Expert voices Vol 23, No. 12 - December 2019

COP25: SDG Pavilion enhances link between climate action and SDGs

As global temperatures keep rising, transformative change is urgently needed to mitigate the climate-related risks to human life and well-being. The UN Climate Change Conference (COP25), to be held on 2-13 December in Madrid, Spain, will bring together the international community to accelerate efforts to reduce global warming. UN DESA is contributing by hosting the SDG Pavilion, an interactive space where relevant actors can share experiences and ideas on how best to leverage tangible action. We spoke with Minoru Takada in UN DESA’s Division for Sustainable Development Goals about what to expect.

Why is it important to connect the climate agenda with the SDGs and 2030 Agenda?

“The first thing to note is that the two agendas are really two sides of the same coin. The Sustainable Development Goals—which include Goal 13 specifically on climate action—provide a blueprint for the transition needed to a healthier planet and a more just world, and climate change provides the urgency for accelerating action now. The other SDGs have direct links to climate change, for instance, protecting our forests, promoting access to water and sanitation, protecting our ocean, supporting clean energy, ensuring sustainable food production, creating jobs—these all will help us mitigate the worst effects of global temperature rise. This is backed up by the findings of the Global Sustainable Development Report that a group of independent scientists issued this year at the Secretary-General’s request. So, action on one agenda supports the other. We just need to make sure that we are working smartly and not in silos.”

How is UN DESA working to break down these silos?

“We’ve been doing a lot of work on this during the past year, starting with organizing the inaugural SDG Pavilion at COP24 in Katowice, Poland, in 2018. That experience not only brought together stakeholders to share best practices on SDG and climate implementation, but also it helped to establish good relationships with colleagues at UNFCCC. Together, our departments held the Climate and SDGs Synergy Conference in Copenhagen last April. That meeting expressly identified gaps and challenges in both climate action and SDG implementation, and resulted in new ideas for collaboration and avoiding duplication of work. UN DESA Under-Secretary-General Liu Zhenmin and UNFCCC Executive Secretary issued a joint op-ed calling for work on both agendas to be better aligned, and in November, our two entities jointly issued an extended report on the Conference findings.

Of course, it’s not only UN DESA and UNFCCC that are working on this. The Secretary-General has been clear in his remarks this year, notably at his Climate Action Summit, that we need to link climate change to a new model of development with less suffering, and more justice and harmony between people and planet. The whole UN system has been mobilized toward this effort to leave no one behind.”

Tell us more about this year’s SDG Pavilion!

“Yes! This is the second year that UN DESA is organizing the SDG Pavilion at a climate COP, and we’re building on the lessons learned last year. It’s a big, colorful space with all 17 SDG icons on the walls, so our guests will have that constant reminder. For our programming, we’ll have panel discussions, Q & A sessions and special events that move forward the climate and SDGs conversation, particularly as they relate to sustainable transportation—aviation, cars and shipping being big drivers of carbon emissions—and the ocean, which is under threat from the impacts of climate change but also provides some solutions. UN DESA is organizing two big conferences in 2020 on these topics, so we want to engage all the stakeholders on those issues to generate some innovative new policies and partnerships next year.”

Learn more about the SDG Pavilion on this website, and follow #SDGPavilion and @SustDev on Twitter and Facebook during COP25 from 2 to 13 December.

More than a toilet: sanitation critical to anti-poverty efforts

The United Nations commemorates World Toilet Day every year on 19 November to draw global attention to the alarming statistic that 4.2 billion people live without adequate sanitation services. Ahead of this year’s celebration, we spoke to Madhushree Chatterjee, Chief of the Natural Resources and Interlinkages Branch of UN DESA’s Division for Sustainable Development Goals, who filled us in on this year’s plans and why sanitation plays a critical role for global efforts to eradicate poverty. “A toilet is not just a toilet—it’s a lifesaver, dignity-protector and opportunity-maker,” Ms. Chatterjee said.

What’s new for World Toilet Day in 2019?

“The theme of World Toilet Day 2019, “leaving no one behind,” is aligned with the central promise of the Sustainable Development Goals. This year, we want to show that a toilet is not just a toilet—it’s a lifesaver, dignity-protector and opportunity-maker.

Imagine if hours of your time and your mental and physical effort had to go to something as basic as finding a safe toilet. How could anyone lift themselves out of poverty? We remind the international community that we must leave no one behind as we expand access to safe toilets, because whoever you are, wherever you are, sanitation is your human right.”

What does “safe toilet” mean?

“When someone has a “safely managed sanitation service,” to use the technical term, it means they use hygienic toilet facilities that are not shared with other households and where excreta are either separated from human contact and safely disposed of in situ or transported and treated off-site, thereby protecting people and the environment from disease agents.

Good examples of this include flush/pour flush toilets connected to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or latrine pits, ventilated improved pit latrines, composting toilets; or, pit latrines with slab covers. More installation of these will help the 673 million people who still practice open defecation. I’ll add that 3 billion people lack basic handwashing facilities, and it’s the poorest and most marginalized people who are likely to lack safely managed sanitation services and often face many forms of discrimination.”

So how can we leave no one behind?

“It’s going to require a lot of work and a lot of partnerships between water and sanitation stakeholders. SDG monitoring data shows a massive acceleration in progress is needed on SDG 6. At current rates of progress only 40 out of 152 countries are on track to achieve basic sanitation by 2030. Rates of progress are even slower for rural communities and the poorest populations, so achieving SDG 6 will require faster rates of progress in the least advantaged segments of society. We need more funding, less pollution, better wastewater treatment and stronger water governance structures to manage the growing demand for clean water and sanitation services.”

Where can we learn more?

“Learn about World Toilet Day and UN-Water’s efforts toward implementing SDG 6 by visiting Download our posters and digital materials to help us spread the word about access to sanitation!”

Ms. Chatterjee also serves as the Secretary for UN-Water, the interagency mechanism that coordinates the UN’s work on water and sanitation issues, particularly around implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 6.

Gathering storms and silver linings – what’s holding back SDG progress?

UN Secretary-General António Guterres recently called for the next ten years to become a decade of action to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). But in a rapidly changing world, ten years is a very long time. How can we plan for a future that will be drastically different from the present? UN DESA’s latest report – the Sustainable Development Outlook – tries to answer this question by analysing the megatrends that will shape our world over the next decade and studying their impact on our chances to achieve the global goals. We talked to the report authors. 

In your report, subtitled “Gathering storms and silver linings,” you mention climate change, rising inequalities and economic insecurities as some of the “storms.” Are these the challenges we should address most urgently to achieve the SDGs?

Hamid Rashid: “As we present in the report, SDGs are facing significant headwinds. We cannot afford to ignore them. It is an imperative that we address the mutually reinforcing challenges of inequality and insecurity to address the existential threat of climate change. We need comprehensive approaches, plans and strategies to address high and rising levels of inequality, which is the root of many evils in societies. Inequality – like poverty – is multidimensional.

Our focus should not be just focus on income inequality. We must also address inequality in access and opportunities, which exacerbates economic uncertainties and insecurity. Taming inequality is a must for winning the war against climate change and also for achieving all the SDGs.”

You also discuss the vicious cycle of climate change, violent conflicts, displacement, and nationalism. Can you explain how it works?

Nazrul Islam: “Yes, a vicious cycle may emerge. It may work in the following way. Climate change, either by itself or by causing conflicts, has become a driver of unregulated migration, which is causing political backlash in many developed countries, fomenting nationalism and encouraging withdrawal from multilateral efforts aimed at solving global problems.

However, weakening of the multilateral efforts can only aggravate climate change and conflicts, increasing the pressure for migration, thus leading to a vicious cycle. The danger of such a vicious cycle is real. The Sustainable Development Outlook draws attention to this danger so that it can be prevented.”

On the other hand, you point to new, frontier technologies as the “silver lining.” Can technology really save us?

Hiroshi Kawamura: “Yes, it can. We have accumulated enough scientific knowledge that is backed by a large amount of data. We have developed frontier technologies that transform the knowledge into real-life applications. And we have gained a large pool of experience where these technologies have applied for various purposes in many different situations.

The Sustainable Development Outlook shows several new technologies that have already demonstrated their capabilities, or solid potential, for advancing SDGs in the areas of decent housing, sustainable agriculture, public health and energy security. With stronger political will, greater public support and larger public and private funding, new technologies can be applied in wider geographical areas in many different SDG areas. The silver lining can be even brighter and shield even larger areas when frontier technologies are employed more widely, effectively and efficiently.”

In conclusion, should the findings of your report fill us with hope or with caution?

Hamid Rashid: “The report is a wake-up call for all us. It is also a call to action. What we need is cautious optimism, not complacency. The challenges outlined in the report are looming large. Ignoring – or going about business as usual – will not make them disappear. The report, we believe, makes a compelling case for bold and urgent actions to overcome these existential.”

Access more information and download a preview of the report here. The complete report will be available online on 10 October 2019.

Science report offers concrete actions to realize global goals

All kinds of people, from UN delegates to youth organizers and business leaders, often say that realizing the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030 will create a better world—and now science truly backs this claim. The 2019 Global Sustainable Development Report (GSDR) will launch on 11 September, providing a science- and evidence-based tool in support of the global goals. We spoke with Shantanu Mukherjee, chief of the Integrated Policy and Analysis Branch in UN DESA’s Division for Sustainable Development Goals, about the report and some of the key findings.

How did the Global Sustainable Development Report originally come about?

“The GSDR was mandated in the Rio+20 outcome, when Member States were laying the groundwork for the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals. The negotiators knew that the Agenda would be complex, and unprecedented in ambition, and that the traditional siloed approach to development would not be adequate. They recognized the power of science to understand and navigate relationships among social, environmental and economic development objectives, and so they called for a report to strengthen the science-policy interface.

In 2016, Member States decided that the report should be produced once every four years so as to inform the quadrennial SDG review deliberations at the General Assembly, and that it should be written by an Independent Group of Scientists appointed by the Secretary-General. The first such report will be launched this month.”

What does the report say about the state of sustainable development?

“The report is entitled “The Future is Now: Science for Achieving Sustainable Development,” and that name does express the urgency that runs through the text. The report finds that we are dangerously off track in many areas: we are at risk of missing the poverty eradication target, hunger is on the rise, and progress towards gender parity is too slow.

Inequalities in wealth and income are increasing in many countries, and inequalities in opportunities are limiting chances for upward mobility. Vulnerable populations—in countries in special situations, in conflict and post-conflict settings, migrants, women, youth, people with disabilities, among others—continue to be at risk of being left behind. And we are approaching tipping points in biodiversity loss and green-house gas emissions, which threaten to irreversibly erode the natural systems that sustain us.”

The situation sounds dire. Does the report offer a way forward?

“Yes, and the second part of the title holds the key! The science community—including social and natural sciences—has been carrying out research and analysis, making discoveries and driving innovation that holds the promise of changing our current development trajectory. Such change is only possible if the interlinkages across goals and targets are treated systemically, so that our actions realize the full potential of synergies and avoid the trade-offs.

The report looks in particular at six entry points through which systemic transformations can take place – human wellbeing, the economy, food and nutrition, energy, urban development and the global environmental commons. The transformations will not be easy, but the report includes concrete actions within each entry point, and we are hopeful that governments will use it as a tool as they recommit to achieving the 2030 Agenda in the 10 short years we have left.

Political will and the engagement of policy makers, the private sector, civil society, communities and individuals are now needed to make the necessary large-scale transformations. Overall, the report also emphasizes that while science is essential to SDG progress, there also needs to be more of it directed towards finding solutions for implementation bottlenecks, especially in developing countries where investments in research are woefully low.”

For more information: Global Sustainable Development Report 2019 

Planet or plastic – the choice is yours

With more than 2,000 participants from all over the world, this year’s High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF) was the largest global review of progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals yet. Among the 2,000 guests were Heather Koldewey and Sara Hylton of the National Geographic Society’s “Sea to Source: Ganges” expedition,  part of National Geographic’s “Planet or Plastic” initiative. Here is what they had to say about the global plastic pollution crisis.

UN DESA: The fight against plastic pollution has inspired massive global action. Arguably even more so than climate change. What is it about plastic?

Heather Koldewey, National Geographic Fellow: “Plastic really is a very visible part of our society and what we’re doing, as people, to the environment. So, I think that connection of cause and effect, of what you choose to buy, what you choose to use, how you choose to live your life, as it links to plastic, is something that’s immediately relatable to everybody. And it’s also something that everybody can change. That’s a very quick action in terms of reducing the amount of plastic or looking for more sustainable alternatives. That means that we can really make quick change very easily.”

Sara Hylton, National Geographic Photographer: “I was speaking to a friend yesterday and she bought five water bottles per day and recently just purchased a reusable water bottle. It’s not about completely changing our lives, it’s about making small, daily steps that make a huge impact in the single-use plastic pollution crisis.”

National Geographic has documented plastic pollution around the world – sometimes in the most unexpected places. But have you also seen any progress or local solutions that work?

HK: “All the research that we’ve done, everywhere we looked there is plastic. We haven’t found anywhere yet without plastic, in the oceans or in our waterways, which is a massively concerning challenge. But we are seeing many local solutions emerging.”

SH: “We had a chance to speak with waste pickers who are part of an informal sector who are working to recycle plastic bottles because there’s value in plastic bottles. So, I think if we look at the grass-roots level, we see a lot of things that are happening among these communities that make us hopeful.”

Can we still live without plastic? What are our alternatives? Is it a simple question of swapping one material with another or is there more to it?

HK: “It’s not about eliminating plastic, it’s how we use it. Over half or about half of the plastic that’s manufactured every year is used for single-use plastic. So, we take this remarkable material, we use it for a few seconds or a few minutes, and then we throw it away where we bear the legacy for hundreds—if not thousands—of years on the planet. And it’s that use that we’re looking to change.”

Register your SDG Acceleration Action now!

The adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015 has mobilized global and local action toward a sustainable future for all of the world’s people and the environment. But it’s clear that far more is needed to achieve the Goals. The upcoming SDG Summit, to be held 24-25 September at UN Headquarters, provides an opportunity to ramp up international commitment to the 2030 Agenda, showcase areas of global progress, and raise awareness on the importance of the SDGs globally. It is also looking to leverage progress in key areas to kick-start an acceleration process.

The Summit calls on all countries and actors to pledge new SDG Acceleration Actions for SDG implementation and will help build partnerships to further achievement at all levels. We spoke with Lotta Tahtinen, Chief of the Outreach and Partnerships Branch in UN DESA’s Division for Sustainable Development Goals, who told us about the new registry.

Can you tell us about these SDG Acceleration Actions?

“The Summit will be the first UN summit on the SDGs since their adoption in September 2015, and we’re asking all stakeholders, including Member States, local authorities, the private sector, foundations, young people, academic institutions and philanthropic organizations, to make a strong, specific commitment to amplify their work towards the goals. These SDG Acceleration Actions are initiatives voluntarily undertaken by countries and other actors and will be registered on an online database managed by UN DESA. We want to see many, many actions registered on behalf of all 17 SDGs.”

Who can submit an Action?

“Anyone! This inclusive platform provides a space for governments, businesses and all stakeholders to register acceleration actions. These commitments can reflect a new policy or programme, new investments or an increase in support for specific SDGs and/or communities.”

Sounds good! How can a person or organization register one?

“Go to the registry website,, and fill out all the fields in as much detail as possible. UN DESA will be reviewing all submissions and publishing them in the lead up to the Summit.”

What’s the criteria for selecting Acceleration Actions?

“SDG Acceleration Actions should facilitate and accelerate implementation of the 2030 Agenda and the SDGs, reflecting the interlinkages between goals. They should build on existing efforts, for instance, scaling up a successful initiative or pushing it into a new growth phase, and include the means of implementation such as finance, technology or capacity-building.

Another thing that’s really important to us is that Acceleration Actions follow the SMART Criteria, meaning the commitment is Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Resource-Based, with Time-based deliverables. And of course, they should reflect the principles of the UN Charter and 2030 Agenda.”

Is there any follow-up once the Action is registered?

“Definitely. UN DESA regularly prepares synthesis reports on the implementation of partnership commitments, which could include these acceleration actions, which can be used to identify good practices as well as identify gaps. The SDG Acceleration Actions registry also provides for a reporting and monitoring function to help ensure that acceleration actions are properly followed-up. UN DESA and the Department of Global Communications will collaborate on advertising selected initiatives in the lead up, during and after the SDG Summit to show the world all these great projects really impacting local communities in a positive way.”

For more information, or to register your SDG Acceleration Action, visit this site here.

The people behind the numbers – latest population trends to be revealed

For nearly seven decades, the UN has been collecting and analysing population data from countries or areas around the world to estimate the number of humans inhabiting planet Earth today and in the future. What do these numbers tell us? And why is it so important to be counted? As UN DESA prepares to launch the 2019 revision of World Population Prospects on 17 June 2019, we ask Thomas Spoorenberg, Population Affairs Officer at UN DESA’s Population Division.

World Population Prospects is considered the most accurate and trusted estimate of the human population. How is it produced?

“The UN Population Division, which is part of UN DESA, has been estimating and projecting the world’s population since 1951. A team of more than a dozen people has worked for more than a year on this latest update. We have spent most of our time analysing recent trends in fertility, mortality and international migration to determine the size and age structure of the population for 235 countries or areas.”

Where do all these data come from?

“We evaluate population censuses, vital registration of births and deaths and household surveys. For example, this latest assessment considers the results of 1,690 population censuses conducted between 1950 and 2018, information on births and deaths from numerous vital registration systems and demographic indicators from 2,700 surveys. We then feed those estimates into statistical models to project the future trajectories of fertility and mortality that will determine, in conjunction with future international migration, the future population of each country or area through 2100 and to assess the certainty of those projections.”

Going beyond the numbers, this publication talks about billions of real people – where they live, how old they are, whether they migrate. Why is it important to know all these things?

“Understanding global population trends and anticipating the demographic changes to come are crucial to sustainable development. The population trends we are observing over the past few decades tell us that we have made substantial progress towards several of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), such as reducing mortality among children, increasing access to sexual and reproductive health care and enhancing gender equality to empower women to decide freely and responsibly on the number of their children.

Looking ahead, by the year 2030, our population will be different from what we see today, and it will change even further by 2050. Societies need to adapt by anticipating future demographic trends and incorporating that information into policy and planning. For example, countries with rapid population growth, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, must plan to provide schooling and health care to growing numbers of children and ensure education and employment opportunities to increasing numbers of youth. Countries where the population has already ceased, or will soon cease, to grow must prepare for an increasing proportion of older persons and, in some cases, decreasing population numbers. With long-term objectives, such as the SDGs, analyzing population trends help us to plan not only for today’s, but also for tomorrow’s population.”

One thing we know already, even before the launch of the latest revision, is that our population is growing. Can we achieve the SDGs and curb climate change with even more of us on this planet?

“It’s true that the global population continues to grow, but the rate of increase is slower today than at any time since 1950 and we expect it to continue to slow over the coming decades. Overall, the world has been rather successful in reducing poverty and increasing the quality of life for many of the more than 5 billion people added to our population since 1950. But the world’s economy will need to grow sustainably to support the growing global population and to avoid negative impacts on the environment. Many of the fastest growing populations are in the world’s poorest countries. In these countries, population growth is a real challenge for efforts to eradicate poverty and inequality, combat hunger and malnutrition, strengthen the coverage and quality of education and health systems, and improve access to basic services.

Having said that, we should remember that population size and growth is just one part of a complex sustainable development equation, which also includes issues such as consumption, technology and the state of the environment. Slower population growth can help achieve the SDGs and the Paris Agreement climate targets, but it is even more important to encourage more responsible patterns of consumption and production that can ease pressure on ecosystems to generate food, preserve natural resources and allow the world more time to identify and adopt new technologies.”

Our population is not only getting larger, it is increasingly getting older. What will an older world look like? What adjustments will we have to make?

“Persons aged 65 or over already make up the world’s fastest growing age group and virtually all countries can expect the percentage of older persons in their populations to increase.  Countries need to plan now for population ageing to ensure the well-being of older persons, the protection of their human rights, their economic security, access to appropriate health services and lifelong learning opportunities, and formal and informal support networks.”

For more information: World Population Prospects 

Watch the launch of the 2019 Revision of the World Population Prospects live on 17 June, at 12 noon EDT on

Beyond taxes – how monetary and exchange rate policies can support sustainable development

A roadmap for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) often emphasizes the fiscal side of macroeconomic policy. The role of monetary and exchange rate policies, which are just as crucial for maintaining financial stability and external balance, are often overlooked. How can countries use them to boost sustainable economic growth and development? We ask UN DESA’s Senior Economic Affairs Officer, Ingo Pitterle.

Can you explain how macroeconomic policies, and monetary policy in particular , can support progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals?

“Successful development stories from all around the world show us that a sound macroeconomic policy framework is critical to deliver stable and healthy economic growth, which in turn promotes long-term sustainable development. A robust macroeconomic environment reduces uncertainty, stimulating consumption and investment.

But the role of macroeconomic policy can go beyond that. We have, for example, recently seen new initiatives for monetary policy to support the transition towards a low-carbon economy. A group of central banks and supervisors have established the Network for Greening the Financial System to enhance the financial system’s role in managing climate risks and mobilizing capital for green and low-carbon investments. Proposals have also been put forward to introduce a low-carbon bias in the asset composition of official reserves and collateral.”

How do developed and developing countries differ when it comes to the impact of monetary policy on the real economy?

“Traditional monetary policy actions, such as a rise or a cut in interest rates, affect economic activity through various ways, including through changes in borrowing and lending, the exchange rate and asset prices. In countries with well-developed financial sectors, interest rate changes often have a direct and significant effect on investment decisions, the housing sector and consumer spending on durable goods. Conversely, in countries with less developed financial markets, the transmission of monetary policy is generally less effective. Corporate investment in the formal sector may respond, but the informal sector and household sector are less sensitive to interest rates, partly because people spend most of their money on essential goods, particularly on food items.”

What changes have we seen in recent months in global monetary policy?

“Since mid-2018, there has been a broad-based slowdown in global growth while, at the same time, inflationary pressures have remained mostly subdued. This has triggered a shift towards easier monetary policy stances across many developed and developing economies, including the United States, Europe and China. These moves have helped stabilize global financial conditions, supporting a recovery in capital flows to emerging economies. While we believe that short-term financial pressures have declined, there is a risk that easier monetary conditions may further fuel debt accumulation and increase medium-term risks to financial stability.”

For more information: World Economic Situation And Prospects: Monthly Briefing May 2019

Traditional knowledge – an answer to the most pressing global problems?

Traditional knowledge is the foundation of indigenous peoples’ identities, cultural heritage, civilizations, livelihoods and coping strategies over several centuries. Its promotion, protection and preservation is fundamental for the sustainability of the livelihoods of indigenous peoples, their resilience to human-made and natural disasters and the development of their communities. It is also at the core of the rights of indigenous peoples. 

The crucial role of indigenous knowledge for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and for addressing the most pressing global problems is gaining international traction. Ahead of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues later this month, we spoke with Chandra Roy-Henriksen, Chief of the Secretariat of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues.

What are some of the threats for traditional knowledge? What can be done to protect it?

“Centuries of history of discrimination, exploitation, dispossession and colonization have led to the loss of traditional knowledge. Traditional knowledge is under threat and is being misused and misappropriated.

While scientific studies have investigated the tremendous potential of indigenous knowledge, few indigenous communities have gained from this. Innovations in science, technology, medicine, and pharmaceutics are often based on ages-old indigenous traditional knowledge and genetic resources. Yet the proceeds from these breakthroughs rarely find their way to the communities that originally made them. It is essential to promote the right of indigenous peoples to maintain and safeguard their traditional knowledge, as enshrined in the 2007 UN Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.”

How can the traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples benefit everyone? How can it help us achieve the Sustainable Development Goals?

“Indigenous peoples’ traditional knowledge has been developed over generations through daily life practices and a close understanding of local environments. It can offer valuable responses to climate change, food insecurity, reducing inequalities and other challenges that we are trying to resolve through the Sustainable Development Goals. Traditional knowledge offers tremendous opportunities in such areas as land management, conservation, and scientific, technological and medical research.

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development makes six specific references to indigenous peoples. These include a commitment to double the agricultural output of indigenous small‑scale farmers and a commitment to ensure equal access to education for indigenous children. Countries have also committed to empower and engage indigenous peoples in the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals.”

How is traditional knowledge generated and transmitted through generations?

“A product of learning through experience and oral traditions passed over centuries, indigenous traditional knowledge is generated, transmitted, and strengthened through rituals, metaphors, proverbs, songs, oral history, human interactions, ceremonies, languages, experiences and practices.

Protecting indigenous languages is fundamental to preserving traditional knowledge. It is through indigenous languages that this knowledge is generated and transmitted. Yet today, close to 2,700 languages are estimated to be in danger of disappearing forever. If we lose them, we also risk losing invaluable knowledge that could have provided answers to some of the world’s greatest problems.

Paradoxically, modern technology can help us preserve and revitalize indigenous knowledge and languages and pass them on to future generations. Partnerships between indigenous peoples and Governments, the UN system, businesses and, increasingly, the communications sector, can help to harness modern technologies to preserve the priceless ancient knowledge.”

What can we expect of the upcoming UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues?

“The theme of the 2019 session of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues is: ‘Traditional knowledge: generation, transmission and protection.’ Countries and indigenous peoples will come together to identify and share good practices that advance indigenous peoples’ rights. It will also be an opportunity to recommend actions that promote and protect indigenous peoples’ rights and preserve their traditional knowledge.

Partners from all over the world will be present and I would like to invite UN agencies and Member States to engage actively with indigenous peoples to make the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples a reality. The UN DESA-led 2015 UN system wide action plan on the rights of indigenous peoples is a road map for the UN to support its Member States in this regard.”

For more information: 18th Session of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII)


Do you have to be counted to count? How strengthening gender data can empower women and girls

Most of us are aware of the gaps that separate women from men, when it comes to opportunities, earnings or access to education. But not everyone realizes that even the data that we use to measure these inequalities have gender gaps. As the UN Statistical Commission holds its 50th session, we ask Francesca Grum, Chief of the Social and Gender Statistics Section at UN DESA’s Statistics Division, how gender data gaps are formed and what can be done about them. 

Are women and girls visible in the data we use to make decisions?

“Women and girls, and men and boys, are becoming more visible in official statistics thanks to the growing demand for reliable, inclusive, disaggregated and open gender data. New methods help us better capture gender issues through population censuses, administrative records and surveys. This provides researchers and policymakers with evidence for gender analyses and allows to create and promote better policies on women and girls’ advancement and gender equality.”

“For example, women spend on average about three times as many hours in unpaid domestic and care work as men. Analyses of time use data with a gender lens may lay the foundation for policies that would recognize the tremendous value of unpaid work, reconcile paid and unpaid work and foster the ability of women and girls to engage in other activities, such as education. UN DESA’s Statistics Division is working to modernize time use surveys to improve the collection and use of time use data.”

“Gender statistics not only make women and girls and men and boys more visible, but they also help bust myths and stereotypes drawn with unfair social norms and attitudes.”

Why do we have such a large gender data gap and what can we do to close it?

“Gender data gaps persist due to lack of national capacity in producing and using gender statistics. Insufficient coordination among data producers and the dearth of financial resources are also major problems. However, thanks to improved and new data collection methods that better capture gender issues and by progressively eliminating gender bias in the existing data collection tools, we are narrowing the gaps.”

“For instance, if we use the household as a unit for data analyses and dissemination, we assume that there is homogeneity among all household members. However, this traditional approach fails to highlight potential disparities among the members of a household, let’s say, when measuring asset ownership. The Evidence and Data for Gender Equality (EDGE) project, implemented by UN DESA and UN Women, developed the UN Guidelines for Producing Statistics on Asset Ownership from a Gender Perspective to measure asset ownership at the individual level by using self-responses instead of proxies. The data analyses resulting from these guidelines are expected to shed light on policy issues around empowerment of women and their well-being, reduction of poverty and vulnerability and women’s entrepreneurship.

“Furthermore, the updated international classification of status in employment (ISCE-18) is a positive development that will result in better gender data, as it covers all forms of work, paid and unpaid, and additional details about types of employment, including those where women predominate, such as contributing family members. The International Labour Organization data collection guidelines for ISCE-18 are expected to further minimize possible biases in the instruments used to collect employment statistics. This way, questions will be asked in a way that should not elicit structurally different responses from women and men.

For more information:

Statistical Commission, Fiftieth session

More than words: International year kicks off to protect indigenous languages

Languages play a crucial role in our daily lives. They also make up our unique cultural identities. Yet, of the about 6,700 languages spoken in the world today, 40 percent are at risk of disappearing. Most of them are indigenous languages. And when a language dies, it can mean the end of a community’s values and traditions. This is where the 2019 International Year of Indigenous Languages comes in. UN DESA Voice spoke with Mirian Masaquiza in UN DESA’s Division for Inclusive Social Development (DISD), about the year and its mission to protect and preserve the world’s indigenous languages.

How many indigenous languages are out there and how can we keep track of them?

“At present, 96 per cent of the world’s approximately 6,700 languages are spoken by only 3 per cent of the world’s population. The vast majority of the languages that are under threat are indigenous languages, and most of them would disappear.

States are the ones called to keep track on indigenous languages by recognizing the linguistic rights of indigenous peoples and developing language policies to promote and protect indigenous languages. Also, States should ensure that indigenous languages are adequately reflected in censuses and other data collection tools, such as questionnaires, surveys and participatory assessments.”

The UN has declared 2019 the International Year of Indigenous Languages. What makes them so important?

“The 2019 International Year of Indigenous Languages is very important as it will inspire speakers of indigenous languages to use it in a daily life with pride. Member States and other stakeholders will understand the need to include indigenous languages into specific programmes and activities to promote and protect them. Most importantly, the world will see a revival of a movement that is fighting for the right to use the language of their ancestors.

This international year will continue to raise key issues and concerns associated with indigenous languages on an ad hoc basis. Further, it will be an opportunity to compile and share good practices and tools for language revitalization, considering the different needs based on the different situations of indigenous languages.”

What is threatening the indigenous languages?

“I think that globalization, non-recognition of indigenous peoples and the rise of a small number of culturally dominant languages has led to a situation in which, some indigenous peoples do no longer use their indigenous language or no longer transmit it from parents to their children.

We as human beings should care about indigenous languages in the same way as we should care about the loss of the world’s variety of plants and animals, its biodiversity.”

What can we do to protect them?

“Article 13 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples states that indigenous peoples have the right to revitalize, use, develop and transmit to future generations their languages, oral traditions, philosophies, writing systems and literatures and that States shall take effective measures to ensure that this right is protected.

For instance, indigenous peoples should highlight that indigenous languages are intrinsically valuable to their speakers and their cultures, not only as methods of communication but also as repositories of traditional knowledge that are important for understanding and sustaining biological diversity and providing important contributions to sustainable development. Further, promote the cognitive benefits of multilingual and bilingual speakers. These benefits are enjoyed not only by indigenous communities but also by all of society.

States should support the use of indigenous languages by developing incentives for speaking and disseminating indigenous languages beyond schools and language revitalization centres.

The United Nations system should intensify efforts to promote indigenous language preservation and revitalization, as well as education in the indigenous mother tongue.”

For more information: International Year of Indigenous Languages

Diving into the blue economy

Can humans use the ocean as a tool for lifting people out of poverty, all the while protecting its valuable ecosystems? Certainly, say proponents of the growing sustainable blue economy movement. The first-ever Sustainable Blue Economy Conference, held in Kenya in November 2018, brought together thousands of ocean experts and activists to discuss how to sustainably use our ocean.

The concept is gaining momentum , including at the highest levels of decision making. In September, 12 heads of state from around the world and the UN Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for the Ocean, Peter Thomson, launched the High-level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy to catalyse bold solutions for ocean health and wealth. We asked Madhushree Chatterjee, Chief of the Natural Resources and Interlinkages Branch of UN DESA’s Division for Sustainable Development Goals to give us her impressions of this growing movement.

What do we mean by a “blue economy”?

“The blue economy comprises a range of economic sectors and related policies that together determine whether the use of ocean resources is sustainable. An important challenge of the blue economy is to understand and better manage the many aspects of oceanic sustainability, ranging from sustainable fisheries to ecosystem health to preventing pollution. Secondly, the blue economy challenges us to realize that the sustainable management of ocean resources will require collaboration across borders and sectors through a variety of partnerships, and on a scale that has not been previously achieved. This is a tall order, particularly for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs) who face significant limitations.”

How can building a blue economy help us achieve the SDGs?

“The blue economy concept seeks to promote economic growth, social inclusion and preservation or improvement of livelihoods while at the same time ensuring environmental sustainability—all issues integral to the 2030 Agenda. So, to build a blue economy, we will need to put sustainability at its centre. This will require careful attention to all decisions and their cross‑sectoral implications. We will need to ensure that policies do not undermine each other and that interlinkages are leveraged for the benefit of people, planet and prosperity.”

Why is a healthy ocean so important for current and future generations?

“The world’s oceans – their temperature, chemistry, currents and life – drive global systems that make the earth habitable for humankind. Our rainwater, drinking water, weather, climate, coastlines, much of our food, medicines and even the oxygen in the air we breathe, are all provided and regulated by the sea. Living oceans absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and reduce climate change impacts. The oceans also provide convenient transport routes for everything from food and fuel to construction materials, chemicals and household items.  Moreover, UN Environment estimates the cumulative economic impact of poor ocean management practices is at least $200 billion per year.”

What can we do to improve our ocean’s health?

“The declining health of our ocean shows that the world is simply not doing enough. However, as part of the 2017 UN Ocean Conference, a diverse range of stakeholders, from local grassroots organizations to governments, NGOs and the private sector, committed to reversing the decline of ocean health through saving our mangroves, alleviating the impacts of ocean acidification, halting plastic pollution and more. Those 1,400+ commitments are now grouped into nine Communities of Ocean Action, and UN DESA is providing a platform for them to work together. Now, it is time to ramp up the implementation of such initiatives, identify gaps, exchange ideas, find creative solutions, scale up where possible and, most importantly, to work together to implement Sustainable Development Goal 14 – life under water.”

What did the recent Sustainable Blue Economy Conference achieve?

“As Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta said in his remarks at the Conference, it provided an international forum for advancing global conversation on the two important pillars of the Blue Economy: on one hand, sustainability, climate change and controlling pollution; on the other, production, accelerated economic growth, jobs and poverty alleviation. Discussions at the conference emphasized how oceans, seas, lakes and rivers can help us achieve our common objective of sustainable economic growth, thereby contributing to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. With about 18,000 participants, 184 countries, and more than 300 events and 200 speakers, the conference proved to be an important stepping stone towards the next anticipated UN Ocean Conference in 2020.”

For more information:

UN DESA’s Sustainable Knowledge Platform


Follow Us