United Nations

E/CN.6/1995/5/Add.3


Commission on the Status of Women

 Distr. GENERAL
4 January 1995
ENGLISH
ORIGINAL: ENGLISH/FRENCH/SPANISH



COMMISSION ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN
Thirty-ninth session
New York, 15 March-4 April 1995
Item 3 (c) of the provisional agenda*




            PREPARATIONS FOR THE FOURTH WORLD CONFERENCE ON WOMEN:
                  ACTION FOR EQUALITY, DEVELOPMENT AND PEACE

                     Reports from regional conferences and
                        other international conferences

                                   Addendum

                 Regional Programme of Action for the Women of
                  Latin America and the Caribbean, 1995-2001

          Sixth Regional Conference on the Integration of Women into
          the Economic and Social Development of Latin America and
          the Caribbean, held at Mar del Plata, Argentina, from
                           20 to 25 September 1994**



________________________

     *   E/1995/1.

     **  The discussion of the Regional Platform of Action was completed at
the 16 to 18 November meeting in Santiago, Chile, when it was officially
adopted.


                                   CONTENTS

                                                              Paragraphs Page

RESOLUTION .............................................................    3

A.    BACKGROUND ...........................................    1 - 18      4

B.    RATIONALE OF THE PROGRAMME ...........................   19 - 23      7

C.    CORE OBJECTIVE OF THE PROGRAMME ......................     24         8

D.    STRATEGIC AREAS ......................................   25 - 260     8

      Area I.     Gender equity ............................   25 - 33      8

      Area II.    Economic and social development with a
                  gender perspective:  women's equitable
                  share in the decisions, responsibilities
                  and benefits of development ..............   34 - 104    11

      Area III.   Elimination of poverty among women .......  105 - 147    25

      Area IV.    Women's equitable participation in
                  decision-making and in the exercise
                  of power in public and private life ......  148 - 174    32

      Area V.     Human rights, peace and violence .........  175 - 211    37

      Area VI.    Shared family responsibilities ...........  212 - 226    44

      Area VII.   Recognition of cultural plurality in the
                  region ...................................  227 - 250    47

      Area VIII.  International support and cooperation ....  251 - 260    51

E.    FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES FOR THE REGIONAL PROGRAMME OF
      ACTION FOR THE WOMEN OF LATIN AMERICA AND THE
      CARIBBEAN, 1995-2001 .................................     261       53



         RESOLUTION ON THE REGIONAL PROGRAMME OF ACTION FOR THE WOMEN
                 OF LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN, 1995-2001


     The Regional Conference on the Integration of Women into the Economic
and Social Development of Latin America and the Caribbean,

     Endorsing the content of the Regional Plan of Action for the Integration
of Women into Latin American Economic and Social Development (Havana, 1977);
the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women (Nairobi,
1985); the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against Women; and the resolutions on women adopted since 1985 by the Economic
and Social Council and the General Assembly,

     Taking into account resolution No. 1 on a new regional plan of action,
adopted at the fifth session of the Regional Conference on the Integration of
Women into the Economic and Social Development of Latin America and the
Caribbean (Cura‡ao, 1991),*

     Also taking into account the recommendations formulated at the meetings
of the Presiding Officers elected at the fifth session of the Regional
Conference,

     Considering the new proposals of ECLAC contained in the resolutions
adopted by its member countries for the 1990s, which express the need to take
an integrated approach to development in order to achieve the objectives of
changing production patterns with social equity, including gender equity,

     On the understanding that the new Regional Programme of Action does not
replace any of the instruments already in force, but rather seeks to
complement them by reflecting the changes observed in the region and their
impact on women and by setting forth a basic package of priority activities
for Latin America and the Caribbean that can be carried out in the next five
years,

     Recommends the adoption of the new Regional Programme of Action for the
Women of Latin America and the Caribbean, 1995-2001.**

__________________________

*         ECLAC, Report of the Fifth Regional Conference on the Integration of
Women into the Economic and Social Development of Latin America and the
Caribbean (LC/G.1684(CRM.5/6)), Santiago, Chile, 12 November 1991.

**        These strategic actions included in this Programme were adopted
provisionally, with the understanding that they would be complemented with new
proposals submitted by Governments at the Regional Conference.  These
proposals will be incorporated in time to be taken into account in elaborating
the Platform for Action to be submitted to the Fourth World Conference on
Women.  The reservations entered by countries are set forth in the report of
the Regional Conference on the Integration of Women into the Economic and
Social Development of Latin America and the Caribbean (PLE/2/Rev.1).  In the
present text, they are indicated in footnotes.


                                A.  BACKGROUND

1.   This document was elaborated on the basis of resolution No. 1 of the
fifth session of the Regional Conference on the Integration of Women into the
Economic and Social Development of Latin America and the Caribbean (Cura‡ao,
1991) (ECLAC, 1991), the guidelines put forward by the Presiding Officers of
the Regional Conference (ECLAC, 1992a, 1992b, 1993a, 1993b, 1994a), the inputs
of the Meetings of Specialized Agencies and Other Bodies of the United Nations
System (ECLAC, 1992c, 1993c, 1993d), the recommendations of the meeting of
experts, the comments of the Presiding Officers of the Regional Conference and
the special contributions of the International Conference on Central American
Refugees (CIREFCA), the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM),
the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the Inter-American Institute for
Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA), the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Labour Organization
(ILO) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO).

2.   This Programme of Action is not intended to replace the instruments
already in force, 1/ but rather to complement them by reflecting the
changes observed in the region and their impact on women and by setting forth
a basic package of priority activities for Latin America and the Caribbean
that can be carried out in the next five years.

3.   The backdrop for this Programme in the 1990s is one of economic progress
in many countries of the region, accompanied by the persistence and
intensification of serious problems of poverty and extreme poverty, aggravated
by the debt crisis, structural adjustment programmes and social backwardness. 
For example, since the crisis of the 1980s, income distribution has been more
inequitable in Latin America and the Caribbean than anywhere else in the world
(ECLAC, 1993f) and the region has suffered a decline in economic and social
investment which is affecting the quality of education, health and housing and
of the basic services provided to large segments of the population (ECLAC,
1993f, 1990 and 1994b).

4.   The persistence of poverty and extreme poverty in Latin America and the
Caribbean is linked to the enormous debt burden in many of its countries and
territories, which has propelled them into formally or informally adopting
structural adjustment policies with stringent conditionalities.  This has
impacted negatively on the region's capacity to invest adequately in the human
development and institutional resources needed to confront the spread of
poverty.  For women, the combined effect of the debt burden and adjustment
measures has also been to increase their productive and reproductive work,
with deep implications for their economic, physical and social
well-being. 2/

5.   This situation has arisen simultaneously with the globalization of the
world economy, the internationalization of communications and impressive
technological advances.  Despite the significant progress made in other areas,
the pre-eminence of the market as the primary mechanism of resource allocation
has been unable to correct deep-rooted economic, political, cultural and
social inequalities.

6.   In this context of globalization, interdependence and swift
technological change, social issues can no longer be separated from economic
growth and scientific and technological development, nor can they any longer
be considered secondary concerns.  Experience shows that accelerated economic
growth does not necessarily lead to higher levels of well-being for the entire
population, and that it can often accentuate social inequality and
marginalization.  It is therefore essential to devise new answers based on an
integrated approach that addresses all aspects of development simultaneously: 
growth, equity, environmental sustainability, security, solidarity,
participation, peace and respect for human rights.

7.   In the political sphere, the 1990s have witnessed a renewed emphasis on
democratic principles, the concept of citizenship and individual rights,
accompanied by the emergence of new social actors, efforts at
consensus-building and a growing questioning of political leaders.

8.   Studies on the situation of women have confirmed that the structural
inequality of society persists, as manifested by the lack of opportunities and
of access to employment, basic services, power and decision-making at all
hierarchical levels, and by the persistence of educational content which
reinforces stereotyped sexual roles in textbooks and curricula - making it
more difficult to exercise reproductive rights - and the weakness of
mechanisms for promoting the advancement of women.  This structural inequality
is compounded by a deterioration of living conditions for the majority of
women, of all ages and ethnic groups; the increase in migration; and the
growth of the informal sector of the economy, in which more and more women are
forced to work because of the crisis of the 1980s, a situation which is
becoming worse in some of the subregions, especially in rural areas.

9.   In some subregions, migration of women has increased along with the
longer-standing migration of men in search of employment.  Rural stagnation,
family dislocation and homeless children are some of the consequences of the
uprooting of family members.  Furthermore, the global recession has made it
very difficult for new migrants to sustain a livelihood.

10.  The above has prompted a calling into question as to whether greater
participation of women in public life is due to structural changes.  Such
changes should lead to a real opening-up of new opportunities and thus to
effective equality of women and men in society, and ensure just conditions for
the promotion and participation of women, without discrimination on grounds of
sex, race or ethnic group, and the appropriate social and economic changes.

11.  In recent years, the new concept of gender equity has been developed as
a means of approaching this problem; though not yet an object of consensus, it
is a dynamic idea that is still evolving and that represents a basic
contribution to the analysis of women's position in society.  The gender
inequalities in the economic, political, social and cultural spheres have
arisen from the biological differences between the sexes in terms of
reproduction.

12.  Actions taken to improve the situation of women must scrupulously
reflect the principle that biological differences should not lead to social
inequalities.

13.  The new proposals which the member countries of ECLAC are adopting for
the 1990s assert the need for an integrated approach to development (ECLAC,
1990) that reconciles the differences between economic and social policies and
addresses the various facets of social equity in such a way as to promote the
emergence of democratic, productive societies in the region.  This process
requires complementarity between economic and social policies, educational
reform, the strengthening of health services, investment in human resources,
assurance of environmental sustainability, modernization of institutions and
democratic consensus-building on equitable growth.  In pursuing these
objectives, countries should take the gender dimension into account and
recognize the right of women to the full exercise of citizenship.

14.  These proposals, in order to be effectively implemented, require a
conceptualization of development centred on human beings and their needs,
which cannot be dealt with through the logic of the market.

15.  The building of full citizenship for women - i.e., development of the
capacity for self-determination, the expression and representation of
interests and demands, and the full exercise of individual and collective
rights -
 is a still unfinished task in Latin America and the Caribbean,
notwithstanding the progress which some countries have made in this area. 
Only if women are actively incorporated into public life can their societies
benefit from the important contribution that women can make, not only to meet
their own economic, social and cultural needs but also to contribute as
full-fledged citizens.  This incorporation should be carried out on the basis
of forms of political representation that reflect a concept of development
which does not ignore private life and considers gender differences.

16.  The Programme of Action takes into account not only the regional
context, but also the more specific framework of recent and forthcoming
regional forums, so as to incorporate the topic into a wider agenda. 
Particular consideration has been given to the Latin American and Caribbean
Regional Plan of Action on Population and Development, the results of the
International Conference on Population and Development, of the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development, of the World Conference on Human
Rights and of the International Year of the World's Indigenous People, the
guidelines formulated on family issues and the recent debate that led to the
adoption of the Guidelines for a Latin American and Caribbean Consensus on the
World Summit for Social Development.  The Programme of Action is based on the
advances made in the States of the region with regard to equality of
opportunity.

17.  In accordance with this background, the Regional Programme of Action for
the Women of Latin America and the Caribbean, 1995-2001, revolves around eight
priority areas:  gender equity; economic and social development with a gender
perspective:  women's equitable share in the decisions, responsibilities and
benefits of development; elimination of poverty; women's equitable
participation in decision-making and in the exercise of power in public and
private life; human rights, peace and violence; shared family
responsibilities; recognition of cultural plurality in the region; and
international support and cooperation.

18.   The Regional Programme of Action puts forward a minimum set of measures
on which consensus has been reached and which form a systemic whole; i.e., the
strategies complement each other, and if they are to yield the expected
results their implementation must be coordinated.  The Programme is aimed at
improving the status of all women in the region, regardless of their age,
particularly rural women and those belonging to different population groups,
such as indigenous, black, disabled and uprooted women.


                        B.  RATIONALE OF THE PROGRAMME

19.  In 1975, the countries represented at the World Conference of the
International Women's Year, held at Mexico City, adopted the first
international instrument for systematically promoting women's integration into
development:  the World Plan of Action.

20.  In view of the differences between the various regions, the States
Members of the United Nations decided on that occasion that the
above-mentioned instrument should be complemented with regional guidelines. 
In 1977, the member countries of ECLAC formulated and adopted at Havana the
Regional Plan of Action for the Integration of Women into Latin American
Economic and Social Development.  They also decided to establish a permanent
intergovernmental forum to address that issue, the Regional Conference on the
Integration of Women into the Economic and Social Development of Latin America
and the Caribbean, which would meet every three years to evaluate the progress
made in implementing the Regional Plan of Action and to offer guidelines for
future action.

21.  Two more world conferences on women were held:  one at Copenhagen in
1980, at which the participants elaborated the Programme of Action for the
Second Half of the United Nations Decade for Women, and one at Nairobi in
1985, at which the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of
Women were adopted.  The Strategies, which were based on the 1975 Plan and the
1980 Programme, became the primary world-wide instrument in this field,
further enriching the 1977 Plan of Action for Latin America and the Caribbean,
the regional counterpart of the Strategies.

22.  In 1991, the Regional Conference on the Integration of Women into the
Economic and Social Development of Latin America and the Caribbean
recommended, at its fifth session (Cura‡ao), that a regional programme of
action for 1995-2001 should be elaborated to complement the aforementioned
instruments, taking into account the changes observed in the region during the
1980s and the need for supplementary action to accelerate the processes under
way.

23.  In General Assembly resolution 45/129, Economic and Social Council
resolution 1990/12 and Commission on the Status of Women resolution 36/8A, the
States Members of the United Nations recommended that the Fourth World
Conference on Women should be held at Beijing in 1995 and that a Platform for
Action should be elaborated for 1995-2001.  This Regional Programme of Action
for 1995-2001 therefore constitutes both an output of the sixth session of the
Regional Conference on the Integration of Women into the Economic and Social
Development of Latin America and the Caribbean (Mar del Plata, 1994) and an
input to the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995), and reflects
the priorities of the Latin American and Caribbean member countries for the
next five years.


                       C.  CORE OBJECTIVE OF THE PROGRAMME

24.   To expedite the achievement of gender equity and the complete
integration of women into the development process, together with the full
exercise of citizenship in the framework of sustainable development with
social justice and democracy.


                              D.  STRATEGIC AREAS

                            AREA I:  GENDER EQUITY

                                   DIAGNOSIS

25.  Obstacles

     (a) Cultural, political, legal and economic contexts, as well as social,
economic and educational practices that perpetuate inequality between women
and men.

     (b) Insufficient awareness among women and men of gender discrimination
and of the need to stop it.

     (b') Difficulties encountered by women and their organizations in joining
forces on the basis of their needs and proposals.

     (c) Insufficient political will to ensure the full participation of
women in the economic and social development process.

     (d) Lack of macroeconomic policies which take gender equity into account
and are based on the effective participation of women and men in society.

     (e) Limited capacity of public and private institutions to develop
agendas that include gender concerns.

     (f) Insufficient institutional strength of public entities responsible
for women's issues.

     (g) Precarious linkages among Governments, non-governmental women's
organizations and international agencies with respect to the design,
implementation, monitoring and evaluation of gender policies.

     (h) Insufficient linkage between women's organizations and the
institutions of society and the State.

     (i) The failure to recognize and value the unremunerated work which
women carry out in agriculture, food production, child-rearing and household
activities, and the failure to adequately support this work.

     (j) Insufficient research on women's situation and participation in all
areas throughout their lives, as well as insufficient data disaggregated by
sex.

     (k) Limited exchange of information, communication and collaboration
with respect to women's issues among Governments, non-governmental
organizations and the private sector.

     (l) Scarcity of statistics disaggregated by sex.

26.  Progress

     (a) Growing emphasis on citizenship and individual rights and greater
respect for diversity in democratic societies, factors which are enabling
women to participate as social agents.

     (b) Women's heightened awareness of their rights, and strengthening of
their organizations and bargaining power.

     (c) An increase in the number of academic and research centres and
universities that study and research gender relations.


                              Strategic guideline I

27.   Incorporating the gender perspective into development planning at the
highest levels and into social and economic policies and decisions to correct
the inequality of relations between women and men caused by the persistence of
discriminatory cultural contexts and economic and social practices.

                              Strategic objective I

28.   To consider the specific needs of women and their equitable
participation in the design, formulation, implementation and integrated
evaluation of economic and social policies from a gender perspective, in the
following areas:

      -    National, regional and international development agencies;

      -    Policies, programmes, plans and projects, in accordance with an
           integrated approach to development;

      -    Non-governmental organizations, the business sector and civil
           society.

                             Strategic action I.a

29.  Ensuring that those responsible for formulating and implementing plans
and policies are familiar with the gender perspective and trained in its
application, so that women and men are given equal opportunities for access to
and participation in the countries' development processes and in the equitable
distribution of benefits.


                             Strategic action I.b

30.  Conducting comparative analyses of women's and men's needs, capacities
and participation in development processes to detect and correct gender
inequities in the design of public policies; and considering, in the processes
of analysis and evaluation, the impact of economic and social measures on
women and men, using quantitative and qualitative indicators, as well as case
studies at the local, national and regional levels.


                             Strategic action I.c

31.  Conducting broad-based, permanent awareness campaigns on the gender
perspective, making use of the local and international media and public
education programmes run by Governments and the private sector, to make
society sensitive to the need for more balanced, egalitarian participation by
women and men in development processes.


                             Strategic action I.d

32.  Establishing permanent training mechanisms and ensuring that all social
groups have access to them, and introducing the gender perspective in all
stages of training.


                             Strategic action I.e

33.  Instituting action programmes to achieve more balanced and egalitarian
participation by women and men in the development process, and ensuring that
these programmes have the continuity they need in order to make a real
cultural impact.


            AREA II:  ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT WITH A GENDER
            PERSPECTIVE:  WOMEN'S EQUITABLE SHARE IN THE DECISIONS,
                 RESPONSIBILITIES AND BENEFITS OF DEVELOPMENT

                                   DIAGNOSIS

34.  Obstacles

     (a) Political, administrative and financial deficiencies of public
initiatives to guarantee women's full exercise of citizenship.

     (b) Persistence of a welfare-oriented approach that limits structural
reforms to promote gender equity.

     (c) Lack of gender perspective in development planning.

     (d) Insufficient establishment of legal instruments and insufficient
implementation of those already established, especially the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and insufficient
political will among States to ensure their implementation.

     (e) Lack of legal instruments ensuring equality of rights, and
insufficient implementation of existing legal instruments which perpetuates
the gap between de facto and de jure equality.

     (f) Persistence of ethnic and cultural discrimination, which worsens the
situation of the region's indigenous and black women, and continuation of a
system based on an official language whose use discriminates against a large
percentage of the population and limits women's opportunities to participate
in the development of society.

     (g) Insufficient participation of women in the debt and structural
adjustment negotiations, which ultimately has a negative effect on their
lives, those of their families and their society.

     (h) Lack of equity in access to jobs, productive employment, training,
credit and business activities, housing and land, and in wages, working
conditions and social security systems, a situation which has been worsened,
in the past decade, by changes in labour and social security legislation
resulting from adjustment policies.

     (i) Failure of public policies to recognize the economic contributions
made by urban and rural women through non-wage-earning productive activities.

     (j) Growth of unemployment and underemployment, especially among women,
which tends to depress wages and weaken trade unions.

     (k) Rural women's limited access to the means of production.

     (l) Insufficient statistical data showing the real proportion of women
in the economically active population (EAP).

     (m) Insufficient opportunities for large sectors of the female
population to enter and stay in the education system; maintenance of school
curricula and teaching practices that limit women's opportunities to
participate in society and reinforce the lack of equity between women and men,
as well as women's subordination, instead of promoting their confidence and
self-esteem.

     (n) Insufficiency of education reforms at all levels, in terms of
leading to real changes in educational plans and programmes, teacher training
and the updating of curricula in university and non-university higher
education.

     (o) Insufficient coverage of health-care services for women, failure to
adapt these services to women's needs and cultural orientation, and lack of
information programmes to alert women to health risks, a situation aggravated
by the growing privatization of such services.

     (p) Lack of clear proposals on sustainable development that provide for
the equitable sharing of its benefits between women and men, and lack of
opportunities for women to participate in identifying problems and formulating
and implementing policies and programmes related to environmental concerns,
which would make their contributions to the solution of those problems more
efficient and effective.

     (q) Lack of the necessary political will to carry out specific actions
to improve resources management so as to achieve sustainable development.

     (r) Characterization of women solely as domestic administrators of the
environmental crisis.

35.  Progress

     (a) Inclusion of sectoral actions directed towards women in development
plans and strategies; establishment of government offices for women in nearly
all countries; and legal recognition of women's citizenship and individual
rights.

     (b) Improvement of women's legal status; ratification of the Convention
on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the
Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women; as well as the
ratification of the Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment
and Eradication of Violence against Women; and launching of a process of
amending national legislation in keeping with such instruments.

     (c) The larger role which women's organizations in civil society are
playing in formulating policies from the gender perspective.

     (d) Growth of the proportion of women in the economically active
population.

     (e) Greater number of women participating at all levels of education and
continuing their education; and significant increases in the proportion of
women professionals.

     (f) Improvement of teacher training to promote women's integration into
formal and non-formal education.

     (g) Growing recognition of the importance of comprehensive health care
and greater concern with respect to the health conditions to which women are
exposed in the workplace.

     (h) Increased recognition of the importance of environmental protection,
and of the adoption of Agenda 21 at the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development.


                             Strategic guideline II

36.   Ensuring that the decisions, responsibilities and benefits of
development are distributed equitably between women and men.

                            Strategic objective II.1

37.   To create or strengthen the political, administrative, legislative and
financial capacity of government institutions that formulate, coordinate and
evaluate public policies aimed at improving the status of women and promoting
gender equity, and to ensure that such entities become a permanent part of the
highest level of the State apparatus.

                            Strategic action II.1.a

38.  Setting up, in countries where they do not exist, or consolidating
government institutions for women; ensuring their definitive incorporation
into the highest level of the State structure, and seeing that they are
provided with the necessary financial, technical and material resources on an
ongoing basis.


                            Strategic action II.1.b

39.  Providing those responsible for the design, implementation and
coordination of public policies with systematic training in the elaboration
and analysis of gender variables and indicators, to ensure that the gender
perspective is applied to the processes of diagnosis, monitoring,
systematization and evaluation and to uphold high standards of technical
preparation.


                            Strategic action II.1.c

40.  Promoting the participation of government institutions for women in the
design, discussion, formulation and amendment of draft laws, to ensure that
women's interests and needs are taken into account.


                            Strategic action II.1.d

41.  Promoting the establishment of a system for monitoring and evaluating
compliance with agreements, conventions, programmes and policies to benefit
women, with the participation of non-governmental organizations and women's
movements.


                            Strategic objective II.2

42.   To incorporate into national legislation principles and norms
established at the international level so as to ensure the equitable
participation of women in all aspects of society and to set up the necessary
mechanisms, institutions and services for their effective implementation.

                            Strategic action II.2.a

43.  Making national legislation consistent with international and regional
norms that promote the advancement of women, especially in the areas of
education, employment, health, human rights, political participation and the
eradication of violence, and adopting and implementing policies, programmes
and measures to guarantee the effective implementation of legal norms designed
to improve the situation of women; proposing the legal provisions needed to
achieve full gender equity, and promoting their adoption; and supplementing
and amending secondary legislation, where necessary, to make it consistent
with the legal provisions adopted at the constitutional level.


                            Strategic action II.2.b

44.  Conducting, through the mass media, systematic campaigns, educational
programmes and legal aid seminars to disseminate detailed information on
women's rights and on judicial and administrative procedures for the effective
exercise thereof, as well as on the work of government and non-governmental
organizations that support women, to increase women's legal literacy, and
ensuring that these campaigns and programmes primarily target vulnerable
groups of women that suffer from discrimination.


                            Strategic action II.2.c

45.  Raising the awareness of legislators and public officials of the need to
carry out legal reforms to achieve gender equity.

                            Strategic action II.2.d

46.  Preparing and promoting the adoption of an optional protocol to the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
that provides, among other mechanisms, for the right of individuals to submit
petitions, as recommended in the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action
adopted at the World Conference on Human Rights.


                            Strategic action II.2.e

47.  Urging the States of the region to sign, ratify and implement, before the
Fourth World Conference on Women, the Inter-American Convention on the
Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence against Women, adopted by
the Organization of American States.*

*    The delegation of Mexico entered a reservation on this strategic action.


                            Strategic objective II.3

48.   To ensure that women have equitable access to productive work, to
employment, to productive resources and to new technologies, within the
framework of policies to improve their social and economic situation, and to
ensure equality of opportunity and treatment with respect to working
conditions and pay, as well as possibilities for job-related improvement and
development and for women's access to executive positions.

                            Strategic action II.3.a

49.  Establishing follow-up and evaluation procedures to monitor compliance
with the agreements adopted by the countries of the region to ensure that all
women have access to employment on the same terms as men, guaranteeing them
career advancement opportunities, job stability and equal pay for work of
equal value.


                            Strategic action II.3.b

50.  Promoting legislation that guarantees equal employment opportunities for
women and men and includes measures against gender discrimination.


                            Strategic action II.3.c

51.  Promoting the design and implementation of human resources training
policies geared towards achieving social and gender equity by radically
redirecting the training and vocational education offered to all women,
especially young women, towards non-traditional fields, followed up with
activities in the areas of guidance, formal education and industry and the use
of advanced technologies, in order to meet the requirements of labour markets
and demands for human resources in the public and private sectors, and
especially within enterprises.


                            Strategic action II.3.d

52.  Designing strategies that take women's socio-economic and cultural
differences into account, and creating the necessary policy tools to ensure
that women have the same access as men to all productive resources (land,
capital and labour) and to technological resources and special credit lines.


                            Strategic action II.3.e

53.  Improving women's working conditions by eliminating wage discrimination,
ensuring full respect for women's labour rights and guaranteeing their access
to social security systems, and enacting legislation geared towards setting up
support services for working women and men, such as child care and other
socio-domestic services, and establishing mechanisms for the effective
implementation of such provisions.


                            Strategic action II.3.f

54.  Promoting, through affirmative action, women's egalitarian participation
in the decision-making processes of workers' organizations, taking diversity
into account and encouraging the application of the gender approach in those
organizations; carrying out business and trade union coordination activities
to improve women's integration in the labour market and enhance their capacity
to negotiate with the public sector, workers' organizations and private
employers.


                            Strategic action II.3.g

55.  Eliminating employers' discriminatory practices with respect to women,
such as requiring proof of use of contraceptives and reporting of pregnancy.


                            Strategic action II.3.h

56.  Promoting women's access to the highest levels of administration and
management in public and private industry, commerce and services.


                            Strategic action II.3.i

57.  Increasing women's opportunities for education and training in
administration, management and the other skills they need in order to
participate actively at all levels of the public and private sectors.


                            Strategic action II.3.j

58.  Improving the working conditions of women who perform unwaged labour and
women who work in the informal sector; compiling information on the value of
their work to ensure that commensurable benefits accrue to them under social
security and retirement systems.


                            Strategic action II.3.k

59.  Creating mechanisms for quantifying and determining the value of the
economic contribution of women's unwaged work in the home and in agriculture,
food production, reproduction and community work; designing gender indicators
to recognize the value of these contributions to GDP; and defining as workers,
in the System of National Accounts, persons who perform unwaged labour.*

*    The delegation of France entered a reservation on this strategic action.


                            Strategic action II.3.l

60.  Ensuring that women's demands are taken into account in the process of
negotiating integration agreements in the region, and systematizing
information on those demands.


                            Strategic action II.3.m

61.  Promoting research that can be used as a basis for comparative analysis
of the employment and work situation of women and men in urban and rural
areas, disaggregating the data collected by sex, class, ethnic origin and
region; evaluating the impact of international trade liberalization on
employment and migration.


                            Strategic action II.3.n

62.  Conducting research, creating economic opportunities and designing
technologies which address the specific needs of women and help them to meet
some of the challenges posed by their multiple productive and reproductive
roles.*

*    The delegations of Argentina, Ecuador, El Salvador and Venezuela entered
reservations on this strategic action.  The delegation of Guatemala said that
it understood "productive and reproductive roles" in terms of the scientific
approach of gender theory.



                            Strategic action II.3.o

63.  Ensuring that statistical data from any source, especially censuses,
national surveys and permanent statistical systems, is disaggregated by sex
and ethnic origin, with particular attention to statistics on labour, wages
and the production system in general, in both the public and private sectors;
revising techniques and methodologies for compiling data; and guaranteeing
civil society's access to statistics and their dissemination at the national
level.


                            Strategic action II.3.p

64.  Promoting and strengthening alternative financing systems and models,
including the involvement of non-governmental organizations in this process.


                            Strategic objective II.4

65.   To ensure that the population in general, and especially girls and
women, have access to formal and informal education that prepares them for the
full exercise of their rights and of full citizenship, equitable participation
in decision-making and the egalitarian sharing of family and household
responsibilities, and to ensure that girls remain in the educational system.

                            Strategic action II.4.a

66.  Strengthening the full exercise of citizenship by promoting reforms in
formal and non-formal education, reorienting research and adapting school
curricula.


                            Strategic action II.4.b

67.  Promoting increases in budgetary allocations for education, recognizing
them as a form of productive public investment.


                            Strategic action II.4.c

68.  Ensuring that the countries of the region comply with the agreements
adopted on promoting the education of women and girls and preventing
discrimination for reasons of gender, race or ethnic group, guaranteeing
respect for cultural identities, and measuring this compliance through follow-
up and evaluation bodies specializing in the gender perspective.




                            Strategic action II.4.d

69.  Eliminating sexism and other forms of discrimination from educational
processes and the messages conveyed by education and the mass media, to
promote more equitable relations between women and men and to eliminate the
stereotypes that are reproduced and inculcated through those channels.


                            Strategic action II.4.e

70.  Conducting research and taking actions to eradicate female illiteracy,
reduce women's drop-out and repetition rates and encourage women, especially
rural and indigenous women, to remain in the educational system.


                            Strategic action II.4.f

71.  Reducing disparities in access to tertiary education, where they exist,
and ensuring that training opportunities are available to women so that they
can enter and stay in universities and that women have equitable access to
career development scholarships and fellowships abroad and at home.


                            Strategic action II.4.g

72.  Promoting women's access to non-traditional scientific and technical
careers - following the conduct of feasibility studies - by disseminating, as
widely as possible, information on all available options for professional
training and on the demands and conditions of the job market, adapting school
curricula and instituting affirmative-action programmes for that purpose.


                            Strategic action II.4.h

73.  Establishing and promoting communication policies and strategies to
combat the dissemination of stereotyped images of women and men in the media,
and encouraging messages that reflect the diversity of women's roles, living
conditions and viewpoints; designing gender awareness and training programmes
for teachers in the educational system and for media personnel to induce them
to adopt attitudes characterized by gender equity.


                            Strategic action II.4.i

74.  Conducting multidisciplinary research on the different roles played by
women throughout history, disseminating the findings thereof and incorporating
them into school textbooks at all levels of education.





                            Strategic action II.4.j

75.  Ensuring the creation of a policy environment which facilitates the
access of drop-outs and teenage mothers to continued education.


                            Strategic action II.4.k

76.  Promoting the access of women of all ages to physical education and
sports, to enhance their self-esteem and autonomy by encouraging them to value
their bodies and their leisure time.


                            Strategic action II.4.l

77.  Incorporating the issues of environment and sustainable development,
sexual and reproductive health and gender equity into programmes of study and
improving their content, to promote greater responsibility and awareness in
those areas.*

*    The delegations of Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador
and Peru entered reservations on this strategic action.


                            Strategic action II.4.m

78.  Developing educational actions that take advantage of the talents and
skills inherent in women's cultural identities, and especially those of
disabled women.


                            Strategic action II.4.n

79.  Fostering collaboration between organizations of the women's movement and
government institutions for women in the formulation of proposals on education
policies.


                            Strategic objective II.5

80.   To provide preventive and comprehensive health care for women,
respecting
their ethnic and cultural identity, and to ensure high quality care and have
equitable access to it at all stages of their lives, taking into consideration
the differential impact of gender on the processes of health and disease.

                            Strategic action II.5.a

81.  Promoting the establishment of decentralized programmes of integral,
prevention-oriented health care, especially in rural areas, ensuring that
women participate equitably in their design and execution and that steps are
taken to provide quality services which are affordable, accessible and
culturally acceptable.


                            Strategic action II.5.b

82.  Maximizing the use of local health-care systems by promoting the
incorporation of gender criteria, community participation and self-care,
especially in preventive health care programmes.


                            Strategic action II.5.c

CS\  Promoting the inclusion, in public health policies, of specific
programmes for women and men to prevent and deal with teenage pregnancy,
especially in early adolescence, in a context of integral health care that
includes actions such as the provision of non-sexist sex education.


                            Strategic action II.5.d

84.  Allocating human, material and financial resources for integral health
care for women throughout their lives; improving the health and nutritional
status of pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers, inter alia by providing
breast-feeding education and support services which can contribute to birth
spacing, better maternal and child health and higher child survival rates.


                            Strategic action II.5.e

85.  Promoting research to identify women's health-care needs, especially in
the areas of mental health; drug use; sexual and reproductive health; breast-
feeding; teenage pregnancy; fertility by place of residence, educational level
and income bracket; all causes of maternal mortality; specific occupational
and sexually transmitted diseases, and women's vulnerability to them and to
AIDS; the health of girls and older women; and all the health risk factors
linked to the social construct of gender and to socio-economic conditions; and
promoting actions to meet such needs.*

*    The delegations of Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,
Guatemala and Peru entered reservations on this strategic action.


                            Strategic action II.5.f

86.  Considering health indicators for women as indicators of a country's
development.





                            Strategic action II.5.g

87.  Promoting measures to improve information on women's health and record-
keeping in that regard, by incorporating gender analysis into statistical
information systems.


                            Strategic action II.5.h

88.  Providing better family planning services and establishing systems for
offering information and compassionate counselling to all women, including
those with unwanted pregnancies, while recognizing the importance of abortion
as a public health problem and the principle that abortion should in no case
be considered a method of family planning.  The implementation of this action
should conform to the provisions of the relevant paragraphs of chapter 7, on
reproductive rights, of the Programme of Action adopted at the International
Conference on Population and Development, held at Cairo, Egypt.*

*    The delegations of Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,
Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Peru entered reservations on this strategic
action.

                            Strategic action II.5.i

89.  Encouraging the adoption of measures to protect and promote women's
reproductive rights, to guarantee democratic discussion of those rights and to
provide the necessary services in conformity with the paragraphs on
reproductive rights contained in chapter 7 of the Programme of Action adopted
at the International Conference on Population and Development, held at Cairo,
Egypt.*

*    The delegations of Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala,
Honduras, Nicaragua and Peru entered reservations on this strategic action. 
The delegation of Argentina said that it accepted the concept of reproductive
rights as reflected in the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action of the
World Conference on Human Rights and in the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women.


                            Strategic action II.5.j

90.  Respecting the right of couples and of women to decide freely and
responsibly on the number and spacing of their children, and strengthening
women's capacity to exercise this basic right by giving both women and men
access to the information, education and means they need to act on those
decisions; carrying out educational programmes and activities to encourage men
to participate more equitably and responsibly in family planning.


                            Strategic action II.5.k

91.  Designing compulsory sex education programmes, at the level of school
boards, from the first year of school.*

*    The delegations of Argentina and United States entered a reservation on
this strategic action.


                            Strategic action II.5.l

92.  Fostering collaboration between organizations of the women's movement and
government institutions for women in the formulation of proposals on health-
care policies.


                            Strategic objective II.6

93.   To achieve equitable participation of women in the design and management
of environmental policies.

                            Strategic action II.6.a

94.  Elaborating policies, laws, regulations and other instruments, in all
relevant areas and at all levels, to ensure the protection of the environment
and natural resources, making use of the results of specialized meetings, such
as Agenda 21 adopted at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development; urging Governments to ensure the equitable integration and
participation of women and men in the planning, design, formulation and
implementation of environment policies and programmes and in the
implementation of specific actions in that field.


                            Strategic action II.6.b

95.  Requesting Governments to set up programmes to raise the awareness of the
public at large about the sustainable use of natural resources to ensure the
survival of future generations, and the need to endeavour to improve and
conserve the environment, especially in regions where ecological costs are
particularly onerous for the female population.


                            Strategic action II.6.c

96.  Providing and appropriately channelling the financial resources needed to
strengthen women's participation in environmental management; enlisting the
support of the international community, especially international technical and
financial cooperation agencies, to encourage them to allocate more financial
resources for the implementation of specific projects related to the sound use
and protection of natural resources.


                            Strategic action II.6.d

97.  Creating the necessary material, technical and training conditions to
enable women and men to contribute to environmental protection in both urban
and rural areas, taking their needs and viewpoints into account.


                            Strategic action II.6.e

98.  Developing environmental policies and education programmes that address
the impacts of environmental degradation on women and men and management
initiatives in this field.


                            Strategic action II.6.f

99.  Promoting, through formal and non-formal education programmes, at various
educational levels, in the communications media and in the process of
development policy planning, the concept that sustainable development is
indissociable from the elimination of gender inequalities.


                            Strategic action II.6.g

100. Introducing, in formal educational curricula, instruction modules on the
relationship between the environment and survival and on environmental
preservation.


                            Strategic action II.6.h

101. Promoting research by government and non-governmental institutions on the
relationship between women and the environment to determine how the two issues
interact, especially with regard to natural resources, in both urban and rural
areas, to support the formulation of appropriate policies.


                            Strategic action II.6.i

102. Addressing the structural issues that inhibit women's use of sustainable
agricultural and natural resource management techniques, such as market
imperfections; lack of land tenure; limited access to appropriate
technologies, training and credit; and low levels of participation in
community resource management groups.




                            Strategic action II.6.j

103. Expanding economic opportunities for women in sustainable natural
resource management and environmental protection to encourage these practices.


                            Strategic action II.6.k

104. Encouraging the use of appropriate production technologies, giving
priority to research, promoting endogenous technologies and suitably adapting
imported technologies, so as to achieve harmonious development of the
community while preserving the environment.


                 AREA III:  ELIMINATION OF POVERTY AMONG WOMEN

                                   DIAGNOSIS

105. Obstacles

     (a) Increase in extreme poverty, which affects women proportionally more
than men; widening of income disparities; and deterioration of the quality of
life.

     (b) Gradual decline in government spending on social programmes,
specifically those aimed at promoting gender equity.

     (c) Increasing shift from Governments towards the private sector and
civil society of responsibilities for providing social services.

     (d) Increase in unemployment, poverty and inequality as a result of the
external debt crisis and the implementation of adjustment and restructuring
policies.

     (e) Increase in the number of households headed by women, most of whom
work in the informal sector without legal or social protection.

     (f) Increasing female migration caused by poverty, which then leads to
the intergenerational reproduction of poverty.

     (g) Lack of specific studies on how women are affected by poverty, with
data disaggregated by sex.

     (h) Insufficient statistical data and research on how poverty affects
women and men differently.

106. Progress

     (a) Growing interest in the implementation of programmes and projects
targeted at poor women, especially uprooted women.

     (b) Increase in the participation of communities and social and
non-governmental organizations, especially women's groups, in dealing with the
problems of the poor.


                             Strategic guideline III

107.  Reviewing and modifying, where appropriate, macroeconomic policies and
adjustment programmes in the region to correct and overcome their negative
effects, such as an increase in unemployment, poverty and violence, which have
been particularly detrimental to women.*

*     The United States delegation entered a reservation with respect to this
paragraph.

108.  Creating the conditions for reducing and overcoming poverty, in the
framework of a sustainable development process and taking into account each
country's level of development and socio-cultural characteristics.

                            Strategic objective III.1

109.  To review, modify and integrate macroeconomic and social policies,
especially in those countries where debt servicing and structural adjustment
policies exist, in order to promote growth and social equity, through, among
other actions, policies which allocate resources to increase employment
opportunities and wages for women, giving special attention to the needs of
groups of poor women and combating marginalization, taking into account
people's ethnic and socio-cultural characteristics.

                           Strategic action III.1.a

110. Formulating and implementing development policies aimed at substantially
improving the living conditions of the poor, ensuring that women, especially
young women, participate equitably in designing and implementing them, and
that enough resources are allocated to meet the objectives of those policies;
evaluating the impact of economic and social policies on the groups of women
they affect.


                           Strategic action III.1.b

111. Promoting mechanisms for the systematic involvement of national machinery
on women's affairs in designing and monitoring economic and social policies
with an integrated approach, to guarantee social equity and equality.



                           Strategic action III.1.c

112. Promoting the consideration, in the allocation of investments, of the
social, economic and cultural asymmetries or differences between different
areas or communities, giving special attention to groups living in extreme
poverty.


                           Strategic action III.1.d

113. Raising the level of employment and personal development of women and men
who are marginalized and poor by providing equal opportunities for access to
free technical and vocational training and to scholarships.  Encouraging
women's entry into training and economic activities that are directly linked
to current demands and that can yield substantially higher wages or profit
levels.


                           Strategic action III.1.e

114. Promoting employment and vocational programmes that provide support to
women's cooperatives, informal-sector women entrepreneurs, associations of
female producers, self-managed enterprises and other forms of productive
organization.  Expediting the enactment of legislation to provide legal
protection for those programmes, so that women in the formal and informal
sectors, especially those who are heads of household, can improve their
linkages with the market and increase their productivity and income levels.


                           Strategic action III.1.f

115. Improving the quality of life of women, especially those in the poorest
groups, by establishing credit systems for small businesses run by women and
eliminating obstacles to women's access to all productive resources,
especially training, technical assistance and basic social services.


                           Strategic action III.1.g

116. Ensuring that women in small- and medium-sized businesses receive
training on technical-administrative issues.


                           Strategic action III.1.h

117. Designing labour capacity-oriented programmes for women heads of
household and facilitating their access to adequately paid work or their
efforts to establish income-generating activities by themselves.




                           Strategic action III.1.i

118. Redoubling efforts to generalize the use of statistics disaggregated by
sex and to ensure that they include gender and ethnic indicators, and
promoting the incorporation of analyses differentiated by sex into statistical
systems, thereby facilitating the conduct of more precise studies of the needs
of women and men; and ensuring the provision of the necessary technical and
financial resources for that purpose.


                            Strategic objective III.2

119.  To create the necessary conditions for ensuring that adequate coverage
and quality of education are provided to poor women, taking into account their
ethnic, national and age characteristics, as well as the specific problems of
disabled, uprooted, rural and migrant women.

                           Strategic action III.2.a

120. Ensuring that women and men, girls and boys, especially those in
vulnerable groups that suffer from discrimination, receive an education that
incorporates the gender approach and seeks to strengthen the exercise of
citizenship in conditions of equity, inter alia, by teaching them about their
human and civil rights and duties.


                           Strategic action III.2.b

121. Establishing decentralized entities to monitor, supervise and evaluate
the educational achievements of women and men, especially in terms of
variables such as whether they live in urban or rural areas or belong to
vulnerable groups that suffer from discrimination, and ensuring that women can
enter all fields of education and training.


                           Strategic action III.2.c

122. Supporting women's efforts and advancement through a wide-ranging public
education process conducted by the government and private sectors, with the
help of the mass media, recognizing their autonomy and decision-making
capacity and strengthening organizations of all types, especially grass-roots
organizations, that help women to meet their objectives.


                           Strategic action III.2.d

123. Creating quality informal educational opportunities for women and girls.


                           Strategic action III.2.e

124. Carrying out literacy programmes and projects to eradicate illiteracy,
especially among women in vulnerable groups that suffer from discrimination,
ensuring respect for cultural differences.


                           Strategic action III.2.f

125. Supporting the cause of indigenous peoples and women so that they can
define their own development goals and preserve their cultural identity,
without prejudice to their civil rights or to the unity of the State, and
allocating the necessary financial and material resources for that purpose.


                           Strategic action III.2.g

126. Designing educational programmes that specifically address the special
needs of street children, especially girls, to enable such children to stay in
school.


                            Strategic objective III.3

127.  To ensure access to comprehensive, high-quality preventive health-care
services to poor women, taking into account their cultural, linguistic and age
characteristics.

                           Strategic action III.3.a

128. Establishing and equipping local centres that provide comprehensive
health care and give priority to the major health risks to women in vulnerable
groups that suffer from discrimination, with emphasis on preventive services
and with the participation of women.


                           Strategic action III.3.b

129. Allocating resources to provide comprehensive health care to women
throughout their lives, especially during pregnancy, puerperium and breast-
feeding, and to ensure health care for working women.


                           Strategic action III.3.c

130. Providing appropriate health information, education and services to young
women, especially pregnant teenagers.



                            Strategic objective III.4

131.  To give women living in poverty, especially heads of household, access
to
decent housing and adequate infrastructure services to sustain a living.

                           Strategic action III.4.a

132. Designing and implementing housing programmes especially tailored for
women in vulnerable groups that suffer from discrimination - rural and urban
women who are in the subsistence economy or who are heads of household,
displaced, refugees or disabled - and providing credit on easy terms and
technical assistance to ensure their access to basic infrastructure.


                           Strategic action III.4.b

133. Promoting women's and men's involvement in the design, construction and
improvement of their dwellings so that their needs and socio-cultural
differences are taken into account, and ensuring greater decentralization of
housing policies to facilitate this process at the local level, making use of
local resources.


                           Strategic action III.4.c

134. Eliminating legal barriers that prevent women from obtaining housing in
their own names or claiming the status of heads of household, and designing
housing policies that give priority, in terms of access to credit for urban
and rural housing, to single mothers who are heads of household.


                           Strategic action III.4.d

135. Removing legal barriers that deny women the right to gain, hold and
transfer title to their homes and properties.


                           Strategic action III.4.e

136. Establishing building codes, enforceable at the community level, to
guarantee access of the disabled to physical and social infrastructural
services.


                            Strategic objective III.5

137.  To stem migration from the countryside to the cities by means of
investment in rural development and other specific measures.

                           Strategic action III.5.a

138. Improving the situation of rural women by investing in rural development,
designing employment policies and programmes and taking specific measures
(provision of infrastructure, technology and services) to help reduce poverty
in that sector and the rate of rural-to-urban migration, as well as the
consequent break-up of families.


                            Strategic objective III.6

139.  To promote, at all levels of government, of the State and of civil
society, actions to make rural women's contribution to development and their
productive role in society visible.

                           Strategic action III.6.a

140. Revising legislation, policies, plans, programmes and projects to
facilitate women's access to land, production facilities and natural
resources.


                           Strategic action III.6.b

141. Designing programmes to support the activities carried out by rural
women, including food production, employment in agro-industry and product
marketing.


                           Strategic action III.6.c

142. Making public and private agricultural organizations and the general
population aware of the rights of rural women, and providing training on the
subject.


                           Strategic action III.6.d

143. Improving the living conditions of rural women by providing basic
infrastructure and services and promoting programmes designed to alleviate
their burden of housework.


                           Strategic action III.6.e

144. Developing the capacities of rural women through the promotion of
organization and training, to strengthen them as social agents.




                           Strategic action III.6.f

145. Training women already in the rural productive sector to become
effectively involved as exporters individually and in groups in their own
right.


                           Strategic action III.6.g

146. Providing training to ensure that the methodologies and timing of
technology transfer activities are suitable for rural women.


                           Strategic action III.6.h

147. Disaggregating agricultural production data by sex and socio-economic
situation, to heighten the visibility of rural women's economic contribution
to agricultural production.


         AREA IV:  WOMEN'S EQUITABLE PARTICIPATION IN DECISION-MAKING
            AND IN THE EXERCISE OF POWER IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LIFE

                                   DIAGNOSIS

148. Obstacles

     (a) Existence of an institutional, social and cultural structure that
hinders women's access to power at all levels.

     (b) Persistence of cultural patterns and stereotypes that reserve public
power for men and assign exclusively to women domestic chores and functions.

     (c) Lack of legal instruments and the restrictive nature of the
institutions in which power is vested.

     (d) Continued existence, in social and political institutions, of
machinery that is explicitly or implicitly discriminatory.

149. Progress

     (a) Greater participation of women in power structures, although to
different degrees in different countries.

     (b) Evidence of a growing concern about the situation of women in
national, State, regional and international agendas.

     (c) Strengthened collaboration between the State and women's
organizations in democratic systems.


                             Strategic guideline IV

150.  Ensuring that women have equitable access to power structures and
decision-making processes by creating mechanisms and actions that allow for
their effective participation in the development of a full-fledged democracy.

                            Strategic objective IV.1

151.  To promote and ensure the equitable participation of women in all public
and private power structures by taking affirmative steps to secure and expand
their access to the exercise of power, as an integral element of citizenship,
at the legislative, judicial, executive, supervisory and planning levels.

                            Strategic action IV.1.a

152. Strongly encouraging all newly elected Governments to appoint, on equal
terms, more women to decision-making positions in their cabinets and
administrations, especially in the field of economics, in the various branches
of government.


                            Strategic action IV.1.b

153. Encouraging the establishment of women's rights commissions, consisting
of both women and men, in the legislative branch of government, and promoting
their coordination with government institutions for women.


                            Strategic action IV.1.c

154. Ensuring women's equitable participation in all high-level commissions
and entities, inter alia as official foreign representatives and as diplomats.


                            Strategic action IV.1.d

155. Demanding that training in the gender perspective be made compulsory at
all levels of State coordination.


                            Strategic action IV.1.e

156. Using training modules that incorporate the gender perspective to train
women, including indigenous women, in leadership and empowerment, to
strengthen their possibilities of performing leadership functions in the upper
echelons of the State structure and in all institutions of society, and to
raise awareness of the need for women to participate equitably in
decision-making processes.


                            Strategic action IV.1.f

157. Urging political parties to guarantee equality of opportunity for women
in terms of access to party leadership positions and to the process of
selecting candidates for elective office, including the adoption of specific
affirmative-action measures such as reforms of electoral codes and the
establishment of progressive minimum quotas until equitable participation is
assured, and carrying out programmes of information and guidance - for both
women and men - on the importance of women's participation in political
parties.


                            Strategic action IV.1.g

158. Encouraging and supporting, through the mass media, the effective
participation of women and young women, especially new voters, in decision-
making processes and in the exercise of their political rights and
responsibilities, including that of standing for elective or appointive
office, as part of their citizenship.


                            Strategic action IV.1.h

159. Encouraging the communications media to include women, on an equitable
basis, in positions where decisions are taken on administrative issues,
programming and the content of the messages conveyed.


                            Strategic action IV.1.i

160. Establishing mechanisms and procedures to guarantee women's equal
opportunity for advancement in public, political and union careers, and
fostering gender equity in terms of promotions, professional development and
other areas.


                            Strategic action IV.1.j

161. Promoting operational changes in public and private organizations to
encourage greater participation by women in their activities and meetings.


                            Strategic action IV.1.k

162. Promoting the creation of conditions and opportunities for women to be
elected to public office.




                            Strategic action IV.1.l

163. Stimulating, in all areas of society, both public and private, processes
of change geared towards consolidating equitable and democratic relationships
between women and men.*

*    The delegations of Dominican Republic and Honduras entered a reservation
on this strategic action.


                            Strategic objective IV.2

164.  To promote positive measures to create the necessary conditions for
women's equitable participation and political representation in businesses,
trade unions, political parties and other formal and informal areas of civil
society, and in all decision-making processes and in the area of development
planning.

                            Strategic action IV.2.a

165. Promoting changes in the inequitable and sexist conceptions underlying
the behaviours of women and men.


                            Strategic action IV.2.b

166. Adopting affirmative-action measures to help increase women's
participation in decision-making processes.


                            Strategic action IV.2.c

167. Promoting the empowerment of women in all aspects of private and public
life so that they can exercise their rights, express their needs and interests
and gain greater autonomy and personal, economic and social power, in their
capacity as citizens.


                            Strategic action IV.2.d

168. Funding and conducting studies to identify the factors that obstruct or
hinder women's full participation in decision-making processes; establishing
mechanisms to help increase their participation in those processes; and
disseminating all information gleaned from these studies.




                            Strategic action IV.2.e

169. Raising public awareness of the necessity and desirability of women's
participation in decision-making processes and power structures.


                            Strategic action IV.2.f

170. Carrying out awareness campaigns to promote women's full participation in
all public power structures, recognizing the need to change the distribution
of responsibilities and work in the private sphere.


                            Strategic action IV.2.g

171. Designing, implementing and strengthening formal and informal training
programmes on management, organization, negotiation, administration and
leadership for women's organizations and women in general.


                            Strategic action IV.2.h

172. Promoting recognition of and respect for the autonomy of women's
movements and non-governmental organizations, and raising the awareness of
other organizations of civil society so that they incorporate the gender
approach and use equitable procedures for distributing posts; and
systematizing processes of consultation with non-governmental organizations
and women's organizations in the formulation, monitoring and evaluation of
public policies that support women.


                            Strategic action IV.2.i

173. Promoting collaboration between government agencies and non-governmental
organizations to raise awareness of the need to eliminate existing
inequalities, and establishing joint monitoring procedures to ensure the
effective implementation of policies designed to correct that inequality.


                            Strategic action IV.2.j

174. Supporting the funding and strengthening of women's organizations,
systematizing and disseminating the knowledge they generate and promoting
their linkage with other social entities.


                   AREA V:  HUMAN RIGHTS, PEACE AND VIOLENCE

                                   DIAGNOSIS

175. Obstacles

     (a) Insufficiency of measures taken to guarantee women's full exercise
of human rights and citizenship.

     (b) Various types of violence of structural origin directed against
women and lack of recognition that it is a public problem.

     (c) Failure to comply with international conventions aimed at
eliminating inequality between women and men and discrimination against women.

     (d) Persistence of gender-based discriminatory legislation which
reinforces women's unequal status in society and the family.

     (e) Obsolete nature of penal law.

     (f) Limited recognition of women's rights as human rights.

     (g) Shortcomings in the administration of justice and difficult access
for women to judicial proceedings.

     (h) Insufficient support services for female victims of violence.

     (i) Persistence of conditions permitting impunity for those who commit
crimes against women.

     (j) Inadequacy of systems of rehabilitating perpetrators of acts of
violence against women through training in non-violent ways of settling
disputes.

176. Progress

     (a) Significant progress in seeking to settle disputes through political
negotiations.

     (b) Ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women.

     (c) Adoption of the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against
Women and of other human rights instruments.

     (d) Recognition of the topic of violence against women as an issue for
public debate.

     (e) Emergence of initiatives to provide support to female victims of
violence.

     (f) Adoption of the Inter-American Convention on the Prevention,
Punishment and Eradication of Violence against Women.

     (g) Promotion of Culture of Peace Programmes, which have received
international, regional and national support, and contributed to the repair of
the social fabric and the achievement of reconciliation, with a leading role
for women.

     (h) International recognition of women's reproductive rights.*

*    The Ecuadorian delegation entered a reservation with respect to this
subparagraph.


                              Strategic guideline V

177.  Ensuring the universal, inalienable, indivisible and integral nature of
all the human rights (civil, political, economic, social and cultural) of
women, as well as consistent respect for and protection of these rights in a
healthful environment at all times and in all places.

                             Strategic objective V.1

178.  To consolidate full respect for the human rights (civil, political,
economic, social and cultural) of women in the region, within a context where
priority is given to the elimination of gender-based violence and
discrimination and to the rights of poor and uprooted women, taking ethnic and
racial differences into account.

                            Strategic action V.1.a

179. Establishing and strengthening mechanisms for ensuring compliance with
international conventions and all programme areas of regional and national
plans of action, in order to close the gap between de jure and de facto
equality to help ensure that women, particularly those in situations of
greater vulnerability, participate fully in all areas of society, and urging
States which have not ratified the relevant conventions to do so without
reservations.


                            Strategic action V.1.b

180. Establishing and/or updating legal and administrative mechanisms for the
protection of women's human rights to ensure that they effectively safeguard
the full exercise of those rights.




                            Strategic action V.1.c

181. Eliminating or amending all national legislative provisions whose
application promotes or permits discrimination against women in civil,
criminal, family, procedural, labour, commercial and administrative law, and
in the areas of education and health.


                            Strategic action V.1.d

182. Bringing national legislation into line with international norms,
especially with regard to women's human rights, and urging Governments to draw
up and promulgate new national laws and penal, civil, administrative and
procedural regulations to prevent, punish and eradicate all forms and
manifestations of violence against women.


                            Strategic action V.1.e

183. Ensuring that national constitutions expressly set forth the principle of
equality between women and men and prohibit all forms of sex discrimination;
making secondary legislation consistent with constitutional provisions that
reflect international commitments in that regard and with all provisions that
safeguard human rights.


                            Strategic action V.1.f

184. Including specific provisions in national legislation to safeguard
respect for the rights of uprooted and migrant women and women who belong to
particular ethnic groups.


                            Strategic action V.1.g

185. Promoting the promulgation of affirmative-action laws to expedite the
process of achieving equity between women and men.


                            Strategic action V.1.h

186. Decentralizing and broadening the coverage of services for the
administration of justice, especially in rural and marginal urban areas, and
adopting other mechanisms to give women greater access to legal services.


                            Strategic action V.1.i

187. Disseminating information on legally recognized human rights so that
women become fully aware of them and learn to demand that they be respected in
all areas of national life.


                            Strategic action V.1.j

188. Urging States to incorporate gender-sensitive educational programmes on
human rights into all levels of formal and non-formal education and training
programmes for government officials.


                            Strategic action V.1.k

189. Creating or strengthening appropriate national and subregional mechanisms
and follow-up procedures for promoting the human rights enshrined in national
and international instruments, particularly the Programme of Action of the
International Conference on Population and Development, the Vienna Declaration
and Programme of Action adopted at the World Conference on Human Rights and
the Inter-American Convention on the Forced Disappearance of Persons, as well
as procedures for reporting human rights violations; guaranteeing the
effective involvement of women's movements in such mechanisms and procedures,
and paying special attention to all forms of violence against women in
situations of vulnerability and discrimination - particularly forced
prostitution of women and girls, sexual abuse of and trafficking in women,
teenagers and children, and sexual harassment in the workplace - and to the
victims of such crimes.


                            Strategic action V.1.l

190. Adopting a theoretical framework with which more effective steps can be
taken to promote equality and combat violence, taking the concept of human
rights as the cornerstone of that framework; to that end, including the
subject of human rights in national education programmes to ensure that all
women are fully aware of the human rights enshrined in international and
national law so that they can promote and protect those rights.


                            Strategic action V.1.m

191. Encouraging the efforts of the Commission on the Status of Women and the
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to prepare an
optional protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women, providing for the right of individual petition,
as recommended in the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted at
the World Conference on Human Rights.


                            Strategic action V.1.n

192. Creating the necessary conditions and providing sufficient resources for
the incorporation into society of women affected by armed conflicts and
pervasive violence, with special emphasis on young, refugee, displaced and
repatriated women.  Providing the means to facilitate intervention by human
rights organizations and women's organizations so that their efforts can help
prevent and eliminate all forms of violence or abuse perpetrated against
women.


                            Strategic action V.1.o

193. Creating conditions in which victims of human rights violations,
particularly those deriving from political violence, are assured of the right
to take appropriate action under civil, criminal and administrative law.


                            Strategic action V.1.p

194. Establishing more appropriate legal, psychological and medical services
for victims of human rights violations and violence, and giving priority to
the allocation of resources to establish, operate and develop such services.


                            Strategic action V.1.q

195. Promoting the adoption and implementation of an international convention
against all forms of overt and covert sexual exploitation, including sex
tourism and child prostitution, which provides for the establishment of social
services to assist victims of all forms of sexual exploitation and for the
prosecution of traffickers and managers of the sex industry.


                            Strategic action V.1.r

196. Establishing and strengthening programmes to promote a culture of peace,
foster peace processes and help eradicate violence in society and in the
upbringing of girls and boys, with particular emphasis on the elimination of
the type of violence portrayed in the mass media, including that in the
movies, on television and in cartoons.


                            Strategic action V.1.s

197. Promoting research on violence against women of all ages, using
non-traditional statistics and data from other available sources and devising
a system for recording such information, disaggregated by sex, in public
entities that deal with situations of violence, such as police departments,
legal offices and health services; disseminating the findings thereof,
conducting public awareness campaigns and integrating reports and studies by
Governments and specialized non-governmental organizations for that purpose;
and ensuring that States cooperate with regional and international research
mechanisms.


                            Strategic action V.1.t

198. Urging the region's Governments to sign, ratify and implement the
Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of
Violence against Women, adopted by the Organization of American States (OAS).


                            Strategic action V.1.u

199. Giving priority to proposed legislation in the economics field that would
help ensure women's access to the resources they need for integral
development, as well as to capital and markets.


                            Strategic action V.1.v

200. Promoting the adoption of measures to protect women's reproductive
rights.*

*    The delegations of Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala,
Honduras, Nicaragua and Peru entered reservations on this strategic action. 
The delegation of Argentina said that it accepted the concept of reproductive
rights as reflected in the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action of the
World Conference on Human Rights and in the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women.


                            Strategic action V.1.w

201. Adopting the recommendations of the International Research and Training
Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) on recognizing the value of
housework.


                             Strategic objective V.2

202.  To promote action to make visible and eliminate all types and forms of
violence against women.

                            Strategic action V.2.a

203. Heightening the visibility of the phenomenon of violence through
legislation, and penalizing it as a public problem of law-and-order; promoting
the decentralization of systems for reporting acts of violence and of
mechanisms for providing protection against all forms of violence against
women.


                            Strategic action V.2.b

204. Promoting the conduct of awareness, training and development programmes,
incorporating the gender perspective, to ensure that persons and organizations
that deal with female victims of violence or disabled women can provide timely
and increasingly humanized technical responses.




                            Strategic action V.2.c

205. Raising the consciousness of women to make them aware of how women are
portrayed as objects in advertisements and in programmes which do not
highlight women's full capacity.


                            Strategic action V.2.d

206. Implementing training activities aimed at the communications media and
journalists' associations to ensure that they promote respect for women and
censure violence against women.


                            Strategic action V.2.e

207. Promoting research and studies on the situation of women, taking into
account the specific features of different vulnerable groups that suffer from
discrimination, to influence the formulation and reformulation of laws and
policies to eradicate violence in all its manifestations.


                             Strategic objective V.3

208.  To sensitize the mass media to the impact of the pervasive culture of
violence, with the aim of eradicating the image of women in the media, which
is the product of discrimination.

                            Strategic action V.3.a

209. Carrying out mass communication campaigns to promote peace, tolerance,
solidarity and mutual respect.


                            Strategic action V.3.b

210. Promoting information activities or campaigns on the existence of a
pervasive culture of violence in the region, its manifestations in the form of
violence against women and possible techniques for addressing both problems
positively by eliminating the discriminatory image of women in public
advertisement, television and radio programmes and the print media.


                            Strategic action V.3.c

211. Providing gender sensitivity training for personnel in the communications
sectors, especially film producers; audio, visual and print media; advertising
and marketing personnel and their agencies; and specialized organizations and
associations, in order to reduce and eliminate the negative and stereotyped
images of women and the impact of these images on the perpetuation of and
increase in violence against women in particular and society in general.


                   AREA VI:  SHARED FAMILY RESPONSIBILITIES

                                   DIAGNOSIS

212. Obstacles

     (a) The discrepancy in some countries between traditional family
structure and the forms family structure takes in the different communities
that make up the region.

     (b) Persistence of the roles socially assigned to women within the
         family.

     (c) Scarcity of services to meet basic family needs.

     (d) Failure to recognize motherhood as a social responsibility at the
level of everyday life.

     (e) Predominance of the patriarchal concept of the family.

     (f) Insufficient recognition of and support for diverse family types.

213. Progress

     (a) Legal recognition of the variety of family structures in the
countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, and concern for the issue of
shared family responsibilities.*

*    The Ecuadorian delegation entered a reservation with respect to this
subparagraph.

     (b) Increased recognition of the economic value of women's unwaged work
including housework.


                             Strategic guideline VI

214.  Promoting more equitable sharing of family responsibilities between
women and men, stimulating public debate on the need for greater flexibility
in social roles and fostering recognition of the diversity of existing family
structures.

                             Strategic objective VI

215.  To stimulate, in all areas of society, processes of change to
consolidate democratic family structures.

                             Strategic action VI.a

216. Promoting public campaigns and the necessary changes in educational
plans and programmes in order to raise society's awareness of the value of the
time socially necessary for the care of the home and family and of the need
for equitable distribution of these tasks among all members of the household.


                             Strategic action VI.b

217. Promoting the implementation of communication strategies to highlight
issues such as the new roles being played by women in society, the diversity
of family structures and the democratization of the distribution of housework
among members of households, women and men, promoting democratic relations
among family members.*

*    The delegations of Dominican Republic and Honduras entered reservations
on this strategic action.


                             Strategic action VI.c

218. Conducting studies and establishing mechanisms to quantify the
contribution and the economic value of the unpaid work performed by women,
especially housework, participation in agriculture and the care and feeding of
children, and incorporating that contribution into national accounts.*

*    The delegation of France entered a reservation on this strategic action.


                             Strategic action VI.d

219. Persuading Governments to increase budgetary allocations to social
development programmes, and harmonizing economic adjustment measures with
actions to strengthen the capacities of families of all types to ensure their
proper development and socialization.*

*    The delegations of Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,
Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Peru entered reservations on this strategic
action.




                             Strategic action VI.e

220. Ensuring, in each country, that women and men have access to
contraceptives and that women are enabled to exercise their reproductive
rights freely; promoting research on scientific methods of regulating male
fertility to balance the use of contraceptives for women.  In the context of
this action, it is considered that, as stated in paragraph 8.25 of the
Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and
Development, "in circumstances in which abortion is not against the law, such
abortion should be safe".*

*    The delegations of Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, Nicaragua and
Peru entered a reservation on this strategic action.  The delegation of
Argentina said that it accepted the concept of reproductive rights as
reflected in the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action of the World
Conference on Human Rights and in the Convention on the Elimination of all
Forms of Discrimination against Women.


                             Strategic action VI.f

221. Helping families to improve parenting skills in order to help combat
gender biases; fostering the analysis of families as the place where the
socialization process significantly contributes to the origin of the gender-
based division of labour and gender stereotypes.


                             Strategic action VI.g

222. Stressing the need for Governments to recognize, in their migration and
assignment policies, the importance of enhancing the development potential of
families, preserving their integrity and contributing to their reunification.


                             Strategic action VI.h

223. Demanding that the State provide favourable conditions for motherhood
and breast-feeding, and raising society's awareness of its shared
responsibility for protecting these practices.


                             Strategic action VI.i

224. Fostering and encouraging the equal participation of women and men by
promoting measures such as parental leave for both sexes, to enable them to
achieve a better balance between their household and public responsibilities. 
Taking steps to ensure that the rights of the child are observed, with
particular reference to adequate financial support from parents, by way of the
enforcement of laws on child-support payments, and to the legal and social
protection of children from all forms of child abuse.


                             Strategic action VI.j

225. Conducting gender studies to identify institutional barriers to equal
access to justice, and imposing remedies in cases where gender bias has
tainted the decision of the courts.


                             Strategic action VI.k

226. Promoting the consideration of housework as an economic contribution in
the relevant legislation.


          AREA VII:  RECOGNITION OF CULTURAL PLURALITY IN THE REGION

                                   DIAGNOSIS

227. Obstacles

     (a) Persistence of cultural models which exclude, silence or distort
women's identity and knowledge in all areas of social life and which are
expressed within the family, education, mass communication and art.

     (b) The exclusion or marginalization of some groups of people in the
decision-making process on the basis of cultural or ethnic factors, which
results in dual discrimination in the case of women.

     (c) The exclusion of some groups of people from full participation in
the political process, and from the social, political and economic benefits of
development.

     (d) Persistent discrimination against women in the mass media, which is
a factor that limits their presence in decision-making positions.

228. Progress

     (a) The formation of women's organizations that are transmitting their
own culture and ethnic values, and defending their right to participate.

     (b) Greater openness at the global level with respect to recognizing
cultural plurality and strengthening its visibility.  Examples of such a
process are the proclamation of the World Decade for Cultural Development and
of the International Year of the World's Indigenous People, as well as the
convening of the World Summit for Social Development.

     (c) Incipient recognition of women's contribution to culture throughout
history.

     (d) The increasing involvement of women in the creation of alternative
communications, organizations and networks in the fields of culture and
communications.

                             Strategic guideline VII

229.  Promoting cultural equity and respect for cultural diversity resulting
in the visible and equitable participation of women and men of all ethnic and
cultural groups both in the region and within their societies.

                            Strategic objective VII.1

230.  To recognize and value women's cultural plurality and to meet their
needs in terms of gender equity, respecting cultural diversity and identities.

                           Strategic action VII.1.a

231. Supporting the cause of indigenous peoples, ethnic groups and other
vulnerable groups that suffer from discrimination so that they can preserve
their cultural identity and define their own development goals, and supporting
the organization of women in these groups so that they can participate
equitably in designing, managing and administering such development efforts.


                           Strategic action VII.1.b

232. Promoting the enactment of the necessary legislation to ensure that
indigenous languages are recognized and officially used in areas where
indigenous peoples live, and adopting measures to facilitate the education of
people in their own language and the teaching of the official language as a
second language.


                            Strategic objective VII.2

233.  To provide women and men with education from an early age to promote
sensitivity to and knowledge of human sexuality, gender equity and cultural
diversity.

                           Strategic action VII.2.a

234. Highlighting the negative impact on women of the sexism rooted in family
structure and relations.


                           Strategic action VII.2.b

235. Promoting a positive attitude towards women's integration into public
life and men's integration into private life.


                            Strategic objective VII.3

236.  To motivate families and those belonging to the education system and
social organizations who are involved in the creation and transmission of
culture to give equal value to different cultures, and to respect gender
equity in all forms of cultural expression.

                           Strategic action VII.3.a

237. Implementing actions to motivate the family, the educational system and
all social organizations to become involved in the creation and transmission
of culture, to ensure that they assign equal value to the sexes and respect
gender equity in all forms of cultural expression.  Ensuring that the existing
cultural plurality and diversity is reflected in the visible and equitable
participation of the members of all ethnic groups in the wider areas of
society.


                            Strategic objective VII.4

238.  To encourage the development of a pluralistic, non-discriminatory social
image of women in culture and communications.

                           Strategic action VII.4.a

239. Projecting a realistic and pluralistic image of women in the messages
transmitted and campaigns waged by Governments and organizations of civil
society through the mass media, and promoting the extension of that image to
all of the messages conveyed by the mass media.


                           Strategic action VII.4.b

240. Encouraging women's involvement as spokespersons on issues of public
interest.


                            Strategic objective VII.5

241.  To promote women's participation and initiatives in matters relating to
artistic and cultural expression, particularly where the goal is to counteract
violence against women.



                           Strategic action VII.5.a

242. Fostering women's artistic and cultural development by promoting their
participation in creative processes and in competitions, programmes and other
activities in the cultural field.


                           Strategic action VII.5.b

243. Promoting women's participation in high-level positions in national and
intergovernmental public entities that organize and finance artistic and
cultural projects.


                            Strategic objective VII.6

244.  To eliminate sexist expressions from linguistic usage, and to help
create a form of discourse that expresses the reality of women.

                           Strategic action VII.6.a

245. Promoting the adoption of measures to eliminate sexist expressions in
linguistic usage and to help create a form of discourse that expresses the
reality of women's situation, especially in school curricula and educational
materials.


                            Strategic objective VII.7

246.  To allow women access to new telecommunications and information
technologies and train them to operate the systems in question.

                           Strategic action VII.7.a

247. Stimulating the establishment of information networks linking women to
organizations concerned with gender issues, to promote and support efforts
towards cultural change.


                           Strategic action VII.7.b

248. Promoting women's participation in the development of innovative
initiatives in the mass media, especially with respect to the incorporation of
new information technologies.


                            Strategic objective VII.8

249.  To strengthen women's participation in decision-making in the mass
media.

                           Strategic action VII.8.a

250. Systematically and continually raising awareness of the goal of
non-discrimination against women among media managers and professionals of
both sexes.


               AREA VIII:  INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT AND COOPERATION

                                   DIAGNOSIS

251. Obstacles

     (a) Tardy and unequal access to international cooperation for the
application of the Nairobi strategies.

     (b) A lack of emphasis and application of women-in-development
approaches, and limited flexibility for incorporating the gender perspective
in cooperation policies and programmes of some organizations from the
viewpoint of acquisition and exercise of power by women.

     (c) Weakness in strategic planning and the failure to adopt indicators
which facilitate an assessment of behaviour, directionality and impact in
projects financed by different organizations. 

     (d) Limited access to financing in major areas such as research,
diagnosis, systematization, and follow-up of actions, as well as in training,
raising of awareness and communication. 

     (e) Conditions (even if only occasional) imposed by a number of
cooperation agencies and organizations which do not entirely reflect women's
interests.

252. Progress

     (a) Financial contribution for the development of projects designed to
generate income and which target women in vulnerable situations.

     (b) Support for the establishment and strengthening of women's
organizations and for the creation of alternative services.

     (c) Technical and financial cooperation that promote Government
institutions dedicated to the advancement of women.


                            Strategic guideline VIII

253.  Ensuring that at the policy level international cooperation incorporates
the gender perspective in carrying out autonomous, integrated projects.

                            Strategic objective VIII

254.  To promote, among international support agencies, Governments and civil
society, actions leading to ongoing processes for the analysis and monitoring
of cooperation policies that incorporate the gender perspective.

                            Strategic action VIII.a

255. Negotiating with bilateral and multilateral organizations on increasing
the amount of funds earmarked for the implementation of actions, plans and
projects through which the countries can put this Regional Programme of Action
into practice, considering research as a priority aspect of their design and
execution and emphasizing gender training for both government officials and
international cooperation agency staff.


                            Strategic action VIII.b

256. Urging international cooperation agencies to support the conduct of a
critical analysis of the structural causes and the effects of poverty among
women, with a view to reorienting and channelling resources to help achieve
the objectives of the Regional Programme of Action.


                            Strategic action VIII.c

257. Promoting an ongoing process of dialogue among Governments, government
institutions for women, international cooperation agencies and women's
organizations, through the establishment of national commissions to promote
coordination and collaboration and to facilitate the analysis of various
processes, the identification of cooperation priorities and the new
theoretical approaches that emerge from the day-to-day implementation of
actions.  All the participants in those commissions should be involved in
designing and monitoring the national plan of action deriving from this
Regional Programme of Action.


                            Strategic action VIII.d

258. Ensuring that this Programme of Action is used as a frame of reference
in distributing the support of international cooperation and that efforts are
made to strengthen the operations and mechanisms of both government and
non-governmental agencies that promote the advancement of women at all levels.

                            Strategic action VIII.e

259. Urging cooperation agencies to establish and guarantee the operation of
inter-agency committees at the national, regional and international levels, in
order to coordinate their actions and contribute to the implementation of this
Regional Programme of Action in the context of their respective mandates.


                            Strategic action VIII.f

260. Promoting horizontal negotiation between cooperation agencies and
organizations of the women's movement with a view to increasing the amount of
funds earmarked for women's projects.


              E.  FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES FOR THE REGIONAL PROGRAMME OF
                  ACTION FOR THE WOMEN OF LATIN AMERICA AND THE
                  CARIBBEAN, 1995-2001

261. Upon adopting this Programme of Action, at its sixth session, the
Regional Conference on the Integration of Women into the Economic and Social
Development of Latin America and the Caribbean requests:

     (a) That ECLAC continue to convene regular sessions of the Regional
Conference on the Integration of Women into Development as a forum for
monitoring the implementation of the Programme of Action and evaluating its
effectiveness and for making adjustments in priority areas and actions, as
required.

     (b) That the Presiding Officers of the Regional Conference on the
Integration of Women into the Economic and Social Development of Latin America
and the Caribbean assume responsibility for following up the implementation of
the Programme of Action in collaboration with Governments, and with the
participation of national bodies responsible for policies and programmes for
women as well as of the subregional groupings.

     (c) That with a view to keeping the Programme of Action up to date, the
ECLAC secretariat take into account the results of the meetings of United
Nations forums which bear directly or indirectly on the situation of women, so
as to incorporate them, where appropriate, into the recommendations of the
regular regional conferences on women.

     (d) That the ECLAC secretariat continue to assist the Presiding Officers
in ensuring the best possible coordination with the specialized agencies and
organizations in the United Nations system, intergovernmental bodies and
non-governmental bodies whose work is related to the status of women and
promotion of the gender perspective.

     (e) That the ECLAC secretariat present to the Presiding Officers a list
of such agencies and organizations, to be regularly updated, including all the
organizations that constitute the core body of institutions whose work is
linked to the Regional Programme and whose cooperation should be actively
sought.


                                     Notes

1/   The main instruments in force are considered to be the Regional Plan of
Action for the Integration of Women into Latin American Economic and Social
Development (Havana, 1977), the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the
Advancement of Women (Nairobi, 1985), the Convention on the Elimination of All
Forms of Discrimination against Women and the resolutions on the subject
adopted since 1985 by the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly
of the United Nations.

2/   The United States delegation entered a reservation with respect to this
paragraph.

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