Stockpiled ammunition can become unsafe if not properly stored. Unintended explosions of ammunition depots have affected over 100 countries worldwide, leading to thousands of casualties over the past 15 years. Moreover, when depots are not well managed, they form an unremitting source for diversion of ammunition to armed groups and criminals, thus sustaining conflict and armed criminal activity.
Through the UN SaferGuard programme, the UN works on improving whole-life management of ammunition, thus providing people more safety and more security.
- Report of the GGE — 2008
The UN SaferGuard programme oversees the dissemination and application of International Ammunition Technical Guidelines (IATG): detailed standards to improve the safety and security of ammunition storage sites. IATG come at basic, intermediate and advanced levels.
12 practical tools — all IATG-compliant — to assist in adequate ammunition management.
International Ammunition Technical Guidelines
Effective ammunition stockpile management needs a ‘whole-life management’ approach, ranging from categorization and accounting, to physical security, to surveillance, to recurrently assessing the stability and reliability of ammunition. The International Ammunition Technical Guidelines (IATG) form the foundation of the UN SaferGuard Programme. Users of these guidelines opt for basic, intermediate, or advanced level advice, making IATG guidance relevant for all situations.
Risk reduction checklist
Within the IATG, the tasks and activities necessary for safe, efficient and effective stockpile management equate to one of three risk levels. These are indicated within each IATG as either LEVEL 1, LEVEL 2 or LEVEL 3, dependent on the degree of complexity of each task or activity. Determine the Risk Reduction Process Level(RRPL) for a stockpile by answering the questions below, then clicking on the “Estimate Risk” button at the bottom of the page.
Explosive limit licence generator
The storage of military explosives presents inherent risks to nearby persons and property. One of the most efficient means of reducing risk and thereby contributing towards protecting the public from the effects of an explosive event is by the use of separation distances.
Explosion Consequence Analysis
An Explosion Consequence Analysis (ECA) is a structured process, utilizing explosives science and explosives engineering, to provide scientific evidence of the potential hazard or risk to individuals and property from blast effects and fragmentation in the event of an undesirable explosive event.
Kingery-Bulmash Blast Parameter Calculator
Equations to estimate blast over-pressure at range have been developed by Charles Kingery and Gerald Bulmash. These equations are widely accepted as authoritative engineering predictions for determining free-field pressures and loads on structures. The equations in this calculator are based on data from explosive tests using charge weights from less than 1kg to over 400,000kg.
This calculator is based on the Kingery-Bulmash equations used to model a hemispheric, surface explosion, and should not be used for applications requiring the calculation of values for a spherical burst in the air.
Gurney Equations for Fragment Velocity
The Gurney Equations are a range of formulae used in explosives engineering to predict how fast an explosive will accelerate a surrounding layer of metal or other material when the explosive detonates. This determines how fast fragments are released on detonation of an item of ammunition. This initial fragment velocity can then be used with other ballistic equations to predict either danger areas or fragment penetration.
Hopkinson-Cranz Scaling Law
Many States use rules based upon the explosives, their quantity, and the distance from the explosive to where people are at risk. These rules are known as Quantity-Distance (Q-D) criteria, and are based on the approach derived from the Hopkinson-Cranz Scaling Law, which is further amended by a range of coefficients. It is the basis of much of the work on the estimation of appropriate quantity and separation distances.
- INTERPOL Ballistic Information Network
- Arms Trade Treaty
- Firearms Protocol
- Programme of Action on Small Arms
- Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement
- UN Mine Action Service
- Improvised Explosive Devices
- Mine Ban Convention
- Convention on Cluster Munitions
- World Customs Organization
- ICAO/dangerous goods
- IATA/dangerous goods