Gender Mainstreaming Workshop


15-17 September 1997

Geneva, Switzerland







UN Inter-agency Committee on Women and Gender Equality



OECD/DAC Women in Development Expert Group



Prepared by Dr. Eva Friedlander, Consultant



To the Reader:

This is a working bibliography on the subject of gender mainstreaming. Its focus is primarily on institutional/organizational mainstreaming. With the exception of a few entries in the field of human rights, literature and training material on gender mainstreaming in substantive areas have not been included. Similarly the entries regarding gender mainstreaming at the project level do not yet reflect the extensive work in this area.

The UN Division for the Advancement of Women would welcome comments and suggestions for expanding the bibliography in the future as a tool for both gender specialists and the uninitiated.


5 September 1997







I. Annotated List from Various Sources (Alphabetical by Author)


II. Annotated List of Training Packages, Manuals, Guides, Case Materials and Workshop Reports


III. Unannotated List by Organization


Section I



Mary Anderson, "Focusing on Women: UNIFEM's Experience in Mainstreaming, " New York: UNIFEM, 1993.

UNIFEM's experiences and approaches with mainstreaming are reviewed, while at the same time reflecting the broader experience of those involved in working with women since the Women in Development (WID) movement began in the 1970s. The emphasis on equality, according to Anderson, is not new to Women in Development nor in mainstreaming approaches. The paper reviews the history and evolution of the concept of mainstreaming, the range of mainstreaming strategies that have been developed and priority frontiers for more focused mainstreaming efforts.


Maruja Barrig and Andy Wehkamp, eds. Engendering Development: Experiences in Gender and Development Planning. NOVIB: The Netherlands and Red entre Mujeres: Peru, 1994.

The result of a workshop held in 1991 in Managua, the book brings together the experiences of consultants from Latin America and the Netherlands who have worked on incorporating gender into development projects and policies. It raises conceptual and methodological issues around defining a gender strategy, the institutional development of NGOs, international cooperation, and the potentials and risks of external intervention.


Tony Beck, "'Can the Uncounted Count?' Qualitative Indicators and their Uses," Paper prepared for the Socio-economic and Gender Analysis Inter-Analysis Inter-agency Review Meeting, Organized by UNDP, 5th-9th March 1997, Pearl River, New York.

This paper suggests that qualitative indicators can be used effectively together with quantitative indicators for qualitative analysis, such as gender analysis in order to measure the results of development projects. The conceptual underpinnings are discussed and examples provided.


Mayra Buvinic, Catherine Gwin, and Lisa M. Bates, AInvesting in Women: Progress and Prospects for the World Bank," Overseas Development Council in cooperation with the International Centre for Research on Women: Washington, D.C. 1996.

The World Bank's initiatives to assist women are examined in this "Policy Essay", which draws attention to relatively neglected areas and missed opportunities, and identifies cross-cutting issues and efforts in relation to their benefits for women. Based on interviews with Bank staff and reviews of Bank documents, it focuses on the project level. Among its findings are limited know-how, poor institutional commitment, and inadequate core funding that constitute what the authors consider premature conditions for gender mainstreaming into operations. Instead, they suggest prioritizing WID and creating an enabling environment for staff to treat this as a priority concern.


Jane Connors, "Mainstreaming of the Human Rights of Women", 1995, Unpublished.

Two challenges posed by the mainstreaming of the human rights of women within the UN system are explored: 1) how best to move the human rights of women from the agenda of the UNHR Programme into the mainstream of the work of that programme; and 2) how best to ensure that the human rights of women are part of the approach to women's concerns system-wide. Assessing the progress made thus far, and the obstacles to further mainstreaming, the paper provides a valuable, analysis of the complex problems involved. Human rights education, information and training are viewed as components of a strategy to mainstream the human rights of women throughout the UN system. Concrete recommendations are directed at each part of the United Nations system.


Diane Elson, Integrating Gender Issues into National Budgetary Policies and Procedures Within the Context of Economic Reform: Some Policy Options, Commonwealth Ministers Responsible for Women=s Affairs, Fifth Meeting, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 25-28 November 1996, WAMM(96)(MEP)2.

Tools are identified for integrating gender into fiscal policy, in particular public expenditures, in the budgets of national governments, with the aim of influencing macroeconomic policy. A series of pilot studies are identified that would result in restructuring public expenditures taking account of gender issues to produce greater efficiency and equity.


Rosalind Eyben, "The Social Development Approach," Prepared for the DAC/WID Group Seminar on "Revised Guiding Principles: Strategic Issues", 28 October 1996.

The paper presents the advantages and successes of the UK approach to ODA, which routinely includes gender as part of its social development approach. Social analysis, based on an understanding of social systems and cultural values, is considered critical to efforts to achieve the central ODA objectives of social development. Social development advisers are responsible for social analysis, leading and working as members of interdisciplinary teams. Relevant factors contributing to mainstreaming the social dimension are identified as are the benefits of mainstreaming gender into social analysis.


Yassine Fall, "Gender Dimensions in Macroeconomic Reforms, the Case of Sierra Leone: Conceptual Framework for Analysis and Action-Oriented Programme", UNDP, November 1996.

Based on a three month mission, this paper reviews the gender dimensions of macroeconomic reforms in Sierra Leone, and the implications for a poverty eradication process. A conceptual framework is developed for using socio-economic and gender analysis to analyse the country situation and makes recommendations for incorporating gender into country planning.


Anne Gallagher, "Ending the Marginalization: Strategies for Incorporating Women into the Mainstream of the United Nations Human Rights System", Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 19, pp. 283-333, 1997.

A framework is developed for mainstreaming a gender perspective, reviewing the problems it is expected to solve,with discussion of how the perspective is or is not integrated into sectors of the mainstream human rights system, in particular human rights treaty bodies, investigatory mechanisms established by the political organs of the UN and the technical cooperation programme of the Centre for Human Rights, and provides recommendations for creating a more inclusive human rights system.


Ann Marie Goetz, ed., Getting Institutions Right for Women in Development, IDS Bulletin, Vol. 26, No. 3, July 1995.

A collection of 14 articles explore different facets of efforts to institutionalize gender, in the course of which they also question some widely accepted development assumptions. Concerns are expressed., for example, regarding the issue of accountability and its necessary conditions, its grounding in institutional structures and choices often problematic for women; the role of NGO advocacy, in particular with regard to World Bank policy; the continued perception of small marginal projects for women as adequate expressions of a gender policy; the implications of externally driven NGO growth and expansion for an organizational model and priorities; the value of credit projects for women in the absence of challenge to social constraints on women; and the implications of the engagement by women=s organizations with the state under different political conditions. These and other issues are addressed using concrete cases from multilateral and bilateral agencies, NGOs and governments, that demonstrate the complex nature of the project to institutionalize a gender perspective.


Anne Marie Goetz, "Institutionalizing Women's Interests and Accountability to Women in Development" in Getting Institutions Right for Women in Development, IDS Bulletin, Vol. 26, No. 3, July 1995, pp. 1-10.

An introductory article to this IDS Bulletin which the author has edited provides a way of thinking about the reasons why the work of development organizations continue to disadvantage women in spite of the current widespread awareness and acceptance of gender and development policies. The distinction between institutions and organizations, the modes in which and by which they are gendered, constitutes a framework for examing the reasons for resistance to, and opportunities for, change. Gender patterns in management, the gendered dynamics of decision making and organizational functioning, accountability issues and the embeddedness of women=s undervaluation in organizational culture are all addressed. New themes presented in subsequent articles are woven into the discussion, providing a multifaceted overview of the issues involved in institutionalizing gender. A concern with the diversity of women=s interests and needs, the relationship of gender issues to those of class, and the role of men inform the analysis.


Anne Marie Goetz, "The Politics of Integrating Gender into State Development Processes: Trends, Opportunities and Constraints in Bangladesh, Chile, Jamaica, Mali, Morocco and Uganda", Occasional Paper #2, UNRISD/UNDP, 1995.

Efforts to institutionalize gender concerns in the state and public administration of six countries are compared. Analysing feminist approaches to the state and development and providing a context of political, economic and social trends over the past two decades, major obstacles and constraints, institutional and environmental, are identified, most important being the "gendered conventions in public bureaucracies". In addition, under resourcing, lack of technical skills of WID/GAD personnel, lack of conceptual clarity in use of "gender", politically weak role of outside constituencies, dependence on external support, and depressed economic environments all lead to strategies of growth over equity concerns.


Anne Marie Goetz, "Managing organizational change: the 'gendered" organisation of space and time," In Gender in Development Organisations, ed. by Caroline Sweetman, 'Oxfam Focus on Gender' Oxfam:UK and Ireland: 1997.

Using as an example, the NGO BRAC, the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, the article examines the ways in which space and time are structured in the working day of a development organisation to reflect the physical and social capabilitieis of the men who dominate the organisations, and how this in turn affects the capacity of women to function effectively and flourish in an organisation.


Kari Hamerschlag and Annemarie Reerink, Best Practices For Gender Integration in Organizations and Programs from the InterAction Community: Findings from a Survey of Member Agencies, InterAction, American Council for Voluntary International Action, Commission on the Advancement of Women. March 1996.

This publication reports on the results of a survey administered to 30 member agencies regarding the integration of gender into programming and management policies. It also provides a checklist of critical elements for integrating gender in organizations and programs; it is designed as a tool for planning and monitoring progress.


Carolyn Hannan-Andersson, "Institutionalizing gender policies: the experience of the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA)," Paper prepared for the "Colloquium on Institutional Arrangements and Follow-up to the IVth World Conference on Women" arranged by Quaker United Nations Office in New Paltz 3-5, 1995.

An overview of SIDA's new policy with regard to gender mainstreaming and its implications for development cooperation, this paper emphasizes the importance of the institutional dimension. Discussed in the context of historical developments and trends in policies and institutional strategies, salient issues are identified from SIDA's experience regarding responsibility, accountability, competence development and training, the roles for gender specialists and financial concerns. Issues for the future are identified and their relationship to institutional development emphasized.


Carolyn Hannan-Andersson, "Moving positions forward: , Strategies for gender and development cooperation," In Look at the World Through Women's Eyes: Plenary Speeches from the NGO Forum, Beijing'95, ed. E. Friedlander, NGO Forum on Women, Beijing '95, pp. 221-227.

In order to thoroughly mainstream a gender perspective into development cooperation a shift in responsibility is required from a few gender specialists to top management, all personnel and consultants. Major operational and institutional constraints to ensuring long term impact as opposed to frequently short term gains, serve to maintain the issue of gender equality as separate. The author suggests that if the role of gender specialists hinders a shift of responsibility to management and operations units, it may, paradoxically, hinder rather than help promote gender mainstreaming. The responsibilities of gender specialists must, therefore, be clearly delimited and new, more catalytic roles defined.


Gerry Hofstede, "Donor and Inter-agency Perspectives on Gender Mainstreaming Initiatives," Presented at UNDP Gender Mainstreaming Review Meeting, New York, UNDP, 5-7 February 1997.

This short speech highlights the lessons learned from the comprehensive package of WID planning and appraisal tools, including goals and current projects of the Women and Development Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Netherlands. It also points to issues raised by reorganisation and mainstreaming of the WID unit, in particular the necessary redefinition of strategies that accompanied this process and the institutional and policy implications. The importance of empowering women is emphasized as a key factor.


Stephen Jackson, "Mainstreaming WID: A Survey of Approaches to Women in Development", UNDP, June 1992.

A brief review of the history of WID, the paper analyses some of the problems faced in attempts at mainstreaming. The author discusses analytic frameworks being used and some difficulties with developing gender training to meet practitioner needs. Some efforts to target the macro level are also addressed.


Rounaq Jahan, The Elusive Agenda: Mainstreaming Women in Development, Zed Books: London and New Jersey; University Press Limited: Dhaka, 1995.

While development policies and measures over the past two decades to promote gender equality and women's advancement have created awareness of and advocacy for gender issues, women's poverty continues to grow. Comparing three donor agencies (CIDA, NORAD and UNDP) in terms of policy objectives, strategies and measures of progress, the author concludes this to be the result of emphasis on the institutional as opposed to operational, the promotion of macro policies that exacerbate, rather than alleviate the inequalities between classes and nations. As a result, fundamental objectives articulated by the Southern women's movement, i.e. transforming social and gender relations and creating a just and equal world still elude us. The case is made for an 'agenda-setting' and 'transformative' approach to gender mainstreaming.


Rounaq Jahan, "Assessment of Policies and Organizational Measures in Women in Development Adopted by DAC Member Countries," Theme 2 of the Assessment of WID Policies and Programs of DAC Members, November 1994.

This assessment of OECD/DAC member countries' policies and organizational measures to strengthen "WID efforts", was undertaken in preparation for the 1995 World Conference on Women. It examines the institutionalization of DAC/WID Guiding Principles and assesses the influence of WID policies and measures on donors' operational strategies and policies. It identifies successful instruments and constraints, drawing conclusions about the efficacy of current policies and measures. A major concern of the assessment is to transform the traditional donor/recipient relationship into a development partnership and recommendations are made for future strategies.


Naila Kabeer and R. Subrahmanian, "The rationale for gender-awareness an the policy process" in Institutions, Relations and Outcomes: Frameworks and Tools for Gender Aware Planning, Discussion, Discussion Paper 357, Institute for Development Studies, (unpublished paper), Sussex, 1996, pp. 2-16.

Through a comparison of 'gender-blind' and 'gender-aware' analysis of the same intervention this paper demonstrates the limitations of policy interventions that do not include a gender perspective. Two case studies serving to demonstrate how otherwise invisible aspects of policy design and policy assessment are made visible through a gender perspective. They reveal the assumptions and practices that underlie a gender-blind policy, including 'compartmentalizing' social reality using artificial categories; 'aggregating' generic categories, thereby obscuring differentiation; 'eternallizing' gender relations as unchanging and unchangeable over time; and 'depoliticizing' gender relations. Three types of gender-aware policies are also isolated:


Naila Kabeer, Reversed Realities: Gender hierarchies in development thought, Verso: New York 1994.

An exploration of the relationship between ways of thinking about gender inequalities and the way development practitioners go about doing development, the book posits that different frameworks for analysis of gender relations and development bear directly on policy formulation, implementation and evaluation. It looks at how gender relations are constructed in planning agencies and in turn how the analytic framework used is reflected in training materials.


Naila Kabeer, "Monitoring Poverty as if Gender Mattered: A Methodology for Rural Bangladesh", Discussion Paper 255: Institute of Development Studies, February 1989.

Based on differences in the ways that women and men experience poverty, this paper proposes a monitoring methodology, based on an alternative conceptual framework to that conventionally used, in order to capture gender differences. The problematic nature of conventional methods is drawn using rural Bangladesh as an example, and suggestions are made for modification of indicators and the addition of qualitative information.


Nuket Kadam, Bringing Women In: Women's Issues in International Development Programs, Boulder & London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1991.

Combining insights of regime analysis and organizational theory, the book examines three development agencies (the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank and Ford Foundation) in order to determine a)the factors influencing their response to WID issues, and b) whether and how their norms have been influenced by the international women=s movement. Such organizational characteristics as goals, core values, procedures, degree of independence within the development regime are isolated as key factors in determining the very different responses on the part of the three institutions under examination.

Aimee Koridon and Estelle Korff, "Ungendering the World Bank in a Globalizing World" in C. Itzin, & J. Newman (eds), Gender and the Process of Globalization: How Gender is Constructed, Buttressed by and Constitutive of the Process of Globalization. Universiteit van Amsterdam, pp. 75-106.

Set in the context of globalization, the role of the World Bank is analysed with regard to its attention to gender. Changing images of women and gender in the World Bank are examined and changes in policy with special attention to the gender dimension of the Structural Adjustment Programmes in order to determine whether increasing attention to women results from greater awareness within the WB regarding women's issues and/or changes in World bank policy.


Sara Hlupekile Longwe, 'The Evaporation of Policies for Women's Advancement" in A Commitment to the World's Women, Oxfam/WIDE seminar 1995, Oxford.

Through the analysis of a fictive development agency in a fictive South African nation, it is argued that lack of progress with regard to women's issues is due to the commonality of interests and alliance between patriarchal bureaucratic culture in development agencies and patriarchal Third World governments. For policies regarding women's advancement be effective, it is necessary to focus on changing the bureaucracies that perpetuate patriarchy.


Maureen Mackintosh, "Introduction", Development Policy and Public Action. Ed. M. Mackintosh, M. Wayts and T. Hewitt, Oxford University Press and the Open University.

In this introductory textbook essay, the editor provides a framework for looking at development policy in the broader context of public action in society. Among the issues not conventionally dealt with in this form is that of gender, in particular the process by which women's organizations negotiate space between government agendas and their own ideas about the nature of women's economic and social interests, needs and capacities.


Mandy Macdonald, ed. Gender Planning in Development Agencies: Meeting the Challenge, Oxfam: UK and Ireland, 1994.

The book brings together papers from EUROSTEP, a workshop that took place in Oxford, May 1993 to promote exchange of experiences and information regarding research, practical tools and strategies; to promote the development of new methodologies and systematise best practices; and to strengthen member agencies' work on gender and identify ways of working together. Keynote papers address central conceptual issues regarding institutionalising gender, a social relations perspective on gender-aware policy and planning, and making men an issue. Twelve case studies explore a wide range of issues around gender planning in different development agencies.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sweden, "Gender Equality Competence in Swedish Development Cooperation: Concluding Discussion and Recommendations," Prepared by Charlotta Adelstal, and Krister Eduards, February 1997.

This study assesses gender equality within the Swedish government including the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the Swedish development cooperation embassies, the non-governmental organisations receiving block grants from Sida/SEKA, and the Swedish Institute. It compares the existing situation concerning gender equality and the legally prescribed status of women. The study also discusses "the sixth development objective: that development cooperation should contribute to equality between women and men" (Adelstal, 1). The final section gives a list of recommendations for the Ministry for Foreign Affairs on how to bring about gender equality.


Alicia Mondesire, "Gender mainstreaming in UNDP's country programmes: global experiences and lessons", UNDP, January 1997.

A review of fifteen country reports prepared for this synthesis is the basis for an assessment of the gender mainstreaming efforts of UNDP. It considers the conceptual issues involved, the global context as it affects gender mainstreaming, and gender mainstreaming within UNDP. In addition, the institutional arrangements in the countries covered and mainstreaming at UNDP headquarters are examined, resulting in a summary of opportunities and constraints.


Caroline O.N. Moser, "Gender Planning in the Third World: Meeting Practical and Strategic Gender Needs", World Development, Vol. 17, No. 11, pp. 1799-1825, 1989.

In this seminal article the author proposes a gender roles framework for gender planning that leads to a differentiation of needs. The argument is based conceptually on the identification of the triple role of women and makes the distinction between practical and strategic needs articulated here for the first time. Welfare and efficiency approaches to low income and Third World Women are critiqued from a gender planning perspective and emphasis placed on the need for shifting policy towards an anti-poverty, equity and empowerment approach.


Caroline O.N. Moser, Gender Planning and Development: Theory, Practice & Training, Routledge: London and New York, 1993.

Gender planning is defined as a new and transformative planning tradition, one that seeks to empower women. The need for differentiation of gender roles and needs in society is considered the conceptual basis for gender planning and constitutes the basis for a critique of existing development policy and practice. Institutionalization of gender planning and operational procedures for implementing gender policies, programmes and projects are central subjects for consideration. The distinction between a technical planning methodology to meet women's practical needs and a 'political' methodology to meet women's strategic needs informs much of the discussion including the outlines for gender training methodology.

Janet Newman, AGender and Cultural Change@, in Itzin, C. & Newman, J. (Eds) Gender, Culture and Organizational Change, Routledge, London, 1995.

This article focuses on the value of theorizing culture with regard to gender and organizational change. Cultural mapping, developed in workshops and training programmes, is described and integrated into the analysis of gender relations in what are delineated as three cultural forms: traditional cultures, competitive cultures and transformational cultures. It discusses modelling culture change through exploring "deep structures" and examines inadequacies of and assumptions underlying the approaches taken by many management texts


Adriana Ortiz-Ortega and Judith F. Helzner, "Opening Windows to Gender: A Case Study on Gender from within a Major International Population Agency", Unpublished manuscript.

Effort aimed at mainstreaming a gender perspective into the work of the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) and its member family planning associations are analysed. The use of a non-threatening approach to promote women's interests is discussed, and regional and country-level efforts are described, including gender training, linking FPAs and women's groups, production of technical instruments, internships, insertion of advocacy administrators and leadership issues.


Betty Plewes and Rieky Stuart, Developing an Organizational Gender Policy, CUSO: A Case Study, Match International Center Publications, 1990.

Aimed at NGOs just beginning to think of the organizational change necessary to include women's issues, this publication is based on CUSO's experience, it considers the need for an organizational policy, its efforts to integrate gender into its programming, the experiences of other organizations and the role of training.

Aruna Rao and Rieky Stuart, "Rethinking Organizations: a Feminist Perspective", in Gender in Development Organisations, Ed. by Caroline Sweetman, Oxfam Focus on Gender, 1997.

The ideas that emerged at a conference in Canada (April 1996) concerning the experiences of development organizations attempting to include women in their programmes and create equitable power relations between men and women form the basis for the article. A central idea is that in order to bring about organisational transformation, the conceptual lenses of organisational theory and feminist theory should be applied to development practice. It proposes as necessary an awareness of the "deep structure", the unconscious values that are part of each organization and that may conflict with conscious values. Some ways to change the deep structure as it relates to gender issues are discussed, such as linking feminist goals to organizational values, understanding multiple perspectives,examining organizational work practices, and challenging the "process-outcome split".


Aruna Rao and David Kelleher, "Gender Lost and Gender Found: BRAC's GQAL Program", to be published in Development in Practice, Oxfam, UK, 1998.

The history, values, practice and current challenges of implementing the Gender Quality Action Learning Program at BRAC are discussed. CQAL aims to build staff capacity for gender equitable programming and work with managers and staff to strengthen organizational systems in support of gender goals. It is a methodology that involves staff in the process of defining gender equity and organizational change areas with regard to individual attitudes and behaviour, programmatic outcomes and organizational systems.


Eva M. Rathgeber, "WID, WAD, GAD: Trends in Research and Practice", International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, 1988.

Each of the terms, WID, WAD and GAD is discussed from the point of view of the variations in meaning, use, and the underlying assumptions. The relationship of varying perspectives is drawn to prevailing research, policy making and international agency approaches to development since the mid 1960s. The author explores the way in which these different approaches affected strategies used to enhance women's participation in development.


Shahra Razavi and Carol Miller, "Conceptual Frameworks for Gender Analysis within the Development Context," Background Paper for Socio-Economic and Gender Analysis Inter-agency Review Meeting Organized by UNDP, UNDP/UNRISD Occasional Paper #7, 1997.

Conceptual frameworks for analyzing gender issues in the development context and their expression in the development and use of various training packages are assessed. It points to the widening institutional focus from the household to other institution, e.g. community, markets, state, etc. and accordingly the focus of development interventions beyond the project level to sectoral and macro economic policies for which training tools are still in the process of being developed. The ways "integrationist" or "agenda-setting" approaches are embedded in training frameworks is discussed, the position of development institutions within those frameworks, and the implications for organizational change.


Shahrashoub Razavi and Carol Miller, "From WID to GAD: Conceptual Shifts in the Women and Development Discourse", UNDP/UNRISD Occasional Paper #1, February 1995

Tracing the ways in which women's issues have been conceptualized in the development context since the 1970's, this paper discusses the shift from WID to GAD in relation to policy differences in ways that "gender" is used. It critiques the emphasis on benefits for economic growth, the recent analyses of gender and structural adjustment, and the emphasis on efficiency by neo-classical economists, arguing for a broader concept of the term. Shifts are traced from women specific projects to mainstreaming at programme and policy level, as well as from top-down to bottom up and participatory development.

Shahra Razavi and Carol Miller, "Gender Mainstreaming: A study of efforts by the UNDP, the World Bank and the ILO to institutionalize gender issues", UNDP/UNRISD Occasional Paper #4, 1995.

The ways in which each of three multilateral agencies (UNDP, ILO, and the World Bank) have responded to the demands of the WID movement with regard to institutionalizing WID/gender concerns are examined. Analysed in terms of (i) the organization's degree of independence from external pressures; (ii) the organizational mandate, ideology and procedures; and (iii) the existence and capacity of internal policy advocates and entrepreneurs. Critical factors are identified in translating paper commitments into action. These are: inadequate budgeting, inadequate analytical skills and supervision during implementation; and weak political commitment at agency and country levels.


Marian Sawer, "Femocrats and Ecocrats: Women's Policy Machinery in Australia, Canada and New Zealand", by Marian Sawer, UNRISD/UNDP Occasional Paper #6, March 1996.

Salient issues surrounding women's policy machineries in the governments of Australia, Canada and New Zealand are examined. Placed in the context of the political traditions and historical contradictions that influenced the ways they evolved, the author looks at their location in the bureaucracies and access to policy development, the kinds of negotiations/compromises they (femocrats) are involved in to insert feminist policy, and various aspects of the relationship of women's machineries to the women's movement.


Johanna Schalkwyk, Helen Thomas and Beth Woroniuk, "Mainstreaming: A Strategy for Achieving Equality between Women & Men", A Think Piece, Sida, Department for Policy and Legal Services, July 1996.

Commissioned by Sida, the paper explores mainstreaming as a concept and provides answers to frequently asked questions about mainstreaming strategies. It points to change in the developing country as the ultimate goal of mainstreaming in development cooperation. It points to the limited impact women have had in development approaches and critiques participation as a goal when the real issue lies with the terms of participation. Given the diversity and complexity of women's lives and experiences, gender mainstreaming is considered a long term political project involving both men and women and addressing other aspects of inequality in other arenas cross cut by gender.

Kathleen Staudt, Women, Foreign Assistance, and Advocacy Administration, in series: Women and Politics, General editors: Rita Mae Kelly and Ruth B. Mandel, Praeger, 1985.

Using AID as a case, the book provides an analysis of the special problems of WID ideology and obstacles to implementing WID policy (viewed as redistributive policy), in the organization. Looking through an anthropological lens, the author analyses the role of advocacy administrators in bureaucracies, the bureaucratic environment of WID policy, and compares the politics and incorporation of WID to the experience of introducing other new policies. Implications are drawn for strategies to address gender inequality in bureaucracies.


Kathleen Staudt, ed. Women, International Development, and Politics: The Bureaucratic Mire, (Updated and Expanded Edition, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, 1997.

This collection of articles provides a comparative analysis of gender policy, viewed as essentially redistributive, as it is played out in the context of international agencies, governmental and non governmental organizations in diverse national and cultural settings. The ways women=s programs function within bureaucracy is examined, as are the structures in which they are embedded and characteristic attitudes as well as issues around implementation. The relevance of gendered bureaucracies at different levels is explored, that of bureaucratic outcomes, institutional structures and operations, and the bureaucrats themselves and the role they play. In a new preface to this edition, the editor places the collection within the context of the outcome of the Fourth World Conference on Women, two new chapters and a new final chapter bring the book up to date with discussion and analysis of recent research and political developments that point directions for the future.


Kathleen Staudt, "Technical assistance and women: from Mainstreaming towards Institutional Accountability", Note by the Secretary-General, UN document E/CN.6/1995/6, 19 December 1994.

This review of the technical and financial cooperation in favour of women on the part of a few UN agencies (UNIFEM, UNFPA and UNDP, and under the coordination of the World Bank) comprises a report by the Secretary General at the request of the Commission on the Status of Women. Agency strategies to incorporate gender are analysed and conclusions reached that emphasize the importance of a 'critical mass' of women; accountability-based approaches that shift responsibility from women's units to other part of an agency; greater institutional accountability with people oriented and gender sensitive outcomes; better inter-agency coordination to build on specialized expertise; recruitment, training and personnel strategies for women; and the incorporation of a more holistic approach to gender needs in programming.


Caroline Sweetman, Ed., Gender in Development Organisations, Oxfam Focus on Gender series, Originally published as an issue of the journal Gender and Development Vol. 5, No. 1, February 1997.

The articles in this volume concern themselves with the varied ways that development organizations function to reflect and replicate gendered values and roles that delimit access to resources and decision making. Organizational culture is a central theme of the book.

Sarah White, "Making Men an Issue: Gender Planning for the 'other half'" in Mandy MacDonald, Gender Planning in Development Agencies, OXFAM, London, PP. 98-107.

This article argues that gender issues have focused on and been treated as women's issues in development, thereby reinforcing their marginalization and suggesting that men's roles are natural. Opening up options and possibilities for men and expanding cultural space for them is in women's best interests as well. If gender roles and relations are to be transformed, it is necessary to work with men, as well as women, as a gender issue.


Beth Woroniuk, Helen Thomas and Johanna Schalkwyk, "Gender Equality Action Plans: A Think Piece", Sida/Department for Policy and Legal Services, January 1996.

Commissioned by Sida as one of a series of short state-of-the-art discussion papers, this report grows out of efforts by Sida to revise its guidelines on gender equality. It assesses different strategies, lays out considerations in the development of action plans and reviews the strengths and weaknesses of some strategies development cooperation agencies have used. Areas that need further work or where few to no initiatives exist are outlined.


Section II



Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee

BRAC Technical Manual: An Action-Learning Approach to Gender and Organizational Change. August 1996.

Based on tools developed by BRAC for organizational development, this manual was developed for people working to make their institutions and programmes more gender equitable.


The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA)

Gender and Development, The CEDPA Training Manual Series, Volume III, CEDPA, The Centre for Development and Population Activities, Washington, D.C., 1996, 98pp.

Used in CEDPA's Women in Management (WIM) and Institution Building (IB) programmes, this manual is intended for use by trainers of programme managers and development workers in the private and public sectors. It uses a participatory, experiential methodology based on the principles of adult learning.


Canadian International Development Authority (CIDA)

CIDA, WID and Gender Equity: So What=s Leading Edge?, Briefing Module, Prepared by Beth Woroniuk, June 1995.

Specifically prepared for the Asia Branch of CIDA, this flexible briefing module was prepared to provide a framework and easily accessible information for presentations regarding gender issues. Subjects include the subject rationale (gender and development), gender equity policy, gender analysis theory, the process of mainstreaming as an institutional strategy and those strategies considered valuable for CIDA, gender-sensitive indicators, programming in different sectors and issues identified for the Fourth World Conference on Women. A final section includes frequently asked questions and answers. Each Section starts with key questions, provides definitions and resource sheets. An extensive bibliography enables the user to pursue subjects in greater depth.


Guide to Gender-Sensitive Indicators, Prepared by Tony Beck and Morton Stelcner, CIDA, 1995.

This Guide aims to (i) promote both a conceptual and methodological understanding of indicators with special emphasis on gender-sensitive indicators; and (ii) offer suggestions and guidance for their use with particular focus on the project level. The discussion is directed at the different levels on which CIDA operates.


The Why and How of Gender-Sensitive Indicators: A Project Level Handbook, Prepared by Tony Beck, CIDA, 1996.

A brief introduction to the subject of gender-sensitive indicators enables the practitioner to review the main approaches to their use and determine which types to use. The Handbook can be used together with the more comprehensive Guide mentioned above.


Commonwealth Secretariat

Gender Management Systems Reference Handbook, Prepared by Audrey Ingram Roberts, Commonwealth Ministers Responsible for Women's Affairs, Fifth Meeting, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 25-28 November 1996, WAMM(96)(GMS)2.

This handbook is intended for the non specialist responsible for implementation of the 1995 Commonwealth Plan of Action on Gender and Development, including senior and middle managers, trainers, human resource development and organizational development advisors, and gender experts. Designed in flexible modular form, a Gender Mainstreaming Kit includes sections devoted to case studies, guidelines for gender integration in specific ministries, gender specific recommendations of major international conventions and Commonwealth communiques, gender sensitive indicators, gender analysis and gender impact assessment instruments, Commonwealth EEO Policy, and a bibliography.


Ecology, Community Organization (ECOGEN)

A Manual for Socio-Economic and Gender Analysis: Responding to the Development Challenge, Prepared by Barbara Thomas-Slayter, Rachel Polestico, Andrea Lee Esser, Octsavia Taylor, Elvina Mutua; Clark University, 1995, 280 pp.

A very substantial and extensive manual, this packet is intended for use by development professionals, including planners, organizers, educators, and project managers. The framework rests on the centrality of socio-economic analysis to gender analysis for effective development. Based on participatory methods it provides tools for analysis, situational and case material, and means to measure effectiveness through monitoring and evaluation.

International Labour Organization (ILO)

Women Workers' Rights: Modular Training Package, Equality for Women in Employment: An Interdepartmental Project, International Labour Office, Geneva, 1994.

A comprehensive training package, designed for ILO structures, governmental bodies, workers and employers' organizations, NGOs and others working on women's and gender issues, which includes a trainer's guide and supportive audio-visual materials. Discussion of equality of opportunity in employment, ILO policies and standards, and gender analysis and planning, based largely on role and task analysis, introduce three modules: 1)the role of the ILO and the UN promotion of women workers' rights, 2) ILO labour standards and women workers, and 3) national level action for promotion of women workers. Modules include work sheets, exercises, transparencies and such resources as bibliographies and informational contacts. Prepared as a binder, its parts can be used separately or together in a variety of combinations.

International Women=s Tribune Center (IWTC)

Gender Training Forum: Gender Training Resources and Networking Newsletter, No. 1, Fall 1996, Woman Source.

Available in both e-mail and hard copy, this newsletter provides a forum where gender trainers and others working on gender issues can share methods and discuss new developments. Institutionally based in 8 women's and gender resource centers around the world, monthly information briefs on regional activities are provided and information requests are answered. (



Frameworks for Gender Analysis: A Taster, Oxfam Gender Team, April 1996 (DRAFT).

Each of five gender analysis frameworks is systematically analysed for its appeal, uses and potential limitations. Further readings regarding each are suggested.


The Oxfam Gender Training Manual, Prepared by Suzanne Williams, Janet Seed and Adelina Mwau, Oxfam 1994. (634 pages)

A resource of learner centered training activities, using participatory methodologies, is based on the DPU (Development Planning Unit) approach developed by Caroline Moser with additional emphasis on the personal level and participatory development. Based on the organization's experience, it covers gender development concepts, gender analysis, gender sensitive appraisal and planning, as well as gender perspectives on select issues: conflict, environment, economic crisis and culture, communication, ending with strategies for change. It contains facilitator notes and suggested activity adaptations.


Royal Tropical Institute

Training Workshop for Trainers in Women, Gender and Development, June 8-25, 1997, KIT, The Netherlands..

A binder of articles and papers organised into four modules, dealing with 1) concepts of gender relations, 2) analytical and planning tools, 3) gender sensitive planning: analytic frameworks and 4) gender sensitive programming. Each section has pages that review the main points of the articles..


Save the Children

Gender Relations Analysis: A Guide for Trainers, Rani A. Parker, Itziar Lozano and Lyn A. Messner,1995.

Reviews key concepts and provides training in gender relations analysis, placing special emphasis on empowerment and the dimension of power in relations of gender. It is intended for practitioners, to enable them to plan, develop, and assess cross sectorally programs that link field level projects to national and international programmes.


United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

Capacity Building for Gender Mainstreaming. In preparation.

This multi-part training package is intended to be adapted to local needs and priorities. It includes modules on all gender analysis approaches, gender and macro economic planning, gender and a wide range of development themes. It includes training in process and professional skills necessary for effective gender mainstreaming such as public speaking; summarizing, chairing meetings, listening and negotiation skills, and constructive criticism. It will be available in hard copy and electronic formats.


United Nations Children=s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

Module: Programming for Women's Empowerment, Prepared by Sara H. Longwe,

Prepared for the purposes of staff training, this extensive 5 cluster 11 unit manual is designed to deal with gender issues specifically as they relate to UNICEF's mandate and programmes. It is based on an empowerment framework and contextualized within an analysis of gender issues as they relate to the development agenda. It provides basic analytic information that can be used in training workshops or for self learning. A Facilitator's Guide details ways in which the modules can be used for staff training.


Other Sources

Doing the Gender Boogie: Power, Participation and Global Justice: Power, Participation and Economic Justice, Edited by Debbie Culbertson, Ten Days for Global Justice, 1995. (64 pages)

Organized as a development education toolkit, it includes step-by-step instructions for organising workshops and provides all the materials needed to put each session together.


Building a Global Network for Gender and Organisational Change, David Kelleher, Aruna Rao, Rieky Stuart, Kirsten Moore (forthcoming).

The report presents a collaborative learning process for gender and organisational change.


Case Materials

Rekha Mehra, ed, Taking Women Into Account: Lessons Learned from NGO Project Experiences, ICRW and InterAction, 1996.

The experiences of four NGO projects provide the information for case studies developed by different authors and the source of practical and replicable lessons that might enhance gender responsiveness and sensitivity to women's concerns in project development and implementation. An introduction outlines lessons learned across projects followed by narrative description of each project. Developed in preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women, NGOs, donors, women's organizations and other concerned with improving gender responsiveness at the field level constitute the audience for this publication.


Catherine A. Overholt, Mary B. Anderson, Kathleen Cloud and Aruna Rao, eds. Gender Analysis in Development Projects: A Case Book, Kumarian Press, 1985.

The book is divided into two parts, the first provides an overall framework for analysis of cases and consists of 4 papers on technical issues, while the second provides 7 case studies based on USAID funded projects, intended for use in training to elicit discussion. The material was developed by the Case Study and Training Project at the Harvard Institute of International Development.


Aruna Rao, Mary B. Anderson and Catherine A Overholt, Gender Analysis in Development Planning: A Case Book, Kumarian Press, 1991.

Through an analysis of 6 case studies the book aims to show the importance for development planning of knowing what women do. It provides an analytic framework for integrating women into the analysis of projects in order to ensure that policies have practical results at the project level. Factors are put forth to facilitate project cycle analysis. Teaching notes are also available for the book.


Simmons Institute for Leadership and Change, Conference Materials for Marginal to Mainstream: Scaling Up Gender & Organizational Change Interventions, Boston, 23-24 June, 1997.

A series of papers and funding proposals delivered and discussed at this conference regarding efforts to bring about gender mainstreaming in organizations. The cases include BRAC, CGIAR, The International Center for Maize and Wheat Research, and a for-profit corporation.


Vera Gianotten, Verona Groverman, Edith van Walsum, and Lida Zuidberg, Assesssing the Gender Impact of Development Projects: Case Studies from Bolivia, Burkina Faso , and India, The Netherlands Royal Tropical Institute: Netherlands, Intermediate Technology: UK, 1994.

These cases are based on pilot studies undertaken to develop guidelines to determine the possible consequences of development project interventions. A methodological framework involving analysis of the macrolevel context, micro level gender analysis, institutional analysis and project analysis is used.





Workshop Reports

Aruna Rao, Hilary Feldstein, Kathleen Cloud and Kathleen Staudt, Gender Training and Development Planning: Learning from Experience, Conference Report, May 1991, Bergen, Norway, Co-hosted by the Population Council and the Chr. Michelsen Institute

The conference report provides in easily accessible form and language a review of the ideas that emerged from the presentations and exchange of experiences that took place in the course of this seminal conference. The major topics covered are content and method of gender training, institutionalization, and evaluation of gender training. Also included are recommendations regarding local, regional and international level training, materials development and access, as well as methodological considerations


Aruna Rao, Marguerite Appel, Kirsten Moore, Hillary Sims Feldstein eds., Reflections and Learnings: Gender Trainers= Workshop Report, eds,, The Royal Tropical Institute and The Population Council, 1994,

A report of a Tools for Trainers Workshop organized for gender trainers, the volume contains syntheses, summaries and discussions of the conference presentations and exchanges. It includes the history and rationale for the workshop, workshop evaluations, an analysis of workshop processes and of critical issues for gender trainers working for social change. It also contains reflections of the organizers on the planning and organizing process for the workshop.





Section III


(A number of entries listed here are annotated in Sections I and II.)





Commission on the Status of Women (CSW)

"Technical Assistance and Women: From Mainstreaming Towards Institutional Accountability: Note by the Secretary-General." New York: Economic and Social Council, 19 December 1994.

Integrating the Human Rights of Women throughout the United Nations System, Report of the Secretary- General, Commission on Human Rights, Fifty-third session, E/CN4/1997/40.

Extent To Which Violations of Women=s Human Rights Have Been Addressed by Human Rights Mechanisms, Report of the Secretary-General, Commission on the Status of Women, Fortieth session, E/CN.6/1996/9, 28 February 1996.

"Elements for Mainstreaming of Gender Perspectives into All Policies and Programmes in the UN System," CSW41/ CANZ Paper, 12 March 1997.


Commission on Human Rights

Expert Group Meeting on the Development of Guidelines for the Integration of Gender Perspectives into Human Rights Activities and Programmes, Note by the Secretariat, Commission on Human Rights Fifty-second session, E/CN.4/1996/105, 20 November 1995.


Inter-Agency Committee on Women and Gender Equality (IACWGE)

"Indicators", Discussion paper prepared by JCGP GID Sub-Group, IACWGE/II/BP.3, 25 February 1997.

"Background Paper on Mainstreaming and Coordination", Prepared jointly by the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) and UNIFEM, in collaboration with UNDP, UNFPA and UNICEF, IACGWE/1/BP.1, 21 October 1996.

"JCGP Note on Gender Mainstreaming: Parameters of Lessons Learned", Prepared by UNDP on behalf of JCGP Gender Sub-Group, IACGWE, February 1997.

Entities of the UN System

Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW)

Coordination of the Policies and Activities of the Specialized Agencies and Other Bodies of the United Nations System Related to the Following Theme: Coordination of United Nations System Activities for Poverty Eradication, Report of the Secretary-General, ECOSOC Substantive Session of 1996, E/1996/61, 13 June 1996.

Implementation of the Outcome of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Report of the Secretary-General to the General Assembly, UN document A/51/322.

Mainstreaming the Gender Perspective into All Policies and Programmes in the United Nations System, Report of the Secretary-General, ECOSOC Substantive Session of 1997, E/1997/66, 12 June 1997.

"Incorporation of a Gender Perspective into the Work of the United Nations Human Rights Regime," Paper by the Division for the Advancement of Women, Department of Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, 29 June 1995.


United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)

Focusing on Women: UNIFEM=s Experience in Mainstreaming, By Mary Anderson, New York: UNIFEM, 1993.

Integration of Women's Human Rights into the Work of the Special Rapporteurs, By Donna Sullivan and Sunila Abeyesekera, New York: UNIFEM, 1993.

Report of the Expert Group Meeting on the Development of Guidelines for the Integration of Gender Perspectives into United Nations Human Rights Activities and Programmes. (Geneva, 3-7 July 1995), UNIFEM 20 November 1995EC/CN.4/1996/105.

Gender and Development: Making the Bureaucracy Gender Responsive, National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women, UNIFEM, and HR Specialists, Manila, 1994.

AUNIFEM's Experiences in Mainstreaming for Gender Equality@, Briefing for the UNICEF Meeting of Gender Focal Points, 8 May 1997.


United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW)

Gender Concepts in Development Planning: Basic Approach, prepared by Lezak Shallat and Ursula Paredes, 1996.


International Labour Office (ILO)

The International Labour Organization and Women Workers' Rights, ILO, 1993.

"ILO Standards and Action for the Elimination of Discrimination and the Promotion of Equality of Opportunity in Employment." EGALITE/1990/D.1. .

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

"The Revolution for Gender Equality", in the Human Development Report 1995, pp. 1-10, New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. (Issue devoted to gender equality.)

'Memorandum: Direct Line 11 on Gender Equality and the Advancement of Women", From the Administrator, James Gustave Speth, UNDP, 22 November 1996.

"A Commitment to Gender Equality in UNDP 2001", Conference Room Paper, May 1997..

"A Policy for Gender Balance in UNDP Management", UNDP, May 1995.

"Guidance Note on Gender Mainstreaming", for Senior Management Consultation on Gender Mainstreaming", 5-7 February 1997, New York.

"Report on AGender Mainstreaming Training/Consultation/Briefing Workshop" for UNDP/RBEC Country Office Gender Focal Points and Heads of National Gender Units in Europe and the CIS, Vilnius, Lithuania: UNDP/RBEC, 4-8 November 1996.

"Report on Gender Mainstreaming ATraining/Consultation/Briefing Workshop" for UNDP/RBA Country Gender Focal Points and Heads of National Gender Units in Zimbabwe, 15-17 July 1996.

"Report on Gender Mainstreaming for Gender Focal Points", 3-4 February 1997.

Commissioned Papers

"Mainstreaming WID: A Survey of Approaches to Women in Development", prepared by Stephen Jackson, UNDP, June.

"From WID to GAD: Conceptual Shifts in the Women and Development Discourse," prepared by Shahrashoub Razavi and Carol Miller UNRISD/UNDP Occasional Paper #1, Geneva, February 1995.

"The Politics of Integrating Gender to State Development Processes: Trends Opportunities and Constraints in Bangladesh, Chile, Jamaica, Mali, Morocco and Uganda," prepared by Anne Marie Goetz, UNRISD/UNDP, Occasional Paper #2, Geneva, May 1995.

"Gender Mainstreaming: A study of efforts by the UNDP, the World Bank and the ILO to institutionalize gender issues", prepared by Shahra Razavi and Carol Miller, UNRISD/UNDP Occasional Paper #4, August 1995.

"Femocrats and Ecocrats: Women=s Policy Machinery in Australia, Canada and New Zealand", prepared by Marian Sawer, UNRISD/UNDP Occasional Paper #6, Geneva, March 1996.

"Conceptual Frameworks for Gender Analysis within the Development Context", Background Paper prepared by Shahra Razavi and Carol Miller for Socio-Economic and Gender Analysis Inter-agency Review Meeting Organized by UNDP, UNRISD/UNDP Occasional Paper #7, 1997.

"Gender Mainstreaming in UNDP's Country Programmes: Global Lessons and Experiences", prepared by Alicia Mondesire, Draft, January 1997. (Summary document of gender mainstreaming assessments.)

"Donor and Inter-agency Perspectives on Gender Mainstreaming Initiatives", prepared by Gerry Hofstede for UNDP Gender Mainstreaming Consultation 5-7 February 1997.


Country Assessments of UNDP Mainstreaming Efforts

"Gender Dimensions in Macroeconomic Reforms the Case of Sierra Leone: Conceptual Framework for Analysis and Action-Oriented Programme", prepared by Yassine Fall, UNDP, November 1996.

"UNDP Lebanon Gender Mainstreaming Assessment", Draft Report, by Marnia Lazreg, UNDP, September 1996.

"Gender and Change in Vietnam: An Analysis of Mainstreaming Experiences", prepared by Alicia Mondesire, Report presented to the United Nations Development Programme, June 1996.

"Uzbekistan: Gender Mainstreaming Assessment of the Uzbekistan UNDP Office", prepared by Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh, UNDP, 1996.

United Nations Environment Programme

Guiding Principles for Integrating Gender into UNEP Activities by the Gender Issues Office, Division of Policy and External Relations, UNEP, 1996.


World Bank

Toward Gender Equality: the Role of Public Policy, The International Bank for Reconstruction and the World Bank, 1995.

Gender Issues in World Bank Lending, Prepared by Josette L. Murphy, A World Bank Operations Evaluation Study, The International Bank for Reconstruction and The World Bank, 1995.

Implementing the World Bank's Gender Policies, Progress Report No. 1, March 1996.


World Food Programme (WFP)

"Progress Report on the Implementation on WFP's Commitments to Women," Rome: World Food Programme, WFP/EB.2/97/3-D, 25 February 1997.




Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)

Commissioned papers

Guide to Gender-Sensitive Indicators, prepared by Tony Beck and Morton Stelcner, CIDA, August 1995.

A Project Level Handbook: The Why and How of Gender-Sensitive Indicators, prepared by Tony Beck and Morton Stelcner, Canadian International Development Agency, 1996.

CIDA, WID and Gender Equity: So What's Leading Edge?, Briefing Module written and prepared by Beth Woroniuk, June 1995.


Commonwealth Secretariat:

The 1995 Commonwealth Plan of Action on Gender and Development: A Commonwealth Vision, London: Commonwealth Secretariat, 1996.

Guidelines for Commonwealth Governments on Gender-Sensitive Indicators, Prepared by Tony Beck, Commonwealth Secretariat, December 1996.

Gender Management Systems Reference Handbook, Prepared by Audrey Ingram Roberts, Commonwealth Ministers Responsible for Women's Affairs, Fifth Meeting, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 25-28 November 1996, WAMM(96)(GMS)2.

Integrating Gender Issues into National Budgetary Policies and Procedures Within the Context of Economic Reform: Some Policy Options, Prepared by Diane Elson, Commonwealth Ministers Responsible for Women's Affairs, Fifth Meeting, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 25-28 November 1996, WAMM(96)(MEP)2.



Best Practices For Gender Integration in Organizations and Programs from the InterAction Community: Findings from a Survey of Member Agencies, Prepared by Kari Hamerschlag and Annemarie Reerink, InterAction, American Council for Voluntary International Action, Commission on the Advancement of Women. March 1996.


Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Development Assistance Committee (OECD/DAC)

"Assessment of Policies and Organizational Measures in Women in Development Adopted by DAC Member Countries: Theme 2 of the Assessment of WID Policies and Programs of DAC Members," by Rounaq Jahan, November 1994.

"Gender Equality: Moving Towards Sustainable, People-Centred Development", Paris:OECD, May 1995."Gender Equality: Moving Towards Sustainable, People-Centred Development", Paris:OECD, May 1995.

"Shaping the 21st Century: The Contribution of Development Co-operation", May 1996 DCD/DAC(96)15/FINAL.

"The Social Development Approach: The ODA Experience", by Rosalind Eyben for "Seminar on Revised Guiding Principles: Strategic Issues", 28 October 1996.

OECD/DAC Expert Group on Women in Development: Implications of the Fourth United Nations Conference on Women in Development Cooperation in South Asia, Regional Seminar Madras, 23-25 April 1996, 2 vols, ODA:UK. (Summary Report and Proceedings of the Conference.)

"Implications of the Beijing Conference for Bilateral Development Cooperation in the Southern African Region," held in Cape Town, 21st-24th October 1996, Organized for the OECD/DAC Expert Group on Women in Development by Sida (Stockholm) in cooperation with the African Gender Institute (Cape Town). Report prepared by Sida on behalf of the OECD/DAC Expert Group on Women in Development April 1997.



"Pact Gender Policy." (A 3 page flyer providing an overview of Pact's management objectives and its country program objectives with regard to gender).


Swedish International Development Authority (Sida)

"Institutionalising Gender Policies: The Experience of the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA)" by Carolyn Hannan-Andersson for the "Colloquium on Institutional Arrangements and Follow-up to the IVth World Conference on Women" arranged by Quaker United Nations Office, New Paltz, 3-5 February 1995.

"Mainstreaming: A Strategy for Achieving Equality Between Women & Men: A Think Piece", by Johanna Schalkwyk, Helen Thomas, and Beth Woroniuk, Sida/Department for Policy and Legal Services, July 1996.


Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs

"Gender Equality Competence in Swedish Development Cooperation: Concluding Discussion and Recommendations," Prepared by Charlotta Adelstal, and Krister Eduards, Ministry for Foreign Affairs February 1997.