THE ASSETS FREEZE LIST  Last updated on 16 December 2009

LAST NAME

FIRST NAME

ALIAS

DATE OF BIRTH/PLACE OF BIRTH

PASSPORT /IDENTIFYING INFORMATION

DESIGNATION/

JUSTIFICATION

ALLEN

Cyril

 

26 JUL 1952

 

Former Chairman, National Patriotic Party. Associate of former Liberian President Charles Taylor with ongoing ties to him.

BOUT

Viktor Anatoljevitch

BUTT,

BONT,

BUTTE,

BOUTOV,

SERGITOV

Vitali

13 JAN 1967

(13 JAN 1970)

21N0532664

29N0006765

21N0557148

44N3570350

Businessman, dealer and transporter of weapons and minerals. Arms dealer in contravention of UNSC resolution 1343. Supported former President Taylorís regime in effort to destabilize Sierra Leone and gain illicit access to diamonds.

CHICHAKLI

Richard Ammar

Ammar M. Chichakli

29 March 1959

POB: Syria

Citizenship: US

SSN: 405 41 5342 or

467 79 1065

Address:

225 Syracuse Place, Richardson, Texas 75081, USA

811 South Central Expressway

Suite 210 Richardson, Texas 75080, USA

A Syrian-born US citizen who has been an employee/ associate of Viktor Bout for about a decade. The UN identified Chichakli as Viktor Boutís Chief Financial Manager and, therefore, as one who acts at Boutís direction. His own resume details his senior positions with several Bout-controlled companies. A certified public accountant and certified fraud examiner with more than 12 years of experience, plays a significant role in assisting Bout in setting up and managing a number of his key firms and moving money (both for acquisition of assets and reparation of profits). In media interviews, reportedly has held himself out as spokesperson for Viktor Bout and his network. Chichakli is an officer of San Air General Trading. Payments for many of the weapons that went to Liberia through Victor Boutís network in 2000 and 2001 were directed to San Airís bank accounts. As such, Chichakli is associated with an entity providing financial or military support to armed rebel groups in Liberia or in countries in the region.

COOPER

Randolph

(Randolf)

 

28 OCT 1950

 

Former Managing Director of Robertsfield International Airport. He was instrumental in the various violations of the arms embargo.

Associate of former Liberian President Charles Taylor with ongoing ties to him.

GEORGE

Martin

     

Former Ambassador of Liberia to the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Associate of former President Charles Taylor with ongoing ties to him. Alleged to have provided funds to former President Taylor.

GIBSON

Myrtle

 

03 NOV 1952

 

Ex-Senator. Advisor to former Liberian President Charles Taylor with ongoing ties to him.

GOODRIDGE

(GOODRICH)

Reginald B.

(Senior)

 

11 NOV 1952

 

Former Minister for Culture, Information and Tourism. Associate of former Liberian President Charles Taylor with ongoing ties to him.

JOBE

Baba

 

1959

Nationality: The Gambia

Former Director of the Gambia New Millenium Air Company. Former member of Parliament of the Gambia. S/2001/1015, para. 287. Arms trafficker  in contravention of UNSC resolution 1343. Supported former President Taylorís regime in effort to destabilize Sierra Leone and gain illicit access to diamonds. In prison

in the Gambia.

KIIA TAI

Joseph Wong

     

Executive of the Oriental Timber Company.

Provided military and financial support for Taylor S/2001/1015, para. 334. Arms dealer in contravention of UNSC resolution 1343. Supported former President Taylorís regime in effort to destabilize Sierra Leone and gain illicit access to diamonds.

MININ

Leonid Yukhimovich

BLAVSTEIN,

BLYUVSHTEIN,

BLYAFSHTEIN,

BLUVSHTEIN,

BLYUFSHTEIN

KERLER, Vladamir (Vladimir) Abramovich

(DOB: 18 OCT 1946)

POPILO-VESKI

POPILOVESKI

(POPELA/POPELO)

Vladimir Abramovich

(DOB: 18 OCT 1946)

BRESLAN, Wulf

(DOB: 10 JUL NK)

OSOLS, Igor

(DOB: 14 DEC 1947)

14 DEC 1947 in Odessa, USSR

(18 OCT 1946)

(10 JUL NK)

(14 DEC 1947)

Nationality: Israel

Bolivian Passport: 65118

Forged German Passports:

5280007248D

18106739D

(MININ)

Greek Passport: no details

Israeli Passports:

6019832

valid 06/11/94-05/11/99

9001689

valid 23/01/97-22/01/02

90109052

issued on 26/11/97

Russian Passport: KI0861177

Owner of Exotic Tropical Timber Enterprises. Key financier for Taylor [S/2001/1015, para. 346].

Arms dealer in contravention of UNSC resolution 1343. Supported former President Taylorís regime in effort to destabilize Sierra Leone and gain illicit access to diamonds.

NAYDO

Valeriy

NAIDO, Valerii

10 August 1957

Citizenship: Ukrainian

c/o CET Aviation, P.O. Box 932-20C, Ajman, UAE

AC251295, KC024178 (Ukrainian)

Has been described as ďBoutís number twoĒ man in South Africa by another Bout associate. A former pilot for Bout and one of the directors of Air Pass (Pietersburg Aviation Services and Systems), a Bout front company. Also listed in a commercial database of UAE firms as CET Aviationís Chief Executive Officer. CET is a holding company Bout organizaed to incorporate two of his firms: Centrafrican Airlines and San Air General Trading.

As noted above, Naydo is the CEO of CET, the holding company for Centrafrican Airlines. Centrafricanís role in the Liberian arms trade was uncovered when UN investigators found film footage of Liberian rebels handling 9 Strela surface-to-air missiles. These missiles appear to match an illegal shipment of weapons organized by Sanjivan Ruprah and delivered to Liberia in May 2000 by an Ilyushin IL-76 belonging to Centrafrican Airlines. Centrafircan was also involved in other arms shipments, including the attempted sale of two refurbished Mi-24 attack helicopters to Liberia. He is associated with an entity providing financial or military support to armed rebel groups in Liberia or in countries in the region.

RUPRAH

Sanjivan

Samir NASR

09 AUG 1966

D-001829-00

D-002081-00

Businessman

Former Deputy Commissioner of the Bureau of Maritime Affairs.

Arms dealer in contravention of UNSC resolution 1343. Supported former President Taylorís regime in effort to destabilize Sierra Leone and gain illicit access to diamonds.

SALAME

(SALAMI)

Mohamed Ahmad

Ameri AL JAWAD

Jawad AL AMERI

Moustapha SALAMI

Moustapha A SALAMI

22 SEP 1961

{POB: Abengourou, CŰte díIvoire }

{(18 OCT 1963)}

Nationality: Lebanon

Ordinary Lebanese Passport: 1622263

valid 24/04/01-23/04/06

Togolese Diplomatic Passport: 004296/00409/00 valid 21/08/02-23/08/07

Liberian Diplomatic Passport: 000275

valid 11/01/98-10/01/00

2nd Liberian Diplomatic Passport: 002414

valid 20/06/01-19/06/03

Name: Ameri AL JAWAD

DOB: 18 OCT 1963

POB: Ganta, Nimba County

Ivorian Passport: no details available

Liberian Diplomatic Passport: D/001217

Liberian Passport No: Diplomatic – 2781

Owner, Mohamed and Company Logging Company. Informal diplomatic representative of former Liberian President Charles Taylor with ongoing ties to him.

Ambassador Plenipotentiary to Chairman G. Bryant of Liberia since 2003, having previously held the same post under former President Taylor.

SHAW

Emmanuel (II)

 

26 JUL 1946

(26 JUL 1956)

 

Director of Lonestar Airways. Associated with Lone Star Communications Cooperation.

Instrumental in the breaching of the arms embargo in 2003.

Former economic adviser to ex-President Taylor with ongoing ties to him.

SNOWE

Edwin M., Jr.

 

11 February 1970

Nationality: Liberia

OR/0056672-01

D/005072
Liberian Passport No: Diplomatic D005640

ECOWAS-DPL Passport No: D-00172 (07/08/08-06/07/10)

POB: Mano River, Grand Cape Mount, Liberia
Address: Elwa Road, Monrovia, Liberia

Representative, Liberian House of Representatives.

Managing Director of the Liberian Petroleum and Refining Corporation (LPRC). Associate of former President Charles Taylor with ongoing ties to him. Alleged to have provided funds to former President Taylor.

TAYLOR

Agnes Reeves

REEVES-TAYLOR

27 SEP 1965

Nationality: Liberia

Former Liberian Permanent Representative to the International Maritime Organization. Former Senior Member of the Liberian Government. Ex-wife and associate of former Liberian President Charles Taylor with ongoing ties to him.


Currently resident in the United Kingdom.

TAYLOR

Charles


ďChuckieĒ (Junior)

Chuckie

Charles McArthur
Emmanuel

Roy M. Belfast, Junior

Charles Taylor II

12 Feb. 1978  

Associate, adviser and son of former Liberian President Charles Taylor with ongoing ties to him.

Currently on trial in the United States of America

TAYLOR

Charles Ghankay

(Charles MacArthur)

Jean-Paul Some

Jean-Paul Some

01 SEP 1947

(28 JAN 1948)

 

Former President of Liberia.

Currently on trial in The Hague

TAYLOR

(HOWARD

TAYLOR)

Jewel Howard

 

17 JAN 1963

D/003835-04

valid 04/6/04-03/6/06

D/00536307

Senator, Liberian Senate

Spouse of former Liberian President Charles Taylor with ongoing ties to him.

TAYLOR

Tupee Enid

 

17 DEC 1960

(17 DEC 1962)

Liberian Diplomatic Passport: D/002216

Ex-wife and

associate of former Liberian President Charles Taylor with ongoing ties to him.

UREY

Benoni

 

22 JUN 1957

Liberian Diplomatic Passport: D-00148399

Commissioner of Maritime Passport:

D/002356

Ex-Commissioner of Maritime Affairs of Liberia. He was the direct superior of Mr. Ruprah and played a key role in arms procurements starting in the summer of 2002.

Associate of former Liberian President Charles Taylor with ongoing ties to him.

YEATEN

(YEATON)

Benjamin D.

 

28 FEB 1969

(29 FEB 1969)

Liberian Diplomatic Passport:  D00123299

valid 10/02/99-09/02/01

DOB: 29 FEB 1969

POB: Tiaplay, Nimba County

Former head of the Special Security Unit in Liberia.

Ex-Director, Special Security Services.

Associate of former Liberian President Charles Taylor with ongoing ties to him.

LIST OF ENTITIES/COMPANIES

COMPANY NAME

ALIAS

ADDRESS

DESIGNATION/JUSTIFICATION

ABIDJAN FREIGHT

 

Abidjan, Ivory Coast

Abidjan Freight was a front company set up by Sanjivan Ruprah (included on the Liberia Sanctions Committee list) to act as a freight forwarder for Viktor Boutís arms shipments to Liberia.  Abidjan Freight was also used by Viktor Bout and Gus Van Kouwenhoven (also included on the Committeeís assets freeze list) to conceal the exact routing and final destination of an aircraft delivering military goods to Monrovia, according to UN officials

AIR CESS

Air Cess Equatorial Guinea

Air Cess Holdings, Ltd.

Air Cess Liberia

Air Cess Rwanda

Air Cess Swaziland (Pty.) Ltd

Air Cess, Inc. 360-C

Air Pas

Air Pass

Chess Air Group

Pietersburg Aviation Services & Systems

Cessavia

Malabo, Equatorial Guinea

P.O. Box 7837, Sharjah, UAE

P.O. Box 3962, Sharjah, UAE

Islamabad, Pakistan

Entebbe, Uganda

Air Cess has been identified as the flagship firm of Victor Boutís network. Originally active in Belgium, it has had to move more than once since it first appeared in 1995 due to investigations by authorities in Belgium, Swaziland and South Africa. Air Cess is the only firm in Boutís network that ever officially listed him as its head. In Swaziland, Bout entered into ajoint venture with a South African company to form Air Pass. Air Cess had 90% ownership of this joint venture. Records show that Bout owned 90% of the shares of Air Pass. According to NGO reporting, Viktor transferred daily operational control of Air Cess to his brother, Sergei Bout, some time during the 1990s. This entity can thus be considered to be owned or controlled by either Viktor and/or Sergei Bout.

AIR ZORY

Air Zori

Air Zori, Ltd.

54 G.M. Dimitrov Blvd., BG-1125, Sofia, Bulgaria

6 Zenas Kanther Str., 1065 Nicosia, Cyprus

Sergei Bout controls Air Zory as the majority shareholder. Air Zory has been linked to Viktor Boutís network of companies.

AIRBAS TRANSPORTATION FZE

Air Bas

Air Bass

Airbas Transportation, Inc.

Aviabas

P.O. Box 8299, Sharjah, UAE

811 S. Central Expressway, Suite 210 Richardson, Texas 75080, USA

Airbas is a commercial charter company which is run by Viktor and Sergei Bout. Sergei has power of attorney for all transactions. Airbas was created in 1995 by Sergei, and has used another Bout firm, CET Aviation based in Malabo, as cover to register its aircraft in Equatorial Guinea. According to a UN report, payments for Airbas are made to the accounts of Irbis, a Viktor Bout front company.

ATC, Ltd

 

Gibraltar, U.K.

According to the UN, ATC, Ltd. is a Viktor Bout-controlled firm and is a major shareholder in one of Viktor Boutís flagship companies, Centrafrican Airlines. In addition, when Bout registered Centrafrican Airlines in 1998, the registration itself indicated that ATC was one of the principal shareholders of Centrafican and that it was controlled by Bout.

BUKAVU AVIATION TRANSPORT

 

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Bukavu Aviation Transport has been identified by the ďUN Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and other Forms of Wealth of DR CongoĒ as a DRC firm in which Viktor Bout is the principal officer.  The UN Panel identified it as one of several firms involved in the illegal export of diamonds, gold, copper, cobalt, timber and coltan from the DRC.

BUSINESS AIR SERVICES

 

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Business Air Services has been identified by the ďUN Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and other Forms of Wealth of DR CongoĒ as a DRC firm in which Viktor Bout is the principal officer.  The UN Panel identified it as one of several firms involved in the illegal export of diamonds, gold, copper, cobalt, timber and coltan from the DRC.

CENTRAFRICAN AIRLINES

Centrafricain Airlines

Central African Airways

Central African Air

Central African Airlines

P.O. Box 2760, Bangui, Central African Republic

c/o Transavia Travel Agency, P.O. Box 3962, Sharjah, UAE

P.O. Box 2190, Ajman, UAE

Kigali, Rwanda

Ras-al-Khaimah, UAE

Centrafrican is owned by Viktor Bout. While he is not involved in the day-to-day management of the firm, UN investigators found that Viktor signs the contracts for sale and purchase of aircraft, as well as leasing documents, for the company. The firm has been tied to numerous illicit arms shipments to conflict zones. This company has also been used to engage in massive fraud by forging airworthiness certificates, air operator permit, and certificates of registration for a great number of aircraft.

CENTRAL AFRICA DEVELOPMENT FUND

 

811 S. Central Expressway, Suite 210, Richardson, Texas 75080, USA

P.O. Box 850431, Richardson, Texas 75085, USA

The Central Africa Development Fund is a non-profit entity located at the same address in Richardson, Texas as Richard Chichakliís accounting firm, along with all of the other firms owned or controlled by Chichakli that are being proposed for listing.

CET Aviation Enterprise (FZE)

 

P.O. Box 932 Ė C20, Ajman, UAE

Equatorial Guinea

Viktor Bout reorganized his holds in the UAE so that two of his older firms Ė Centrafrican Airlines and San Air General Trading Ė became part of a holding company called CET Aviation Enterprise. Press reports identify CET as a company controlled by Viktor Bout.

CHICHAKLI & ASSOCIATES, PLLC

Chichakli Hickman-Riggs & Riggs, PLLC

Chichakli Hickmanriggs & Riggs

811 S. Central Expressway, Suite 210, Richardson, Texas

75080, USA

This company is an accounting and auditing firm. Richard Chichakli, Viktor Boutís Chief Financial Officer, is listed as the managing partner and is the only officer on record. It is located at the same address in Richardson, Texas occupied by other firms owned or controlled by Chichakli that are being proposed for listing.

CONTINUE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION, INC.

Gulf Motor Sales

811 S. Central Expressway, Suite 210, Richardson, Texas

75080, USA

The president of this company is Richard Chichakli, Viktor Boutís Chief Financial Officer. The company is located at the same address in Richardson, Texas as Richard Chichakliís accounting firm, along with all of the other firms owned or controlled by Chichakli that are being proposed for listing.

DAYTONA POOLS, INC.

 

225 Syracuse Place, Richardson, Texas

75081, USA

Daytona Pools was incorporated by Gloria Chichakli, wife of Richard Chichakli. However, a few years later, the companyís annual fillings indicated that Richard was the President, and Gloria was Vice-President. The company is located at the same address in Richardson, Texas as Richard Chichakliís accounting firm, along with the other firms owned or controlled by Chichakli that are being proposed for listing.

DHH ENTERPRISES, INC.

 

811 S. Central Expressway, Suite 210, Richardson, Texas

75080, USA

Corporate registration documents list Richard Chichakli, Viktor Boutís Chief Financial Officer, as CEO, Director, and President of this company. They also indicate that he owns 100% of the capital stock. The company is located at the same address in Richardson, Texas as Richard Chichakliís  accounting firm, along with all of the other firms owned or controlled by Chichakli that are being proposed for listing.

GAMBIA NEW MILLENNIUM AIR COMPANY

Gambia New Millennium Air

Gambia Millennium Airline

State House, Banjul, Gambia

The Director of this firm is Baba Jobe, who is already listed on the Liberia Sanctions Committeeís assets freeze list. According to a commercial aviation database, the firm acted as a cover for Victor Boutís operations. Its one aircraft, a Russian-made passenger jet, was acquired from Centrafircan Airlines.

IB OF AMERICA HOLDINGS, INC.

 

811 S. Central Expressway, Suite 210, Richardson, Texas

75080, USA

Richard Chichakli, who is Viktor Boutís Chief Financial Officer, is listed as the President of the company. The company is located at the same address in Richardson, Texas as Richard Chichakliís accounting firm, along with all of the other firms owned or controlled by Chichakli that are being proposed for listing.

IRBIS AIR COMPANY

 

UL Furmanova 65, Office 317, Almaty, Khazakhstan 48004

Irbis was formed in 1998 and leases its aircraft exclusively from Air Cess. The ďUN Final Report of the Monitoring Mechanism on Angola SanctionsĒ in 2000 reported ďit can be considered that Irbis forms an Eastern European office for Viktor Bout.Ē The UN Monitoring Mechanism on Angola Sanctions further stated that Irbis has been a front company of Viktor Boutís aircraft leasing operations for the past seven years. Press reports further indicated that the company is owned by Bout.

MOLDTRANSAVIA SRL

 

Aeroport MD-2026, Chisinau, Moldova

This company is owned and managed by an admitted employee of Viktor Bout who is a longtime former agent of Air Cess. Moldtransaviaís only plane is owned by Viktor Bout and is insured by a Viktor Bout company, San Air General Trading. As such, Moldstransavia is indirectly controlled by Viktor Bout. Moldstransavia has also participated in illicit arms deals for Viktor Bout and his companies. It has been involved in a t least one arms shipment to Liberia.

NORDIC, LTD.

Nordik Limited EOOD

9 Fredrick J. Curie Street, Sofia, Bulgaria 1113

According to a local cooperate registry, Sergei Bout is the sole owner and CEO of Nordic, Ltd., incorporated in Bulgaria. According to a commercial database report, Sergei Bout holds 100% of the voting capital of the company.

ODESSA AIR

Okapi Air

Entebbe, Uganda

According to UN reporting, Odessa Air is a Viktor Bout-owned firm based in Uganda. It was formerly known as Okapi Air and was non-operation when Bout purchased it. A Ugandan judicial commission noted that Odessa Air is one of several aviation firms that Viktor Bout registered in Uganda and the Civil Aviation Authority.

ORIENT STAR COOPERATION

Orient Star Aviation

811 S. Central Expressway, Suite 210, Richardson, Texas

75080, USA

Texas State corporate records show Richard Chichakli, Viktor Boutís Chief Financial Officer, as the sole director of this firm. Chichakli identified himself in a 2004 filling as the firmís president. The company is located at the same address in Richardson, Texas as Richard Chichakliís accounting firm, along with all of the other firms owned or controlled by Chichakli that are being proposed for listing.

RICHARD A. CHICHAKLI, P.C.

 

811 S. Central Expressway, Suite 210, Richardson, Texas

75080, USA

P.O. Box 850432, Richardson, Texas 75085, USA

Richard Chichakli, Viktor Boutís Chief Financial Officer, is listed on corporate documents as the sole director and president of this company. The company is located at the same address in Richardson, Texas as Richard Chichakliís accounting firm, along with all of the other firms owned or controlled by Chichakli that are being proposed for listing.

ROCKMAN, LTD.

Rokman EOOD

9 Fredrick J. Curie Street, Sofia, Bulgaria 1113

According to a local corporate registry, Sergei Bout is the sole owner and CEO of Rockman, Ltd., incorporated in Bulgaria. According to a commercial database report, Sergei Bout holds 100% of the voting capital of the company.

SAN AIR GENERAL TRADING FZE

San Air General Trading, LLC

P.O. Box 932-20C, Ajman, UAE

P.O. Box 2190, Ajman, UAE

811 S. Central Expressway, Suite 210, Richardson, Texas

75080, USA

San Air General Trading is the main company behind many of Viktor Boutís arms shipments into Liberia. It serves as an agent for Centrafrican Airlines, a company owned by Viktor Bout that receives payments from the Liberian Government for arms shipments. UN investigators concluded that Centrafrican Airlines and San Air are, in fact, parts of the same company. The General Manager of San Air is Serguei Denissenko. In addition, the UN has identified Chichakli as the Chief Financial Officer for San Air General Trading in the UAE, and Chichakli has admitted in media interviews that he ďset (San Air) up for Viktor (Bout).Ē As such, San Air is owned by Viktor Bout and controlled by Bout, Denissenko and Chichakli.

SANTA CRUZ IMPERIAL AIRLINES

 

P.O. Box 60315, Dubai, UAE

Sharjah, UAE

Santa Cruz Imperial has been identified by various sources as being owned or controlled by Viktor Bout and/or Sanjivan Ruprah (also already listed by the Liberian Sanctions Committee). However, there has been some disagreement as to whether Viktor Bout actually owned this company. Nevertheless, Santa Cruz aircraft have operated interchangeably with aircraft from Boutís network. For example, Viktor Bout has used Santa Cruz aircraft to sell arms to UNITA in Angola and to sell aircraft to the Taliban in Afghanistan. Accordingly, Bout has at least indirect control over Santa Cruz.

SOUTHBOUND, LTD.

 

P.O. Box 398, Suite 52 and 553 Monrovia House, 26 Main Street, Gibraltar, UK

Southbound, Ltd. is a major shareholder in one of Viktor Boutís flagship companies, Centrafrican Airlines. Documents filed when Viktor Bout registered Centrafrican Airlines indicated that Viktor also controlled Southbound.

TRANS AVIATION GLOBAL GROUP, INC.

 

811 S. Central Expressway, Suite 210, Richardson, Texas

75080, USA

Richard Chichakli is listed as the president and director of this company. The company is located at the same address in Richardson, Texas as Richard Chichakliís accounting firm, along with all of the other firms owned or controlled by Chichakli that are being proposed for listing.

TRANSAVIA NETWORK

NV Trans Aviation Network Group

TAN Group

Trans Aviation

Transavia Travel Agency

Transavia Travel Cargo

1304 Boorj Building, Bank Street, Sharjah, UAE

P.O. Box 3962, Sharjah, UAE

P.O. Box 2190, Ajman, UAE

Ostende Airport, Belgium

Transavia Network is one of Viktor Boutís oldest companies (it first appeared in Belgium in 1995) and provides cover for other Bout-controlled firms.

VIAL COMPANY

 

Delaware, USA

According to a Belgian arrest warrant filed with Interpol in February 2002, Viktor Bout had power of attorney over Vialís bank accounts and used them to launder proceeds from weapons trafficking. An article in a South African academic journal reports that Viktor Bout also used Vial as the mechanism to sell aircraft to the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

WESTBOUND, LTD.

 

P.O. Box 399, 26 Main Street, Gibraltar, UK

Westbound, Ltd. is owned by Ronald De Smet. De Smet is a Belgian pilot who has a long history of acting on behalf of Viktor Bout. Westbound is a major shareholder in one of Viktor Boutís flagship companies, Centrafrican Airlines. When Bout registered Centrafrican Airlines in 1998, the three principal shareholders were Westbound, Southbound, and ATC Ltd., all of Gibraltar. Accordingly, Westbound is indirectly controlled by Bout.