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Ecuador study: Implications of macroeconomic policy, external shocks and social protection systems on poverty, inequality and vulnerability in Latin America and the Caribbean. Ecuador, 1990-2006 – (Implicaciones de la política macroeconómica, los choques externos y los sistemas de protección social en la pobreza, la desigualdad y la vulnerabilidad. El caso del Ecuador, 1990-2006)

This report presents the results for the case of Ecuador. The document is presents a historical evolution of macroeconomic indicators in the country; the evolution and functioning of labor markets in Ecuador; analysis of the living conditions of population and social protection systems in the country today; a description of the computable general equilibrium model used in the project; simulations of macroeconomic shocks and public policy to analyze their impact on poverty and inequality; and the main conclusions and policy recommendations.

Nicaragua study: Implications of macroeconomic policy, external shocks and social protection systems on poverty, inequality and vulnerability in Latin America and the Caribbean. Nicaragua – (Implicaciones de la política macroeconómica, los choques externos y los sistemas de protección social en la pobreza, la desigualdad y la vulnerabilidad en América Latina y el Caribe. Nicaragua)

This study describes how Nicaragua being a small open economy is vulnerable to the events of the international economy. After a review of historical data, general equilibrium analysis and application of microsimulation methodology, the study concludes that the external shocks that have had a greater impact on poverty, inequality and vulnerability of Nicaraguan households have been those related to the reduced flow of remittances, the increase in world oil prices and lower capital inflows.

Mexico study: Implications of macroeconomic policy, external shocks and social protection systems on poverty, inequality and vulnerability in Latin America and the Caribbean. Mexico – (Implicaciones de la política macroeconómica, los choques externos y los sistemas de protección social en la pobreza, la desigualdad y la vulnerabilidad en América Latina y el Caribe. México)

This study presents the effects of the economy based on macroeconomic events that affected the Mexican economy in the last two decades. The observed results indicate that a reduction in world prices of major export goods, an increase in global food prices and a drop in remittance income, would cause the most damage in the main macroeconomic indicators, labor market and poverty. It also simulates and analyzes the five public policies relevant social protection that could cope with these shocks.

Bolivia study: Implications of macroeconomic policy, external shocks and social protection systems on poverty, inequality and vulnerability in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bolivia – (Implicaciones de la política macroeconómica, los choques externos y los sistemas de protección social en la pobreza, la desigualdad y la vulnerabilidad en América Latina y el Caribe. Bolivia)

This study explores how the changes in the international economic environment, mainly the economic crisis, the resurgence of inflation in the region, the variability in oil prices, fluctuations in major currencies like the dollar and the euro and the economic policies adopted by other countries have major impact on the Bolivian economy.

Analysing and Measuring Social Inclusion in a Global Context

The study serves as a guiding framework for policymakers, researchers and practitioners interested in developing practical tools for evidence-based policy making, impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation in the area of social inclusion.

Costa Rica study: Implications of macroeconomic policy, external shocks and social protection systems on poverty, inequality and vulnerability in Latin America and the Caribbean. Costa Rica – (Implicaciones de la política macroeconómica, los choques externos, y los sistemas de protección social en la pobreza, la desigualdad y la vulnerabilidad en América Latina y el Caribe. Costa Rica)

This study shows how Costa Rica, like other Latin American countries, has suffered different impacts over time resulting from the implementation of economic policies and external shocks. In recent years, specifically between 1990 and 2008, the economic process has been characterized by an increase in the external opening, with market liberalization.