services to reaching out
to groups, especially women. 25/  The health-care system focused on female
reproductive health and did not provide for women's health problems throughout
the life cycle.  

29.  The West Bank has a high birth rate, at about 4.5 per cent, which has an
adverse effect on the health of mothers.  Infant mortality has been
persistently high, at 50 to 100 deaths per thousand live births in the late
1970s and early 1980s. 26/  The disruption of all aspects of routine life
during the intifadah may have resulted in a non-reporting of infant deaths. 
Birth practices have changed over the past 20 years, including a progressive
increase in the proportions of births occurring in hospitals and medical
centres.  In 1990, only 20 per cent of mothers in the Gaza Strip and 32 per
cent in the West Bank gave birth at home.  The discrepancy between the West
Bank and the Gaza Strip can be explained by the greater number and closer
availability of medical services in the Gaza Strip, in particular through
UNRWA clinics where pre- and post-natal care is provided.  UNRWA also expanded
its services of family planning in the context of maternal health.  A rise in
maternal anaemia in the third trimester of pregnancy has been reported for the
West Bank (48 per cent) and the Gaza Strip (67 per cent). 27/

30.  A recent survey conducted by UNRWA in 1990 suggested that there had been
an improvement in nutritional status in the refugee camps since 1984.  Other
surveys carried out in the rural areas of the West Bank, however, suggested
that malnutrition of children outside the camps was more prevalent.  The
difference could be explained by the fact that poor families in the refugee
camps were receiving substantial food supplies through UNRWA.  The economic
recession, aggravated in particular in 1993 by measures of collective
punishment, had negative effects on nutritional standards.  The incidence of
childhood anaemia, which has been as high as 70 per cent in camps in the Gaza
Strip and 58 per cent in the West Bank, has an impact on a child's physical
and psychological development. 28/

31.  There is an acute shortage of doctors and clinics in the occupied
territories.  Non-governmental organizations and medical committees play an
important role in providing health services in the West Bank, where they reach
45 per cent of the population through 132 clinics.  One of the health service
non-governmental organizations, the Union of Palestinian Medical Relief
Committees is providing health services adapted to women's needs and
priorities without focusing only on maternity health care.  It is functioning
with a network of volunteers and mobile clinics and puts emphasis on education
campaigns and the training of rural women as village health workers. 29/

                            VI.  VULNERABLE GROUPS

32.  The violence to which the occupied territories have been exposed since
the outbreak of the intifadah greatly increased the number of persons with
disabilities.  UNRWA has been running a physiotherapy programme, together with
the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) in six clinics in Gaza and five in
the West Bank, but has not been able to meet the need for treatment.  A great
number of the injuries have led to permanent disability for which specific
community care is needed.  The UNRWA community-based rehabilitation programme
for the disabled has had to further expand its provision of vocational
rehabilitation.  Since most of the injured are young men, women have had to
take on the role of caregivers and providers of family income.

33.  The number of female-headed households is high in the occupied
territories.  Some 36.6 per cent of all households in  the West Bank are
headed by women, compared to 17.9 per cent in the Gaza Strip.  These figures
do not include de facto female headship, where male heads of household have
migrated for a longer period. 30/  Women heads of household face numerous
legal, social and economic problems.  The agreements between Israel and the
PLO had a favourable impact on household composition since a number of
long-term deportees returned to the occupied territories.

                        VII.  PRIORITIES FOR ASSISTANCE

34.  Following the signing of the Declaration of Principles, the programmes
and agencies of the United Nations system have intensified their efforts to
promote sustainable economic and social development in the occupied
territories.  In May 1994, the Secretary-General appointed a Special
Coordinator in the occupied territories to facilitate coordination among the
programmes and agencies to ensure an integrated and unified approach to

35.  UNRWA identified projects that would improve social and economic
conditions and infrastructure in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip and that
could be turned over to the Palestinian Authority in the future.  The women's
programme of UNRWA was gradually being integrated into the broader network of
women's organizations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip in order to achieve
greater independence.  Two of the 14 women's programme centres were given over
for management by elected women's committees, while still being assisted
technically and financially by UNRWA staff. 31/

36.  The United Nations Development Programme sent a Needs Assessment Mission
for Palestinian Women to the West Bank and Gaza Strip in early 1994.  The
purpose of the mission was to collaborate closely with the evolving leadership
of Palestinian women in developing a policy framework for facilitating equal
access to and participation in all development efforts as well as in defining
the requirements for nation-building efforts.  The report of the mission sets
out recommendations for action in all fields and policy interventions and
operational action to achieve the objectives concerning women and
governance. 32/

37.  Following a review and analysis of previous cooperation, UNICEF has
updated its programme of cooperation for Palestinian women and children in the
West Bank and Gaza in close dialogue with the Palestinian Authority and its
various institutions, United Nations agencies, non-government organizations
and donor partners.  UNICEF assistance gives priority to empowering women and
girls to become full participants in the economic and social development
process.  The health programme focuses on maternal and child health, including
safe motherhood and reduction of maternal mortality, and education relating to
childbirth, motherhood and nutrition.  The education component addresses
gender disparities and promotes girls' education through formal and non-formal
means.  In support of greater participation of women in economic life, UNICEF
is helping to develop a system of early child care.  A youth and community
development component, with a focus on girls, aims at constructive action for
young people.

38.  The International Labour Organization (ILO) sent an interdisciplinary
mission to the occupied Palestinian territories in December 1993, the
objective of which was to establish a plan of action to assist in the
transition to political autonomy, in particular in the areas of human resource
development, employment creation, labour institutions, social protection and
equality for women.  The proposals of the mission aim at promoting women's
employment opportunities in agriculture, and small business and industrial
development, through targeted poverty alleviation schemes and entrepreneurship
development programmes.  The integration of the principle of equality of
opportunities for men and women in the current process of planning, priority
setting and institution-building, with a special emphasis on labour law and
international standards, is underlined.  In view of the release of thousands
of detained persons and prisoners, specific education and training needs have
arisen. 33/ 

39.  The World Bank estimated that US$ 5 million would be needed to fund
programmes for women and youth during the interim period leading to the
autonomy of the occupied territories.  UNICEF, as a possible coordinating and
implementing agency in this area, would earmark $2 million to mother and child
health. 34/

                              VIII.  CONCLUSIONS

40.  As the peace process in the occupied territories and the self-rule area
of Jericho and the Gaza Strip is being consolidated, many actors have
recognized the importance of integrating the gender perspective in all areas
of legislation, infrastructure development and human resource and economic
development at this crucial period.  Preparing for de facto and de jure 
equality between men and women is of primary importance.  Palestinian women
need practical support and assistance at all levels, from counterparts inside
and outside the occupied territories, in their endeavour to become citizens
with equal rights and responsibilities.  The findings in the present report
show that there is potential for development and that resources and support
need to be made available immediately in order to create the necessary
infrastructure, especially in the field of education, health and employment.


     1/   Report of the World Conference to Review and Appraise the
Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women:  Equality, Development
and Peace, Nairobi, 15-26 July 1985 (United Nations publication, Sales No.
E.85.IV.10), chap. I, sect. A.

     2/   Arab Plan of Action for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000,
adopted at the Arab Regional Preparatory Meeting, held at Amman from 6 to
10 November 1994, chap. I, para. 14.

     3/   See note by the Secretary-General transmitting the report of the
Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights
of the Palestinian People and other Arabs of the Occupied Territories
(A/49/511), p. 5.

     4/   Report of the Commissioner-General of the United Nations Relief and
Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, 1 July 1993-30 June 1994
(Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-ninth Session, Supplement
No. 13 (A/49/13)), para. 25.

     5/   Ahmad M. Baker, "State of mental health among Palestinian children
living in the occupied territories", paper presented to the International
Meeting "Children of Palestine", Vienna, 8-10 May 1991.

     6/   Report of the Secretary-General on assistance to the Palestinian
people (A/48/183/Add.1-E/1993/74/Add.1).

     7/   General Union of Palestinian Women, Palestinian Women, November

     8/   General Union of Palestinian Women, preliminary report of Palestine
to the Fourth World Conference on Women, 1994.

     9/   Islah Jad, "From salons to the popular committees:  Palestinian
women, 1919-1989", in Intifadah:  Palestine at the Crossroads, J. Nassar and
R. Heacock, eds. (New York, Praeger, 1990).

     10/  Report of the Commissioner-General of the United Nations Relief and
Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, ..., chap. VIII, sect.

     11/  United Nations Development Programme, At the Crossroads:  Challenges
and Choices for Palestinian Women in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (New
York, 1994), p. 97. 

     12/  General Union of Palestinian Women, preliminary report ...

     13/  United Nations Development Programme, At the Crossroads ..., p. 95.

     14/  World Bank, Developing the Occupied Territories:  An Investment in
Peace, vol. I (Washington, D.C., September 1993).

     15/  United Nations Children's Fund, "The situation of Palestinian
children in the West Bank and Gaza Strip" (Jerusalem, 1992).

     16/  World Bank, Developing the Occupied Territories ...

     17/  Report of the Commissioner-General of the United Nations Relief and
Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, ..., para. 137.

     18/  United Nations Children's Fund, "The situation of Palestinian
children ..."

     19/  General Union of Palestinian Women, preliminary report ...

     20/  United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization,
Statistical Yearbook, 1993 (Paris, 1993).

     21/  Marianne Heiberg and Geir žvensen, Palestinian Society in Gaza, West
Bank and Arab Jerusalem.  A Survey of Living Conditions.  Report 151 (Oslo,
Fagbevegegelsens Senter, for Forskning (FAFO), 1993).

     22/  "Palestinian women and economic and social development in the West
Bank and Gaza Strip" (UNCTAD/DSD/SEU/Misc.4).

     23/  Bisan Centre for Research and Development and United Nations
Development Programme, Directory of Palestinian Women's Organizations
(Ramallah, 1993).

     24/  General Union of Palestinian Women, preliminary report ...

     25/  World Bank, Developing the Occupied Territories ...

     26/  "Palestinian women ..."

     27/  United Nations Children's Fund, "The situation of Palestinian
children ..."

     28/  Ibid.

     29/  United Nations Development Programme, At the Crossroads ...

     30/  Ibid.

     31/  Report of the Commissioner-General of the United Nations Relief and
Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, ..., para. 131.

     32/  United Nations Development Programme, At the Crossroads ...

     33/  International Labour Organization, Capacity Building for Social
Development:  A Programme of Action for Transition in the Occupied Palestinian
Territories (Geneva, 1994).

     34/  World Bank, Emergency Assistance for the Occupied Territories, vol.
I, Investment Programme (Washington, D.C., 7 December 1994).



This document has been posted online by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Reproduction and dissemination of the document - in electronic and/or printed format - is encouraged, provided acknowledgement is made of the role of the United Nations in making it available.

Date last updated: 06 December 1999 by DESA/DAW
Copyright © 1999 United Nations