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Women and the Economy
There are considerable differences in women's and men's access to and opportunities to exert power over economic structures in their societies. In most parts of the world, women are virtually absent from or are poorly represented in economic decision-making, including the formulation of financial, monetary, commercial and other economic policies, as well s tax systems and rules governing pay.



  • FAO gender policy - summary
    www.fao.org ] Languages:  English | French
    Gender equality is central to the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations' (FAO's) mandate to achieve food security for all by raising levels of nutrition, improving agricultural productivity and natural resource management, and improving the lives of rural populations. FAO can achieve its goals only if it simultaneously works towards gender equality and supports women's diverse roles in agriculture and rural development. Gender equality is not only an essential means by which FAO can achieve its mandate, it is also a basic human right.

    L'égalité des sexes est au coeur du mandat de l'Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture (FAO), qui consiste à assurer la sécurité alimentaire de tous les êtres humains en améliorant les niveaux de nutrition, la productivité agricole et la gestion des ressources naturelles, ainsi que la vie des populations rurales. La FAO ne peut atteindre ces objectifs qu'en menant simultanément une action en faveur de l'égalité hommes-femmes et à l'appui des rôles divers que jouent les femmes dans l'agriculture et le développement rural. L'égalité des sexes n'est pas qu'un moyen essentiel à l'accomplissement de la mission de la FAO; c'est aussi et avant tout un droit fondamental de la personne humaine.)

    FAO. 2014.

  • Dimitra Newsletter: Gender, Rural Women and Development
    www.fao.org ] Languages:  English | French
    The Dimitra newsletter outlines the Dimitra project's most recent activities and achievements, especially the development and growing impact of the listeners' clubs. The newsletter is produced bi-annually and is disseminated worldwide in English and French. FAO.


  • Good practice policies to eliminate gender inequalities in fish value chains
    www.fao.org ] Languages:  English
    This paper highlights some of the key gender inequalities in fisheries and aquaculture value chains that lead to marked underperformance by women, and proposes some good practice policies that can lead to sustainable increases in production, processing and marketing of high-quality fish; increases in women's incomes and those of their families; and a reduction in household food insecurity and malnutrition among the poor. FAO. 2013.

  • Las Cajas urbanas: una experiencia de financiación comunitaria liderada por mujeres
    www.fao.org ] Languages:  Spanish
    Sistematización que busca mostrar una experiencia de empoderamiento económico y personal de un grupo de mujeres y hombres en la Honduras periurbana. FAO. 2013.

  • The gender and equity implications of land-related investments on land access, labour and income-generating opportunities in Northern Ghana
    www.fao.org ] Languages:  English 
    This report examines how agricultural investments in Ghana affect economic opportunities for women, as compared to men. It draws on a case study of the Integrated Tamale Food Company and provides recommendations for investors and policy makers. 60 pp. FAO. 2013.

  • The gender and equity implications of land-related investments on land access, labour and income-generating opportunities – A case study of selected agricultural investments in Zambia
    www.fao.org ] Languages:  English 
    This study assesses the ways agricultural investments affect women and men in Zambia through two case studies, the Kaleya Smallholder Company Ltd and ETC Bio-Energy Ltd, to then provide recommendations for investors and policy makers. 62 pp. FAO. 2013.

  • The gender and equity implications of land-related investments on land access and labour and income-generating opportunities – A case study of selected agricultural investments in Lao PDR
    www.fao.org ] Languages:  English 
    This report examines how agricultural investments in Lao People's Democratic Republic affect rural employment opportunities for women and men as well as their access to land. It also provides policy recommendations on key issues. 74 pp. FAO. 2013.

  • Executive summary: the gender and equity implications of land-related investments on land access and labour and income-generating opportunities – A case study of selected agricultural investments in Lao PDR
    www.fao.org ] Languages:  English 
    This Executive Summary presents the main aims, findings and policy recommendations arising from a study on land-related agricultural investments in Lao People's Democratic Republic. 14 pp. FAO. 2013.

  • On Norms and Agency: Conversations about Gender Equality with Women and Men in 20 Countries
    www.worldbank.org ] Languages:  English 
    In this study on gender equality, researchers asked 4,000 people in 20 countries to describe the gender norms in their communities and the influence those norms have on their lives and their every-day decisions. The researchers spoke with men and women, youth and adults, living in villages and cities in developing countries, as well as higher income countries. The World Bank. 2013.

  • Governing land for women and men
    www.fao.org ] Languages:  English 
    This technical guide aims to assist in the implementation of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security, by providing guidance that supports the Guidelines' principle of gender equality in tenure governance.

    The guide focuses on equity and on how land tenure can be governed in ways that address the different needs and priorities of women and men. It moves away from long-standing debates about gender equality in access to land, towards the mainstreaming of gender issues to achieve more gender-equitable participation in the processes and institutions that underlie all decision-making about land. FAO. 2013.

  • Seeing Beyond the State: Grassroots Women's Perspectives on Corruption and Anti-Corruption
    www.undp.org ] Languages:  English 
    Corruption is global phenomenon and a major obstacle to development and economic growth in the global South. Although it affects all social classes and groups, women (and poor women in particular) are among the most affected. In order to better understand corruption from the perspective of women at the grassroots level, the Huairou Commission undertook a study of 11 communities across eight countries in partnership with UNDP's Global Thematic Programme on Anti-Corruption for Development Effectiveness (PACDE). UNDP, 2012

  • Los bonos en la mira aporte y carga para las mujeres
    www.cepal.org ] Languages:  Spanish 
    En este tercer informe del Observatorio de Igualdad de Género de América Latina y el Caribe (OIG) se presenta una reflexión sobre los programas de transferencias condicionadas (PTC), en el marco de los sistemas de protección social y su capacidad de incluir a las mujeres como sujetos de derecho. Finalmente y como resultado del esfuerzo colectivo de los mecanismos para el adelanto de la mujer, se presenta un anexo estadístico que contiene información oficial, periódica y oportuna, que permite mejorar el análisis de las políticas públicas. Asimismo, se centra la mirada en el análisis de los indicadores de autonomía física, económica y en la toma de decisiones, cuyo tel ón de fondo es la agenda regional generada por los consensos ratificados en la XI Conferencia Regional sobre la Mujer de América Latina y el Caribe, concordantes con la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer (Beijing, 1995). También. CEPAL. 2012.

  • World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development
    www.worldbank.org ] Languages:  English 
    The World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development argues that closing these gaps is a core development objective in its own right. It is also smart economics. Greater gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation, and make institutions more representative. The authors use a conceptual framework to examine progress to date, and then recommend policy actions. The World Bank. 2012.

  • Who is benefiting from trade liberalization in Lesotho? A gender perspective
    www.unctad.org ] Languages:  English 
    This study is part of UNCTAD's activities on trade, gender and development carried out by the Organization in accordance with its mandate. The Doha Mandate, resulting from the Thirteenth Ministerial Meeting of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD XIII) held in Doha, Qatar on 21–26 April 2012, provides UNCTAD with a specific mandate on gender-related issues. UNCTAD aims to contribute to the analysis of the linkages between trade policy and gender equality, and to the related international debate, by looking at specific country experiences. This study is one in a series of case studies that are being conducted by UNCTAD in six developing and least developed countries, namely Bhutan, Cape Verde, Lesotho, Angola, Uruguay and Rwanda. Publication date: August 2012.

  • Who is benefiting from trade liberalization in Cape Verde? A gender perspective
    www.unctad.org ] Languages:  English | Portuguese
    This study is part of UNCTAD's activities on trade, gender and development carried out by the organization in accordance with its mandate. The Accra Accord resulting from the Twelfth Ministerial Conference (UNCTAD XII, Accra, Ghana, 20–25 April 2008) requested UNCTAD to strengthen its work on the linkages between trade and internationally agreed development goals and objectives, including gender equality (para. 96(d)), and to make efforts to mainstream cross-cutting issues of gender equality and the empowerment of women in all its work (para. 173). UNCTAD aims to contribute to the analysis of the linkages between trade policy and gender equality, and to the related international debate, by looking at specific country experiences. This study is one in a series of case studies that are being conducted by UNCTAD in six developing countries, namely Angola, Bhutan, Cape Verde, Lesotho, Rwanda and Uruguay Publication date: December 2011.

  • Decent rural employment for food security: A case for action
    www.fao.org ] Languages:  English 
    Promoting decent employment is essential to achieving food security and reducing poverty. This Case for Action argues that improving policy coherence between employment and agricultural initiatives and investing more in the promotion of decent rural employment contribute highly to the interlinked challenges of fighting rural poverty and feeding a growing world population in a sustainable way.

  • Employment of Women


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