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模拟联合国词典

按英文字母排序:ABCDFGHILMOPQRSTUVWY

A

Abstain 弃权

During a vote on a substantive matter, a delegate may abstain rather than vote yes or no. This means that the delegate neither supports nor opposes the resolution on the go.
在一个关于实体性问题的投票中,代表除了可以选择“是”或者“否”,还可以选择“弃权”。这意味着此代表既不支持也不反对正在进行投票表决的决议。

Agenda 议程

Agenda is the order of topics to be discussed in a conference, usually being set after the roll call.
点名完毕后,委员会所设定的议题讨论顺序。

Amendment 修正案

Amendment is a form of document to amend a draft resolution. The two types of amendments are friendly amendment and unfriendly amendment.
修正案是用来对正在讨论的决议草案提出修改意见的文件。修正案分为两种:友好修正案与非友好修正案。

B

Background Guide 背景指导

A background guide is a research report of topics on the conference written by the dais and distributed to the delegates before the conference.
背景指导是一份关于会议即将讨论议题的调研报告,一般由会议主席团撰写,并在会前分发给各国代表。

Binding 约束力

Binding is the legal force to impose UN resolutions on the Member States. Resolutions of Security Council and the Internaitonal Court of Justice are binding. Decisions made by the General Assembly and Economic and Social Council are non-binding.
约束力是指联合国决议对成员国具有法律效力。安理会决议和联合国国际法庭的判决是具有约束力的;而联合国大会和经社委员会的决议不具有约束力。

Bloc 国家集团

A bloc is a group of countries within a same geographical region or holding similar country positions on a particular topic. The determining factor in forming a bloc is sharing the common national interests.
一组处于同一地理区域或者就某一议题有类似观点的国家。组成国家集团的决定性因素是具有共同的国家利益。

Bloc Leader 集团领导者

A bloc leader is the delegate who plays the leading role in a bloc.
在一个国家集团中充当着领导者的代表。

C

Caucus 磋商

Caucus is a form of discussion in formal debate, in which delegates may discuss a subtopic more specifically. There are two types of caucus: moderated caucus and un-moderated caucus.
磋商是正式辩论过程中一种深入讨论议题的方式。磋商分为两种类型:有主持核心磋商和自由磋商。

Chair 主席

Chair is a member of the dais who is responsible for moderating debate, timing, ruling on points and motions, and imposing the rules of procedure.
主席是负责主持辩论、计时、裁决问题及动议,并执行会议流程的主席团成员。

Committee 委员会

A committee is a deliberative assembly, an organization comprising members who use parliamentary procedure for making decisions. In Model UN conference, committees are usually the simulations of principal organs, subsidiary bodies, programs, funds, research and training institutes, special organizations, entities or regional commissions of UN system. Delegates discuss relevant topics and resolutions according to the given functions, powers, and rules of procedure of the committees.
“委员会”是一个协商会议,一个由代表组成,按议事程序讨论议题并做出决策的有序组织。模拟联合国会议中的委员会大多模仿联合国主要机构、附属机构、规划署、基金会、调研及培训机构、特殊组织、实体和区域委员会建立。代表需依据所在委员会的职权范围和议事规则讨论相关议题。

Crisis 危机

"Crisis", to which delegates must respond immediately, is an emergent matter or unexpected event that happens during a conference. Usually designed by the dais before the conference, a crisis may be related to the topic being discussed on the floor. The forms of crisis include news report, official document from international organizations, video profile, or directive from embassies or governments.
危机是会议进行当中,各国代表需要立即处理的突发性事件。模联会议中的危机一般由主席团在会前设置好,事件可能与代表们讨论的议题相关。事件的形式有若干种,可能是突发事件的新闻报道,可能是国际组织的文件,可能是相关人员的视频资料,也可能是外交官派出国政府发来的外交指令等。

D

Dais 主席团

Usually consisted of a Chair, a Director and a Rapporteur, a dais is a group of people in charge of a Model UN conference.
主席团由主席、会议总监和主席助理组成,负责组织模拟联合国的会议。

Delegate 代表

Representing an UN Member State, an observer or an international organization, delegate is a person chosen or elected to express views in a Model UN conference.
代表是模拟联合国会议中受委托或指派表达意见的人,可以代表一个联合国成员国,一个观察国,或一个国际组织。

Delegation 代表团

Delegation is a group of delegates representing the same UN Member State, an observer or an international organization in a Model UN conference. Delegation is also used to describe the delegates from the same participating group, e.g. the same high school or college.
代表团是指模联会议中,在不同委员会代表同一个成员国或观察国的全体代表。代表团也指来自同一参与团体的所有代表,例如来自同一高中或大学的全体代表。

Director 会议总监

Director is a member of the dais who is in charge of overseeing delegates' role-playing, document writing and topic researching.
会议总监是负责监督代表角色扮演、文件写作及议题调研的主席团成员。

Draft Resolution 决议草案

Written by the delegates, draft resolution is a form of document that seeks to solve the issues addressed by a Model UN committee. If passed by the committee, the draft resolution will become a resolution. Only one draft resolution will be passed for each topic in a committee.
决议草案是由代表草拟、为委员会所讨论的议题寻求解决方案的一种文件格式。如果被投票通过,那么决议草案就成为正式决议。在一个委员会中,有关同一个议题的决议草案只能通过一份。

Draft Directive 指令草案

Draft directive is a form of document that aims at successfully solving the crisis. A draft directive is only composed by operative clauses. The actions taken under the directive need to be instant and effective instead of long-term. Amandments are welcome to a draft directive, of which the  unfriendly ones shall be passed after votes.
指令草案是针对危机处理的文件。指令草案的表决通过标志着危机的成功解决。指令草案由行动性条款构成。指令草案的行动措施要立即、有效,避免长远规划。代表可以对指令草案提出修正案,其中,非友好修正案也需要表决。

F

Faculty Advisor 指导教师

Faculty Advisor is a teacher or faculty responsible for advising students to run a Model UN club and training a delegation.
指导教师是负责指导学生运营模拟联合国社团并训练模联代表团的教学人员。

Flow of the Debate 会议流程

Flow of debate is the order in which events proceed during a Model UN conference.
会议流程是模联会议中事件进行的顺序。

Formal Debate 正式辩论

The standard type of debate at a Model UN conference, in which delegates speak for a certain period of time in the order based on the speakers' list.
在一个模联会议中标准形式的讨论。代表按照发言名单确定的顺序在规定时间内进行演讲。

Friendly Amendment 友好修正案

A friendly amendment is a change to the draft resolution that all sponsors agree with. After the amendment signed by all of the draft resolution's sponsors and approved by the committee director or president, it will be automatically incorporated into the resolution.
友好修正案是原决议草案全部起草国均赞成的对决议草案内容的改动。在全部起草国签字同意后,一份修正案便成为友好修正案,并自动被加入到原决议草案中。

G

Gavel 槌

The tool, shaped like a small wooden hammer, is used by the Chair to keep order within a Model UN committee. Many conferences give the gavel to the delegate recognized by the dais as the best in that committee; therefore, the term is frequently used to refer to the award given to the best delegate, even in cases where no actual gavel is given.
主席用来维持模联委员会秩序的一个小木锤形状的工具。很多会议都把委员会中使用过的槌赠与主席团选出的该委员会的最佳代表。所以,这个词也常常用来指赠与最佳代表的奖励,哪怕事实上并没有。

Global Village 地球村

Global Village is an activity in which delegates can display different cultures of the countries via exhibitions.
在模联会议进行过程中举行的展示各国文化的活动。

H

Head Delegate 首席代表

Head delegate is the chief representative of a Model UN delegation.
首席代表是一个模联代表团中的领队。

I

In favor of 支持

In favor is to agree to pass a motion. There must be over half of the delegates in favor of a motion in order to pass it.
即支持该动议通过。当超过半数的与会代表支持该动议通过,主席团才能予以执行。

L

Lobbying 游说

Lobbying is a form of advocacy with the intention of influencing decisions made by other delegates during a conference.
游说是一种通过陈述观点来影响会场内他国代表意见的行为。

M

Member State 成员国

A country that has ratified the Charter of the United Nations and whose application to join has been accepted by the General Assembly and Security Council. Currently, there are 192 member states. The only internationally recognized state that is not a member state is the Holy See.
一个批准了联合国宪章、并且加入申请已经被联合国大会和安理会接受的国家。目前联合国一共有192个成员国。唯一一个国际承认的非成员国家是教廷梵蒂冈。

Moderated Caucus 有主持核心磋商

A type of caucus with a specific topic and restricted total time, moderated Caucus enables delegates to focus on detailed problems in a short period of time.
一种有特定主题、限总发言时间的磋商形式。有主持核心磋商可以让代表在短时间内关注更为具体的问题。

Motion 动议

A suggestion made by a delegate to change the current process. A motion might refer to a caucus, an adjournment, an introduction to a draft resolution, or closing the debate.
由代表提出的改变现有会议进程的建议,需要全体代表投票表决。这些动议的内容可以是进行磋商、休会、介绍决议草案或者进入投票阶段。

Motion to Close Debate 动议停止辩论

A motion to close debate is not the same as the motion to suspend meeting. Rather, it is used to move the committee to a vote, usually when the delegate has made his or her country's position clear and there are enough and fully discussed draft resolutions on the floor.
动议结束辩论与动议暂停会议有所不同。当结束辩论的动议生效后,会议将进入投票阶段。此动议一般在代表认为立场已经得到充分阐述,且决议草案已较为完善的情况下提出。

Motion for a Moderated Caucus 动议有主持核心磋商动议

Delegates make a motion for a moderated caucus in order to set a discussion on a specific topic. To motion for a moderated caucus, delegates are required to propose topic, total time and the speaking time for each delegate.
代表通过动议有主持核心磋商来进行议题的深入讨论。有主持核心磋商讨论的主题、总时间、各代表发言时间由提出此动议的代表提出。

Motion to Set Speaking Time 动议更改发言时间

Delegates propose a motion to set the speaking time for the purpose of setting or changing the amount of time each delegate has to speak in the speakers' list.
代表可以通过动议更改发言时间,来重置每位代表在发言名单中的发言时间。

Motion to Suspend the Meeting 动议暂停会议

Delegates propose a motion to suspend the meeting for the purpose of ending a session and having a break.
代表动议暂停会议可以结束会议的一个阶段,并使会议进入休息时间。

Motion for an Unmoderated Caucus 动议自由磋商

A motion for an unmoderated caucus is usually proposed under the purpose to set a free discussion so that the delegates can exchange ideas with other delegates in your bloc. Delegates need to set the total time for an unmoderated caucus in the motion.
提出自由磋商动议的代表需要规定时间。一旦动议获得通过,在规定时间内代表可以离开座位,更为密切地和盟友们交换意见。

MUNer 模联人

People who have participated or are participating in Model UN activity.
曾经参与过或正在参与模拟联合国活动的人。

O

Observer 观察员

An observer is a state, national organization, regional organization, or non-governmental organization that is not a member of the UN nor a member of a specific committee, but participates in the debates. Observers can vote on procedural matters but not substantive matters, e.g. the Holy See or the State of Israel participating in the Security Council meeting regarding Israel-Palestine conflict.
一个不是联合国成员或某特定委员会成员的国家、政府组织、区域组织或者非政府组织。国家观察员可以对程序性问题投票,但是不能对实体性问题进行投票。例如教廷梵蒂冈和参与安全理事会巴以问题讨论的以色列。

On the floor 被讨论状态

At a Model UN conference, when a working paper or draft resolution is first written, it may not be discussed in debate. After it is approved by the Director and introduced by the committee, it is put "on the floor" and may be further discussed.
在模联会议中,一份工作文件或者决议草案刚刚完成的时候不能够被讨论。只有在得到会议指导的认可并且被委员会介绍后,它才进入“被讨论状态”进而可以被广泛讨论。

Operative Clause 行动性条款

Operative clause is a part of a resolution which describes how the UN will address a problem. The clauses are written with verbs in third person singular form as beginning (e.g. decides, establishes, recommends, etc.).
决议中描述联合国将如何解决问题的部分,以动词第三人称单数(比如决定,成立,建议等等)开头。

P

Page 意向条

In order to maintain the order of the conference, a delegate should write notes on pages to ask questions, lobby or negotiate with other delegates or a dais member during a session. Pages should be written in the official working language of the committee.
为了维持会场秩序,开会期间代表如有任何问题或者需要进行游说、沟通,都要通过书写并传递意向条的方式向其他代表或主席团成员表达。意向条的书写需要符合该委员会的工作语言要求。

Pager 意向条传递者

A delegate in a Model UN committee that has volunteered to pass pages from one delegate to another, or from a delegate to the dais, for a short period of time.
委员会中志愿在代表间或者代表与主席团之间暂时传递意向条的代表。

Parliamentary Procedure 议会议事程序

Parliamentary procedure is based on the consideration of the rights: of the majority, of the minority, of individual members, of absentee members, of all of these groups taken together.
基于平衡原则,为保护各种人和人群的权利(包括意见占多数的人,意见占少数的人,甚至是每一个人,以及没有出席会议的人)而制定出的议事规则,即为议会议事程序。

Placard 国家牌

A piece of cardstock with a country's name on it that a delegate raises in the air to answer the roll call or signal to the Chair that he or she wishes to speak.
一块写着国家名称的硬纸板,代表举起它回应点名或向主席示意希望发言。

Point 问题

A request raised by a delegate for information or for an action relating to that delegate. Examples include a point of order, a point of inquiry, and a point of personal privilege.
代表提出的关于信息或者相关行动的要求。包括程序性问题、询问性问题和个人权利问题。

Point of Order 组织性问题

A point of order is used when a delegate believes the chair has made an error in the running of the committee. The delegate should only specify the errors they believe were made in the formal committee procedure, but may not address when the topic being discussed.
当代表认为主席在主持会议中产生错误时,可提出组织性问题,以纠正主席错误。代表需要明晰该错误为何不符合该委员会的规则流程。组织性问题可以打断进程提出,但不能在讨论议题时提出。

Point of Inquiry 咨询性问题

A point of inquiry (also known as a point of parliamentary procedure) can be made when the floor is open (i.e. when no other delegate is speaking) in order to ask the chairperson a question regarding the rules of procedure.
当代表对于会议程序有不明白的地方时,可以在台上没有代表发言时举牌向主席咨询。

Point of Personal Privilege 个人特权问题  

A delegate may raise a point of personal privilege in order to inform the chairperson of a physical discomfort he or she is experiencing, such as not being able to hear another delegate's speech.
当代表在会场上感觉有任何身体上的不适时,可以提出个人特权问题,例如:无法听到台上代表讲话。

Position Paper  立场文件 

An essay details a country's policies on the topics being discussed in the committee, usually written and delivered to the dais by delegates before a Model UN conference.
一份针对委员会即将讨论议题的国家立场阐述文件,需要代表在会前书写完成并提交至主席团。

Preambulatory Clauses 序言性条款  

The part of a resolution that describes previous actions taken on the topic and reasons why the resolution is necessary. It begins with a participle or adjective (e.g. noting, concerned, regretting, aware of, recalling, etc.).
决议中描述之前与议题有关的行动以及决议的必要性的部分。一般以分词或者形容词开头。

Present 到/出席

"Present" refers to "in attendance". Delegates who are in presence are required to raise up their placards and answer "Present" when their countries' names are called during the roll call. Delegates need to send pages to the dais to inform their attendance if they didn't arrive at the conference on time. In special committees consisting of delegates with rights to vote and those without, delegates need to announce "Present and Voting" or "Present" according to the procedure.
“到”即为“出席”。当国家名在点名中被点到时,代表需高举国家牌并回答“到”。如果代表未及时出席,需到场后用意向条告知主席团。在一些特殊的委员会中,只有部分代表有权投票。在此情况下,有权投票的代表在点名中需回答“出席并投票”,其他代表只需回答“到”即可。

Procedural Questions 程序性问题

关于一个委员会运行方式的问题,与和议题相关的问题相反。所有出席会议的代表都必须就程序性问题投票而不能弃权。
Having to do with the way a committee runs, as opposed to the topic being discussed. All delegates present must vote on procedural matters and may not abstain.

Q

Quorum 法定人数

The minimum number of delegates needed to be present for a committee to meet. In the General Assembly, a quorum consists of one third of the members to begin debate, and a majority of members to pass a resolution. In the Security Council, no quorum exists for the body to debate, but more than nine members must be present to pass a resolution.
一个委员会或者会议需要出席的最小代表人数。在联合国大会,开始讨论的法定人数为成员的三分之一,通过决议则需要半数以上。在安理会没有开始讨论的法定人数,但是必须有9个以上成员出席才能通过一个决议。

R

Rapporteur 主席助理

A member of the dais whose duties include keeping the speakers' list and taking the roll call.
主席团中负责发言名单和点名程序的成员。

Resolution 决议

A document that has been passed by an organ of the UN that aims to address a particular problem or issue. To the UN, a resolution is the equivalent of a law.
联合国机构通过的用于解决一个特别的问题或争议的文件。在联合国相当于法律。

Right of Reply 答辩权

A right to speak in reply to a previous speaker's comment, invoked when a delegate feels personally insulted by another's speech. It generally requires a written note to the Chair to be invoked.
回应前面发言人的评论的发言权利,当代表觉得个人受到其他代表发言的羞辱时采用。一般需要给主席一个书面的短签。

Robert's Rules of Order 罗伯特议事规则

After General Henry M. Robert brought the publication of Pocket Manual of Rules of Order to the ordinary societies in 1876, Robert Rules of Order has been recognized as a time-tested method of conducting business at meetings and public gatherings in world wide. It can be adapted to fit the needs of any organization. Today, Robert's Rules of Order newly revised is the basic handbook of operation for most clubs, organizations and other groups including Model United Nations.
自1876年首次出版,由罗伯特将军编撰的《罗伯特议事规则》已成为世界上最广受承认的议事规则标准,也是模拟联合国规则流程制定的蓝本。无论对于议事专家、还是新上任的协会主席来说,它都是高效、有序、公平的会议的有力保障。

Roll Call 点名

Roll call is the first order of business in a Model UN committee, during which the Rapporteur reads aloud the names of each member state in the committee. When a delegate's country's name is called, he or she may respond “present” or “present and voting.” A delegate responding “present and voting” may not abstain on a substantive vote.
点名是模联委员会的第一个程序,其间会务报告人会大声读出委员会中每一个成员国的名称。当国家名被叫到的时候,代表需要回答“出席”或者“出席并投票”,回答“出席并投票”的代表在后面的实体性投票中不能弃权。

Roll Call Vote 唱名表决

The special voting procedure to draft resolution is roll call vote. After the roll call, delegates may vote for yes, no or abstain on each draft resolution. Each committee will only pass one draft resolution on each topic. Other draft resolutions will not be voted as long as one has been passed.
对决议草案的表决为唱名表决。主席团首先点名确认到场的国家代表,随后被点到国家名的代表需表决赞成、反对或弃权。对于一个议题,一个委员会只能通过一个决议草案,一旦有一份决议草案获得通过,将不会再对未表决的决议草案进行投票。

Rules of procedure 议事规则

The rules by which a Model UN committee is run.
模拟联合国会议召开所遵循的程序与规则。

S

Second 附议

Second is to agree with a motion being proposed. Many motions must be seconded before they are brought to a vote.
赞同一个被提出的动议。很多动议必须有附议才能投票表决。

Secretariat 秘书处

Secretariat is the organ in charge of conference affairs; normally it consists of  Director of Academics, Liaison (Delegate Coordinator), Director of  Logistics, Director of Technology etc.
秘书处又称组委会,主要负责模拟联合国会议的学术及会务组织工作,通常由学术总监、代表联系人、会务总监、技术总监等人员组成。

Secretary General 秘书长

The supreme leader of the Model UN conference, in charge of the secretariat and dais.
模拟联合国会议的最高负责人,掌控组委会及主席团的各项工作。

Signatory 附议国

A country that wishes a draft resolution to be put on the floor and signs the draft resolution to accomplish this. A signatory need not support a resolution; it only wants it to be discussed. Usually, Model UN conferences require some minimum number of sponsors and signatories for a draft resolution to be approved.
希望一份决议草案能够被讨论并且签字支持此行为的国家。附议国并不一定支持此决议,而只是希望能够得到讨论。通常,模联会议对通过一个决议草案有最低起草国和附议国数量的要求。

Simple Majority 简单多数

50% plus one to the number of delegates in a committee. It is the amount needed to pass most votes.
委员会中50%加1的代表人数。大多数投票所需要的人数。

Speakers' List 发言名单

A list that determines the order in which delegates will speak. Whenever a new topic is opened for discussion, the Chair will create a speakers' list by asking all delegates wishing to speak to raise their placards and calling on them one at a time. During debate, a delegate may indicate that he or she wishes to be added to the speakers' list by sending a note to the dais.
决定代表发言顺序的名单。任何时候只要一个新的议题开始讨论,主席都会要求所有愿意发言的代表举起国家牌,然后以逐一念出国家名的方式建立一个发言名单。在讨论中,代表可以随时向主席团传递意向条要求把自己加入发言名单。

Speaking Time 发言时间

The time of public speaking in formal debate usually refers to the time for each delegate in the speakers' list.
正式辩论中的发言时间多指发言名单中每位代表拥有的发言时间。

T

Two Thirds Majority 三分之二多数

A two thirds majority in parliamentary procedure requires at least two thirds of the entire membership (as two thirds of those present and voting) vote in favor. This is usually used when the committee is voting on draft resolutions or draft directives.
议会议事规则中的三分之二多数是指全体出席及有投票权的代表中的三分之二均投赞成票。三分之二多数一般用于决议草案与指令草案的表决。

U

Unmoderated Caucus 自由磋商

A type of caucus in which delegates leave their seats to mingle and speak freely. Enables the free sharing of ideas to an extent which is not possible in formal debate or even a moderated caucus. Frequently used to sort countries into blocs and to write working papers and draft resolutions.
一种代表可以离开座位自由组合与交谈的磋商形式。使在正式辩论和有主持核心磋商过程中程度上达不到的自由交换意见成为可能。经常在组成国家集团及写作工作文件和决议草案的时候采用。

非友好修正案Unfriendly Amendment

An unfriendly amendment is a change that some or all of the draft resolution's sponsors do not support and must be voted upon by the committee. The author(s) of the amendment will need to obtain a required number of signatories in order to introduce it (usually 20 percent of the committee). Prior to voting on the draft resolution, the committee votes on all unfriendly amendments. The sponsor of the draft resolution can not become the sponsor nor signatories to an unfriendly amendment, while the signatories of the draft resolution may sign it.
如果原决议草案的起草国未就此修正案达成一致性同意意见,该修正案即成为非友好修正案。非友好修正案需要征集到与会代表的20%作为附议国签名,才可以向大会主席提交。原决议草案的起草国不能成为非友好修正案的起草国或附议国,原决议草案的附议国则可以签署非友好修正案。

V

Veto 否决权

The ability, held by China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States to prevent any draft resolution in the Security Council from passing by voting no.
中国、法国、俄罗斯、英国和美国具有的在安理会中投“否”而阻止决议草案通过的能力。

Vote 投票

A time at which delegates indicate whether they do or do not support a proposed action for the committee. There are two types: procedural and substantive.
代表们表示是否支持或者不支持一个针对委员会提出的行动的时刻。有两种类型:程序性和实体性。

Voting Procedure 投票阶段

The period at the end of a committee session during which delegates vote on proposed amendments and draft resolutions. Nobody may enter or leave the room during voting procedure.
在委员会会期将要结束时,代表们对提出的修正案和决议草案进行投票的一段时间。在此期间没有人可以进入或者离开。

W

Working Paper 工作文件

A document in which the ideas of some delegates on how to resolve an issue are proposed. Frequently the precursor to a draft resolution.
一份由部分国家代表或某一利益集团提出的关于如何解决问题的想法的文件。通常是一份决议草案的雏形。

Y

Yield 让渡

Speakers shall yield the floor at the end of their speech when the remaining speaking time is over 15 seconds.
正式辩论阶段发言结束所用时间仍有剩余且超过15秒时,代表把剩余时间用作其它事情的行为。

Yield Time to Another Delegate 让渡给他国代表

After the completion of a speakers' list speech, a delegate may yield time to another delegate. This means that with the remaining time in the speech, another delegate will be able to elaborate on the ideas that the first delegate presented. Please note that only one yield may be made per speaker on the speakers' list.
让渡国代表和被让渡国代表协商一致后,被让渡国代表可在让渡国代表剩余发言时间内发言。如时间还有剩余,不得再让渡给另一位代表。

Yield Time to the Chair 让渡给主席

After the completion of a speakers' list speech, a delegate may yield to the chair. This means that the chair will absorb the remaining time in the speech (meaning nothing will happen with any time remaining).
代表将剩余时间让给主席,意味着代表将放弃时间。主席将继续主持会议。

Yield Time to Questions 让渡给问题

After the completion of a speakers' list speech, a delegate may yield time to questions. This means that with the remaining time, the chair will call upon other delegates to ask questions to the delegate that is giving the speech. The time taken for a delegate to ask the question will not be counted towards the time remaining in the speech. Please note that the questions asked must pertain to the speech that was just given.
代表将剩余时间让渡给问题,主席会请需要提问的代表举牌,并随机点出代表进行提问,发言代表可在剩余时间内回答任何被提出的问题,提问时间不占用剩余时间,提问内容必须与发言者的发言内容有关。

Yield Time to Comments 让渡给评论

If the speaker intends on yielding time to another delegate, he/she should be sure that the delegate yielded to will support his/her ideas. After the completion of a speakers' list speech, a delegate may yield to comments. This means that within remaining time, the comments can be made by any delegate. Note that the comment must pertain to the original speech.
当代表将剩余时间让渡给评论,主席会请需要评论的代表举牌,并随机点出代表进行评论,让发言代表没有权利再一次进行观点的陈述或对评论进行反驳。这种让渡方式有一定风险,因为即使已经与盟国进行沟通,也不能保证主席所点出的进行评论的代表观点与发言代表完全一致。