United Nations
Commission on Sustainable Development

Background Paper


      Compilation of Information on Policies and Programmes of Countries,
            International Organizations and Financial Institutions
             to Promote Environmentally Sound Technology Transfer,
                       Cooperation and Capacity-Building


     The purpose of this compilation is to provide, based on available
information, an overview on initiatives being undertaken by countries, the
United Nations system, other international organizations and the private
sector to promote environmentally sound technology transfer, cooperation and

     The compilation is based on information submitted by national governments
to the Commission on Sustainable Development as well as on those provided by
national and international organizations, financial institutions and the
private sector.  It also draws upon the contributions made available to the
various intersessional meetings.  The structure of the compilation follows, in
general, that of the Report of the Secretary-General on "Transfer of
environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building".





      A.    Promoting Environmentally Sound
            Technology Centres

      B.    Training of Human Resources

      C.    Demonstrations on Environmentally
            Sound Technologies

      D.    National Needs Assessment in Support of
            Environmentally Sound Technology
            Transfer and Capacity-Building

      E.    Research and Development


      A.    Bilateral and Multilateral Arrangements

      B.    Funding Provided by Financial Institutions 

      C.    Successful Recent Investments

      D.    Build-Operate-Transfer Arrangements


Countries/Organizations - Policies and Programmes


A Green Development Import Finance Facility (DIFF) introduced in the
Australian government's 1994-1995 budget will provide a minimum of $20 million
to Australian business to facilitate the transfer of environmentally friendly
technology to developing countries.  Under the Green DIFF, projects will be
undertaken in areas such as sustainable land, water and waste management,
pollution control and energy efficiency including clean coal technology.  By
transferring environmentally friendly technology and providing vital
environmental infrastructure, Green DIFF will make a positive contribution to
the transfer of clean production technologies to developing countries.

The Private Sector Linkages Program (PSLP) introduced in Australia's 1992-1993
aid budget includes the demonstration, adaptation and supply of proven and
appropriate Australian technology.  This new program aims to promote economic
growth and transfer of technology in the Asian region through activities which
link Australian enterprises with equivalent enterprises in selected developing


Under the Green Plan, the Environmental Technology Commercialization Program
supports up to 50 per cent of costs of strategic alliances or consortia to
develop, demonstrate and commercialize new environmental technologies (budget:
Can $5 mill).

The "Strategy for the Canadian Environmental Industry" containing 22
initiatives, is aimed at training Canadian Embassy staff about ESTs, providing
information about Canadian ESTs available and their performances, sponsoring
demonstration projects, establishing a national statistical database about the
EST sector, and helping other countries to build the capacities to introduce


Implementation of a Five-year Action Plan on Cleaner Technologies (period:
1993-97;  budget: DKr 360 mill).

Implementation of a Five-year Strategic Environmental Research Programme
(period: 1992-96;  budget: DKr 300 mill).


Developed the Sixth Five-Year National Development Plan (REPELITA VI) which
focuses on waste minimization and cleaner production approaches.


In order to maintain high environmental standards and to contribute to global
environmental conservation, Japan has attached priority to the development and
use of pollution prevention and control technologies.


Established a policy for the development and implementation of environmentally
sound technologies consisting of three main strategies:  (i) determination of
relevant technological issues in relation to environmental problems;  (ii)
promotion of research and development and relevant areas of environmentally
sound technologies, and strengthening the role of environment issues in
education at all levels; and  (iii) promotion of the implementation of
environmentally sound technologies by relevant sectors of industry.  Within
the above strategies, a variety of instruments are employed and environmental
standards applied.

Within the framework of development cooperation, a special green investment
program has been created to facilitate the Netherlands private industry
contribution to positive environmental actions in a number of developing


Developed the cleaner technology production programme to develop, demonstrate
and transfer cleaner technologies.  (Funding involved NKr 30 mill with 50:50
financing from government and industry.)

United Kingdom

The Environmental Technology Best Practice Programme has been established to
collect and disseminate information on cleaner technologies and waste
minimization practices to industry and commerce.  Six projects have already
been funded, and others are planned over a five years period.

United States of America

Is implementing the Environmental Technology Initiative under the auspices of
the U.S. EPA, and the Environmental Technology Export Strategy under the U.S.
Department of Commerce.  The recently launched Rapid Commercialization
Initiative (RCI) - jointly being implemented between the U.S. EPA and the
Departments of Energy and of Defense -, is seen as a summing-up effort in a
series of initiatives to develop and export ESTs as a means of stimulating the
economy.  RCI is focusing on overcoming barriers to commercialization of
technologies and applying lessons learned that would enable to shorten the
time period between the research phase of a given technology and its actual
application and commercialization.  A system of verification of technologies
with dissemination of credible performance data and diffusion of technologies
will be established, including the development of verification protocols for
all environmental technologies by U.S. EPA.

The Roundtable of State Pollution Prevention Programs support policy
development and implementation of state pollution prevention programs. 
Roundtable initially started with US-EPA grants and US-EPA also established
voluntary green lights and the 33-50 programs to promote environmentally sound

Commission of the European Communities

Survey on "Clean Technologies:  Update of the Situation in the Member States".

The survey presents the current status of clean technologies in the Member
States, focusing on selected industries, such as the metal products, dairy and
wood/furniture sectors.  It also describes the efforts made the at the
Community level to support this trend through legislation and voluntary
instruments.  Some recommendations are made for strengthening the preventative
focus of the EC's activities by improving the integration of industrial and
environmental policies, and for stimulating the use of cleaner technologies by
smaller companies. 

World Bank

Is currently preparing a new operational policy directive and revising its
Environmental Guidelines for Industry, with emphasis on pollution prevention
and the adoption of cleaner production technologies.  

African Regional Centre for Technology (ARCT)
Implementation of a project on "Strategic Planning for Long-Term Science and
Technology Training Resource Utilization in Subsaharan Africa:  Planning Human
Resource Development in S&T Information System in Africa" dealing with
inadequacy of training resources and facilities, lack of readily available
information on training institutions and lack of back- up technical
expertise/skills, with the support of the Carnegie Corporation of New York.


Countries/Organizations - Policies and Programmes


Is developing the National Environment Industries Database (NEID) which will
provide information on Australia's environment management capabilities for use
both domestically and internationally.  NEOD will be a network of databases
which will be able to be utilized by countries in the region to determine
technologies most suitable to their own environmental situations.  A linked
database on cleaner production is also being prepared.


Established the Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Network.


National data systems - ENSICNET, INFOTERRA, GEMS.


Information Center for Science and Technology (JICST) provides data bases in
English of Japanese literature through on-line network.


The UNEP International Environmental Technology Center (IETC) established in
accordance with a proposal by Japan and located in Osaka and Shigo, handles
information regarding technology in the field of sustainable environmental
management for individual large cities, freshwater lakes, marshes and basins. 
The basic design of the IETC database is being worked on.

Republic of Korea

The Korea Institute of Industry and Technology Information (KINITI) of the
Republic of Korea provides science and technology information and access to
foreign databases.  The Korea Research and Development Centre (KORDIC) is a
newly established organization, with the purpose to generate science and
technology information which are emerging from research and development
activities of 26 research institutes of the Ministry of Science and


The Netherlands Organization for Energy and the Environment (NOVEM) is the
operating agent for the Greengas Technology Information Exchange (GREENTIE). 
The scope of the project is to realize a system of international information
exchange with respect to technologies concerning the greenhouse gas problem as
well as creating network of countries that are interested in these

NOVEM is also participating in the information system "CADDETT" which aims at
exchanging knowledge regarding energy technologies.


Chemical technologies data bank is being established to accomplish process

United States of America

Established Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIC) to encourage
application of environmentally sound technologies.

United States - Asian Environment Programme (US-AEP)
Operates a comprehensive data system called the Environmental Technology
Network for Asia (ETNA) to provide information on ESTs to Asian users, as well
as conveying Asian needs to US providers.

United Kingdom

Established, as part of the Technology Partnership Initiative, a network to
facilitate information exchange on ESTs, and to encourage technology
cooperation on a commercial basis.  The initiative aims at facilitating direct
business to business contacts in the private sector.


Is operating the two major systems, namely the International Information
System for Agricultural Science and Technology (AGRIS) and the Current
Agricultural Research Information System (CARIS). 


Bio-Informatics Network, recently being initiated in Asia, has the objective
to develop databases on appropriate biotechnologies.


Established a number of information systems to assist in collecting and
disseminating of information on energy and energy-related technologies,
including:  (i) Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated
Energy Technologies (CADETT); (ii) IEA Coal Research Centre; (iii) Energy
Technology Data Exchange (ETDE); (iv) International Centre for Natural Gas
Technology Information;  (v) East-West Power Technology Centre (in the process
of being established).


Developed, with the contribution of the United Kingdom, the two year pilot
phase of the GreenTIE project which aims at providing interested users(mainly
developing and newly industrializing countries) with streamlined access to
information on "Greenhouse Gas Technologies". 


Established an information service called INSTEAD which is aimed at
disseminating technological information to small- and medium-sized enterprises
in the informal sector, in the areas of food processing, agricultural tools,
building material, energy and handicrafts.

UNEP/International Petroleum Industry Environmental  Conservation Association
IPIECA and UNEP are jointly preparing a publication about the experience of
the oil industry over the past 100 years in technology cooperation and
capacity-building.  The publication will: (i)  Provide a framework which
analyses the process of technology cooperation and capacity-building, looking
at some key strategic issues, the different kinds of partnership and the
involvement of the petroleum sector in that process;  (b)  include 12 case
studies selected on the basis of geographical spread (Africa, Southeast Asia,
Russia, North America and the Middle East) and representing a broad range of
oil industry activity in the process of technology cooperation and
capacity-building; and (iii)  identify the key lessons learned, the
obligations and responsibilities that are required of the partners, and a
summary of the beneficial outcomes that have resulted from many decades of
direct investment.  


OzonAction Information Clearinghouse (OAIC) designed to facilitate and
encourage technology transfer to developing countries, through information
exchange, training activities and networking.

International Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse (ICPIC),
established with the assistance of the US EPA, functions as an on-line
electronic information system. 


Industrial and Technology Information Banks (INTIB) was established with the
objectives: (i) to facilitate the handling of industrial inquiries; (ii) to
help develop and promote information sources and users; (iii) to provide
various levels of access to computerized sources of industrial and
technological information; and (iv) to assist in the development of
information networks.


Established the Global Environmental Technology Network (GETNET) aimed at
linking environmental technology information and training facilities in the

World Bank

World Bank financially supported the establishment of an institutional network
on information on ESTs in India ($2 million) and the global information system
for tracking of hazardous waste also in India ($0.2 million).

Secretariat of the Basel Convention

Information are being compiled which are received from the Parties on measures
to develop technologies for the reduction and/or elimination of generation of
hazardous wastes, on sources of technical assistance and training, as well as
on available scientific and technical know-how in relation to, inter alia,
low- and non-waste technologies.  These information is being made available to
the Parties of the Basel Convention on an annual basis. 


Established, with the financial support of UNDP, the African Regional Centre
for Technology Information System and Network (ARCTIS-NET) which functions as
a regional technology management information and communication network.  


ESCAP's Asia-Pacific Centre on Technology Transfer (APCTT) has established the
Mechanism for the Exchange of Technology Information (METI).  It functions as
regional network for collecting and disseminating information on ESTs that are
available for transfer to small- and medium-sized enterprises in Asia and the
Pacific.  APCTT's International Network for Transfer of ESTs (INTET) functions
as a self-supporting network, providing expertise and consultancy services in
technology transfer.

Commonwealth Science Council
Produced manual for installation and maintenance of small photovoltaic
systems.  Work on standards for components and installations are envisaged.

Delphi Group

Provides services to environmental technology companies in the area of
commercialization, market entry and finance, with particular focus on India
and South Africa.


      A.    Promoting Environmentally Sound Technology Centres.

Countries/Organizations - Policies and Programmes


Is establishing a Centre for Cleaner Production which will support UNEP's
efforts to foster the development and adoption of ESTs in the Asian region.

Supported the establishment of a number of cooperative research centres in
Australia which will contribute to the development and adoption of
environmentally sound technologies.


Environmental technology exploitation centres have been established for
providing technology transfer services to small- and medium-sized enterprises
in Canada to help in the commercialization of technologies.


A National Cleaner Technology Promotion Centre (NCPC) has been established
with partial assistance from the World Bank to facilitate transfer of
technology within and from outside the country.  Upgradation of scales for
capacity building and development and promotion of cleaner technologies.


Environmentally Sound Technology Centres - in the form of National Committee
which will be set up by the Ministry of State for Environment.  Linkages are
now being established with other related sectoral ministries/agencies such as
the Ministry of Industry, provincial governments, Indonesia Commercial
Chambers and NGOs.


The International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer (ICETT) is
engaged in information exchange on ESTs which have been introduced mainly in
industrial sectors, and is implementing environmental research and training
programmes to support capacity- building in developing countries.


The International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC) aims at promoting the
transfer of ESTs to developing countries and countries with economies in
transition.  The focus is on the demand and implementation aspects of managing
technology change for sustainable development of large individual cities,
freshwater lakes, marshes and basins.


Provides support to the UNIDO/UNEP National Cleaner Production Centre


Is planning the establishment of an "Eco-Technology Centre" in Tunisia to
carry out specific functions concerning: (i) building the local capacities
needed to adapt and improve existing technologies; (ii) linking technology
suppliers to users; (iii) supporting in technology assessment; and (iv)
attracting foreign enterprises and involving them in technology partnership
arrangements with local companies.

United Kingdom

Setting-up of a National Environmental Technology Centre (NETCEN) which brings
together over 400 of the United Kingdom's foremost environmental scientists
and consultants to create a centre of environmental excellence in the United

United States of America

Established an information clearinghouse, under the Environmental Pollution
Prevention (EP3) project, which provides an easily accessible source of
information about pollution prevention and ESTs.  The ASEAN Environmental
Improvement Project (EIP) also has EST information centers in Asia.

A vendor database is being developed which will allow facilities in countries
that are covered by the EP3 project, to access information about U.S. firms
that offer ESTs and services.  The Asia Environmental Partnership also manages
an information system of suppliers of US environmental equipment and services.

Is operating 9 Technology Cooperation Offices, namely in: Seoul, Hongkong,
Taipei, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Jakarta, Manila, Bangkok and Bombay which
promote ESTs.

Established an information clearinghouse, under the Environmental Pollution
Prevention (EP3) project, which provides and easily accessible source of
information about pollution prevention and ESTs.

In addition, a vendor database is being developed which will allow facilities
in countries that are covered by the EP3 project, to access information about
US firms that offer ESTs and services.

Uruguay/World  Federation of  Engineering Organizations (WFEO)/Inter-American
Development Bank

The project to organize and set-up a regional centre for Latin America and the
Caribbean in Montevideo, Uruguay, to support engineering for sustainable
development in the region is under way.  It is proposed that the regional
centre will have three main functions:  (i) to gather and disseminate
information to promote, among the engineers of the region, interest in the
realization of sustainable development and training in sustainable development
technologies;  (ii) to organize training courses and technical meetings of
engineers with scientists, professionals from other disciplines and
representatives from governments and non-governmental organizations;  and
(iii) to promote the study of engineering projects of regional interest that
may contribute to sustainable regional planning.


National Cleaner Production Centres are being established in six developing
countries: India, China, Indonesia, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Mexico to promote
capacity-building for cleaner production.  The Centres are targeted to
providing policy advice on environmental management, supporting demonstrations
of cleaner production techniques and technologies, training professionals in
industrial environmental management, and serving as source of information on
issues related to cleaner production.

World Bank/China 

World Bank pledged $ 171.0 Million to support development of technology
transfer centres;  $ 0.3 Million to support development of technology
diffusion stations;  $ 0.5 Million to support development of cleaner
production centres.

Commission of Science and Technology in the South

Is exploring the modalities for the establishment of the "Network of
International Science and Technology Centres for Sustainable Development in
the South".  The network would consist of a number of international research
and training centres of excellence in areas of the frontier of science and
technology which are most likely to have a strong impact on the economic and
social development of the South.

Commonwealth Science Council 

Supported institution building and equipment for solar training facility in

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity/Interim Secretariat of
the Convention on Climate Change 

Recommended the establishment of a Subsidiary Body for Scientific and
Technological Advice whose functions will include, among others, to identify
innovative, efficient and state-of-the-art technologies and know-how, and to
advice on the ways and means of promoting development and/or transfer of such

Secretariat of the Basel Convention
Establishment of Regional Centres for Training and Technology Transfer on
Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes and the minimization of
their generation.  Feasibility studies are being undertaken for three regions
(Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific, and Central and
Eastern Europe).


Initiative is being launched to establish a "Regional Centre for Outer Space
Science and Technology Education" for training engineers and technicians in
space technology applications.

      B.    Training of Human Resources.

Countries/Organizations - Policies and Programmes

Belgium/Developing Cuntries (not specified)

In the framework of University Cooperation, several scholarships to nationals
from developing countries for specific training at post-graduate level dealing
with environmental management are being granted, for example, postgraduate
training in environmental sanitation and masters degree in human ecology.

Finland/Asian Developing Countries (not specified)

Support for the Regional Environmental Education in Asian Countries for the
development of environmental management and administration, standards and
sound use of natural resources, and support of technology transfer for
pollution control.


Human resource development and capacity building are integral to the
technology transfer process.  Capacity building is intrinsic to Australia's
development cooperation program across all sectors, and it takes the form of
education and training, institution strengthening, technical assistance and
collaborative research, particularly in agriculture.  It also includes the
promotion of the capacity of developing countries to design and implement
development programs and policies - including technology transfer - based on
national priorities.

     Funding of a $24 million project to extend the capabilities of the
     Indonesian Environment Planning Agency and $7 million to strengthen
     provincial capacity in watershed planning in eastern Indonesia.


Assist in the improvement of the capabilities in developing countries for
better control of seeds and plants through the education of personnel within
the areas of research in seedborne diseases and control of seed tests from
developing countries.  The Institute implements nine-months diploma courses in
Denmark and more practically oriented short-term courses in the developing
countries (period: 1966-1997;  budget: DKK 149 mill).

     Support to computer treatment of satellite pictures to improve a
     cross-departmental satellite picture unit (period: 1992-1995;  budget:
     DKK 3.2 mill).

     Support to environmental sustaining activities to protect natural
     resources in the country with two concrete projects:  training of the
     population in the traditional house building style which does not
     require wood; and preparation and introduction of an educational
     programme for environmental protection in the schools (period:
     1992-1997;  budget: DKK 14.5 mill).

     Implementation of an environmental training project, Phase II, to
     increase the youth and children's awareness of the risks and results of
     environmental degradation (period: 1993- 1995;  budget: DKK 10.5 mill).


Within the framework of the bilateral Memorandum of Understanding with Poland,
the Netherlands is currently exploring the possibilities for support in the
integration of environmental concerns in regular technical vocational training
in Poland.

United States of America

Support for workshop and training programmes to transfer ESTs as part of EP3,
EIP and the Philippine Industrial Environmental Management Program (IEMP).


Conducts fellowship exchanges and training programmes which provide services
to over 500 Asian participants every year.

Japan/Developing and Eastern European Countries

Implementation of training course programs in the following areas: 
environmental engineering; air pollution control and source monitoring
practice; measures to reduce the use of ozone depleting substances;
environmental engineering (water pollution) and monitoring (water quality);
marine pollution surveillance and control; domestic waste water treatment
technique; lake water quality management; industrial pollution control
research and engineering; environmental radioactivity analysis and management;
industrial energy use and exhaust gas treatment technology; saving and
re-using industrial water; energy conservation; geothermal energy; urban solid
waste management and solid waste management.

Implementation of expert dispatch program in the following areas:  air
pollution control; water pollution control; pollution control (other
pollution, compound pollution); energy conservation and waste management.

     /China, Thailand, Indonesia
     Japan established environmental research and training centers in
     Thailand, China and Indonesia.  The centers are implementing pollution
     prevention and pollution control research and training programmes.

United Kingdom/Latin American and South East Asian Countries (not specified)
Under the Hands-On-Training Scheme (HOTS) assistance is given to UK companies
wishing to provide Hands-On-Training of the UK to businessmen and women from
developing countries.  Also sponsoring seminars on environmental management
and training.

Secretariat of the Basel Convention

Training courses and technical assistance promoting waste minimization
including i.a. advisory services in identifying the main hazardous waste
streams being generated in a particular country and making a preliminary
assessment of improved technologies to minimize their generation.

Development of Technical Guidelines for Environmentally Sound Management of
Hazardous Wastes on priority waste streams and on disposal options, promoting
the development and adoption of clean technologies, emphasizing the importance
of technology and environmental audits, substitution of technologies and raw
materials, product life cycle analysis. 


Provided expert advice on the training and development of human resources in
food technology, construction, maintenance and use of biodigesters, and in the
installation and management of  scientific and technological information

International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)/UNEP

Training kits for environmental management are being developed to provide
training tools for local organizations such as industry associations, chambers
of commerce, as well as for local governments to reach out, through workshops
and other activities, to managers of industrial enterprises, particularly


Through the National Cleaner Production Centres.

      C.    Demonstrations on Environmentally Sound Technologies

Country/Organization - Activity


Two projects funded under the ASEAN Australia Economic Cooperation Program
(AAECP) are good examples of demonstration projects that Australia is

-    Environmentally Sound Energy Production and Waste Disposal from

     Project will demonstrate the use of a fluidized bed combustion
     cogeneration/incinerator system.  This system will use biomass wastes
     such as crop, timber mill or garbage residues which would otherwise be
     disposed of in less environmentally appropriate ways such as haze
     producing or open burning.

-    Wastewater Treatment Technology Transfer and Cleaner Production

     Project will utilize existing and new treatment facilities to
     demonstrate appropriate Australian technologies for factories
     (especially in the food processing, textile and distilling industries)
     and industrial estates.  The project also includes a training component
     and a component to strengthen linkages between the major wastewater
     management organizations.


Demonstrations on cleaner production, the OzonAction Programme and waste


MITI and the Japanese Electric Cooperation are demonstrating on energy
efficiency projects.


Demonstration projects on cleaner production and the improvement of process
safety (risk assessment, hazard study, inherent safety).

United Kingdom/Developing Countries (not specified)

Implementing demonstration projects (e.g. Air and Calder and Project Catalyst)
where applicable results were disseminated to developing countries.

US-AEP/Asian Developing Countries (not specified)

US-AEP is conducting about 25 to 50 demonstrations of technologies per year. 
EP3 is also conducting 5-10 technology demonstrations each year. 

Sponsors the Environmental Technology Fund which is a series of small-matching
grants administered through the National Association of State Development
Agencies to help small- and medium-sized US businesses bring their ESTs to the
Asian region and demonstrate them.


Through the National Cleaner Production Centres.

World Bank/India

World Bank assisted in projects of the National Programme for Demonstration
Projects pertaining to small- and medium-sized enterprises.

Commonwealth Science Council

Testing of solar lanterns in Tanzania.

ARCT/Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Sierra Leone, Togo and Zambia 

Established Pilot and Demonstration Units in these countries as a vehicle for
the popularization, promotion and commercialization of research and
development results.

   D.    National Needs Assessment in Support of Environmentally Sound
         Technology Transfer and Capacity-Building

Countries/Organization - Policies and Programmes

Commission of the European Community/Tunisia

The European Commission intends to finance a joint EC/Tunisia case study on
environmentally sound technology, applying the methodology adopted by the
CSD's Intersessional Ad Hoc Open-Ended Working Group on Technology Transfer
and Cooperation.  The objective of the initiative is to help Tunisia in the
development of the institutional and human capacities required to introduce
environmentally sound technologies.  Particular attention will be given to
strengthening national capacities in:  (i) identification and evolution of
Tunisia's technological needs;  (ii) acquisition of information on existing
technologies;  (iii) selection and application of suitable technologies; and 
(iv) appropriateness of transfer of technology on favourable terms.  The study
will also examine the possible role that the Eco-Technology Centre announced
by the Tunisian authorities could play.

Netherlands/Costa Rica

In Costa Rica, a national needs assessment study on ESTs is being supported by
the Netherlands.  The study covers the needs for national capacity-building in
a broader sense (e.g., in the field education, research, intermediary
infrastructure, specific knowledge, enforcement of environmental regulations,
cooperation between actors).  The aim of the study is to supply Costa Rica
with an effective tool for donor-management.  The Netherlands' support
consists of the supply of financial means and expertise. 


Switzerland and Pakistan will collaborate in a project that will identify the
demand of Pakistan for EST in two industrial sub-sectors (possibly textiles
and paper), and make concrete recommendations concerning:  (i)  enhancing the
capabilities to absorb environmentally sound technologies that are suitable to
the conditions and the socio- economic and environmental requirements of the
sub-sectors concerned;  (ii) involving local techniques, technologies and
resources; and  (iii) promoting technology transfer, through partnerships
between technology suppliers from Switzerland and potential users in Pakistan.

      E.    Research and Development

Countries/Organizations - Policies and Programmes

Japan/Other Countries (not specified)

Funding of collaborative research and development activities (firms - national
laboratories - universities) on environment-related industrial technologies
managed by the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth in
Japan and abroad.

     Implementation of research cooperation in the area of remote sensing


Technology appraisal project to improve, through research, the capacity of the
Centre for Technology Assessment (CTA) and supervise the government and
private technology committee about the social, economic and cultural and
environmental impacts of technology.


Participated in developing a system for using geographic information systems
in Lithuania.  The system is used in connection with land management.

     /Central and Eastern European Countries
     Norwegian agencies carried out programmes for developing information

     The Norwegian Institute and the Ministry of Environment in Hungary
     jointly developed planning systems for surveillance of air pollution.

Commission of the European Communities

Supports a number of environmental technology networks, such as the
EuroEnviron PREPARE within the EUREKA research programme.

Islamic Development Bank (IDB)/Near East and African Countries (not specified)

Financed the Date Palm Research and Development Network which is aimed at
catalyzing and enhancing ongoing research and development activities on date
palms in the Near East and African region, through an inter-country
cooperative research and development network.

ARCT/West African Countries (not specified)

Started, in collaboration with IDRC Canada, a research and development
programme in four West African countries to promote environmentally benign
small and medium scale agro-food enterprises, using cassava and fish as case
studies, with a view to enhancing the countries' technolo-economic development
on a sustainable basis.


      A.    Bilateral and Multilateral Arrangements

Country/Organization - Programme/Project

Australia/Asian Countries

Undertakes a range of activities aimed at facilitating the transfer of
environmentally sound technologies, particularly to South East and East Asia
in the context of development cooperation programs.

     Implementation of a five year project aimed at strengthening the
     government's environment protection agency and the deployment of ESTs in
     industrial projects which fulfil local requirements, create employment
     and involve appropriate technologies and local skills.

Japan/Thailand, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines

Projects called "Green Aid Plan" have jointly been implemented in the five
developing countries in areas such as human resource development, research
cooperation and technology demonstration (e.g. desulfurization technology).

Germany/Developing Countries (not specified

Promotion of private investments and technology transfer between private
sector companies in developing and newly industrializing countries.

Norway/Central and Eastern European Countries (not specified)

Energy efficiency, technology transfer and capacity-building projects.


Preparation of a project aimed at improving the production of tapioca.  An
essential phase of this project is the improvement of water irrigation and to
reduce the pressure on the environment.  The collaboration between the Belgian
private enterprises and local communities is encouraged.

A study is being undertaken on the environmental effects of the development
plan "Southern Seaboard".  The involvement of the Belgian private sector in
the project is generally desired since the transfer of technology is a general
objective to be achieved in the context of this project.

     Implementation of the Environmentally Sound Industrial Development
     (ESID) Programme for Morocco which aims at:  (i)  increasing the
     awareness in the environmental impact of the industrialization of the
     country;  (ii)  building the environmental/institutional capacity for
     monitoring and control of industrial pollution;  (iii)  creating a
     specialized information centre in environment/energy including cleaner
     production database;  and (iii)  compiling the laws and regulations of
     the investment code and the environment code in a guidelines document
     for investors and future industrial site planning.

United Kingdom/Developing Countries (not specified)

Implementation of the Technology Partnership Initiative (TPI) to encourage
transfer of technology and know-how on commercial terms to 43 rapidly
industrializing developing countries in Latin America, Africa, and the Middle
and Far East.  These technologies must be both affordable and appropriate to
the needs of the clients in the recipient countries.  It seems to achieve this
by increasing direct business contacts and by providing businesses and
organizations overseas with information on proven technologies, management
techniques and best practice adopted in the United Kingdom.

United States of America/Developing Countries (not specified)
Implementation of the Environmental Pollution Prevention (EP3) project to
create and support sustainable pollution prevention programs in developing
countries, providing access to U.S. pollution prevention information and
expertise, and applying pollution prevention actions to both urban and
industrial sectors.  Country programs have been established to date in: Chile,
Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia and Tunisia.  EIP is working to transfer ESTs in
Brunei, Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand.  EIP and IEMP
collaborate on EST transfer in the Philippines.

Netherlands/Central and Eastern European Countries (not specified)

Established the program for cooperation with Central and Eastern Europe.  Part
of the budget in this program has been used for environmental technology
cooperation.  The program has three main goals:  (i) the development of a
market economy, privatization and entrepreneurship;  (ii) the strengthening of
the competitiveness of and modernization of the market, restructuring,
rationalization and upgrading of the private sector;  and (iii) the
development of sustainable processes of production and energy saving
techniques in the private sector.

     Support to UNEP in the field of education and transfer of knowledge to
     developing countries, including:
     -    participation in the assessment of the environmental aspects in
          relation to industrial sectors (pulp and paper, cement) for Egypt,
          Zimbabwe and Senegal.  For the pulp and paper industry of Egypt,
          an in-depth assessment has been carried out and financed.
     -    support to the UNEP Working Group on Sustainable Product
          Development to promote development of cleaner products on a global

     /World Bank
     Support to the World Bank with several activities such as:
     -    revision of the guidelines for industrial pollution prevention and
     -    the preparation of a cleaner production programme by the Asia
     -    exchange of information on the transfer of technology with several
          country departments such as for Colombia, Indonesia, China and
          Eastern Europe.

US-AEP/Chile, Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia, Tunisia

Coordinates efforts under the ASEAN environmental impact project to foster
clean technology and pollution prevention.  In addition, the Environmental
Pollution Prevention (EP3) project, administered by the US Agency for
International Development, aims at creating and supporting sustainable
pollution prevention programs in developing countries, providing access to US
pollution prevention information and expertise, and applying pollution
prevention actions to both urban and industrial sectors.  EP3 country
programs have been established to date in Chile, Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia and

     /Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines
     Supports activities in the six ASEAN member countries.  In addition,
     nearly thirty other Asian and Pacific countries are eligible for
     participation in its programmes.

     /Asian Countries (not specified)
     Sponsors the Environmental Technology Fund which is a series of
     small-matching grants administered through the US-based National
     Association of State Development Agencies.  These grants help small and
     medium sized US businesses bring their ESTs to the Asian region and
     demonstrate them.


Support to promote low cost EST solutions to environmental problems, including
research and development in universities and technical institutes for low cost
EST based efforts to solve environmental problems.

Support effective organization and the relevant professional skills, and to
make it possible to carry out pollution control and water resources management
(period: 1993-94; budget: DKK 7.9 mill).

     Assist the national government in the context of developing the National
     Environmental Strategy in establishing systems to ensure a sustainable
     natural resource use, setting up of an environmental secretariat and
     formulating a national environmental strategy and preparation of
     environmental impact statements (period: 1990-97;  budget: DKK 12 mill).

     Assist governmental authorities in the preparation of guidelines which
     ensure environmental concerns a central position in national planning
     and to establish cooperation among the authorities and between the
     public and private sector (period: 1990-97;  budget: DKK 12 mill).

     Implementation of three integrated environment projects, through NGOs'
     grass level activities, to change environmental policy on national as
     well as local level, and to improve the environment and the common
     population's quality of life.


Assistance in environmental auditing and management to develop environmental
management in metal, chemical and/or pulp and paper sector industries (budget:

US$ 1 mill and Eœ 3 mill).

Hazardous waste management in the Alexandria Metropolitan area to develop an
environmentally safe management system for all major hazardous wastes
generated in the Alexandria area (budget:  US$ 1 mill).

     Pangani Hydro-Power Plant, 70 MW, subsidizing fossil fuels.

     Diesel power plants in Iquitos, 18 MW, subsidizing steam power.

     Diesel power plant in Biratnagar, 24 MW, subsidizing aggregates.

All of these programmes/projects are mainly supported by associated financing
and involvement of the private sector.

Commission of European Communities/ Developing Countries (not specified; and
Central and Eastern European countries)
Technology cooperation programmes have been launched geared towards fostering
the build- up of the local human and technological capacities for the
effective diffusion of cleaner production processes and cleaner products. 
External evaluations of these programmes have highlighted their scientific
quality and cost-effectiveness, as well as the successful links forged between
scientists and institutions, North and South. 

FAO/International Agricultural Research Centres (IARCs)/ National Agricultural
Research Sites (NARS)

Started, with the financial support of UNDP, a joint initiative to strengthen
collaboration in technology transfer, with focus on technology identification
and technology transfer pilot programmes that are conducive to on-farm
adoption of improved and appropriate technologies, as well as on production
systems that enhance sustainable and improved agricultural production. 
Provisions for commercialization of the technologies are considered.

      B.    Funding Provided by Financial Institutions

Financial Institutions - Policies and Programmes

Asian Development Bank (ADB)

Earmarked a $150 million fund for investments in companies which contribute to
sustainable development in Asian markets.

Central American Bank for Economic Integration(CABEI)

CABEI has approved technical cooperation funds for the following projects:

     /Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica
     Institutional strengthening of the Science and Technology Council
     Institutional strengthening of the Science and Technology Council
     Technological Information system for the productive sector (TIPS)

International Finance Corporation (IFC)

Provides training in environmental risk management to its financial
intermediary client, indirectly encouraging application of ESTs since their,
environmental performance including, investment decisions will motivate
companies to use ESTs.

     A US$ 2.8 mill. MFMP grant was approved for conversion of Misr
     Compressor Manufacturing Co., a private compressor manufacturer to
     produce compressors configured for non-CFC refrigerants.

     A US$ 35 mill. GEF grant was approved to undertake a
     utility/manufacturer demand side management initiative to build the
     market for energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps and related

North American Environment Fund/Mexico

Mexico's largest development bank, the North American Environmental Fund, is
jointly managed by the US-based Ventana Environmental Corporation and Nafin. 
The Fund invests in environmental technology joint ventures between Mexican
and US companies.  The public sector Japanese Overseas Economic Cooperation
Fund has invested $25 million with the rest of the funds predominantly coming
from private investors.  The principal focus of the Fund is on financing
Build-Operate-Transfer type environmental infrastructure and associated
technology transfer.

Nordic Development Fund (NDF)

Loans given for projects involving transfer of environmentally sound

     Molepolole Mochudi Ground Water Exploitation

     Beishigiao Waste Water Treatment Plant (Xian); Hedong Waste Water
     Treatment Plant (Urumqi) and the Tanggu Geothermal Project.

     /Dominican Republic
     Forest Management Project (Plan Sierra).

     Forestation Project (Deuxieme Projet de Developpement Forestier).

Nordic Investment Bank (NIB)

Loans for projects involving transfer of environmentally sound technologies:

     Tanggu Geothermal Project; Beishigiao Waste Water Treatment Plant (Xian)
     and the Hedong Wastewater Treatment Plant (Urumqi).

     Kemvesi Production of Water Chemicals and the Kunda Nordic Cement,
     Environmental Rehabilitation of Cement Factory.

     Forestation Project.

     Environmental Investment Programme.

     Forestry Project.

     Istanbul Water and Sewerage Works; Forestation Project and the Greater
     City of Istanbul Solid Waste Treatment Plant.

Nordic Environmental Finance Corporation (NEFC)

NEFCO provides risk capital for long term cooperation between Nordic and East
European enterprises in the field of environmental technology.  The
Corporation has a capital base of $50 million and can participate in up to 35%
of the equity of a joint venture, as long as private sector partners
participate on equal terms.  NEFCO can also provide funding for
feasibility studies and mobilize additional debt for projects.

     /Czech Republic
     Hazardous Waste Handling Plant and the Computer Based Control System for
     Energy Savings.

     Production of Water Chemicals; Manufacturing of Bio Rotors (Waste Water
     Treatment Equipment); Environmental Rehabilitation of Cement Factory and
     the Manufacturing of Devices for Energy and Process Control.

     Municipal Effluent Treatment.

     Production of Water Chemicals; Manufacturing of Flue Gas Cleaning
     Equipment; Manufacturing of Environmental-Friendly Welding Equipment;
     Environmental Rehabilitation Plan of Paper Mill and the Environmental
     Rehabilitation of Paper Mill and Liquidation of Pulp Mill.

     Hazardous Waste Handling.

     Utilization of Geothermal Power.

Inter-American Investment Corporation (IIC)

IIC does not specifically engage in channelling financial resources for the
transfer of technology nor for technical cooperation.  However, some of the
projects financed by IIC include a technology or technology transfer
component, as stated below, and these projects and related operations are
aimed at the private sector in Latin America and the Caribbean:

     Financing provided to a company for upgrading technology for processing
     local agricultural commodities into high-value export products.

     Financing provided to a processor of cattle and poultry by-products to
     expand operations.

     Loan given to a mining company engaged in production of boron minerals
     to finance construction of a chemical facility for boric acid
     production, fostering intra-regional and international transfer of

     Financing provided to a leading tissue paper manufacturer and maker of
     special papers for packaging, for expansion through the purchase of new

     Financing provided to implement a satellite data telecommunications
     network, as well as financing for the production of a new light
     specially designed aircraft.

     Financing provided to facilitate the purchase of state-of-the-art
     technology imported from the US to build and operate a freezing and
     packing plant for processing fruits and vegetables.

     Financing provided for the expansion of a company, maker of specialty
     chemicals, biodegradable detergents, dispersants, emulsifying and
     antifoaming agents, and solvents.

     Financing provided to implement a satellite-based network for
     transmitting information, both domestic and international links for
     data, voice and video transmission.

Islamic Development Bank (IDB)

Financing of major projects that include technology transfer and

     Sewerage system for eight cities.

     Garbage composting plant.

     Oasis Development Project.

     Izmir Bay Cleaning Project and the Reforestation Project.

     Left Bank Outfall Drainage.

     Flood control projects.

Recent technical assistance projects funded by the IDB in developing countries
which involve the transfer of environmentally sound technologies are:

     Disposal of solid wastes in Jeddah.  A feasibility study is also being
     conducted for the utilization of solid wastes to produce a comprehensive
     plan for technically sound and cost-effective solid waste management
     with acceptable environmental impact.

     Protection of the seashore and waste treatment.

     Water resources.

     Water resources.

     Water resources.

      C.    Successful Recent Investments

Countries/Organizations - Policies and Programmes


Investments in chrome recovery systems, with the collaboration of the
Netherlands; the UASB System for tannery effluent; and Bio-methanation for
primary treatment of distillery effluent.

US-AEP/Republic of Korea

Through US-AEP, Remote Sensing Technology, a private sector company based in
Colorado, finalized an agreement with the Republic of Korea for the delivery
of sensors for car fuel efficiency and pollution prevention.

United States of America/Thailand

In the result of a Thai Government and USAID initiative to alleviate air
pollution in Bangkok, the world's first three-wheel-electric vehicle factory
is being established as a Thai-US joint venture in Bangkok.


Supports a number of bilateral activities which aim to promote environmentally
sound technology transfer and cooperation.  Under the Indonesia program, $22
million is being provided over five years for the BAPEDAL Pollution Control
Project which is designed to improve Indonesia's environment protection
capabilities by helping to develop the capacity of Indonesia's environment
protection agency.

     The Nepal Australia Community Forestry Project involves the
     reafforestation of severely eroded areas of Nepal through the
     establishment of community managed forests.  The project is also
     intended to reduce demand for fuelwood by spreading knowledge on the
     construction and use of fuel efficient cooking stoves.  A total of just
     under $10 million was approved for this project in 1991 for a duration
     of five years.

     A waste management project at an estimated cost of $12 million is
     beingimplemented to improve industrial hazardous waste management
     procedures and practices in the city of Hyderabad.  Assistance include a
     waste minimization/clean production component for waste audit
     techniques, clean production training, demonstration and grants to
     factories installing clean production technologies.

   /Thailand, China, Papua New Guinea
     Assistance to a Lignite Mines Project in Thailand has gradually expanded
     to include mine waste management.  Similar mine waste management
     projects also currently exist in China and Papua New Guinea.


Wind Energy Project to develop the institutional framework for a long-term
exploitation of wind energy, to establish a national wind energy centre and a
demonstration park for wind mills, to prepare a wind-atlas for the Read See
Coast, and to develop a master plan for the future exploitation of wind energy
(budget:  DKK 31.8 mill).

     Appropriate Technology and Ecology Farming to encourage sustainable
     development in farming at Mindanao Island, with ecology and biodynamic
     farming, use of local seeds, appropriate technology, training and
     general education (budget:  DKK 2.7 mill).

     Appropriate Technology and Environment Project to decrease the
     dependence of fossil fuel through the spread of non-exhaustible energy
     technologies and to strengthen the value of the traditional culture
     through training and general education  (budget:  DKK 7.9 mill).

     /Cape Verde
     Wind Energy Project to contribute to Cape Verde's self-sufficiency in
     energy through the establishment of windmills (budget:  DKK 44 mill).

     Tree Seed Bank Project with ongoing preparations for setting up a tree
     seed bank in preparation for making Nicaragua self-sufficient with pine
     and foliferous seeds and to increase the export and sustain important
     genetic resources (budget:  30.2 mill).

     Project on the improvement of production and living conditions for the
     village people in one of Tanzania's most underdeveloped districts. 
     Among the planned activities are to encourage environmental arrangement,
     e.g. tree planting and soil and water conservation (budget:  DKK 344


With the Finnish pre-mixed concessional credit scheme, the Government of
Finland supports investments with Finnish deliveries in various developing
countries.  Within about 100 projects of this scheme, the next following ones
may be seen as demonstrations of environmentally sound technology investments:

     -    Fluidized bed-based power generation, 100 MW, in Neijiang, for
          waste material use.
     -    Combined electricity and district heat generation in Mudanjian and
          Taijuan, for energy efficiency.
     -    Municipal secondary sewerage treatment in Wuhan for pollution
     -    Process development and automatization in SAILS-steel industry for
          energy and raw materials saving.

     -    Indo-Nordic Industrial Pollution Control Programme to stimulate
          Indian industry to invest in clean technologies and thereby
          prevent industrial pollution as well as to promote Nordic clean
          technologies in India.
     -    Industrial filters for pollution control.
     -    Diesel generators for energy efficiency.

     Scrap metal sorting and processing.

     Process rehabilitation in PASAR-copper smelters for energy saving and
     pollution control.

     Process rehabilitation and new technology in Phoenix Pulp and Paper
     Industry for water saving, recovery and pollution control.

World Bank/India

World Bank provided funding to India of about $ 300 million to support new
investments on ESTs;  About $ 30 million to support common effluent treatment
plants;  And about $ 10 million for municipal sewage recycling.

      D.    Build-Operate-Transfer Arrangements.

Countries/Organizations/Financial Institutions - Policies and Programmes


A number of feasibility studies for activities which incorporate BOT
arrangements have received assistance under the development cooperation
program.  One of these feasibility study which incorporates BOT arrangements
on the viability of a joint venture to undertake privatised waste water
management projects in China.  The feasibility study also covered associated
training of engineers in the technology required for cost effective treatment
of water and sewerage.


Environmental Management Centre, Waste Management Indonesia, Water Supply and
Sanitation for Low Income Communities, Solar Electrification.


Participation in BOTs in India, Thailand and Indonesia and are working on
others in Taiwan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea and Malaysia.

US-AID's Regional Housing and Urban Development Offices in Indonesia and
Thailand have signed bilateral Housing Investment Guarantee agreements with
the governments of Indonesia and Thailand to finance urban infrastructure
projects.  These agreements provide funding for public projects and, in the
future, will support financing for private projects on a Build-Own-Operate
(BOO) or Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) basis.

United States of America

US AID's Regional Housing and Urban Development Offices in Indonesia and
Thailand have signed bilateral Housing Investment Guarantee agreements with
the governments of Indonesia and Thailand to finance urban infrastructure
projects.  These agreements provide funding for public projects and, in the
future, will support financing for private projects on a Build-Own-Operate
(BOO) or Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) basis. 


BOTs exists in the energy sector.

United Kingdom

BOT arrangements are an integral part of the United Kingdom's technology
cooperation activities.


IFC has approved financing a number of BOT projects, including:
-     Privatization of the potable water supply and sewerage system for Buenos
-     Constructing a 25-megawatt hydroelectric plant in Belize;
-     Building a waste water treatment plant in Mexico;
-     Building a 700-megawatt coal-fired thermal power plant in the
      Philippines; and
-     Constructing a 200-megawatt gas-turbine power plant in the Philippines.


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Date last posted: 2 December 1999 13:22:30
Comments and suggestions: DESA/DSD