on the two previous joint workshops - addressing Gender Mainstreaming
(Geneva 1997) and the Rights-based Approach to Gender Equality
(Rome 1998) - and in the context of the Twenty-third Special Session
of the General Assembly to review the implementation of the Beijing
Platform for Action, the discussions focused on concrete actions
to promote the inter-linked issues of women's empowerment, gender
equality and human security.
to eat, a home, health, education, freedom from violence, safety
during natural and man-made disasters, democracy, good governance
and respect for human rights are all basic elements of human security.
The evolving concept of human security also includes:
the emphasis from the security of states to the security of
the obligations of states to ensure the security of their citizens;
the ways in which problems cross borders and boundaries;
the importance of non-state actors;
accountability for violations of human rights and humanitarian
the need for multi-faceted responses to human security issues
in times of peace and conflict, including conflict prevention
and post-conflict reconstruction.
missing element, however, in human security discussions has been
an understanding of the fundamental differences and inequalities
between women's and men's security. In order to address gender
equality goals and objectives effectively, there are five specific
and inter-related issues that need to be incorporated into the
discussion of human security:
against women and girls
- Gender inequalities
in control over resources
- Gender inequalities
in power and decision-making
- Women (and
men) as actors, not victims
stressed that while threats to women's human security during times
of war represent grave dangers, even in times of peace, millions
of women and girls daily confront threats to their security in
both the public and private sphere. United Nations organs and
bodies concerned with peace and conflict resolution should be
encouraged to take a broader view of human security to include
gender equality. Workshop participants emphasized that good governance
is a prerequisite for promoting security for both the individual
and the state, and that a vision of good governance incorporates
the full citizenship of women.
the course of the workshop, participants emphasized that gender
mainstreaming strategies pursued in human security interventions
should be designed to promote women's empowerment. Participants
stressed the inter-linkages between freedom from fear and freedom
from want. For human security to encompass empowerment and rights,
it is critical to consider three stages: survival, security and
gaps in gender awareness of both policy and practice, the following
actions were recommended in order to promote women's empowerment
in the context of human security:
At the policy level
At the level
gender-sensitive legislation and adherence to CEDAW in policy
discussions and actions.
- Build on
experience in facilitating policy dialogue that benefits from
the interaction of NGOs and other actors in civil society with
governments to promote women's leadership.
effective accountability mechanisms for gender equality through
more consistent documentation and dissemination of experiences
and collection of data disaggregated by sex to influence policy
formulation and operational activities.
the leadership and innovative role that women are taking in
conflict resolution and peace-building and support and incorporate
these efforts in conflict prevention and post-conflict reconstruction.
- Create an
enabling environment that supports women's empowerment and provides
resources to organizations, including NGOs, that are actively
involved in this process.
capacity development and improve legal literacy to ensure more
effective use of the CEDAW mechanism and its Optional Protocol.
- Ensure women's
participation and full gender mainstreaming in mandates and
missions related to peace promotion and post conflict reconstruction.
- Ensure that
all reporting to intergovernmental bodies on peace building,
peacekeeping and reconstruction gives consistent attention to
- Work to
create a common database of materials relevant to gender equality
and human security, including lessons learned, good practice,
guidelines, terms of reference, training materials, research
results and codes of conduct.