The Permanent Forum recommended the following actions in its annual session reports:
Sixteenth Session (2017)
- The Permanent Forum recommends that the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Inter-Agency Support Group on Indigenous Peoples’ Issues, sponsor an expert group meeting on HIV/AIDS by 2019, which would include the full and effective participation of indigenous peoples living with and affected by HIV/AIDS, to analyse the sociocultural and economic determinants of health for HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment in indigenous communities, with the Forum’s collaboration, in order to ensure the realization of target 3.3 of the Sustainable Development Goals.
- The Permanent Forum recommends that States collaborate with indigenous peoples to ensure adequate resources to design and fully implement HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C programmes that address the social, economic and cultural determinants of health for HIV prevention, care and treatment in indigenous populations, in particular indigenous women and youth.
- The Permanent Forum invites UNFPA, in collaboration with the Forum, to identify good practices of culturally appropriate intervention models from its work in developing countries that provide support to indigenous peoples, in particular women and girls, in exercising their health and reproductive rights, and to report to the Forum on those models by 2018.
- The Permanent Forum recognizes the efforts made by UNFPA, the United Nations Children’s Fund and UN-Women and recommends that they continue to make efforts to implement the recommendation made by the Forum at its fifteenth session to develop a fact sheet on maternal and child health in indigenous communities (E/2016/43-E/C.19/2016/11, para. 38) and present the fact sheet to the Forum by 2018, so as to provide support for target 3.7 of the Sustainable Development Goals.
- On the basis of the Permanent Forum’s continued concern about the impact of environmental toxins and the export and import of banned pesticides on the reproductive health of indigenous women and girls, the Forum reaffirms its call, contained in its report on its thirteenth session, for a legal review of the United Nations chemical conventions, in particular the Rotterdam Convention, to ensure that they are in conformity with international human rights standards, including the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (E/2014/43-E/C.19/2014/11, para. 16; see also E/C.19/2014/8, para. 62). The Forum recommends that the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in particular article 24, and its recognition of environmental health as a right protected under the Convention also be considered in the legal review. The Forum invites the Special Rapporteur on the implications for human rights of the environmentally sound management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes to carry out a review within his mandated area of expertise and to present his conclusions to the Forum at its seventeenth session.
Fifteenth Session (2016)
- The Permanent Forum urges Member States and funds, programmes and specialized agencies of the United Nations system to implement action to reduce maternal mortality among indigenous women. The Forum recommends that the United Nations Population Fund, the United Nations Children’s Fund and the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women publish a factsheet, in collaboration with the Forum, on indigenous women’s maternal mortality and maternal health, with the aim of reducing maternal mortality and promoting sexual and reproductive health.
Fourteenth Session (2015)
- The Permanent Forum urges States to recognize that suicidal behaviour, suicide and self-harm are directly related to the social and economic situation of indigenous peoples in specific countries and primarily linked to loss of self-identification and departure from the roots of traditional culture and ways of life. This, in turn, is linked to the loss by indigenous peoples of their rights to their lands and territories, natural resources, traditional ways of life and traditional uses of natural resources.
- The Permanent Forum therefore urges the World Health Organization to develop a strategy and programme to tackle self-harm and suicide among indigenous children and young people at the global level. The Forum recommends taking into account the initiatives that are being conducted at the regional level, in particular by the Pan American Health Organization, and using them as a basis for further expansion. As a first step, the Forum suggests that the World Health Organization gather evidence and initiate research on the prevalence of self-harm and suicide among indigenous children and young people at the global level and prepare a compilation of good practices on prevention of self-harm and suicide among indigenous young people, publishing its findings by 1 January 2017.
Thirteenth Session (2014)
- 13. The Permanent Forum takes note of the report on “Sexual health and reproductive rights: articles 21, 22 (1), 23 and 24 of the UNDRIP” (E/C.19/2014/8) and recommendations of the expert group meeting, and reiterates and supports the recommendations contained in paragraphs 62, 63, 64, 70 and 72 of the report, as set out below, which are specifically addressed to entities of the United Nations system and States Members of the United Nations.
- 15. The Permanent Forum recommends that United Nations agencies and actors coordinate in the development and implementation of an international research project on the sexual and reproductive health of indigenous peoples, ensuring an active partnership with indigenous peoples and organizations in all stages of the project.
- 16. Considering their impact on the sexual health and reproductive rights of indigenous peoples, the Permanent Forum calls, in paragraph 62 of the report, for “a legal review of United Nations chemical conventions, in particular the Rotterdam Convention, to ensure that they are in conformity with international human rights standards, including the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities”.
- 17. The Permanent Forum recommends, in paragraph 64 of the report, that the relevant United Nations entities should “conduct a study, in partnership with indigenous peoples’ organizations, that documents the linkage between environmental violence, including the operations of extractive industries, chemical pollution and the destruction of the indigenous habitat, and the sexual and reproductive health of indigenous peoples, as well as issues pertaining to sexual exploitation, trafficking of indigenous girls and sexual violence, with concrete recommendations on protection measures”.
- 18. The Permanent Forum recommends that the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, the United Nations Children’s Fund and other relevant United Nations entities collaborate with indigenous organizations in all regions to develop comprehensive guidelines, including best practices for culturally safe sex education by and for indigenous peoples. That type of comprehensive education may serve as an effective violence-prevention means.
- 44. The Permanent Forum further urges States to improve their collection of data on self-harm and suicide among indigenous children and youth, as well as on violence against indigenous women, boys and girls, to facilitate better understanding of the extent of the problem. States should commit to reducing the incidence of self-harm, violence and suicide among indigenous children and youth through the allocation of adequate resources to holistic prevention and support services, in partnership with indigenous peoples.
- 46. The Permanent Forum also urges States to fund and deliver training in suicide prevention and mental health awareness to all teaching and non-teaching staff in all schools attended by indigenous children. The development of localized training programmes adapted to each culture consistent with articles 11, 14, 15 and 31 should be encouraged.
Twelfth Session (2013)
- The right to health materializes through the well-being of an individual as well as the social, emotional, spiritual and cultural well-being of the whole community. Colonization, including policies of oppression, dispossession and assimilation, has led to the health challenges faced by many indigenous peoples today, which will also affect future generations. Consequently, the health of indigenous peoples is weakened by a range of underlying social and economic determinants, including poverty, inadequate housing, lack of education, food insecurity, lower employment, loss of traditional lands and languages, barriers to political participation and institutionalized racism. The health gap between indigenous peoples and others is clear evidence of the discriminatory structures that are in conflict with human rights and indigenous peoples’ rights in particular. They demonstrate the need for Governments and United Nations entities to refocus their efforts in fulfilling their obligations towards indigenous peoples.
- The Permanent Forum recalls the many recommendations that call for statistics on indigenous health. Data collection and disaggregation remain a challenge. In particular, the delivery of health care in rural and remote areas remains a major obstacle to the right to health. In addition, there remains an urgent need for more indigenous health professionals, mental health services and programmes addressing non-communicable diseases and reproductive health. In particular, the Forum reaffirms the recommendation of the eighth session that an expert group meeting on sexual health and reproductive rights be held.
- Good practices are emerging that complement public health services with traditional health practices. These practices emphasize intercultural dialogue and discussion to ensure that health care is delivered in a culturally specific way, consistent with articles 23 and 24 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. These practices should be supported and promoted.
- In sexual health and reproductive rights there is a need for HIV-sensitive, gender-sensitive and age-sensitive sexual health education that respects cultural sensitivities in pre-testing and post testing conditions and delivery of services. The Permanent Forum recommends:
- That, in the design and implementation of its strategic plan for the period 2014-2018, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) take into consideration the rights of indigenous women and young people;
- That contributions be made to ministries of health and indigenous women’s organizations to consolidate their work on intercultural standards for high-quality sexual health and reproductive rights and maternal health and to assess experiences of intercultural health models in other regions of the world in order to identify opportunities for South-South cooperation;
- That efforts be made to ensure the integration of indigenous peoples’ rights into national and subnational strategies on gender-based violence and to promote the delivery of culturally acceptable critical services to address gender- based violence and sexual violence, with a focus on adolescents, youth, migrants and indigenous women with disabilities;
- That the United Nations country teams contribute to strengthening and integrating the rights of indigenous women and youth into national and subnational development strategies and sectoral plans, particularly but not exclusively in the areas of sexual health and reproductive rights and maternal mortality and morbidity, as well as in adolescent and youth policies and plans;
- That contributions be made to supporting work at the country level on the elimination of female genital mutilation/cutting among indigenous girls, including the elimination of other forms of harmful practices, for example early and forced marriage and early unwanted pregnancies;
- That efforts be made to promote the rights of indigenous youth at the regional and country levels, including their participation in the International Conference on Population and Development beyond 2014 processes, and, where possible, their participation in UNFPA-led discussions on the post-2015 development agenda.
- The Permanent Forum reiterates its previous recommendations that address the alarming number of suicides among indigenous youth. The Forum encourages community organization for safe spaces and low-threshold health services, respecting non-discrimination, in particular where discrimination based on ethnicity, gender and sexual orientation is concerned. The United Nations system, in particular the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), should emphasize the provision of mental health services, with particular efforts to address suicide among indigenous youth.
- The Permanent Forum requests WHO, in cooperation with indigenous health providers, to conduct a study on the prevalence and causes of suicide among indigenous youth and on efforts being made, including culture-based approaches, to prevent suicide and promote mental health and wellness. The Forum recommends that the Inter-Agency Support Group on Indigenous Peoples’ Issues and WHO organize an expert group meeting to review policies and best practices with regard to engaging indigenous youth on the prevention of suicide.
- To draw more attention to diabetes and other non communicable diseases, the Permanent Forum recommends that WHO, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and Governments develop action plans to improve access by indigenous peoples living with diabetes to health prevention and care of diabetes and non-communicable diseases. The Forum urges States to establish or reinforce community-based health programmes that empower and educate indigenous women and children to prevent and overcome diabetes and non communicable diseases.
- The Permanent Forum requests WHO and PAHO to undertake a global study jointly with relevant indigenous peoples’ institutions and indigenous health experts on the situation of indigenous peoples living with diabetes and non-communicable diseases to establish the international evidence base needed. The results of the study can be presented at the fourteenth session of the Forum and in appropriate processes within WHO and PAHO. Furthermore, the Forum calls upon the World Diabetes Foundation and the International Diabetes Federation to provide financial and technical assistance to WHO, PAHO and identified indigenous institutions that will conduct the study.
- The Permanent Forum calls for heightened attention to be paid to diabetes and other non communicable diseases by WHO, PAHO and States, including at the World Conference on Indigenous Peoples, to be held in 2014, and calls upon these parties to discuss issues relating to indigenous health and formulate an action plan with particular focus on improving prevention and access to the care of diabetes and non-communicable diseases.
- The high rate of indigenous children who are out of school requires urgent attention, in particular in respect of securing access by girls to high-quality and relevant education that respects the cultures and traditions of the communities and that is responsive to their needs. Given that many indigenous peoples live in regions that have been defined as geographically remote or inaccessible, and many services do not reach such indigenous and/or nomadic communities, there are also serious challenges regarding the long distances required to reach hospitals and health-care centres, which lead to higher maternal and infant mortality rates in indigenous communities. The Permanent Forum urges States to ensure that health and education services reach remote areas and meet the needs of nomadic peoples.
Eleventh Session (2012)
- The Permanent Forum urges States to promote indigenous community-controlled models for the health, social, legal and other sectors of indigenous communities and service providers to follow in implementing the Declaration. It recommends that WHO revisit the report of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health to address the cultural determinants of health, such as land, language, ceremony and identity, which are essential to the health and well-being of indigenous peoples.
- The Permanent Forum also calls upon WHO to work in close cooperation with the Forum in establishing a programme on non-communicable diseases, with special attention to indigenous peoples and diabetes. The Forum recognizes the findings of the Expert Meeting on Indigenous Peoples, Diabetes and Development, held in Copenhagen on 1 and 2 March 2012, and its outcome document entitled “The Copenhagen call to action” and recommends that those outcomes be considered when establishing the programme.
Eighth Session (2009)
- The Permanent Forum welcomes the global Stop TB Partnership, which is housed within the World Health Organization (WHO). It urges the Partnership to ensure that indigenous peoples’ concerns are fully included and that they participate in the decision-making body in implementing programmes and projects.
- The Permanent Forum recommends that WHO conduct a study on the health effects on indigenous peoples throughout the world caused by uranium mining, dumping of radioactive waste and nuclear testing on indigenous held lands and territories, and provide a report to the ninth session of the Forum in 2010.
- The Permanent Forum recognizes the cultural significance and medical importance of the coca leaf in the Andean and other indigenous regions of South America. It also notes that coca leaf chewing is specifically banned by the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961). The Permanent Forum recommends that those portions of the Convention regarding coca leaf chewing that are inconsistent with the rights of indigenous peoples to maintain their traditional health and cultural practices, as recognized in articles 11, 24 and 31 of the Declaration, be amended and/or repealed.
Sixth Session (2007)
- The Permanent Forum recommends that the World Health Organization (WHO), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), States, non-governmental organizations and indigenous peoples’ organizations join efforts in implementing appropriate expert health-care actions to prevent disastrous disease problems affecting indigenous peoples in voluntary isolation and recent contact, and consider adopting rapid-effect emergency procedures in situations where the health situation is critical, as it is at present in the Javari Valley in Brazil.
- The Permanent Forum calls upon all States to work with indigenous peoples to develop and implement right-to-health indicators, to utilize the findings in the report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to health and to set benchmarks and timelines to ensure that indigenous peoples’ right to health is progressively realized, as required by the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and in the Millennium Development Goals.
- Reports received by the Permanent Forum indicate that United Nations agencies, notably UNICEF and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), incorporate indigenous issues into their health programming at the country and regional levels and apply culturally sensitive approaches to health delivery. The Forum encourages those agencies to share their experience in health programming for indigenous peoples with other relevant United Nations agencies working in the field.
- Given the rapid increase in diabetes among indigenous peoples, the Permanent Forum calls upon WHO to undertake a pilot study to assess its prevalence among selected indigenous peoples worldwide in the seven indigenous geo-cultural regions.
- Noting the widespread malnutrition among indigenous peoples, the Permanent Forum urges the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Food Programme (WFP) to ensure that all interventions by those organizations aimed at reducing this problem in indigenous communities are based on assessments of the structural causes of the problem, including access to land and availability of natural resources. Moreover, methods of interventions should be sensitive to the social fabric and respectful of indigenous peoples’ models of development.
- Calling attention to the high rates of suicide among indigenous youth in some countries, the Permanent Forum reiterates its call for States and relevant national aboriginal health bodies to convene a meeting to assess the root causes of indigenous youth suicide and to formulate preventive strategies. The Forum reiterates its call on UNICEF and WHO to convene a meeting on youth suicide.
- Moreover, since the lack of civil documentation exposes indigenous peoples to abuse and violation of their rights, the Permanent Forum recommends that States, UNICEF, the Inter-American Development Bank and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) support free and universal civil registration on the basis of free, prior and informed consent of indigenous peoples.
- Drawing attention to the dramatic changes in the lifestyles of indigenous peoples and the ensuing deterioration of indigenous health due to malnutrition and obesity, including record high rates of diabetes and related illnesses such as hypertension, heart attacks, kidney failure and blindness, the Permanent Forum calls upon WHO, UNICEF, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Bank, WFP and FAO to develop joint strategies to address the problem of diabetes and related non-communicable lifestyle illnesses. Given the alarming prevalence of diabetes among indigenous peoples, the Permanent Forum calls upon WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) to establish a systematic working relationship with the Permanent Forum and the Inter-Agency Support Group to exchange experiences on health initiatives in the area of treatment and prevention of the illness, especially given their role in the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals.
- Considering the bloody wars and grave conflicts that have afflicted a range of States in Africa during the last decade, the Permanent Forum recommends that United Nations agencies (IOM, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), UNICEF, UNFPA, the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), UNDP and WHO) and African States urgently convene a general meeting on health in order to evaluate the negative effects of these conflicts on the health of indigenous peoples and to find appropriate solutions to address the issue.
- 115. The Permanent Forum recommends that relevant States, in cooperation with the indigenous peoples concerned, establish indigenous peoples’ centres in urban areas to address their medical needs and provide legal and other forms of assistance.
Fifth Session (2006)
- The Permanent Forum recommends that States, the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and other relevant organizations adopt targeted policies, programmes, projects and budgets designed to address the staggering prevalence of diabetes among indigenous peoples and put in place culturally appropriate health services, health education and awareness-raising initiatives to treat diabetes and prevent its rapid growth. Particular attention should be given to pregnant women, whose reproductive health is closely linked to the future risk of their children developing diabetes.
- The Permanent Forum urges the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) to engage with the Permanent Forum and other partners in the global AIDS movement, to initiate universal access to treatment, to develop a set of resources highlighting effective approaches and best practices for HIV prevention and AIDS care in indigenous communities, particularly from the developed world, including the development of an appropriate paper to provide guidance to national HIV surveillance systems, and to advocate and promote meaningful participation of indigenous peoples in HIV policy and planning.
- The Permanent Forum, reaffirming the recommendations on health made at its first, second and third sessions, further recommends that all relevant United Nations entities, especially WHO, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and UNFPA, as well as regional health organizations and Governments, fully incorporate a cultural perspective into health policies, programmes and reproductive health services aimed at providing indigenous women with quality health care, including emergency obstetric care, voluntary family planning and skilled attendance at birth. In the latter context, the roles of traditional midwives should be re-evaluated and expanded so that they may assist indigenous women during their reproductive health processes and act as cultural brokers between health systems and the indigenous communities’ values and world views.
- The Permanent Forum strongly encourages States to provide disaggregated data on health and social welfare indicators for indigenous populations in order to better assist in the monitoring and evaluation of outcomes at the national and international levels.
Fourth Session (2005)
- States should recognize the rights of indigenous peoples to food and nutritional security and the sustainable production and consumption of healthy and nutritious foods by using appropriate sustainable technology. There is a particular need to ensure that indigenous peoples who depend on marine and terrestrial resources be supported in protecting and ensuring their rights to and sustainable use of those resources.
- Reinforce the investments in population and reproductive health which is crucial for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals – to reduce poverty, achieve universal primary education, improve maternal and child health, curb the spread of HIV/AIDS, promote gender equality, ensure sustainable development, and establish a strong partnership for development.
Third Session (2004)
- The Forum reiterates its health recommendations made at its first and second sessions, in particular those contained in chapter I, section B, paragraphs 63 to 82 of its report on its second session.
- The goals of the Forum in this area are the promotion of cooperation, the exchange of information and the development of partnerships, as well as to improve coordination by facilitating regular contacts and reports. The Forum intends to address and report on this theme on an annual basis. The Forum, reaffirming its recommendations on health made at its first and second reports, in the spirit of the theme of its third session (Indigenous women), recommends that all relevant United Nations entities, especially WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA, as well as regional health organizations and Governments: (a)Fully incorporate the principle that health is a fundamental human right in all health policies and programmes, and foster rights-based approaches to health, including treaty rights, the right to culturally acceptable and appropriate services and indigenous women’s reproductive rights, and stop programmes of forced sterilization and abortion, which can constitute ethnic genocide; (b)Further develop and disseminate information about innovative strategies in health services to indigenous women, informed by indigenous concepts and understanding of health, wellness, healing, illness, disease, sexuality and birthing so as to ensure universal and accessible health-care services for indigenous women and girl children, and make available adequate financial and technical support for comprehensive, community-based, primary health services and health education, incorporating traditional indigenous components; (c)Train and employ qualified indigenous women to design, administer and manage their own health-care programmes; (d) Set up monitoring mechanisms for indigenous communities to report abuses and neglect with the health system to national health authorities, and put in place the legal framework to effectively address these issues; (e) Encourage States to include and accredit traditional, indigenous health practitioners (physicians), including traditional birth attendants (midwives), and integrate them into state health-care systems, and give full recognition to the medicinal knowledge and medicines of these indigenous practitioners; (f) Augment HIV/AIDS programmes by providing educational materials in indigenous languages and by using specially trained indigenous HIV/AIDS health workers to conduct outreach services and home care to indigenous communities, including voluntary testing for HIV/AIDS; (g) Ensure that indigenous peoples, especially women, have access to all information relating to their medical treatment and to secure their prior informed consent to medical treatment; (h) Provide appropriate health services and protection services, including safe houses, to displaced refugee and migrant women and women and girl children victimized by trafficking for prostitution; (i) Implement the recommendations of the international consultation on health of indigenous peoples, held in Geneva at WHO in 1999, with special emphasis on the recommendations concerning the health of women and girls and the role of women in health care, indigenous knowledge and service provisions; (j)Develop, in conjunction with indigenous women health providers, programmes to inform and sensitize indigenous women and men about cultural practices which have negative impacts on health, including female genital mutilation, child marriages and violence against women and the girl child in the domestic context, in order to encourage them to take precautions and safeguard the health and well being of the indigenous family; (k)Ensure that the treatment of diseases is balanced by the promotion of health through the support of physical activity, sports and physical education in order to address escalating health concerns through prevention.
- The Forum urges WHO to attend its sessions, and encourages WHO to submit a report to it at its fourth session, responding to recommendations made by the Forum at its first to third sessions. The Forum regrets that WHO was unable to respond to its recommendations made at its second session, in particular those contained in chapter I, section B, paragraphs 16, 63-64, 68, 74, 79 and 82.
- The Forum recommends that the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, in conjunction with the Forum, convene an international workshop, with the participation of United Nations agencies and indigenous experts, on indigenous peoples and the human rights to health and culturally appropriate health care.
Second Session (2003)
- The Forum reiterates the recommendations made in its report on its first session and: (a) Urges the World Health Organization (WHO), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and all United Nations bodies and agencies involved in programmes relating to health to incorporate indigenous healers and cultural perspectives on health and illness into their policies, guidelines and programmes, and to undertake regional consultations with indigenous peoples on these issues, in order to mainstream indigenous health issues into the United Nations system; (b) Urges the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to undertake a study on the relationship between food security, subsistence agricultural practices and indigenous health and illness.
- The Forum recommends that UNICEF prepare a report on indigenous children who have limited or no access to direct health-care services, including recommendations to improve health-care access.
- The Forum urges WHO, in implementing the outlined global strategy on health of marginalized ethnic populations, to gather data and extend programme services to indigenous peoples based on criteria relating to ethnicity, cultural or tribal affiliation and language.
- The Forum urges WHO to engage in a global consultation with indigenous peoples and others on its participatory research guidelines and seek the advice of the Permanent Forum on the guidelines.
- The Forum urges UNICEF, UNDP, the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the Global Fund for AIDS to gather and disaggregate data on indigenous infants, children and mothers based on criterion relating to ethnicity, cultural and tribal affiliation and language.
- The Forum recommends that the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme urge States to ratify the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants and adopt the recommendations of the Conference of the Parties relating to its implementation.
- The Forum recommends that the Committee on the Rights of the Child, as the treaty monitoring body for the Convention on the Rights of the Child, review the compliance of States Parties with article 24, which recognized the basic right of all children to “the provision of adequate and nutritional foods and clean drinking water, taking into consideration the dangers and risks of environmental pollution”, with particular attention to its impact on traditional subsistence foods, and that the Committee address those issues during the day of general discussion on the indigenous child in September 2003.
- The Forum recommends that the Special Rapporteur on toxic waste, with the participation of the Committee on the Rights on the Child, UNEP and WHO, conduct a workshop on the impacts of persistent organic pollutants and pesticides on indigenous peoples, including examining the promotion and use of pesticides by multinational corporations.
- The Forum recommends that the Special Rapporteur on the right to health pay special attention in his work to the right to health as contained in treaties between indigenous peoples and States.
- The Forum recommends that the United Nations agencies supporting and promoting the Healthy Environments for Children Alliance, namely WHO, UNICEF, UNEP and the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UN-HABITAT), include a particular focus on indigenous children and youth.
- The Forum urges States to undertake and promote the expansion of their national health systems in order to provide holistic health programmes for indigenous children that incorporate preventive medical practices and family and community participation. States are urged to address the issues of malnutrition of indigenous children victimized by poverty by adopting special measures to ensure and protect the cultivation of traditional food crops.
- The Forum recommends that WHO, in conjunction with indigenous health providers, undertake a study on the prevalence and causes of suicide among indigenous youth, and efforts being undertaken, including culturally based approaches, to address suicide prevention and the promotion of mental health and wellness.