Information on the meetings of the GGE on LAWS and all relevant documents are available on the ODA Meetings Place.
Background on the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE)
- In 2013, the CCW Meeting of High Contracting Parties decided that the Chairperson will convene in 2014 an informal Meeting of Experts to discuss the questions related to emerging technologies in the area of lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS).
- In 2014, the first informal Meeting of Experts was held and chaired by Ambassador Simon-Michel of France. A further two informal Meetings of Experts were held in 2015 and 2016 and chaired by Ambassador Michael Biontino of Germany.
- In 2016, at the Fifth CCW Review Conference, presided over by Ambassador Tehmina Janjua of Pakistan, High Contracting Parties decided to establish a Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) on LAWS to meet for the first time in 2017 with a mandate to assess questions related to emerging technologies in the area of lethal autonomous weapons systems.
- At the recommendation of the 2019 GGE on LAWS, 11 guiding principles were adopted by the 2019 Meeting of the High Contracting Parties to the CCW (CCW/MSP/2019/9-Annex III).
11 Guiding Principles on LAWS
UN Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR)
- The Human Elements in Decisions about the Use of Force, UNIDIR, 2020
- Swarm Robotics: Technical and Operational Overview of the Next Generation of Autonomous Systems, UNIDIR, 2020
- Modernizing Arms Control: Exploring responses to the use of AI in military decision-making, UNIDIR, 2020
- The Black Box, Unlocked: Predictability and Understandability in Military AI, UNIDIR, 2020
- The Weaponization of Increasingly Autonomous Technologies: Artificial Intelligence, 2018
- The Weaponization of Increasingly Autonomous Technologies: Concerns, Characteristics and Definitional Approaches, 2017
- Safety, Unintentional Risk and Accidents in the Weaponization of Increasingly Autonomous Technologies, 2016
- The Weaponization of Increasingly Autonomous Technologies in the Maritime Environment: Testing the Waters, 2015
- The Weaponization of Increasingly Autonomous Technologies: Considering Ethics and Social Values, 2015
- The Weaponization of Increasingly Autonomous Technologies: Considering how Meaningful Human Control might move the discussion forward, 2014
- Framing Discussions on the Weaponization of Increasingly Autonomous Technologies, 2014
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
- Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial summary or arbitrary executions, United Nations Human Rights Council, 2013
International Committee of the Red Cross
- Limits of Autonomy in Weapon Systems (SIPRI and ICRC, June 2020)
- Autonomy, artificial intelligence and robotics: Technical aspects of human control (August 2019)
- CCW/GGE.1/2018/WP.5 – International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC, 2018)
- Ethics and autonomous weapon systems: An ethical basis for human control? (ICRC, 2018)
- Autonomous Weapon Systems: Implications of Increasing Autonomy in the Critical Functions of Weapons (ICRC, 2016)
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