United Nations


Commission on the Status of Women

14 March 1995

Thirty-ninth session
New York, 15 March-4 April 1995
Item 3 (b) of the provisional agenda*

     *   E/CN.6/1995/1.

                         FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN

               Second review and appraisal of the implementation
               of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the
                             Advancement of Women

                        Report of the Secretary-General


                          III.  INTERNATIONAL ACTION

1.   International action to implement the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies
has taken place at various levels and through different means, as specified in
the Strategies themselves.  At the intergovernmental level, there has been a
shift in policy development away from considering women as a self-contained
"group" that can be dealt with in isolation, to a realization that
consideration of gender is central to policy development and successful
programme implementation.  Evidence of the shift can be found in
intergovernmental bodies that are concerned with women as well as in
intergovernmental bodies dealing with other issues.

2.   This shift has also been reflected at the level of the organizations of
the United Nations system, from the United Nations Secretariat through the
programmes and funds under the authority of the Economic and Social Council
and the General Assembly, to the specialized agencies.  It is reflected in
research and policy analysis, technical cooperation and financial assistance,
in staff administration and in coordination activities.

3.   The shift in terms of policy is perhaps greater than in its application
to operations.  Here, as is documented in the study on technical assistance
and women:  from mainstreaming towards institutional accountability
(E/CN.6/1995/6), the process of mainstreaming has often been characterized by
difficulties.  That study recommends an increasing reliance on institutional
accountability to improve the prospects of successful mainstreaming.

4.   In addition to changes in the practices of individual organizations,
prospects for coordinated action can be further enhanced by using more
effectively existing coordination tools, such as the focal point network, the
inter-agency machinery and the system-wide medium-term plan.

5.   The following review and appraisal is based largely on contributions
provided by organizations of the United Nations system.  It does not include
all of them, since many have reported regularly through reports on the
preparations for the Fourth World Conference on Women.  It seeks to illustrate
many of the main features of international action to implement the Nairobi
Forward-looking Strategies which can also be relevant for the implementation
of the platform for action.

                          A.  Intergovernmental level

6.   Many of the major intergovernmental bodies concerned with advancement of
women or of related issues have evolved procedures and adopted policies that
have helped mobilize international action.  The description which follows
highlights some of these, for the main intergovernmental and expert bodies
dealing with women, and a selection of other bodies, especially of the
specialized agencies.

                     1.  Commission on the Status of Women

7.   Following the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements
of the United Nations Decade for Women, held in Nairobi in 1985, the
Commission on the Status of Women undertook, at its session in 1987, to reform
its method of work in order to play its role in implementing the Nairobi
Forward-looking Strategies more effectively.  Its sessions were annualized
through the year 2000, its membership was expanded to reflect more accurately
the composition of the United Nations, and its agenda was restructured to
focus on its coordination, monitoring and policy formulation functions.

8.   Its substantive work was organized around three priority themes per
year, one each for the objectives of equality, development and peace.  The
themes were selected in terms of their importance for accelerating the
implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies.  Starting in 1988,
the Commission has considered 21 priority themes.  On most, the Commission
agreed on a resolution containing recommendations on standards and policies to
address the underlying problems in each theme.  When the Commission did not
act, as in the case of the themes of elimination of de jure and de facto
discrimination (with an emphasis on positive action) or women in the peace
process (with an emphasis on women in the military), it was because an
international consensus on the issue was not yet formed.  The Commission's
consideration of the themes has formed the background for the current
identification of issues to be addressed as a matter of priority in the
Platform for Action.

9.   In the area of women's human rights, the Commission undertook to prepare
the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, which placed the
issue in a rights context, and undertook a review of its communications
procedure with a view to making it more effective.

10.  The Commission has also begun a practice of making recommendations on
issues with a significant gender content but which are being considered mainly
in other subsidiary bodies of the Economic and Social Council.  Thus, for
example, the Commission made recommendations regarding the approach to
celebrating the International Year of the Family to the Commission for Social
Development.  It also made recommendations on substantive matters to the
preparatory bodies for the World Conference on Human Rights and the
International Conference on Population and Development.

11.  In the coordination area, the Commission had reviewed in detail the
draft of the system-wide medium-term plan for women and development for the
period 1990-1995 at its 1987 session and undertook a similar review of the
proposed system-wide medium-term plan on the advancement of women for the
period 1996-2001 at its thirty-seventh session.

               2.  Other functional commissions of the Economic and
                   Social Council

(a)  Population Commission (future Commission on Population and Development)

12.  Following the International Conference on Population and Development
(ICPD) in 1994, the General Assembly has determined that a revitalized
Population Commission, which will be renamed the Commission on Population and
Development, will monitor, review and assess the implementation of the
Programme of Action that was adopted at the ICPD.  The Commission is to meet
on an annual basis, beginning in 1996.

13.  The Programme of Action strongly endorses the importance of gender
issues for all aspects of population and development programmes and policies. 
Among its 243 proposed actions, nearly one third make explicit reference to
women, the girl child, or gender, and many more deal with issues that clearly
have a gender dimension.  Recommended actions include, among others,
establishing mechanisms for women's equal participation and equitable
representation at all levels of the political process and public life;
promoting women's education, skill development and employment; and taking
positive steps to eliminate all practices that discriminate against women,
adolescents and girls.  In addition, the recommendations note that development
interventions should take better account of the multiple demands on women's
time, with greater investments made in measures to lessen the burden of
domestic responsibilities, and with attention to laws, programmes and policies
which will enable employees of both sexes to harmonize their family and work

14.  Another important area concerns the new comprehensive concept of
reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, as defined
in the Programme of Action.  The Programme also recognizes men's key role in
bringing about gender equality.  Recommendations deal with actions to promote
equal participation of women and men in all areas of family and household
responsibilities including, among others, responsible parenthood, sexual and
reproductive behaviour, prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, and
shared control and contribution to family income and children's welfare.  The
Programme proposes a range of actions aimed at eliminating discrimination
against the girl child and eliminating the root causes of son preference. 
Countries are also urged to take full measures to eliminate all forms of
exploitation, abuse and violence against women and girls, including rape in
the context of war and "ethnic cleansing", to prohibit female genital
mutilation, and to prevent infanticide and prenatal sex selection, among other

(b)  Commission on Human Rights

15.  In compliance with the provisions of resolution 1993/46 of the
Commission on Human Rights, in which it requests all special rapporteurs and
working groups of the Commission on Human Rights and the Subcommission on
Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, in the discharge of
their mandates, regularly and systematically to include in their reports
available information on human rights violations affecting women, several
Special Rapporteurs have devoted particular attention to this topic.

16.  In a number of resolutions, the Commission has drawn attention to the
situation of women, as well as practices of discrimination against women -
i.e. resolution 1994/18, on the implementation of the Declaration on the
Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination based on
Religion or Belief; resolution 1994/51, relative to the proclamation of a
decade for human rights education; resolution 1994/49, on the protection of
human rights in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); resolution 1994/334 on human rights and the
administration of justice.  In decision 1994/104, the Commission decided to
endorse the recommendation of the Subcommission on harmful traditional
practices affecting the health of women and children.  At its fifty-first
session, in 1995, the Commission will consider the adoption of a plan of
action for the elimination of these practices.

17.  The Commission on Human Rights, in its resolution 1994/45 of 4 March
1994, on integrating the rights of women into the human rights mechanisms of
the United Nations and the elimination of violence against women, decided to 
appoint, for a three-year period, a Special Rapporteur on Violence against
Women, including its causes and its consequences.  Subsequently, the Special
Rapporteur has been appointed to carry out this mandate within the framework
of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and all other international human
rights instruments, including the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination against Women and the Declaration on the Elimination of
Violence against Women, and to report to the Commission on an annual basis.  A
preliminary report (E/CN.4/1995/42) will be considered by the Commission at
its fifty-first session.

18.  In its resolution 1994/53, on human rights and thematic procedures, the
Commission, noting that some human rights violations are specific to or
primarily directed against women, and that the identification and reporting of
these violations demand specific awareness and sensitivity, called on the
thematic special rapporteurs and working groups to include in their reports
gender-disaggregated data and to address the characteristics and practice of
human rights violations under their mandates that are specifically or
primarily directed against women, or to which women are particularly
vulnerable, in order to assure the effective protection of their human rights.

19.  In August 1994, the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and
Protection of Minorities decided to consider the Human Rights of Women and the
girl child under every relevant item of its agenda as well as in all relevant
studies and requested that all reports submitted contain a gender perspective
in their analysis and recommendations (Subcommission resolution 1994/43).

       3.  Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women

20.  The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women is the
monitoring body for the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women, established in 1982.  It is the only human
rights treaty body that is exclusively concerned with discrimination based on
sex.  At the time of the Nairobi Conference, the Committee was in its early
stages of work.  Over the next 10 years, the Committee has seen the volume of
reports it is to consider increase dramatically as the number of States
parties to the Convention has increased.

21.  The Committee has also begun the practice, as in other human rights
treaty bodies, of making general recommendations on articles of the
Convention, as well as other issues raised by it.  The Committee's
recommendation 19, on violence against women, was a major contribution to the
formulation of the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women,
for example.

22.  The Committee has undertaken its own review of its activities that are
contained in a separate report to the Fourth World Conference on Women.

                     4.  Other human rights treaty bodies

(a)  Human Rights Committee

23.  Several articles of the International Covenant on Civil and Political
Rights expressly relate to gender discrimination.  The Human Rights Committee
has always attached great importance to the monitoring of States Parties'
compliance with those provisions and, in general, to the promotion of the
rights of women.

24.  The lists of issues prepared in conjunction with the consideration of
States Parties' reports regularly contain questions concerning the
participation of women in the political, economic, social and cultural life of
the country, and the proportion of sexes in schools and universities. 
Similarly, in the concluding observations adopted by the Committee at the end
of the consideration of reports, States are frequently urged to adopt further
measures to improve respect for the rights of women under the Covenant.

25.  In its general comment relating to the principle of non-discrimination,
the Human Rights Committee pointed out that States Parties should, if
necessary, take affirmative action in order to diminish or eliminate
conditions which cause or help to perpetuate discrimination prohibited by the
Covenant.  Such action may involve granting part of the population certain
preferential treatment in specific matters as compared with the rest of the
population and is considered to be a case of legitimate differentiation under
the Covenant.

26.  The Committee has developed some jurisprudence relating to the
protection and promotion of the rights of women in individual cases dealt with
under the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights which provides for individual complaints for violations of
the Covenant.

27.  On 14 October 1994, the pre-sessional working group of the Human Rights
Committee took note of the various recommendations made by the World
Conference on Human Rights with regard to the integration of the equal status
and human rights of women into the work of the human rights treaty bodies. 
The working group recommended a number of measures relating to a general
comment on article 3, to be adopted on the status and human rights of women,
as well as to consider examining its reporting guidelines, and the lists of
issues concerning the consideration of States Parties' reports so as to
include concrete questions on the equal status and human rights of women.

(b)  The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

28.  The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, in its monitoring
of States Parties' compliance with the provisions of the International
Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, in accordance with article 4
of the Covenant, pays particular attention to the measures undertaken by
States Parties in order to ensure the equal rights of men and women to the
enjoyment of all economic, social and cultural rights set forth in articles 6-
15 of the Covenant.

29.  In its examination of States Parties' reports, the Committee takes into
account information provided by States in their reports under the Convention
on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, as well as
the deliberations and findings of CEDAW with respect to them.

30.  In 1990, the Committee revised its reporting guidelines, inter alia, to
bring them into line with article 3 of the Covenant and with its own practice.

In its revised guidelines and written lists of issues, submitted to States
Parties prior to the consideration of a report by the Committee, the Committee
requests as a matter of course gender specific data from States Parties.

(c)  Committee on the Rights of the Child

31.  A number of activities carried out by the Committee on the Rights of the
Child, in connection with the implementation of the Convention on the Rights
of the Child, have a direct bearing on the rights of women.  For instance, the
Committee on the Rights of the Child, when examining reports submitted by
States Parties on the implementation of the Convention, stresses the need to
ensure gender equality in all matters related to the child and to effectively
protect and promote the human rights of the girl child.  The need for
concerted efforts on problems such as discrimination against girl children,
their exploitative use in child labour, early marriage, prejudicial health
practices, or denial of educational opportunities, are frequently referred to
in the Committee's discussion.

(d)  Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

32.  Although the Convention does not explicitly refer to discrimination on
the basis of sex, the Committee considers information concerning women who
suffer discrimination on the basis of sex and race.  In 1993, in reviewing the
report of Kuwait, the Committee referred in its closing comments to
discrimination against "foreign women domestic servants".

                 5.  Governing bodies of specialized agencies

(a)  International Labour Organization

33.  Following the Nairobi Conference, the ILO adopted the Plan of Action on
Equality of Opportunity and Treatment of Men and Women in Employment, geared,
inter alia, to ensuring systematic coverage of the Nairobi Forward-looking
Strategies for the Advancement of Women throughout the organization's various
activities and the means of action of its technical departments.  The major
areas identified in the Plan are human rights and the promotion of equality;
employment promotion including improving the situation of women in the labour
market, women workers in the formal and informal sectors; training; working
conditions and environment; social security; labour legislation, labour 
relations, labour administration, workers' and employers' activities; women in
specific industrial sectors; and in the different regions.  Equality for women
in employment has continued to be a priority theme in the ILO's programme and
budget.  In addition to the resolution of 1985 on equal opportunities and
equal treatment for men and women in employment, a resolution concerning ILO
action for women workers, adopted by the International Labour Conference in
1991, gave further impetus to the ILO's work on women, including its
implementation of the Nairobi Strategies.

34.  The ILO's efforts have also covered how to increase women's
participation in the delegations to the International Labour Conference and
other ILO meetings.  The governing body, at its two hundred fifty-sixth
session, recommended that concrete measures be taken by the ILO constituents
and by the Director-General to increase women's participation in ILO meetings.

For example, the former should appoint more women participants to ILO meetings
and the latter should organize informal gatherings for women participants
during such meetings and provide child-care facilities at the International
Labour Conference.  Accordingly, the Office organized the first and second
informal meetings in honour of women participants at the International Labour
Conferences on 8 June 1993 and 8 June 1994.  The participants expressed
appreciation of not only the panel discussions but also the opportunity the
meetings afforded them to exchange views, develop ties and encourage their
active participation in the International Labour Conference.  The Memorandum,
sent to the delegations to the Conference, currently includes a statement to
the effect that the questions considered at the International Labour
Conference and other meetings are of equal relevance to women and men and that
efforts should be made in all member States to include women among both
government, employers' and workers' delegates and advisers of national
delegations.  In addition, the Office has also taken steps to investigate the
possibility of a child-care facility at the International Labour Conference
and the modalities for organizing the activity and to ascertain, from the
conference delegates, the extent of the needs.  Women at the two hundred
sixty-first session of the Conference, in June 1994, constituted 14.5 per cent
(17.7 per cent governmental, 9.2 per cent employers and 12.2 per cent workers)
of the delegates.  A review of women's participation in other ILO meetings in
1993, outside the International Labour Conference, clearly showed that some
ILO departments had managed to increase the level of this participation.  The
percentage of women's participation in 1993 ranged from 34 to 0 per cent.  The
figures, however, compiled from July 1993 to June 1994 depict a slightly more
favourable situation, with the percentage of women's participation ranging
from a high of between 54 and 40 per cent to a low of 15 per cent.  Various
measures have been adopted by a number of the ILO departments to promote the
participation of women in their meetings.  For example, a paragraph
emphasizing the need for women's participation in the seminars is often added
to the invitation letters to the organizations concerned.

35.  The main constraint remains the fact that high-ranking officials are
often selected for ILO meetings and that women seldom hold such positions. 
Furthermore, some of the ILO programmes, such as Occupational Safety and
Health and certain of the industry committees, have observed that, since they
cover technical fields which continue to have limited numbers of women
professionals, especially in the developing world, the participants selected
at the national level for their meetings often continue to be male, despite
requests made to the national authorities to include women.  It is also
relevant to examine the positions held by women at ILO meetings.  There is
currently a woman chairperson of the ILO governing body and women also chair
some of the committees of that governing body.  A few women have also recently
chaired or served as vice-chairpersons of some of the other ILO meetings.

(b)  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

36.  Following the Nairobi World Conference, the FAO Conference took measures
at its twenty-fourth session (1987) to implement the provisions on rural women
in the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies by requesting a plan of action for
the integration of women in development.  At its twenty-fifth session (1989),
the FAO Conference unanimously approved the Plan of Action, which covers the
medium-term period 1989-1995, and specifically endorsed the objectives and
strategies in the first progress report on the implementation of the Plan of
Action.  In November 1991, the Conference, at its twenty-sixth session,
approved the medium-term plan covering the period 1992-1997 and reconfirmed
its commitment to the implementation of the Plan of Action by highlighting it
as one of the nine organization-wide challenges and one of five thematic

37.  In 1989, the FAO Conference approved seven programmatic and five
administrative priorities, as defined in the first progress report.  An eighth
programmatic priority dealing with sustainable development was approved by the
FAO Conference in 1991.  The eight programmatic priorities of the Plan of
Action are:  training on women in development; policy advice to member
Governments; project development and monitoring; reorientation of home
economics and agricultural curricula; preparation and promotion of WID
guidelines and manuals; data collection, research studies, communication and
public information; population education and WID; and sustainable development,
natural resource management and environment.  The five administrative
priorities are undertaking organization-wide efforts of awareness and
compliance; increasing financial resources for WID activities; increasing
female staff; enhancing and strengthening internal action on WID; and
strengthening external working relations.

38.  At its twenty-seventh session in 1993, the FAO Conference confirmed
support for the continued implementation of the Plan of Action and called for
the revision of the Plan for the period 1996-2001, to be presented to the FAO
Conference at its twenty-eighth session, in November 1995.  In addition, the
FAO Conference, in 1993, urged the organization to intensify collaboration
with other United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations, and
research institutes to promote WID issues; and expand support to member
countries in policy and legal advice and institutional strengthening so as to
develop the critical mass necessary for the advancement of women in all
domains relating to food and agriculture.  The conference further requested
that FAO continue to increase the proportion of women in the organization's
professional staff, especially at higher grades.

                B.  Organizations of the United Nations system

39.  At the international level, much of what is done centres on the
organizations of the United Nations system, composed of international civil
servants.  Individually and collectively they have sought to implement the
provisions of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies.  Below is an
illustrative review of many of these activities.

                        1.  Structure of implementation

40.  Virtually all of the organizations of the United Nations system have
activities related to the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking
Strategies, linked by a network of focal points.  As at 1 January 1995, there
were 41 designated focal points in the organizations of the system.

41.  The institutional structure of implementation is highly varied,
reflecting the specific mandates of the various organizations.  They include
organizational entities which are exclusively concerned with advancement of
women such as the Division for the Advancement of Women, the Institute for
Research and Training for the Advancement of Women, the United Nations
Development Fund for Women, and Integration of Women in Development Service of
FAO.  They also include entities which, as part of larger programmes, deal
with gender, such as the Gender Statistics Unit of the Statistical Division of
the United Nations Secretariat.  They include units or programmes set up
within operational entities of the United Nations such as the Gender and
Development Programme of UNDP.  This structure provides a basis for
implementation of most of the kinds of activities set out in the Strategies.

42.  There are no clear means of determining the amount of resources devoted
to advancement of women.  A cross-organizational programme analysis in 1989
estimated that the total amount of resources explicitly allocated to
advancement of women during the biennium 1988-1989 was $24 million.  An
attempt to update these figures for the biennium 1990-1991 estimated that it
was $62 million, 1/ although this was not considered either an accurate or a
comparable figure.

43.  The most recent report (1992-1993) of the Administrative Committee on
Coordination on expenditures by programme, 2/ which includes an estimate of
resources devoted to the advancement of women from all sources of funds, shows
that $138.6 million was expended during that biennium, between the United
Nations Secretariat, United Nations funds and programmes and specialized
agencies.  The total expenditure of the system from all sources and on all
programmes during the period was $20,171.8 million.

44.  Each of the organizations of the system has articulated a structure for
implementing the Forward-looking Strategies.  One example of how an
implementation structure has been developed is provided by the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

45.  A restructuring programme in FAO was approved by the FAO Council, at its
one hundred sixth session in 1994, in an effort to better respond to the
organization's priorities of promoting sustainable agriculture, rural
development and food security, in which women play major roles.  A key
development in the restructuring is creation of a new Division on Women's and
People's Participation in Development in the new Sustainable Development
Department.  The Division comprises the Women in Agricultural Production and
Rural Development Service which has been renamed the Integration of Women in
Development Service, the People's Participation Service and the new Population
Programme Service.  The restructuring process is ongoing during the 1994/1995

46.  The Interdepartmental Working Group on Women in Development was
established in 1976 to serve as the Organization-wide policy advisory and
coordinating body on women in development.  Its technical secretariat also
coordinates with the women-in-development focal points in the FAO regional
offices for Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, Latin America and the
Caribbean, and the Near East.  FAO contributes regularly to the reports of the
Secretary-General, the Commission on the Status of Women, the system-wide
medium-term plan and to inter-agency meetings on the implementation of the
strategies.  FAO is the lead agency for the ACC Subcommittee on Rural
Development, which reviews the implementation of the strategies as a regular
agenda item during its annual meetings.

47.  At present there is no organization-wide budgeting system that would
permit a quantitative assessment of the amount of regular and field programme
resources directed to female beneficiaries.  The only identifiable data on
financial resources for women in development relate to the coordinating Unit
which has received a constant share of resource since the Plan of Action for
the Integration of Women in Development was approved.  In the 1990-1991
biennium the subprogramme "Women in Agriculture and Rural Development" had a
budget of $3.114 million, representing 9.6 per cent of the programme "Rural
development" and 1.46 per cent of major programme "Agriculture".  For the
1992-1993 biennium, representing 11 per cent of the Programme "Rural
development" and 1.45 per cent of major programme "Agriculture".  As gender
and women in development efforts are mainstreamed throughout the organization,
the above budget figures do not reflect the importance of FAO's programme to
promote the advancement of rural women.

48.  A similar approach has been taken in UNESCO.  Taking as an overall frame
of reference the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of
Women,  which remain valid until the year 2000, UNESCO's action has been
developed through an interdisciplinary approach within each major programme
area, in the form of activities of specific concern to women, both as
beneficiaries and as active participants.

49.  The second medium-term plan (1984-1989) constituted an important step
forward.  It presented for the first time an overall analysis of the Status of
Women and introduced a transverse, recapitulatory programme (major
programme XIV).  The organization's action was henceforth to be based on a
double strategy:

     (a) The organization has continued to propose specific programmes and
actions aimed at combating various manifestations of discrimination against
women and at increasing the scope for their participation in the life of

     (b) At the same time, however, a special effort has been made to ensure
that the specifically female dimension of the general problems to which the
organization's programme have been addressed was taken effectively into
account in all those programmes.

50.  UNESCO's strategy of action consisted in integrating the female
dimension into the whole range of programmes and activities contemplated under
the second medium-term plan.  It is true that, by definition, UNESCO's
endeavours have always been addressed to women as much as to men.  The
organization considered that the persistence, however, of instances of
inequality between the sexes require that, whenever necessary, the specific
situation of women should be taken into consideration not only in analysing
the problems identified but also in devising and applying the solutions.

51.  In the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, after the
Nairobi Conference and following the conversion of UNIDO into a specialized
agency in 1986, a Unit for the Integration of Women in Industrial Development
was established.  This Unit is currently placed within the Office of the
Managing Director, Country Strategy and Programme Development Division.  It is
responsible for providing policy guidance and advisory services to UNIDO staff
and to Governments for the development and promoting of gender-sensitive
operational and research activities as well as for ensuring the integration of
gender issues in the design and implementation of UNIDO services and other
activities in order to enhance women's equal participation, quantitatively and
qualitatively, in the mainstream of industrial development.

52.  UNIDO's policy-making organs - i.e., the Industrial Development Board
and the General Conference - have since 1986 adopted a number of decisions and
resolutions on the integration of women in industrial development.  Most of
them continuously call on UNIDO to take the appropriate measures to facilitate
the issue in all UNIDO technical cooperation and research activities.  The
necessity to increase the participation of women in the policy and
decision-making at the national, regional and international levels is also
very much emphasized.  UNIDO's activities on women in industrial development
are also guided by the UNIDO's medium-term plan 1990-1995 as well as 1996-2001
in which the integration of women in industrial development is one of the
priority themes.

53.  In response to the above-mentioned decisions and recommendations,
strategies have been outlined under the UNIDO programme and plan of action for
the integration of women in industrial development 1990-1995, and four major 
areas of the programme have been identified:  integration of women in
programme/project cycle; in studies and research activities; in women-specific
programmes/projects; and in support and promotional activities.

         2.  Women staff in organizations of the United Nations system

54.  The Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies place emphasis on the role of
organizations of the United Nations system as models for the incorporation of
women into decision-making.  Implicit in all discussions of mainstreaming is
the notion that if women and men were fairly represented at all levels and in
all sectors, the incorporation of gender concerns into plans, policies and
programmes would receive more emphasis.

55.  An examination of the position of women in the organizations of the
United Nations system shows that considerable progress has been achieved since
Nairobi, that overall the critical mass of 30 per cent has been reached, but
that nowhere is the proportion of women at management level near that figure. 
While the proportion of women at senior and middle-management levels has
doubled, it is still small.  There are, however, positive signs. 
Near-equality has been achieved at entry level in organizations throughout the
system.  In several organizations, there has been significant progress also at
management levels.  The most progressive has been UNFPA, where gender balance
has been achieved at all levels.

      Table.  Percentage of women in professional positions in organizations
              of the United Nations system, by level, 1987-1993

                        Senior       Middle        Regular      Entry-level
Organization          management   management   professionals   professionals


United Nations
 Secretariat              5.1          10.9           29.4           35.8

United Nations
 Voluntary funds          3.5          11.7           27.3           40.7

Specialized agencies      2.3           4.1           18.9           36.6

Other                     0.0           2.2           19.8           68.4

Subtotal                  3.4           6.6           23.4           38.1


United Nations
 Secretariat              7.8          15.2           34.2           43.1

United Nations
 Voluntary funds          7.5          16.5           31.1           48.9

Specialized agencies      3.8           7.1           26.2           48.0

Other                     0.0           5.3           20.0           61.1

Subtotal                  5.6          10.5           29.5           47.1


United Nations
 Secretariat             12.6          16.2           32.2           47.8

United Nations
 Voluntary funds         12.4          20.5           33.4           49.5

Specialized agencies      4.7           9.1           28.1           43.8

Other                     0.0           6.0           21.8           71.4

Subtotal                  8.4          12.9           30.4           47.0

     Source:  Division for the Advancement of Women, based on statistics
compiled by the secretariat of the Consultative Committee on Administrative
Questions of the Administrative Committee on Coordination, various years as at
31 December.

56.  Since 1990 a number of organizations have undertaken positive measures
to increase the proportion of women among professional categories and at
decision-making levels. 

(a)  United Nations Secretariat

57.  The United Nations Secretariat, under successive mandates from the
General Assembly has pursued an affirmative action strategy, the contents of
which have been reported regularly to the Commission on the Status of Women
and the General Assembly.  The results can be seen in the table above.

(b)  United Nations funds and programmes

     (i)  United Nations Population Fund

58.  UNFPA involvement in the area of women, population and development (WPD)
has been a hallmark of the organization since its inception.  Improving the
status of women is important as a human rights issue because women have the
same equal rights as men in health, education, employment, law, etc.  In
addition, it is especially important in the context of UNFPA's mandate because
women's status affects and is in turn affected by such demographic variables
as fertility and maternal and infant mortality.

59.  In 1975, UNFPA became one of the first United Nations organizations to
issue guidelines on women, population and development.  In 1987, the Governing
Council endorsed the Strategy to Strengthen the Fund's Capacity to Deal with
Issues Concerning WPD for a period of four years.  In 1991, the Governing
Council again endorsed the Strategy with modifications.  The ultimate
objective of the Strategy is the total integration of women's concerns into
all UNFPA's activities and the increased participation of women in all
projects supported by the Fund.  Women are viewed as both beneficiaries and

60.  To achieve the objectives of the Strategy, UNFPA has followed two
approaches.  The first is to mainstream women - that is, to see that women are
fully involved both as beneficiaries and participants in all programmes and
projects, whatever the nature of the activity (Maternal Child Health/Family
Planning (MCH/FP); Information, Education and Communication (IEC); basic data
collection, etc.).  The second approach is to support women specific projects
  i.e. activities aimed specifically at benefiting women and improving their
status.  Such projects may include education, training, skill development, and
economic activities.  They may also include activities seeking specifically to
increase the awareness of policy makers, leaders, media and the general public
to the importance of women's issues in population and development.  As of
mid-1994, there were 124 such projects in all regions; with a total allocation
of approximately $34.28 million.  However, since UNFPA policy is to mainstream
gender concerns into all the activities it supports, funding devoted to the
advancement of women far exceeds this amount. 

61.  Regarding institutional arrangements, the Women, Population and
Development Branch of the Technical and Evaluation Division is responsible for
awareness creation, advocacy, and for providing guidance and technical support
for operational activities.  Branch advisers have been placed in country
support teams in four regions and at two agency headquarters (ILO and FAO) to
provide technical backstopping to UNFPA-assisted population programmes.

62.  UNFPA is continuing its efforts to reach equal representation of women
and men in the professional staff.  As of December 1994, women constituted
43 per cent of UNFPA's professional staff.  At the field level, women make up
39 per cent of the professional staff.  Women lead three of the eight country
support teams (one post is vacant, under recruitment with a woman candidate
and women make up 52.94 per cent of the total number of professional country
support team's advisers.

     (ii)  United Nations Children's Fund

63.  UNICEF has already reached the mandated goal of 35 per cent women in
posts subject to geographical distribution - i.e., international professional
posts - and has very nearly reached its own Executive Board's target.

     (iii)  World Food Programme

64.  The advancement of women has been seriously addressed following the
appointment of Ms. Catherine Bertini as Executive Director.  There has been an
increase in female staff, as reflected in the recruitment for programming and
technical posts and for posts at the director level and above.  Out of 53
appointments between 1 January 1992 and 30 September 1994, 24 were female. 
Female representation in the category of director or above increased from none
to 30 per cent.  Over the same period, the Office of Personnel recruited 80
project staff, of which 17.5 per cent were female.  Country directors and
managers at headquarters have been reminded of their responsibility to promote
an increase in qualified female personnel.  Country offices have been
encouraged to launch information campaigns in the local press to achieve both
increased representation of women and persons from developing countries.

(c)  Specialized agencies

     (i)  International Labour Organization 

65.  In recent years, there have been positive developments in women's
representation on the staff of the ILO.  There are now two women out of the
three deputy director-generals.  Women currently form about 25 per cent of the
organization's professional staff.

     (ii)  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

66.  Although FAO has not set targets for female professional staff in the
organization, some progress has been made in increasing the number of women in
professional positions.  At FAO headquarters the percentage of female
professional staff was 20.2 in 1994.  The number of women at the P-4 level
increased from 34 in 1989 to 61 in 1993, representing 17.2 per cent of the
total at this grade, and at the P-5 level the figure increased over the same
period from 14 to 21, representing 7.3 per cent of the total.  In 1993, there
were three women at the D-1 level and one woman at the D-2 level, representing
1.5 per cent.  At the lower professional grades, the number of women almost
equals that of men.  At the P-3 level, 44 per cent of the staff are women and
at the P-2 level women constitute 46 per cent.  In the regional offices and
FAO representations, the percentage of women staff increased from 9.3 to
10.3 per cent for the period 1989 to 1994, while in the field it increased
from 3.4 to 6.3 per cent.

67.  Notwithstanding the assistance received from member countries in
encouraging qualified women from their countries to apply for posts in FAO's
specialized technical fields, women represented less than 20 per cent of the
applicants for such posts.  Although the percentage of women in the technical
units remains low, the proportion in subject areas more traditionally related
to women, such as the Economic and Social Policy Department (21 per cent), the
Department of General Affairs and Information (38 per cent), and the
Administration and Finance Department (31 per cent), is more in line with
United Nations targets. 

     (iii)  United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

68.  UNESCO has made considerable progress in the employment of women in
posts which call for decision-making ever since Mr. Federico Mayor was
appointed Director-General.  The percentage of female professionals has been
improving constantly, so that in 1994, at levels P-1/P-2/P-3, more than
50 per cent of the staff are women; two Assistant Directors-General are women,
and more than 10 per cent of D-1 posts are held by women.  The organization is
still aiming to reach the target of 30 per cent for level P-4 and above by
1995, as requested by the General Conference. 

69.  In order to increase the representation of women at all levels in the
professional category and above, the Director-General has requested member
States to include the name of at least one female candidate for every three
male candidates submitted for vacant posts.

70.  In 1989, the Young Professionals Programme was reactivated.  Since then
50 per cent of the young professionals recruited by UNESCO are women.  This
programme is also designed to improve geographical distribution and is open to
unrepresented or underrepresented countries only.

71.  To contribute to the promotion of UNESCO's professional posts held by
women, the Bureau of Personnel has elaborated a specific roster of potential
women candidates with data concerning their educational background, work
experience and competencies.

72.  On 8 March 1993 the Director-General issued a note concerning the
equality of men and women in the Secretariat.  It stressed the importance of
the development of policies to prevent and combat sexual harassment in the
work place.  He also stated that every effort would be made to avoid
assumptions based on stereotypes about the effectiveness of men or women in
certain jobs and that discrimination based on stereotypes resulted in a waste
of talent.

     (iv)  United Nations Industrial Development Organization

73.  In the resolutions of the General Conference and decisions of the
Industrial Development Board, a number of actions have been called for to
improve the status of women in the Secretariat.  The Director-General has been
requested to report to the policy-making organs on the progress made on the
implementation of the plan of action adopted in 1989.  The Director-General
has been urged to take every opportunity offered by any restructuring and to
continue his efforts to achieve, to the extent possible, an overall
representation in the professional category of 25 per cent women by 1993 and
30 per cent by 1995.  He has reiterated the need to use redeployment as a
means to redress the imbalance in the representation of women at the senior
and decision-making levels.

                 C.  International services and support for the
                     advancement of women

74.  The organizations of the United Nations system provide a variety of
services and support for the advancement of women at the international level,
ranging from information-gathering, analysis and dissemination through
operational activities.  These services have both broadened and deepened since
the Nairobi Conference.

                       1.  Research and policy analysis

75.  Research and policy analysis is a central means of supporting policy
dialogue at the intergovernmental level.  The reports prepared by
organizations of the United Nations system, individually and together, have
helped change understanding of gender at the international level.  Certain
publications, like The World's Women:  Trends and Statistics, have become
major benchmarks for appraising progress.

76.  Much of the research has also been of use to the academic community.

(a)  Division for the Advancement of Women

77.  Since 1990, the Division for the Advancement of Women has continued the
development of policy research for the Commission on the Status of Women. 
This has included preparing three reports on priority themes per year and
biennial reports on the effective mobilization of women for development.

78.  Reports on priority themes were often prepared using expert groups. 
Since 1987, a total of 19 such expert group meetings have been organized.  As
a by-product of its work on priority themes, the Division produced a series of
publications on women and decision-making.

79.  As part of the preparations for the Fourth World Conference on Women,
the Division, in cooperation with other organizations of the United Nations
system, prepared the 1994 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development and
the present review and appraisal.

80.  In support of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against
Women, the Division prepared analysis of articles 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 15, 16 of the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and
the first draft of the report on progress in implementing the Convention.  The
Division has also organized a series of regional and subregional training
seminars on the Convention.  From 1987 to 1993, a total of six such seminars
were organized.

(b)  Other United Nations Secretariat divisions

     (i) Statistical Division

81.  Since 1990, the goal of the Statistical Division to compile and
disseminate gender statistics in new, more user-oriented formats has advanced
considerably with the preparation of the second issue of The World's Women: 
Trends and Statistics and version 3 of the Women's Indicators and Statistics
Database (WISTAT).  The Division also continues work to improve statistical
concepts, methods and data collection programmes to provide a more complete
and objective picture of the situation of women and of equality between the

82.  The first issue of The World's Women:  Trends and Statistics, published
in 1991, broke new ground in presenting and analysing gender statistics in a
format that is widely used and accessible.  Its success led to the request for
an updated issue for the Fourth World Conference on Women.  A key element in
the success of the first issue was the unprecedented inter-Secretariat and
inter-agency collaboration in its preparation, promotion and use.  In the
second issue, the original sponsors, UNFPA, UNICEF, UNIFEM and the Division
for the Advancement of Women, are joined by UNDP, WFP, INSTRAW, UNESCO and the
Department for Public Information of the United Nations Secretariat.

83.  The statistics underlying the two issues are in WISTAT.  The database
was launched in 1988 and has become the most authoritative and widely used
international source of statistics and indicators available on the advancement
of women and achievement of equality between women and men.  The development
of WISTAT has been supported by UNFPA.  In early 1995, version 3 of WISTAT was
released as a CD-ROM, containing a new database and user interface and the
spreadsheet format used previously.  Special features of the CD-ROM database
are country profiles with gender indicators and a brief set of general
indicators and multi-user capacity for putting WISTAT on local networks.

84.  In cooperation with INSTRAW, the Division has made considerable progress
towards achieving objectives established in the three global conferences on
women for the purpose of improving the coverage of women's activities and
concerns in economic statistics and the labour force, national accounts and
the informal sector.  The publication Methods of Measuring Women's Economic
Activity was prepared on appropriate methods and data tabulation programmes
for use in population censuses and household surveys, to highlight women's
role in economic activity and production.  The Division also cooperated with
INSTRAW and the Inter-Secretariat Working Group on National Accounts to ensure
that methodological issues affecting the equitable measurement of women's work
in SNA were taken into account in the SNA revision issued in 1994.  It also
cooperates with INSTRAW in follow-up work on time-use studies and the
measurement and valuation of women's unremunerated work.  Results of this work
are summarized in the second issue of The World's Women.

     (ii)  Population Division 

85.  The Population Division provides gender-disaggregated statistics,
conducts a variety of analytic studies that have a gender dimension, monitors
population policies and organizes expert meetings that deal with gender
issues.  Every two years the Population Division produces population estimates
and projections, by age and sex, for all countries and areas of the world. 
Such estimates and projections were recently published separately for rural
and urban areas.  Apart from their direct interest, these statistics serve as
"denominators" for the gender-disaggregated estimates and projections in areas
such as school enrolment and employment which are produced within and outside
the United Nations system.  The Division also regularly monitors fertility,
contraceptive practice and mortality levels, by sex, as well as Government
policies related to population concerns.  Since 1990, special studies and
expert meetings have dealt with female migration, education and fertility,
abortion policy, gender differences in age at marriage and living arrangements
of women and children, including women-headed households.  Ongoing studies
deal with sex differences in infant and child mortality, among other topics. 
Gender-specific statistics and analytic studies from the Population Division
have been employed in preparations for the Fourth World Conference on Women in
various ways.  Notably, the Population Division has provided a variety of
statistical information and analytic studies to the Statistical Division for
use in the new edition of The World's Women, and the WISTAT database also
contains a variety of data series from the Population Division.

86.  The Population Division has been the substantive secretariat of the
Population Commission and, in collaboration with UNFPA, provided substantive
support for the International Conference on Population and Development.

(c)  Regional commissions:  ESCAP

87.  Since 1986, the Women in Development Section of ESCAP has undertaken to
develop indicators and statistics to monitor the situation of women within the
framework of the Women's Information Network for Asia and the Pacific (WINAP)
and published Statistical Compendium on Women in Asia and the Pacific in 1994.

88.  In 1989, the Section launched a project to examine existing practices
regarding the integration of women's concerns into development planning,
devised a set of guidelines on the means of improving on the situation in 1991
and prepared reference materials for organization of national workshops in the
fields of education, energy, fisheries and water resources in 1994.  Since
1989, ESCAP has undertaken a project to design, implement, analyse and
evaluate legal literacy programmes, formulated guidelines on upgrading the
legal status of women in 1989 and conducted national literacy campaign in nine

(d)  United Nations Institute for Research and Training for the Advancement
     of Women

89.  Since the last review and appraisal, INSTRAW has carried out a number of
interlocking research activities aimed at addressing women's issues and
including them in the mainstream development process, through an integrated,
multidisciplinary approach.  Its major programme areas included statistics and
indicators on women, women's work in the informal sector, communications,
women and credit, women and water supply and sanitation, and women and new and
renewable sources of energy.

90.  It made major initiatives to remove gaps in data on gender issues.  Some
of the results included the publication The Situation of Elderly Women,
Available Statistics and Indicators, prepared jointly by INSTRAW and the
Statistical Division; Handbook on Compilation of Statistics on Women in the
Informal Sector in Industry, Trade and Services in Africa; Synthesis of Pilot
Studies on Compilation of Statistics on Women in the Informal Sector in
Industry, Trade and Services.  These were used in national training workshops
in four African countries.  A panel on gender statistics and the valuation of
unpaid work through time use is currently being organized with the Statistical
Division for the NGO Forum at Beijing in September 1995.  Following up on
these initiatives, INSTRAW has initiated a major research study aimed at
developing cost-effective data collection methods that will capture all the
activities of women and men and techniques for valuing unpaid work using
time-use and other auxiliary data.

91.  INSTRAW undertook an in-depth investigation of the conceptual and
methodological issues related to internal and international migration and
published The Migration of Women:  Methodological Issues in the Measurement
and Analysis of Internal and International Migration in collaboration with the
International Organization for Migration and the Population Division of the
United Nations.

92.  INSTRAW sponsored research in three Latin American countries on women
and communications, based on which actions have been initiated to promote a
better portrayal and participation of women in the media.  A research
programme on the situation of women in agriculture during the transition
process in Bulgaria and Hungary was also initiated in 1993.  Similarly,
research studies at the regional level on women's access to credit were
conducted by INSTRAW in Africa, Asia and Latin America and were synthesized,
together with an overview of the laws in 59 countries regarding women's access
to land, in a publication entitled Women and Credit.

93.  INSTRAW, in its work, has cooperated with several organizations of the
United Nations system, including the Statistical and Population Divisions, the
regional commissions, UNFPA, UNDP, UNICEF, ILO and FAO.

(e)  Specialized agencies

     (i) International Labour Organization

94.  Of particular significance in the ILO's efforts to implement the
Strategies is the execution of a multidisciplinary and interdepartmental
project on equality for women in employment, during the 1992-1993 biennium, to
enhance the effectiveness of legislation, tackle obstacles to equality in the
labour market, develop appropriate statistical methodologies for the
measurement of job segregation and gender differences in wages, and formulate
policies and concrete measures for promoting gender equality in the world of
work.  The project generated substantial data and insight and demonstrated the
complexity and multifaceted nature of the gender-inequality problem in the
world of work and the need for an integrated and comprehensive policy
framework for tackling it.  The project produced an information kit and a
training package on women workers' rights to disseminate information about
women's rights.  Its other outputs included publications and seminars on women
and trade unions, especially the role of trade unions in organizing women
workers in the informal, home-based and other unorganized sectors; sexual
harassment, collective bargaining and the promotion of gender equity; women
and social security; positive action and women's employment; women's skill
diversification in vocational trades; comparable worth in pay; enforcement of
equality provisions in law; statistical measurement of gender wage
differentials, and job segregation and occupational concentration.

95.  Other efforts by the ILO to promote equality of opportunity and
treatment for women in the world of work have been undertaken through
standard-setting, research, workshops, seminars and other meetings, advisory
services, technical cooperation and dissemination of information.  The areas
covered include standards and gender equality; poverty alleviation; group
mobilization and employment promotion of the disadvantaged groups of women
workers; women and trade unionism; employers' organizations and the promotion
of gender equality; women's entrepreneurship and small-scale enterprises; the
training of women managers; vocational training; structural adjustment, labour
market flexibility and women; the reproductive and productive roles and needs
of women workers; cooperatives and labour relations.  The overall strategy is
to mainstream, or integrate across the board, gender issues and women's
concerns within the organization's programmes and objectives.  This strategy
is complemented by women-specific activities such as for rural women and other
disadvantaged groups.  The ILO's recent active Partnership Policy, which aims
at bringing the organization closer to its constituents and through which
multidisciplinary teams of technical advisers have been established in the
various regions of the world, has provided an appropriate set-up to mainstream
women and gender concerns in the ILO's technical assistance to its member
States and to ensure an integrated and multidisciplinary approach to the
consideration of women's concerns.  A project for gender training of ILO staff
is currently under implementation to enhance the capacity of the
organization's staff to ensure gender sensitivity in their activities.

     (ii)  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

96.  One of the priority areas of the FAO Plan of Action for the Integration
of Women in Development is providing gender-responsive policy advice to member
countries.  During the 1993-1994 biennium, FAO responded to requests in the
areas of macroeconomic policies, strengthening women-in-development
machineries and general policy advice in at least 40 countries.  This included
technical assistance to ministries of agriculture, women-in-development units
and other governmental agencies; the organization of workshops at regional and
country level; and the development of guidelines and training modules for
policy makers.  As a complement to strengthening women-in-development
machineries, FAO provides assistance to rural women's groups and has, for
example, sponsored the Latin American and Caribbean network of institutions
and agencies in support of rural women in 19 countries.

97.  Priority areas for research and policy analysis have included: 
extension and the reorientation of agricultural and home economics curricula;
rural women, population and environment; and women and sustainable
development.  FAO has organized a number of expert consultations and
workshops, carried out studies, and developed guidelines in these areas.  A
considerable number of case studies and publications have resulted from these
efforts, including guidelines for the integration of women, population and
environment in rural development policies and programmes; guidelines for
integrating women and gender issues in fisheries and forestry programmes, a
study on agricultural extension and farm women; and a framework on
reorientation of home economics for rural development in developing countries.

Gender issues have also been incorporated into many other FAO publications and

98.  FAO recognizes that if women are to benefit from and participate in
development efforts, development specialists and policy makers must be
sensitized to gender issues.  Therefore, gender analysis training became FAO's
first priority in implementation of the Plan of Action adopted in 1989.  By
the end of 1992, FAO had carried out 42 two-day gender analysis workshops at
headquarters and in regional offices, with 773 officers attending,
representing approximately 80 per cent of all professional staff.  FAO has
also carried out gender analysis training with two other target groups: 
national-level women-in-development machineries and selected counterpart
groups in member countries.  A programme on gender analysis and forestry in
Asia, carried out in 1991-1992 in six countries, resulted in a training
package.  In 1992, FAO, in collaboration with gender and development trainers
and managers from UNDP and the World Bank, initiated the development of the
Socio-economic and Gender Analysis Training Programme.  A portfolio of
training packages, including field manuals, is being developed with the
assistance of ILO Turin, ILO Geneva, and the United States Agency for
International Development.

99.  Improving statistics is another priority area of the FAO Plan of Action. 
In 1991 FAO organized an Inter-Agency Consultation on Women and Statistics
and, as follow-up, is providing assistance to member countries to measure
accurately the contributions of rural women to agricultural production,
environmental sustainability, poverty alleviation, food security and
nutrition, and a pilot programme is being implemented in eight countries of
the Near East and some countries of Africa.  An extensive review of the
programme of the 1990 world census of agriculture, carried out in preparation
for the Year 2000 Round, suggested changes to permit improved collection of
gender-disaggregated data on human resources.  Other efforts include:  case
studies on the availability of gender-disaggregated data, collaboration with
national statistical offices to review agricultural survey questionnaires, and
the provision of gender-responsive agricultural databases and country

     (iii)  United Nations Industrial Development Organization

100. The UNIDO strategy, concept and approach is to promote the advancement
of women in the development process through "mainstreaming", by acknowledging
women as actors and equal partners of the target groups of UNIDO's activities
addressing the problems and needs of both men and women.  However, women-
specific programmes and services will remain all the more necessary in order
to remove specific constraints which prevent women from participating fully in
the mainstream of development.  UNIDO has also developed practical tools that
enable programme/project designers and implementors to give consideration to
women throughout the programme/project cycle, such as a reference file on the
consideration of women in project design, management and evaluation, adjusted
to facilitate its application in objective-oriented project planning.  With
the establishment of a database on women in industry, containing both
bibliographical information and country information notes on women in
industry, the consideration of gender aspects has been facilitated in
programme/project design.  At present, the database contains information on
women in industry for about 100 developing countries.

101. By placing a women-in-development expert in the research division, the
methodology for reviewing industrial employment in a UNIDO's industrial review
series was revised to embrace broader issues concerning human resource
development and to include gender-specific data and information.  Studies on
women in industry have been conducted, such as one on the changing
techno-economic environment in the textile and clothing industry and its
implications for the role of women in Asian developing countries.

                          2.  Development cooperation

(a)  United Nations Secretariat

     (i) Statistical Division

102. Two developments advanced significantly the ability of the Statistical
Division to undertake technical cooperation activities in gender statistics: 
the establishment, on a trial basis, of a post for a technical adviser in
statistics on women in development by the Government of Norway in 1990; and a
three-year project, begun in 1992, to build national capability to prepare
gender-statistics publications.

103. Working with staff of the Statistical Division, the technical adviser
has assisted countries in developing and implementing programmes in gender
statistics.  This includes the review and assessment of existing data
collection programmes as to the adequacy of available data related to gender,
building ties between users and producers of these statistics and planning the
tabulations and publications relating to gender.  The technical adviser has
also worked with UNIFEM, INSTRAW, UNFPA, UNDP, the specialized agencies and
the regional commissions to provide authoritative statistical guidance in
their own work on women in development.

     (ii)  Population Division

104. The Population Division recognizes that there is a vital and mutually
supporting interaction between research and technical cooperation.  The
Division produces manuals and reports that are widely used in developing
country training programmes in the areas of population and development. 
Research on gender-related issues, as mentioned above, also contributes to the
Division's ability to deliver technical support for the advancement of women. 
Departmental reorganization and changes in donor arrangements have recently
led to changes in the provisions for technical cooperation.  The Division now
has a team of technical support specialists working actively to disseminate
information and provide expert advice and support to developing countries.

     (iii)  Department of Development Support and Management Services

105. In 1987, in keeping with the Nairobi Strategies, the Department's
predecessor (Department of Technical Cooperation for Development) established
guidelines for incorporating a women's component into projects.  The
Department's approach has focused on human resources development, through
training, and on capacity-building, through the strengthening of financial and
institutional arrangements.

106. The use of training as a particularly effective vehicle for promoting
the role of women in development is seen in the Department's efforts to
increase the number of women candidates for fellowship awards and training
opportunities, particularly in public administration and economic planning and
projections.  Women were also being trained in such fields as energy, geology,
mining and water resources management.

107. Most of the Department's grass-roots projects have women's components,
with emphasis on improving their socio-economic conditions.  The formation of
women's groups to engage in common endeavours has in many cases helped to
achieve this goal and will receive increased attention.  A loan guarantee
scheme operated by a local bank in cooperation with the project provides women
with credit, not only for fixed costs but also for working capital needed to
sustain their income-generating activities.

108. Special attention has been paid to combining technical skills training
with training in basic planning, business management, marketing, group
organization, and leadership in order to develop and sustain income-generating
activities.  Enhancing the planning and managerial capability of local
institutions has also been emphasized in order to assure continuous support to
women's activities after the termination of external assistance, and to foster
self-reliance and sustainability.

109. The Department conducted a series of workshops focused specifically on
developing policies and approaches in order to channel more women into the
public sector.  Interregional workshops on the development of managerial
skills for women in public management were held in Thailand, Malaysia, and the
former Yugoslavia, with participants at the policy-making level from 26
countries.  Guidelines were developed to help policy makers address and
anticipate gender issues that actually and potentially inhibit the accelerated
enhancement of the role of women in public management. 

110. In consideration of the limited resources available, and in order to
maximize the impact of its efforts, the Department has stressed networking and
inter-agency collaboration and coordination.  In addition to collaboration
from United Nations entities, the success of gender-based and other
development programmes, in the Department's experience, requires support from
Governments, non-governmental organizations and the private sector.  The
recruitment of women as experts and consultants for projects is an active area
of concern for the Department, although acceptance rates have continued to be
low.  The Department has been more successful in placing recent graduates as
associated experts:  30 per cent of them are now women.  The Department has
also intensified its efforts, in collaboration with Governments, to elicit
greater support in hiring women as national professionals in projects.

     (iv)  Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

111. In fulfilment of its resolution 483 (XXI), ECLAC has carried out
activities to implement the recommendations of the Nairobi Forward-looking
Strategies in all areas of its work.  The following activities were carried
out under various subprogrammes:  identification of women as agents of
agricultural and rural development by the Agricultural Development Unit;
training activities by the Latin American and Caribbean Institute for Economic
and Social Planning (ILPES), especially the course on development, planning
and public policies which includes a series of lectures; studies and seminars
carried out by the Joint ECLAC/UNIDO Industrial and Technological Development
Unit on themes such as the gender dimension of human resources training and
formal education, women entrepreneurs and female employment in the industrial
and tertiary sectors; a study by the International Trade, Finance and
Transport Division on the impact of sectoral policies on women; research and
information activities by the Latin American Demographic Centre (CELADE);
meetings on information management by the Latin American Centre for Economic
and Social Documentation (CLADES).

112. Various dissemination activities were organized in collaboration with
UNICEF, ILPES, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Regional
Employment Programme for Latin America and the Caribbean (PREALC), the Colegio
de Me'xico, CELADE, UNFPA and the Social Development Division of ECLAC, to
which the Women and Development Unit belonged until November 1993.

(b)  United Nations Development Fund for Women

113. In 1985 UNIFEM's mandate was expanded to not only provide direct
technical and financial support to women's initiatives in developing countries
but also to mainstream women into development planning and decision-making. 
To undertake this work UNIFEM became an independent entity in autonomous
association with the United Nations Development Programme.  Based in New York,
UNIFEM operates at the local, national, regional and international levels
through its 11 UNIFEM regional offices in Asia and the Pacific, Western Asia,
Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean and its representation through UNDP
offices at the country level.

114. Currently UNIFEM is working primarily in three programme areas: 
agriculture and food security; trade and industry; and macro-policy-making and
national planning.  The Fund promotes women's access to training, science and
technology, credit, information and other tools for development.  It also
links grass-roots women to national and international policy-making bodies and
into global debates on issues such as poverty alleviation, the environment and
human rights.

115. UNIFEM's regional programmes address the specific concerns of grass-
roots women in each region:  UNIFEM's Africa Investment Plan 1994-1995
addresses problems of special significance to African women and the role they
play in development.  It focuses on the following areas:  agriculture and food
security, trade and industry, environmental sustainability, and refugees and
displaced persons.  UNIFEM's Asia and the Pacific Development Plan 1994-1995
aims to strengthen the institutional mechanisms that link women at the local
level to formal development-planning and decision-making structures in the
following areas:  agriculture and environment, trade and industry, national
planning and women in politics.  In Latin America and the Caribbean, UNIFEM's
Participatory Action Programme for 1994-1995 focuses on poverty alleviation,
environmental management, violence against women, and citizenship and

116. At the global level UNIFEM focuses on credit and financial systems,
science and technology, women's rights as human rights, and sustainable
development.  The Fund also networks with parliamentarians and ensures that
women are on the agenda and help shape the outcome of key international
conferences such as the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio, and the 1993 United Nations
Human Rights Conference in Vienna.  UNIFEM is currently active in preparations
for the 1995 Social Development Summit in Copenhagen and the Fourth World
Conference on Women in Beijing.

(c)  United Nations Development Programme

117. In 1986, following the Nairobi Conference, UNDP upgraded its existing
one-person desk on women's issues to a Division, staffed by four professionals
and two secretaries.  The mandate of the Division was to ensure the
mainstreaming of women's concerns into all UNDP's headquarters and country
office activities.

118. A three-pronged approach was developed to act upon this mandate,
reflecting relevant requirements of the Forward-looking Strategies.  First,
policy guidelines, a women-in-development strategy, and monitoring tools were
developed and distributed, ensuring an appropriate and recognized policy
framework.  Secondly, an ambitious gender analysis training programme, funded
by the Government of Norway, was embarked upon.  Focused upon senior decision-
makers and middle-level operational staff, this training programme led to a
broad-based grasp within the organization of the principal issues involved and
contributed to the shift by UNDP from a women-in-development approach to a
gender approach during the period 1990-1992.  Thirdly, a team of women-in-
development focal points was established in each regional bureau, working
closely with the focal points also established in each country office.

119. Since 1990 the renamed Gender in Development Programme has worked
towards putting into operation the mainstreaming approach, based upon the
positive policy environment and structures established during the previous
four years.  The goal has been, in accordance with the strategies, to ensure
that women participate in and benefit from UNDP-funded projects to the maximum
possible extent.  To this end close relationships have been built with the
country offices.  Over 3,000 staff members and government colleagues have been
trained, technical backstopping has been provided in the preparation of
project documents, country programmes, country strategy notes and national
human development reports, and approximately $7 million of Special Programme
Reserve funds have been made available to country offices specifically for
gender programming purposes.  As a result, over 40 projects have been approved
in the area of strengthening national capacity with regard to gender.  By
participating in the project appraisal process, and conducting field visits to
country offices, gender concerns have also been incorporated appropriately in
a broad range of projects.  There is now widespread experience in the
implementation of projects reflecting gender concerns, which will be
reinforced during the coming programming cycle as UNDP country offices
coordinate system-wide efforts in sustainable human development.

120. This process, which is ongoing, has been reinforced by mainstreaming of
gender concerns in the thematic units of UNDP, so that their backstopping of
country offices reflects full awareness of gender issues.

(d)  United Nations Population Fund

121. In terms of programme areas, maternal and child health/family planning
has been the largest single area supported by UNFPA.  Approximately 50 per
cent of its funding goes to such programmes.  Within the area, priority has
been given to improving the health of women and children as part of an
integrated approach and to activities aimed at improving these services and
making them more accessible to women.  Emphasis is placed on women's
reproductive rights, the Safe Motherhood Initiative, and quality of care,
including provision of a wide range of family planning methods.  Priority has
also been given to education and training activities which enhance women's
participation in these programmes, especially at the managerial, supervisory
and policy-making levels and to creating employment opportunities for women as
providers of maternal and child health/family planning care.  In the field of
education, UNFPA has supported formal and non-formal education programmes for
women, including functional literacy and population education; specific
activities to reduce school drop-out rates for girls; managerial and
supervisory training which enhances women's participation in population
programmes.  It has also supported the development of educational materials
and approaches that improve the general understanding of women's issues,
especially as related to population issues.  It is the policy of the Fund to
ensure that data are disaggregated by gender in collection, analysis and
dissemination.  Priority has been given to support activities, including
training, which ensure, for example, that the concepts and methods used in
censuses and surveys will result in complete and unbiased data on women and
men, including women's economic contributions.  UNFPA collaborates closely
with other United Nations organizations.

122. UNFPA has supported research in the area of women, population,
development and environment.  Thus, a project is under way which examines the
linkages between women, population and the environment in Kenya, Mexico and
Malaysia.  It also collaborates with other agencies in the United Nations
system on women, environment and development.  It supported, with UNICEF, a
symposium on environment, women and children prior to the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED).  In other regions, UNFPA
has supported special projects or components of projects which are
specifically designed to assist women.  A broad range of activities is
included under this category - e.g., support to women's economic activities;
research and awareness creation of women's contributions to development in
their many roles - reproductive, productive and environmental; and
strengthening of women's organizations.

123. UNFPA has always worked very closely with women's non-governmental
organizations.  It has supported the participation of representatives of many
women's non-governmental organizations from developing countries in major
international conferences such as UNCED, and in preparations for the
International Conference on Population and Development and the Fourth World
Conference on Women.  Special efforts are made to include women's perspectives
in policy and research related to family planning and reproductive health.

(e)  United Nations Children's Fund

124. Since 1985, UNICEF has made concrete efforts to integrate women's issues
into its programmes through articulation of policy objectives in 1985 and an
implementation strategy for mainstreaming women's issues in 1987.  In 1994,
the Executive Board endorsed a policy paper on gender equality and the
empowerment of women and girls and urged the follow-up of its recommendations
in country programmes of cooperation.  The paper reflected the shift from
women in development to gender and development and stressed the need for
actions to promote gender equality and gender-sensitive development
programmes, taking into account, inter alia, the provisions of and
complementarity between the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. 
It recommended that gender concerns be integrated into the national programmes
of action as an essential measure for introducing early action to eliminate
the discrimination faced by girls and women in the achievement of the mid-
decade goals and the universal goals of the World Summit for Children.

125.  Priority will be given to strengthening the integration of gender
concerns in country programmes by adopting the life-cycle perspective in
addressing gender-based disadvantages and eliminating disparities that exist
at each stage of the life-cycle of girls and women, with special attention to
development needs of girls in the age groups 0-5 years, 6-12 years and 13-18
years; and the use of the Women's Equality and Empowerment Framework as the
conceptual and operational tool in the planning, implementation and evaluation
of programmes for mainstreaming gender issues.  For this, the ongoing efforts
on capacity- building for gender responsive programming through training of
professional staff will be intensified both at headquarters and the field
offices.  During 1993-1994, more than 800 staff were trained and 3,500
counterparts from government and non-governmental organizations have been
trained on gender analysis.  The country programmes of cooperation include
supporting actions and strategies for mainstreaming gender concerns in all
sectoral programmes and specific programmes for promoting equality in the
family, sharing of parental responsibilities between men and women, gender
concerns in emergency situations, and activities for specific target groups of
girls and women, such as those in poverty households and in especially
difficult circumstances.  Priority attention is given to the promotion of
gender-sensitive national development through policy-oriented research, the
development of gender-sensitive indicators and establishment of age-and-
gender-disaggregated data systems, organized participation of women at all
levels, and capacity-building and the mobilization of youth for bringing about
a more gender-equitable society in the future.

(f)  Institute for Research and Training for the Advancement of Women

126. INSTRAW has carried out activities to implement the Nairobi Forward-
looking Strategies through its training programme.  Within that programme it
has undertaken activities to promote a more effective use of statistics and
indicators on gender issues, including training workshops for users and
producers of statistics to address issues and problems of gender statistics
and suggest ways to improve relevant concepts and methods of data collection
and compilation.  A total of 11 training workshops (three subregional and
eight national) have been held since 1990.

127. A major programme on women, water supply and sanitation has been in
place since 1984, with INSTRAW taking a lead in this field in the system.  It
developed a training package and has conducted six training seminars using the
package at the national, regional and interregional levels.  In 1991 the
package was updated and, in cooperation with the International Training Centre
of the ILO and the Department of Development Support and Management Services
of the United Nations Secretariat, training seminars were conducted in five
countries using it.

128. INSTRAW is also the lead agency in the United Nations system in the
field of women and new and renewable sources of energy.  In cooperation with
national counterparts, INSTRAW has utilized participatory and self-reliant
techniques in applying a new approach to the organization of new and renewable
sources of energy systems in national and regional seminars in six countries.

129. As part of the follow-up to the United Nations Conference on Environment
and Development, INSTRAW, together with the Department of Development Support
and Management Services of the United Nations Secretariat organized an
interregional workshop on the role of women in environmentally sound and
sustainable development, which resulted in 100 replicable project profiles
covering 15 areas of Agenda 21, and resulted in a publication and training

(g)  World Food Programme

130. The Commission on Food Aid Policies and Programmes of the World Food
Programme adopted in 1987 the Food Aid Strategies for Women in Development and
was presented with WFP Sectoral Guidelines on Women and Development:  Gender
Variables in Food-assisted Projects.  The policy directs support to women as
equal social and economic contributors to development and resource persons in
crisis situations.  Strategic interventions include support to women in

     (a) Food production and food security strategies;

     (b) Food for work projects, by creating an enabling environment for the
production of assets through reviews of ownership, access and control over
resources, review of labour time and labour supply, creation of employment
linkages and on-site support services (training and social support);

     (c) Promotion of opportunities for female education and vocational
training and sponsoring of community-based skills training for employment,
income generation and nutrition improvement.

131. Particular achievements since 1990 in strengthening of the operational
dimensions of WFP include incorporation of women-in-development/gender as
integral parts of orientation and training seminars and periodic reviews of
WFP's programmes and projects.  Various in-depth studies were undertaken to
underline the policy of moving from women-in-development to gender-and-
development, away from assistance through the formation of women's groups,
with little forward or outward-looking perspective on the future.  WFP is
funding several initiatives with governmental and non-governmental
institutions, following an institutional capacity-building approach to
sensitize and train professionals, authorities and beneficiaries in rapid
appraisals and gender planning.

(h)  Specialized agencies

     (i) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

132. FAO's project development and monitoring activities to enhance women's
roles in agriculture and rural development and increase their access to
productive resources are varied.  Often, pilot studies and activities are
launched; lessons learned are then integrated into follow-up phases or similar
projects in other areas.  The experience gained is also used to strengthen
policy advice activities.  Although these efforts are carried out in many
fields, four major areas are:  credit and banking services; extension and
technical training; women, sustainable development, natural resource
management and the environment; and nutrition and food security.

133. Innovative activities where rural women have been beneficiaries include: 
systematizing loan procedures for simpler and more flexible credit delivery
and recovery; establishing revolving loan funds with training components in
micro-enterprise and financial management; reducing transition costs through
the FAO Microbanking System; in-kind revolving funds and group savings;
increasing incomes and savings through income-generating activities; extension
training targeted to women professionals and women farmers; reorienting
agricultural and home economics curricula and extension; training in
marketing, plant nutrient management, horticulture and livestock production;
community forestry; and the promotion of non-traditional foodstuffs in
household food security.

134. In the revision of FAO's Plan of Action, efforts will be made to
establish an organization-wide monitoring and appraisal system able to
identify existing and pipeline regular and field programme activities that are
relevant to women.  This will include integrating key gender indicators into
the FAO programme and monitoring system and, in particular, incorporating into
that system gender-disaggregated data on target groups and a "flag" that
indicates the relevance of an activity specifically for women.

     (ii)  United Nations Industrial Development Organization

135. UNIDO developed and implemented technical cooperation projects in
priority areas for women in industry - i.e., agro-industry, industrial
planning, and environment and energy.  Particularly successful experiences in
project execution have led to the formulation of more systematic and
conceptualized programmes suitable for adaptation and replication, utilizing
needs assessments and analyses of target groups and country-based socio-
economic environment, across regions and/or industrial subsectors.

136. UNIDO has prepared a service package, Training Programme for Women
Entrepreneurs in the Food Processing Industry.  Its main objective is training
of trainers and capacity-building at existing training institutions.  It
targets both potential and existing women entrepreneurs.  The package has
three modules aimed at upgrading entrepreneurial skills and technology and
production skills and one consisting of a workbook for trainers.  The
programme was originally prepared for the African context; however, it is
being adapted and adjusted to the Asian and Central American circumstances.

137. In order to equip women entrepreneurs/managers in economies in
transition with skills and capabilities to cope with the changing economic
situation, a training programme has been developed in China, aiming at
increasing the participation of women in the newly emerging private sector -
i.e., township enterprises in rural areas.  This is being done through the
development of a tailor-made programme to meet the needs of Chinese women
entrepreneurs/managers and through a training-of-trainers course.  With
adequate adaptation to local conditions, this programme can potentially be
replicated elsewhere - in particular in the transitional economies.

138. In terms of entrepreneurship development for women, targeting existing
entrepreneurs, the activity covers all aspects of the production cycle -
i.e., market research, product design and development, entrepreneurship and
management, production techniques, quality control and marketing with an
approach open to both domestic and export markets.  It contains an inventive
system which is used as a training tool in cash flow analysis.

139. UNIDO also assisted in the establishment and management of women
cooperatives in order to strengthen their capability to provide relevant
services for women entrepreneurs.  Hands-on practical training in an incubator
environment is provided with theoretical classroom training and ongoing
consultancy/follow-up at the businesses of the trainees.  This is also market-
oriented and therefore aims at improving competitiveness.

140. Development and dissemination of appropriate technologies for women have
proved to be an effective tool to improve women's traditional processing
activities.  In the rural and small-scale industrial sectors, in particular,
women users will have to be encouraged to have training on equipment
operation, maintenance and repair in order to keep the control over newly
introduced and/or improved technology.  A pilot project in sub-Saharan Africa
combines poverty alleviation, upgrading of living conditions and employment
generation, with the primary objective to develop, test and introduce
appropriate food-processing technologies and equipment.  The project has
introduced "multifunctionality" in order to increase the sustainability of the
activities undertaken by women, using a mill engine as a power source for
several other types of equipment during and outside the harvesting time -
e.g., for battery rechargers, water pumps, oil presses, etc.

                           3.  Financial assistance

(a)  World Bank

141. Over the past two decades, the World Bank has identified and researched
major issues with respect to gender disparities, particularly in education and
health, drawing attention to the economic costs of under-investment in women
and identifying policies and project interventions that can help reduce the
disparities.  In particular, the Bank has been focusing attention on gender
equity issues in its economic and sectoral work and in the design of Bank
projects, especially in human resources and agriculture.

142. The 1994 policy paper on gender, Enhancing Women's Participation in
Economic Development, lays out the priorities for the Bank, which include
strengthening the implementation of Bank policies on gender.  This is to be
accomplished by integrating gender issues into the mainstream of the Bank's
economic and sector work and lending programmes.  The strategic agenda set out
by the policy paper calls for the following activities:

     (a) Country-specific analyses of gender issues through poverty
assessments, country strategy papers, public expenditure reviews, women-in-
development assessments, and other economic and sectoral work;
     (b) Integration of gender issues into the design and implementation of
lending programmes, including adjustment operations;

     (c) Explicit demonstration in country assistance strategies of the
linkage between gender issues and Bank lending operations;

     (d) Evaluation of the implementation experience on gender equity in the
country implementation review process.

143. Several effective strategies for reducing the barriers to women's
economic participation have emerged from the past two decades of project
experience.  However, there is particularly strong evidence of what works in
the five areas discussed below:  education, health, wage labour, agriculture
and natural resource management, and financial services.

144. In education, strategies for expanding girls' enrolment include
reserving places for girls, establishing single-sex schools or classrooms,
recruiting more female teachers, and designing school facilities to conform to
the cultural standards of the community.

145. In health, community-based health services have been cost-effective in
improving women's health.  Integrated services - which combine nutrition,
family planning, maternal and child health services, and primary health care -
tend to be the most effective in reaching women.

146. In wage labour, the principal strategies for increasing women's
participation in the formal labour force include removing legal and regulatory
barriers, raising women's productivity, easing the constraints on their time,
and improving the efficiency of the labour market by providing information on
job opportunities.

147. In agriculture and natural resource management, because most poor rural
women work in agriculture, the main strategy is to help women obtain title to
the land they farm and to open the door to services and government assistance.

148. In financial services, innovative programmes have demonstrated that
financial services, mainly credit and savings, can be provided to poor women
at competitive cost.

(b)  International Fund for Agricultural Development

149. In view of its mandate for dealing with poverty alleviation, IFAD has,
since its inception at the end of 1978, addressed gender issues in programmes
for the economic advancement of rural women.

150. IFAD has adopted a coherent gender strategy on how to address the
empowerment of women through its projects.  The main elements of the strategy

     (a) Improve availability and quality of gender data and analysis;

     (b) Protect and enhance women's access to land and other natural

     (c) Address constraints affecting women's time and labour;

     (d) Improve women's access to rural financial services;

     (e) Address gender issues in agricultural technology systems by
facilitating the participation of rural women in technology generation and
     (f) Provide new skills and information for rural women to enhance their
income-generating potential;

     (g) Facilitate communication and information-exchange among poor rural
women and between them and other agents of economic change;

     (h) Make increasing use of community-based strategies for participation
and involvement of poor rural women in project-induced developmental

     (i) Enhance the effectiveness with which women in resource-poor
households contribute to health and household food security.

151. Women's access to land is an issue that many IFAD projects have to
address, particularly since project interventions can dramatically change
land-use patterns.  Women's rights to land under customary laws are at best
tenuous in most target areas addressed by the Fund.

152. The strategy underscores the need to address systematically women's
labour availability as a project-specific constraint to the implementation of
projects promoting increased crop production.  In IFAD's project design, an
effort is being made to relieve women of their heavy workload through labour-
saving technologies or by addressing constraints arising from an absence of
drinking water or fuelwood near their homesteads.

153. The role of IFAD in improving women's access to credit and financial
institutions presents a unique development opportunity.  IFAD's experience in
extending credit and financial resources to the rural resource-poor and in
addressing gender-bias in rural financial policies and institutions gives it a
comparative advantage in breaking the barriers of formal and informal lending
to poor rural women.  Many IFAD projects are opening new windows or access to
credit and financial institutions in the formal sector.  In the past, IFAD
projects have for the most part relied on providing revolving loan funds to
support women-in-development activities.  At present, there is a shift in
emphasis to negotiating with formal banking and credit institutions to extend
their lending operations to rural women.  The ultimate objective is to
institutionalize lending and other rural financial services for rural women
rather than limiting them to project-based operations whose sustainability is

154. IFAD is contributing to the development of agricultural technology
responsive to the productive needs of rural women through its technical
assistance grant support.

155. The specific gender issues or questions addressed by the research
programmes include among others:  women's workload or labour availability as a
constraint to be considered in technology selection; women's taste and food-
processing or preparation preferences as eventual determinants in whether or
not new varieties of crops are likely to be adopted; subsistence food crops
produced by women and small livestock and poultry, primarily reared by women
and their children; and development of new pre- and post-harvest technology
for reducing women's workload.  Recently, a recognition of the gender-
differentiated inputs of IFAD target groups at all stages of the crop or
livestock production, processing and marketing cycle, led to an examination of
the importance of gender issues for all proposed research programmes and
towards ensuring that Fund-financed research leads to the generation,
development and transfer of technology which is conducive to the specific
needs of women beneficiaries and to their positive interaction with the

156. Training comprises an important critical area for IFAD's technical and
institutional support and development activities.  Almost all of IFAD's
projects have substantial training components that are designed to improve the
effective participation of beneficiaries, on the one hand, and the efficient
delivery of resources and services by project staff and designated
implementing agencies, on the other.  Therefore, training is central to the
achievement of IFAD's agricultural development and poverty alleviation goals,
particularly as they relate to the equitable distribution of these benefits to
poor rural women.

157. The role of development communication in the effective transfer of
knowledge and skills to project beneficiaries is increasingly being recognized
in IFAD projects.  The effectiveness of designing and implementing
communication strategies under the projects - by promoting participation of
both men and women beneficiaries; by explaining how a project is articulated
and how the beneficiaries, including women, can best use new means put at
their disposal to maximize the potential benefits; by transferring knowledge
and skills; and by providing the beneficiaries with the instruments to
guarantee that their voices will be heard - have all been demonstrated in the

158. In the past, many of IFAD's projects with women-in-development components
were implemented by ministries of women's affairs and women-in-development
units which often lacked sufficient staff, resources or technical skills for
effective implementation.  Increasingly, there is an emphasis - if not a shift
- to implementation and management of women-in-development components by
non-governmental organizations and the beneficiaries themselves.  Almost all
the newly designed projects make provision for the formation of women's groups
as an institutional mechanism for implementing productive activities
introduced through the project.  Women leader/promoters are trained to assist
in the monitoring and management of the group's activities.

159. IFAD's comparative strength lies in its interventions which have a direct
bearing on the path from food production or income generation to food
availability and household food security.  Over the past two years
considerable effort has been made by the Fund to refine the conceptual basis
of household food security, operationalize it in the context of its loan
portfolio and test it through a number of selected investment projects.  In so
doing, IFAD has gone beyond the mere objective of making food available
through production support to also address household access issues, food
diversity/dietary aspects within the broader framework of the socio-economic
dynamics of prevailing food systems in project areas targeted by the Fund.  In
recognizing household food security as an immediate outcome objective of its
agricultural and rural development initiatives, the Fund has been able to
acquire comparative advantage in addressing the broader "nutrition security"
issues.  This has been a critical step forward in the context of translating
project-induced increases in agricultural productivity and often a
strengthened resource base into adequate diets for rural poor households.

160. Finally, IFAD has prepared operational guidelines for project gender
analysis including subsector specific guidelines.  In addition, IFAD is also
working on modules covering specific design elements to facilitate wider
replication of participatory approaches based on IFAD's project experience.

(c)  International Monetary Fund

161. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) provides financial support to the
countries implementing comprehensive programmes of economic reform.  For the
poorest countries, the Fund provides highly concessional resources under the
Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility.  Adjustment programmes are designed
to promote both macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform, and thereby
to lay the foundations for high quality growth - a prerequisite for a
sustainable and equitable improvement in living standards.  Under the enlarged
and extended Facility, which became operational in early 1994, the Fund has
placed greater emphasis on social-sector policies.  Recognizing the important
developmental gains from improving the status and quality of life of women, in
the context of both programmes and the policy dialogue with member Governments
the Fund has underscored the importance improving women's access to education,
health care, and family planning.  The Fund is exploring, in close
consultation with the World Bank, the modalities of providing gender-
sensitivity training for Fund staff, in order to enhance their effectiveness
in both the design of adjustment programmes and the provision of technical

(d)  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

162. While the major portion of FAO's Field Programme is financed from UNDP
funds and trust funds from member countries, FAO also provides direct
financial assistance to member countries through its Technical Cooperation
Programme.  Funded from the organization's regular programme, the Technical
Cooperation Programme represents about 10 per cent of the Field Programme.  It
is mainly used as a catalyst to identify and develop programmes for assistance
and investment to be funded from other sources.  Its funds are also used to
respond rapidly to urgent and unforeseen requests for technical and emergency

163. A number of projects under FAO's Technical Cooperation Programme are
directed specifically to women and include activities to:  strengthen women-
in-development units, provide policy advice to Governments on gender issues
and the integration of rural women into development, provide training in
gender analysis, and provide assistance for pilot or experimental programmes
for women farmers to improve their agricultural productivity and income.

                         4.  Information and advocacy

164. An example of how information and advocacy services are provided is found
in FAO which considers that the dissemination of information on women's
participation in and contribution to agriculture is an important means for
mobilizing change in society and for providing an accurate picture of women's
roles in a changing world.

165. Among its activities in this area are:  the publication of information
materials on rural women's roles in sustainable agriculture and food security;
the regular updating and publication of the bibliography of FAO documents on
women-in-development and gender issues; the publication of bibliographies of
documents on women in development, extracted from the FAO Library's
computerized AGRIS/CARIS databases of its collections; the production of
audiovisuals on FAO's gender analysis training and on women's roles in

                 D.  Coordination in the United Nations system

166. Throughout the first 10 years of implementing the Nairobi Forward-looking
Strategies for the Advancement of Women, the organizations of the United
Nations system have utilized a very effective system of linkages for the
purpose of coordination.  They were built upon networks, processes and
institutional structures that were first established during the United Nations
Decade for Women.

                          1.  Coordination structures

(a)  Ad hoc inter-agency meetings on women

167. The formal mechanism for coordination of activities in the area of
advancement of women is a network of focal points in the organizations of the
United Nations system.  These focal points have met annually, on an ad hoc
basis, with meetings approved by the Administrative Committee on Coordination
each time, for the past 17 years.  The meetings have been held at the time of
the annual sessions of the Commission on the Status of Women, usually for two

168. The meetings have served as a place to discuss joint activities, such as
jointly produced documents (like the 1989 and 1994 world surveys on the role
of women in development), joint plans (the system-wide medium-term plans), and
common approaches to issues.  Starting in 1992, the meetings have produced a
joint policy statement to the Commission on the Status of Women on substantive
matters of the Fourth World Conference on Women which have affected the
preparations for the Conference.

169. The agendas for the meetings have included coordination of operational
activities, but discussion of this issue has not been extensive, in view of
the other items on the agenda and the relatively short meeting time.

(b)  Regional inter-agency mechanisms

170. Three meetings of the specialized agencies and other bodies of the United
Nations system at the regional level and intergovernmental organizations on
future activities to promote the integration of women into the development of
Latin America and the Caribbean were held in preparation for the Fourth World
Conference on Women (Santiago, Chile, 3-4 September 1992; Caracas, Venezuela,
26 May 1993; Santiago, Chile, 13 December 1993).  It should be mentioned that,
after her election, the Regional Coordinator of non-governmental organizations
also participated in the meetings in a very vital way.  These meetings
evaluated the activities of the United Nations to promote the integration of
women into development and review inter-agency coordination measures and
mechanisms; reviewed regional preparations for the World Conference and made
suggestions for the draft of the regional programme of action.  The inter-
agency meetings have improved communication between regional and subregional
bodies of the United Nations system and have undoubtedly permitted more
systematic coordination of activities for the advancement of women.

(c)  Other mechanisms

171. The JCGP Sub-Group on Women-in-Development was established in 1986 and
comprises of the women-in-development focal points from UNFPA, UNDP, UNICEF,
WFP and IFAD.  UNIFEM is also represented in the Sub-Group.  In addition to
its function for policy guidance, the Sub-Group has identified and promoted
special projects on gender analysis training, analysis of macroeconomic
policies of structural adjustment and its impact on women and development and
more recently, national capacity-building for gender disaggregated statistics.

At the forthcoming Conference, a special exhibit will display the framework
and results of the project on gender-disaggregated statistics.

                       2.  System-wide medium-term plan

172. A major innovation of the preparations for the Nairobi Conference was the
elaboration of a system-wide medium-term plan for women in development for the
period 1990-1995.  The purpose of the plan was to ensure that the
implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement
of Women was included in the plans and programme documents of the
organizations of the system, based on consciously designed division of labour.

It emphasized both the responsibilities of individual organizations and the
need for joint activities.  The system-wide plan proposal was extensively
discussed at the 1987 session of the Commission on the Status of Women and was
accepted by the Economic and Social Council by its resolution 1987/86.

173. In its first report on plans and programmes of the organizations of the
United Nations system to implement the system-wide medium-term plan, the
Administrative Committee on Coordination stated:

     "Since the beginning of the United Nations Decade for Women, a high level
     of cooperation has existed among the organizations of the system in
     implementing work for the advancement of women.  The preparation of the
     three world conferences on women, including their documentation, has been
     a joint effort.  There are also examples of joint efforts in current work
     ...  The plan builds on and formalizes this cooperative approach to
     achieving the objectives of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for
     the Advancement of Women.  Further joint activities are being developed
     in various inter-agency forums, especially the annual inter-agency
     meetings on women convened under the aegis of ACC." 3/

174. In his report on implementation of the system-wide medium-term plan for
women and development in 1991, the Secretary-General concluded:

     "The system-wide medium-term plan has raised the awareness of programme
     planners of the organizations of the United Nations system of the need to
     identify activities related to women and development.  This is reflected
     in a higher level of reporting for regular budget activities during 1990-
     1991 as compared with 1988-1989 ..." 4/

175. In anticipation of this result, the Council had requested, by its
resolution 1988/59, that the Secretary-General, in his capacity as Chairman of
the Administrative Committee on Coordination, initiate the formulation of a
system-wide medium-term plan for the advancement of women for the period
1996-2001.  On that basis, a draft was prepared by the Secretariat and
submitted to the Council (E/1993/43).  However, the report noted that the plan
could not take into account the results of the Fourth World Conference on

176. After consideration, the Economic and Social Council, by its resolution
1993/16, endorsed the system-wide medium-term plan as a general framework for
the coordination of system-wide efforts and requested organizations of the
United Nations system to use it in formulating individual medium-term plans
for advancement of women.  However, it also requested the Secretary-General,
in his capacity as Chairman of the Administrative Committee on Coordination,
to arrange for a revision of the system-wide plan after the platform for
action has been adopted by the Fourth World Conference on Women.

177. The process of revising the system-wide medium-term plan began in 1995.


     1/   E/1991/16, table 1.

     2/   E/1993/84, table 4.

     3/   E/1989/16, para. 8.

     4/   E/1991/16, para. 4.


                           WORLD CONFERENCE ON WOMEN


     The Fourth World Conference on Women, to be held in Beijing in
September 1995, should be the culmination of a process that begins with the
national preparations.  The Commission on the Status of Women has underlined
the importance of these national-level preparations.  According to Commission
resolution 37/7, they should lead to the production of a national report. 
National machinery for the advancement of women, together with other technical
ministries, governmental agencies and non-governmental organizations have the
opportunity to take stock of the present situation of women, analyse the
progress made since the Nairobi Conference and prepare for future action.

     The Commission, recognizing that this is a complex exercise, requested
the United Nations Secretariat to assist countries by providing guidelines for
the preparation of national reports.  It was also felt that some
standardization between reports would increase their analytical value and
their capacity for building consensus at both the regional and global
conferences.  This would contribute greatly to building both regional and
international consensus for the Conferences.

     The suggestions presented here also bear in mind that an important
purpose of the national reports is to help shape future national action.

                              GENERAL SUGGESTIONS

     In order to ensure broad national and international dissemination, the
main body of each national report should be short, usually not more than 50
pages.  It should feature the most important national priorities and issues
for the advancement of women.

     Existing national reports on the situation of women can serve as inputs
and thus reduce resource requirements as well as ensure consistency.  These
can include reports prepared for the Committee on the Elimination of
Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), for the World Conference on Human Rights
and for the International Conference on Population and Development, as well as
reports prepared for specialized organizations of the United Nations system. 
These reports often contain data and analysis in various areas which can be

     In order to reinforce the government offices formally responsible for the
report, it is advisable to involve the national statistical office as well as
national research and academic talent in various fields such as law,
economics, statistics or sociology to collect, analyse and write up the
information necessary for the report.

     A calendar of work for the preparations would be useful.  Although the
first beneficiaries of the report are at the national level, countries would
obtain an additional benefit if the report were ready in time to be used by
and presented at the regional preparatory conference.  The dates for the
regional conferences are:

     7-14 June 1994, Jakarta, Indonesia       Asian and Pacific Preparatory

     26-30 September 1994, Mar del Plata,     Latin American and Caribbean
     Argentina                                Preparatory Conference

     17-21 October 1994, Vienna, Austria      European Regional Preparatory

     6-10 November 1994, Amman, Jordan        Western Asian Regional
                                              Preparatory Conference

     16-23 November 1994, Dakar, Senegal      African Regional Preparatory

For national reports to be useful in regional reviews and appraisal, they
should be available to the respective regional commissions well in advance of
the date of the regional meeting.

     The themes of the United Nations Decade for Women - equality,
development and peace - remain valid today.  In preparing for the 1995 review
and appraisal of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies, rather than simply
describing changes under each theme, the Commission on the Status of Women has
identified eight "critical areas of concern" for future action.  National
reports can usefully be built around these critical areas.  The outline
suggested below is based on these areas.

     In order to produce a document that will serve to mobilize women and men
for action in the critical areas of concern and thus have maximum impact,
emphasis should be placed on:

     (a) Quantitative indicators as a basis for the analysis of the situation
and changes;

     (b) In each area, the most interesting programmes and experiments
implemented for and by women for their advancement.  These would include
activities of public, private or non-governmental organization origin.

     National reports developed in this way can also be of direct interest to
other countries to study and compare with their own experience.  The full set
of national reports can present a sum of experience as well as a global
catalogue of pilot projects and experiments which will serve as an important
input for the Platform for Action.

     As requested, a core set of indicators is suggested below.  A few words
of explanation are necessary about these indicators.  Effective advocacy
requires facts; planning and programming require facts; action requires facts.

Facts can largely speak for themselves.  The emphasis placed on indicators is
one of the innovations of the Beijing Conference.  Indicators and facts which
measure present status and change over time can be of considerable assistance
in debates and decision-making.

     Most countries already have the data necessary for the national report. 
The suggested indicators have been selected on the basis of their common
availability in the international system because they were provided by the
countries themselves.  Generally, the main difficulty in using these
indicators is locating where they can be found in each national circumstance. 
Many are collected by the national statistical office, some other government
agency or a periodic survey.  Some of the indicators proposed are not commonly
available in the traditional statistical system, but can be obtained from some
public source, usually through a certain amount of research. They have been
suggested because of their significance for the areas of concern.

     The preparation of the national report is an opportunity to discuss the
relevance of new indicators for national action and to introduce them into the
routine data collection or disaggregation if they are already collected, but
not separated by sex.

     The selection of indicators has been also guided by their sensitivity to
change over time.  For example, many of the indicators are based on specific
age groups rather than covering the entire population.

     Presentation of the indicators should be accompanied by a discussion on
the implications for action.  This can also lead to the presentation of
national targets in the critical areas of concern.

                         OUTLINE OF A NATIONAL REPORT


     This section should be limited to one page, highlighting the major
features of the report, including major accomplishments and new priorities for
action.  If possible, a translation should be provided in the United Nations
official languages in order to enable use by delegations of other countries.


     A brief presentation of the most relevant global or regional changes
relevant to the advancement of women taking place from the national
perspective.  This should provide a framework for examining how national
change is taking place.

                  Review and appraisal at the national level

Situation in the early 1980s

     A brief section should recall what the national situation of women was
like in the early 1980s - i.e, prior to the Nairobi Conference.  If possible
it should refer to the national review and appraisal report prepared for the
Nairobi Conference.  The section should highlight what were considered the
major remaining problems at that time.

Changes since the early 1980s

     The Commission on the Status of Women has identified eight critical
areas of concern:

     1.  Inequality in the sharing of power and decision-making at all

     2.  Insufficient mechanisms at all levels to promote the advancement of

     3.  Lack of awareness of, and commitment to, internationally and
         nationally recognized women's rights;

     4.  Poverty;

     5.  Inequality in women's access to and participation in the definition
         of economic structures and policies and the productive process

     6.  Inequality in access to education, health, employment and other
         means to maximize awareness of women's rights and the use of their

     7.  Violence against women;

     8.  Effects on women of continuing national and international armed or
         other kinds of conflict.

     For each of these areas, a section should analyse the changes since the
early 1980s as well as the present situation, using, wherever possible,
statistical indicators as suggested in the annex.  Another section in each
area should present and evaluate the most innovative and interesting
programmes, pilot projects or activities organized by the public, private
sectors or by women themselves and discuss the possibilities of extension in
the country.

                 Review and appraisal of international support

     In this section emphasis should be placed on technical cooperation and
assistance in relation to the critical areas of concern, the successes, the
problems encountered.

            Future strategic goals and objectives and corresponding
                            financial arrangements

     In this section, future plans should be outlined (corresponding to the
areas of concern) by defining goals (e.g., overcoming the feminization of
poverty) and quantitative targets (e.g., achieve equality in the ratio of
girls to boys at university level by 2000).  The kind of measures necessary to
achieve these goals or targets should be indicated.  In order for such plans
to be successful, indications on the political commitment, the institutional
mechanisms to implement measures and the availability of resources should be

                            KEY NATIONAL INDICATORS

     The statistical and other indicators used in the national reports should
be those that permit examination of the situation of women in terms of the
eight critical areas of concern.  They should also show the changes that have
occurred, but comparing situations at different points.  The comparison points
that are suggested include 1980 (the midpoint of the United Nations Decade for
Women and the Copenhagen Conference), 1985 (the end of the United Nations
Decade for Women and the Nairobi Conference), 1990 (the year of the first
review and appraisal of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies) and the most
recent date for which statistics are available.  These dates need not be
exact, and data that were obtained close to those dates can also be used
(e.g., 1979 or 1981 would do for a 1980 comparison).

1.   Inequality in the sharing of power and decision-making at all levels

     Women by virtue of their gender, experience discrimination in terms of
denial of equal access to the power structure that controls society and
determines development issues and peace initiatives.  This discrimination
promotes an uneconomic use of women's talents and wastes the valuable human
resources necessary for development and for the strengthening of peace.  Women
need to be involved in order to bring their interests and aspirations into the
societal agenda.

     The indicators listed below can show the level and the evolution of
women's and men's participation in political and economic decision-making


     (a) Participation in parliamentary assemblies:  number of women and men.
1980, 1985 and the latest available year.  Sources:  election statistics,
usually maintained by central electoral boards or similar institutions;

     (b) Participation in Government (highest levels; e.g., ministers,
deputy, vice- or assistant ministers, secretaries of state or permanent
secretaries, deputy secretaries or directors of Government Departments): 
number of women and men.  1980, 1985 and the latest available year.  Sources: 
government directories or lists of public officials (requires counting by
level, sex and ministries grouped by type - e.g., prime ministry, economic,
social, legal, defence and foreign affairs);

     (c) Participation in foreign affairs:  number of women and men
ambassadors.  1980, 1985 and the latest available year.  Sources:  Ministry of
Foreign Affairs;

     (d) Participation in local representative bodies (highest levels in
municipalities or state legislatures - e.g., mayor, state legislator,
municipal councilperson):  number of women and men.  1980, 1985 and the latest
available year.  Sources:  lists of public officials or central electoral

     (e) Employers and own account workers (indicator of women as economic
decision makers in the private sector):  number of women and men in that
category of occupation.  1980, 1985 and the latest available year.  Sources:
national statistical office from national labour statistics or national

     (f) Administrative and managerial workers (indicator of women in
decision-making in the labour force):  number of women and men in that type of
occupation.  1980, 1985 and the latest available year.  Sources:  national
statistical office from national labour statistics or national censuses;

     (g) Proprietors in business establishments (indicator on women as
economic decision makers in the private sector):  number of business
establishments registered to women, to men or jointly.  1985, current year
(1993).                                       Sources: industrial statistics
and/or commercial registries.

2.   Insufficient mechanisms at all levels to promote the advancement of

     Appropriate governmental machinery needs to be established at a high
level and endowed with adequate resources, commitment and authority to advise
on the impact on women of all government policies.  To be effective, such
machinery should disseminate information to women on their rights and
entitlements, collaborate with various ministries and other government
agencies and with non-governmental organizations.

     The indicators listed below can show the evolution of general and
specific institutional arrangements for the advancement of women, at the
governmental and non-governmental levels as well as at the national,
subnational and local levels.


     (a) National machinery at the national, subnational (state or province
or region) and local levels (indicating the institutional existence, outreach
and resource levels for it); existence and form (e.g., ministry, office,
non-governmental organization), status within governmental structure, mandate
and percentage of national budget allocated.  1980, 1985 and 1993.  Sources:
government budget documents and information provided by the national machinery
for the advancement of women;

     (b) Focal points for the advancement of women in technical ministries
(indicating the extent to which a coordinating mechanism has been set up and
its level in decision-making terms).  Existence, level of decision-making and
mandate.  1980, 1985 and 1993.  Sources:  ministries;

     (c) Non-governmental organizations for the advancement of women at the
national and subnational levels (indicating the extent to which these
organizations are working in the country):  number and principal areas of
activities.  1980, 1985 and the latest available year.  Sources:
non-governmental organizations themselves or national machinery for
advancement of women if they keep lists of non-governmental organizations.

3.   Lack of awareness of, and commitment to, internationally and nationally
     recognized women's rights

     The United Nations system has worked for four decades to establish
international standards to prevent discrimination on the basis of sex. 
Although much progress has been made in ensuring that the provisions of the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and
of other international instruments lead to legislative changes, measures are
necessary for effective implementation and enforcement.

     In some countries, discriminatory legislative provisions still exist,
including civil, penal and commercial codes and certain administrative rules
and regulations.  The indicators listed below can show us the evolution of the
legal basis for de jure equality of women and men.  The elimination of de
facto discrimination requires as a fundamental step the dissemination of
information on women's rights.  For the most part, these indicators are


     (a) Main legal instruments for women's rights (description of the main
legislative provisions guaranteeing women's rights, including constitutions,
equal opportunity laws, whether the country has ratified or acceded to the
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and
whether this has been without reservations.  The analysis should indicate when
this took place, in terms of the comparison dates.  Sources:  Parliament
or/and Ministry of Justice or/and national machinery for the advancement of

     (b) Main measures taken to increase awareness among women and men of
women's rights.  This should indicate whether there are active efforts to
inform women and men about rights and efforts to make it easier to exercise
those rights.  These might include the existence of information campaigns,
efforts to make the judiciary more accessible, the creation of ombudspersons
or other institutional arrangements to implement anti-discrimination laws.  It
can also include efforts in the education system, such as adding human rights
to the school curriculum and changing textbooks.  The comparison dates could
enable tracing the evolution of these efforts.  Sources:  national machinery
for the advancement of women.

4.  Poverty

     It is widely assumed that the burden of poverty falls disproportionately
on women and that in many circumstances those women are heads of households
with children.  It has also been found that women's experience of poverty is
different and more acute than that of men because of gender-based forms of
discrimination.  The burden that women in poverty carry forces them to
transfer part of their workload to other women, such as daughters, mothers or
sisters. This has, in most cases, serious implications for the
inter-generational transmission of poverty.

     Poverty is experienced mostly by households.  While there are a number
of traditional indicators of poverty, based on the ability of the household to
purchase a defined "basket of goods", these figures are not always available. 
If such figures are available, they should be used, but they may not
distinguish by sex.  Bearing in mind the close association between female
headship and low incomes, the proportion of women-headed households and the
change in this over time, is considered one of the best indicators of poverty.

Another approach is to examine whether programmes and facilities exist that
would provide means by which women could escape from poverty.  This
constitutes the basis for the other proposed set of indicators:  the existence
of programmes, services and facilities that could ease women's double burden.


     (a) Women-headed households (usually an indicator that the household has
no more than one major income earner and therefore at risk of poverty): 
percentage of households headed by women.  1980, 1985 and the latest available
year.  Sources:  national statistical office from national censuses or from
specific population surveys;

     (b) Urban unemployment (indicating whether unemployment and its
consequent income reduction affects women more than men):  percentage of women
and men unemployed in urban areas.  1980 and the latest available year. 
Sources: national census, labour force surveys, unemployment office

     (c) Public day-care centres for children (indicating whether
alternative, public-supported facilities exist that can allow a woman with
children to hold a job):  number of centres (nurseries and kindergartens), by
rural/urban area.  1980, 1985 and the latest available year.  Sources: 
statistics on education, specific surveys, health surveys;

     (d) Vocational training (indicating whether job training exists for
women and men on an equal basis:  number of students, by sex and by field of
study.  1980, 1985 and the latest available year.  Sources:  Ministry of
Education or Labour.

5.   Inequality in women's access to and participation in the definition of
     economic structures and policies and the productive process itself

     As a result of cultural, institutional, behavioural and attitudinal
discrimination, women world wide suffer a lack of access to land, capital and
other productive resources.  This gender bias excludes women from most policy-
making bodies which have an impact on development agenda.  It also has an
impact on poverty.  There are few standard indicators of access that would
normally be classified by sex.  However, by a relatively simple study of
existing records using sampling, estimates can be obtained which could
indicate the degree of inequality present.  If the data are too cumbersome to
collect for an entire year or for the entire country, samples should be used
(e.g., registration of urban properties during the month of January 1993 in
the capital and selected large, medium and small cities).  If possible, the
same should be done for a previous year in order to compare the change over
the time.


     (a) Credit in public banks (indicating the extent to which women have
access to publicly provided or guaranteed credit):  number of public loans
granted to women, to men and jointly (man and woman in a household).  To the
extent possible, the loans should be divided between rural and non-rural. 
Current year (1993).  Sources:  national public banks (sample of persons to
whom loans were granted);

     (b) Rural land-ownership (indicating whether there is access by women to
land-owning):  number of rural properties registered, by sex.  During the
current year (1993).  (If possible the average area registered by women and
men should be compared.)  Sources:  national land registry (sample of titles
registered) and/or Ministry of Agriculture/Rural Development (sample of titles
or data from most recent agricultural census);

     (c) Real estate tenure in urban areas (indicating whether women have
access to urban property):  number of urban properties registered by women, by
men and jointly (woman and man in a single household).  During the current
year (1993).  Sources:  national registry of deeds or registry in the largest
cities (sample of registrations).

6.   Inequality in access to education, health, employment and other means to
     maximize awareness of rights and the use of their capacities

     To achieve the goal of de facto equality of women and men special
efforts should be made in order to increase the status of women.  Access to
education, health services and to income-generating activities in the formal
and informal sector, are the basic factors to reach it.  For women, they
represent the principal means for their self-empowerment.  For the society,
they represent an investment in human resources with very high level of
returns.  The indicators listed below under the chapters on education, health
and employment can show us the investment gap between women and men, girls and
boys and their evolution over the time.  Most are standard statistical
indicators routinely collected and presented by national statistical



     (a) Illiteracy (indicating the extent to which past discrimination in
educational access is reflected in present inability to read and write): 
percentage of women, of men illiterates (by age group) 15-24 years; 25-44
years; over 45 years.  1980, 1985 and the latest available year.  Sources: 
national census and/or specific surveys and/or Ministry of Education;

     (b) Enrolment ratio (indicating to what extent girls and boys are able
to start school on an equal basis).  First-level enrolment ratio by sex.  
Second-level enrolment ratio by sex.  1980, 1985 and the latest available
year.  Sources:  Ministry of Education, often reported to national statistical

     (c) Schooling completed (indicating the extent to which girls and boys
complete schooling on an equal basis):  number of boys and girls receiving
diplomas from or otherwise completing first and second levels of education. 
1980, 1985 and the latest available year.  Sources:  Ministry of Education;

     (d) Graduation in third-level (indicating whether boys and girls have
equal access to entry-level jobs in the professional and managerial levels);
number of boys and girls graduated, by field of study.  1980, 1985 and the
latest available year.  Sources:  Ministry of Education;

     (e) Technical graduation (indicating the extent to which women have
equal access to non-traditional fields):  number of women and men graduating
with an engineering degree or diploma.  1980, 1985 and the latest available
year.  Sources:  Ministry of Education;

     (e) Teachers (indicating the extent to which women participate among
those teaching):  number of women and men teaching at first, second and third
levels.  1980, 1985 and the latest available.  Sources:  Ministry of


     (a) Life expectancy at birth (indicating the probable life-span of a
person born in a given year, which summarizes all of the factors, influencing
life-span):  life expectancy for women, for men.  1980 and the latest
available year.  Sources:  national statistical service;

     (b) Maternal mortality per 100,000 births.  1980 and the latest
available year.  (If the data are too cumbersome to collect for an entire year
or for the entire country, samples should be used (e.g., registration of these
data during any month in the capital and selected large, medium and small
cities).  If possible, the same should be done for the previous years, in
order to compare the change over the time.)  Sources:  national statistical
service or Ministry of Health;

     (c) Infant mortality rate:  annual number of deaths of male and female
infants (under one year of age) per 1,000 live births.  1980 and the latest
available year.  (If the data are too cumbersome to collect for an entire year
or for the entire country, samples should be used (e.g., registration of these
data during any month in the capital and selected large, medium and small
cities).  If possible, the same should be done for the previous years, in
order to compare the change over the time.)  Sources:  national statistical
service or Ministry of Health;

     (d) Child mortality per 1,000:  mortality rate for boys, for girls aged
from one to four years.  1980 and the latest available year.  (If the data are
too cumbersome to collect for an entire year or for the entire country,
samples should be used (e.g., registration of these data during any month in
the capital and selected large, medium and small cities).  If possible, the
same should be done for the previous years, in order to compare the change
over the time.)  Sources:  national statistical service or Ministry of Health;

     (e) Total fertility rate:  1980 and the latest available year.  Sources:
national statistical service;

     (f) Percentage of women using contraceptives:  proportion of women of
child-bearing age (15-49) currently using contraceptives, either traditional
or modern.  1980 and the latest available year.  (If the data are too
cumbersome to collect for an entire year or for the entire country, samples
should be used (e.g., registration of these data during any month in the
capital and selected large, medium and small cities).  If possible, the same
should be done for the previous years, in order to compare the change over the
time.)  Sources:  Ministry of Health or specific survey - e.g, demographic and
health surveys;

     (g) Prevalence of anaemia:  percentage of women aged 15-49 with
haemoglobin levels below 12 grams/dl for non-pregnant women and 11 grams/dl
for pregnant women.  1980 and the latest available year.  Sources:  Ministry
of Health or specific surveys;

     (h) Malnutrition in children under-five years of age:  percentage of
girls, of boys with mild-moderate/severe malnutrition.  1980 and the latest
available year.  Sources:  Ministry of Health or specific surveys;

     (i) Sex-differentials in immunization rates:  percentage of girls and
boys one year of age fully immunized (TB, DPT, polio and measles).  1980 and
the latest available year.  Sources:  Ministry of Health;

     (j) Percentage of pregnant women fully immunized against tetanus (TT2 or
booster):  1980 and the latest available year.  Sources:  Ministry of Health; 

     (k) Service availability:  percentage of births attended by trained
personnel (doctor or the person with midwifery skills).  1980 and the latest
available year.  Sources:  Ministry of Health;

     (l) HIV positive women:  percentage of women, by age group, found HIV
positive in maternity clinics/wards (specify geographic area covered).  Most
recent five years.  Sources:  national AIDS programme or Ministry of Health.


     (a) Economically active population:  percentage of women and men in each
sector of activity (primary, secondary and tertiary).  1980, 1985 and the
latest available year.  Sources:  national census and/or labour surveys;

     (b) Characteristics of employment:  percentage of women and men in
part-time employment.  1980, 1985 and the latest available year.  Sources:
national census or labour surveys.

7.   Violence against women

     Violence against women exists in all regions, classes and cultures. 
Physical violence against women, which derives from their unequal status in
society, has been acknowledged as hindering their full integration and equal
participation in the society.  This issue has grown in importance in the last
few years and has been considered at numerous national and international
meetings.  The indicators listed below are primarily qualitative and show
which policies and measures the Government and other agencies are being
undertaken to prevent, control and reduce the impact of violence on women.


     (a) Specific measures taken to ensure the elimination of violence
against women in all its forms:  legal measures, national plans of action,
training to sensitize law enforcement officers and public officials.  If a
comparison is desired, it could be based on whether these measures were in
place in 1980, 1985 and the latest available year.  Sources:  parliamentary
or/and Ministry of Justice or/and national machinery for the advancement of

     (b) Protective measures taken to assist abused women:  number of public
shelters, shelters sponsored by non-governmental organizations' shelters and
other services (including an indication of how many persons were attended). 
1980, 1985 and the latest available year.  Sources:  social statistics or
specific surveys;

     (c) Women in the judicial system (indicating the extent that women, who
are usually more understanding of violence against women, are found in
decision-making positions):  number and percentage of women and men at the
professional level (judges, lawyers, prosecutors and attorneys).  1980, 1985
and the latest available year.  Sources:  Ministry of Justice or of Interior;

     (d) Women in police forces (indicating the extent that women, who tend
to be more understanding of the problem of violence, are available in the
forces):  percentage of women.  1980, 1985 and the latest available year. 
Sources:  Ministry of Interior.

8.   Effects on women of continuing national and international armed or other
     kinds of conflicts

     The international community recognizes a humanitarian responsibility to
protect and assist refugees and displaced persons.  In most cases, the
affected are women and children exposed to a variety of difficult situations.
There are few indicators about the affected population, either in the
countries where the conflicts occur, the countries receiving or assisting
refugees or among the international agencies involved.  If figures are
available in countries experiencing armed conflicts about the proportion of
women among refugees and displaced, these should be reported.  One indicator,
however, of a probable understanding of the extent to which armed conflict is
seen a male issue is the extent to which women are included in national
military formations.  The existence of a high proportion of women would
probably mean that those formations would be more sensitive to gender


     Women in the military:  percentage of women in the armed forces.  1980,
1985 and the latest available year.  Sources:  ministries of defence.




This document has been posted online by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Reproduction and dissemination of the document - in electronic and/or printed format - is encouraged, provided acknowledgement is made of the role of the United Nations in making it available.

Date last updated: 06 December 1999 by DESA/DAW
Copyright 1999 United Nations