The Security Council today decided to authorize the Member States of the African Union to maintain the deployment of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) until 30 May 2016, agreeing with the Secretary-General that conditions would not be appropriate for a United Nations peacekeeping mission in the country until the end of that year, at the earliest.
Unanimously adopting resolution 2232 (2015) under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council also decided to extend the mandate of the United Nations Special Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) until 30 March 2016, underlining the importance that both entities strengthen their relationship to ensure support for the country’s political process. (See Press Release SC/11972).
For AMISOM, the Council authorized the deployment of up to 22,126 uniformed personnel, and requested that, in line with the recommendations of the Joint African Union-United Nations Review, the African Union undertake a “structured and targeted” reconfiguration of the Mission to enable a surge in its efficiency, including by strengthening command and control structures and enhancing cross-sector operations. The Council requested the African Union to develop a new concept of operations for the Mission, in close collaboration with the United Nations, by 30 October 2015.
For UNSOM, the Council underscored the importance of its support to the political process in Somalia, in particular the preparation of an “inclusive, realistic and legitimate” electoral process in 2016, requesting it, in the context of an evolving security situation, to strengthen its presence in all capitals of Interim Regional Administrations. The Council also agreed with the Secretary-General that deployment of civilian planning in regional capitals should be a priority in order to improve joint planning between military and civilian components.
On the national security front, the Council stressed the importance of accelerating improved coordination of Somali security institutions, welcoming the adoption of the Guulwade (Victory) Plan as a “critical step” towards developing a more effective national army. More broadly, it welcomed the Federal Government’s commitment to an inclusive and credible electoral process in 2016. It expressed concern at continued human rights violations, underscoring the need to end impunity for such crimes.
Welcoming the adoption of the resolution, Somalia’s representative stressed that progress in his country since the 2012 transition had been strong, and that Al-Shabaab was becoming weaker and controlling less territory. But, as had been seen in recent attacks, there was still a need to work together to eliminate the threat posed by that group, both in the country and in east Africa. His Government continued to work towards assuming complete responsibility for security, having launched the “Guulwade” plan for ensuring a fully integrated Somali National Army and the “Hegen” plan for the police.
On the political front, he said, milestones had been achieved, including confirmation by the Federal Parliament of members of the National Independent Electoral Commission and the Boundaries and Federation Commission, as well as the formation of the interim regional administrations. The country’s President and Prime Minister were both committed to ensure that Vision 2016 and its objectives were implemented.
The meeting began at 10:09 a.m. and ended at 10:15 a.m.
The full text of resolution 2232 (2015) reads as follows:
“The Security Council,
“Recalling all its previous resolutions and statements of its President on the situation in Somalia,
“Underlining its respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence, and unity of Somalia,
“Condemning recent Al Shabaab attacks in Somalia and beyond, expressing serious concern at the ongoing threat posed by Al Shabaab, and underlining its concern that Al Shabaab continues to hold territory in Somalia,
“Expressing outrage at the loss of civilian life, in Al Shabaab attacks, and paying tribute to the bravery and sacrifices made by the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) and the Somali National Army (SNA) personnel in the fight against Al Shabaab, as well as to United Nations (UN) staff killed in the Garowe attack,
“Reiterating its determination to support efforts to reduce the threat posed by Al Shabaab in Somalia, and underlining its commitment to support a Somali-led political peace and reconciliation process,
“Welcoming the Report of the Joint African Union–United Nations Mission on the Benchmarks for a United Nations Peacekeeping Operation in Somalia and recommendations on the next steps in the military campaign (‘The Joint UN-AU Review’) requested in resolution 2182 (2014), and taking note of the review’s recommendations,
“Welcoming the constructive manner in which the UN and African Union (AU) conducted the review,
“Welcoming the progress of AMISOM and the SNA in the fight against Al Shabaab, in particular through Operations ‘Indian Ocean’ and ‘Eagle’, and underlining the importance of continuing offensive operations against Al Shabaab,
“Taking note of the African Union Peace and Security Council’s (AUPSC) 30th June 2015 communiqué, which endorsed the recommendations of Joint UN-AU Review, and underlining its call for full adherence to the AMISOM command and control architecture, which can help to ensure that the recommendations of the joint review are properly implemented,
“Welcoming the support of the international community to peace and stability in Somalia, in particular the European Union for its substantial contribution in supporting AMISOM, as well as support from other key bilateral partners to both AMISOM and the SNA, and emphasizing the importance of new contributors, in particular the AU, sharing the financial burden of supporting AMISOM,
“Welcoming the AU’s investigation of allegations of sexual violence allegedly perpetrated by some AMISOM troops, underlining the importance of the AU implementing the recommendations of the report, expressing its disappointment that the AU did not receive full cooperation from all AMISOM troop contributing countries in carrying out its investigation, and calling on the AU and troop contributing countries to ensure that allegations are properly investigated and appropriate follow-up action is taken, including full investigation of those cases of abuse evidenced by the AU investigation team,
“Commending the role of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) in supporting peace and reconciliation and the promotion and protection of human rights in Somalia,
“Underlining the importance of UNSOM consolidating its presence across Somalia in order to help facilitate political dialogue between the centre and the regions and to support local peace and reconciliation processes,
“Determining that the situation in Somalia continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security,
“Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
“1. Agrees with the Secretary-General that conditions in Somalia are not appropriate for the deployment of a United Nations peacekeeping mission until the end of 2016 at the earliest;
“2. Welcomes the revised benchmarks as set out in the Secretary-General’s letter to the President of the Security Council of 2 July 2015, agrees with his conclusion that the achievement of the benchmarks could pave the way for the deployment of a United Nations peacekeeping operation which could help consolidate the peace process in Somalia and the development of Somali security sector institutions, and requests the Secretary-General to keep these benchmarks under continuous review, in consultation with the AU;
“3. Decides to authorize the Member States of the AU to maintain the deployment of AMISOM, as set out in paragraph 1 of resolution 2093 (2013) until 30 May 2016, in line with the Security Council’s request to the AU for a maximum level of 22,126 uniformed personnel, and as part of an overall exit strategy for AMISOM, after which a decrease in AMISOM’s force strength will be considered, and further decides that AMISOM shall be authorized to take all necessary measures, in full compliance with its Member States’ obligations under international humanitarian law and human rights law, and in full respect of the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity of Somalia, to carry out its mandate;
“4. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to provide a logistical support package for AMISOM, referred to in paragraphs 10, 11 and 12 of resolution 2010 (2011), paragraphs 4 and 6 of resolution 2036 (2012), paragraph 2 of resolution 2073 (2012), paragraph 4 of resolution 2093 (2013), and paragraph 26 of resolution 2182 (2014), ensuring the accountability and transparency of expenditure of UN funds as set out in paragraph 4 of resolution 1910 (2010), and consistent with the requirements of the Secretary-General’s Human Rights Due Diligence Policy;
“5. Underlines that the security strategy for the next 18 months should aim to create and preserve an enabling environment for the political, and peace and reconciliation processes to unfold in Somalia, agrees with the Secretary-General’s assessment that the security strategy in Somalia should be guided by three objectives:
i) Continuing offensive operations against Al Shabaab strongholds;
ii) Enabling the political process at all levels, including through securing critical political processes throughout Somalia;
iii) Enabling stabilisation efforts through supporting the delivery of security for the Somali people to facilitate the wider process of peacebuilding and reconciliation, including through the gradual handing over of security responsibilities from AMISOM to the SNA and subsequently to the Somali police force;
“6. Requests that, in line with the recommendations of the Joint AU-UN Review, the AU undertakes a structured and targeted reconfiguration of AMISOM to enable a surge in its efficiency, in particular by strengthening command and control structures, enhancing cross-sector operations, examining sector boundaries, generating a dedicated special forces’ capability under the authority of the Force Commander, which should operate alongside existing Somali special forces, generating all the requisite specialized units recommended by the Secretary-General’s letter of 14 October 2013 and authorized in paragraph 3 of resolution 2124 (2013), ensuring that all force enablers and multipliers operate under the authority of the Special Representative of the Chairperson of the AU Commission and Force Commander, and taking into account progress achieved in offensive operations against Al Shabaab and other terrorist organisations, by gradually, and in a limited manner, and where appropriate, reconfiguring AMISOM uniformed personnel in favour of police personnel within the authorized AMISOM personnel ceiling, welcomes in this regard the intention of the AU to develop a new Concept of Operations for AMISOM, and requests the AU to develop this concept in close collaboration with the UN by 30 October 2015;
“7. Welcomes the Secretary-General’s commitment to work with the AU Chairperson, troop contributing countries, and Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) to help ensure that this surge in efficiency materialises and is sustained over time, and requests the Secretary-General to monitor the implementation of this surge, including through performance indicators, and in this regard to keep the Council updated in his regular reporting;
“8. Requests the Secretary-General to work closely with the AU in supporting the implementation of this resolution, paying particular attention to the provisions of paragraph 6 of this resolution, further requests the Secretary-General to continue to provide technical and expert advice to the AU on the planning, deployment and strategic management of AMISOM through the UN office to the AU, and reiterates its request to the Secretary-General, in view of the need to increase AMISOM’s efficiency, to enhance the provision of technical advice to the AU through existing UN mechanisms;
“9. Agrees with the Secretary-General that a joint AMISOM–UN–Somali planning mechanism should assess and facilitate the delivery of the strategy set out in paragraph 5 of this resolution, as well as in the implementation of stabilisation priorities and, ensuring in particular thorough coordination and consultation ahead of, during and after offensive operations;
“10. Underlines that it is essential that military operations are followed immediately by national efforts to establish or improve governance structures in recovered areas and by the delivery of basic services, including security;
“11. Underlines the imperative of securing key supply routes to areas recovered from Al Shabaab, requests AMISOM and the SNA to ensure they give the utmost priority to securing key supply routes essential to improve the humanitarian situation in the most affected areas, and as a critical condition for logistical support to AMISOM, and requests the Secretary-General to report, in consultation with the FGS and AMISOM, on progress in this regard in his written reports to the Security Council;
“12. Agrees with the Secretary-General that there have been gaps in the integrated provision of logistical support to AMISOM and SNA troops, and underscores that the delivery of logistical remains a joint responsibility between the UN and AU, and underlines its determination to seek improvements to the support provided to AMISOM, and provided by UNSOA to the SNA, as funded through the UN trust fund;
“13. Requests the Secretary-General, in consultation with all stakeholders, to carry out a strategic review of UNSOA, including a thorough review of support provided to AMISOM by all partners, and set out a wide range of options on how to improve overall support to AMISOM, in the context of the efficiency surge outlined in paragraph 6, including through making improvements to the performance, management, and structures of UNSOA, bearing in mind the imperative of responsible cost control and taking into account the availability of resources, and further requests the Secretary-General to present these options to the Council by no later than 30 September 2015;
“14. Stresses the critical need to source contingent owned equipment including force enablers and multipliers as provided for in paragraph 6 of resolution 2036 (2012) either from existing AMISOM Troop-Contributing Countries or other Member States, emphasizes in particular the need for an appropriate aviation component of up to twelve military helicopters, welcomes the progress made in the partial generation of this component, and encourages Member States to respond to AU efforts to mobilize such equipment urgently;
“15. Welcomes the commencement of activities establishing a Civilian Casualty Tracking Analysis and Response Cell (CCTARC) as requested in resolutions 2093 (2013) and 2124 (2013), and underlines the importance of making the CCTARC operational and effective without further delay, in collaboration with humanitarian, human rights and protection actors, and ensuring information is shared with relevant actors including the UN;
“16. Reiterates its call for new donors to support AMISOM through the provision of additional funding for troop stipends, equipment, technical assistance and uncaveated funding for AMISOM to the United Nations Trust Fund for AMISOM, calls upon the AU to consider how to provide sustainable funding for AMISOM, such as through its own assessed costs as it did for the African-led International Support Mission in Mali, and underlines the AU’s call for its Member States to provide financial support to AMISOM;
Somali National Security Forces
“17. Stresses the importance of accelerating the strengthening and improved coordination of the Somali security institutions and to initiate efforts to move towards the eventual handover of security responsibilities to the Somali security services, including through the establishment of a forum between the FGS, AU and UN to specifically plan for, and regularly monitor, the handover of security responsibilities, which is an essential part of AMISOM’s eventual exit strategy and further calls for the rapid completion of the Somali National Security Sector architecture, including a definition of the roles of relevant national security sector institutions as a way of improving coordination between the SNA and AMISOM;
“18. Welcomes the adoption of the Guulwade (Victory) Plan as a critical step towards the development of the capacity of a more effective and sustainable Somali National Army, including the initial priority of supporting and developing the 10,900 SNA troops, welcomes the efforts taken so far by the FGS in establishing an integrated army, and urges the FGS to complete this process across Somalia as soon as possible, notes the importance for implementing the Guulwade (Victory) Plan of AMISOM’s provision of training and mentoring to the SNA, and underscores the importance of bilateral partners delivering on any pledged support as well as supporting UNSOM in implementing its mandate to assist the FGS in coordinating international donor support on security sector assistance, and in this regard emphasizes the importance of UNSOM’s mandate to assist the FGS in coordinating international donor support on security sector assistance;
“19. Welcomes efforts to develop a realistic police plan linked with medium-term rule of law programmes and in line with the federal vision, taking into account existing plans for the development of the Somali National Police Force, and emphasizes the importance of substantially contributing to the development and sustenance of the regional police forces, while continuing police initiatives in Mogadishu, welcomes the FGS’ initial draft ‘Heegan’ plan for the police and looks forward to its finalisation by the end of October 2015, and in this regard takes note of the recommendation of the Secretary-General to establish a non-lethal support package for the Somali police force, further stresses that an appropriate UN trust fund or voluntary funding arrangement should be used to fund such support if authorised by the Security Council, requests further details from the Secretary-General for implementation and delivery of such support by 30 September 2015, and underlines that such support should be provided in accordance with the human rights due diligence policy on UN support to non-United Nations forces (HRDDP);
“20. Expresses concern over the increasing activities of Al Shabaab in Puntland and the security implications of the situation in Yemen for Somalia, takes note of the recommendation of the Secretary-General to extend the SNA non-lethal support package authorized in paragraph 14 of resolution 2124 (2013) to 3,000 Puntland forces on an exceptional basis upon completion of their integration process and inclusion into the Guulwade (Victory) Plan, recalls the criteria established in paragraph 14 of resolution 2124 (2014) with respect to the provision of non-lethal logistical support to the SNA, recalls UNSOA’s mandate, and underlines its current areas of operations and limitations to its capacity, requests the Secretary-General to explore the feasibility of implementing this recommendation, and to report to the Council by no later than 30 September 2015;
“21. Decides to extend UNSOM’s mandate, as set out in paragraph 1 of resolution 2158 (2014) until 30 March 2016;
“22. Underscores the importance of UNSOM’s support to the political process, in particular supporting the preparation of an inclusive, realistic and legitimate electoral process in 2016;
“23. Welcomes the strong relationship between UNSOM and AMISOM, welcomes in particular the key role played by the UN Special Representative and the Special Representative of the Chairperson of the AU Commission in ensuring the organisations work closely together, and underlines the importance of both entities strengthening further that relationship to ensure that the activities of both entities support the political process;
“24. Requests UNSOM, subject to strict adherence to UN security requirements and in the context of the evolving security situation, to strengthen its presence in all capitals of Interim Regional Administrations to support strategically the political and peace and reconciliation process, including by engaging with the Interim Regional Administrations in support of a federal structure, taking into account operational and security constraints, and in this context takes note of the importance of keeping security arrangements under constant review, encourages regional engagement to be carried out jointly by AMISOM-UNSOM teams, agrees with the conclusion of the Secretary-General that deployment of civilian planning capacity in regional capitals should be a priority in order to improve joint planning between military and civilian components, and requests AMISOM, in accordance with its existing mandate, and Somali National Security Forces to take appropriate measures to protect UNSOM personnel, facilities, installations, equipment and mission and to ensure the security and freedom of movement of its personnel;
“25. Welcomes President Hassan Sheikh’s and the FGS’s commitment to an inclusive and credible electoral process in 2016, underlines the Council’s expectation that there should not be an extension of electoral process timelines for either the executive or legislative branches, and underlines the importance of implementing this commitment including through an inclusive process to agree on the model for the electoral process and ensuring that the National Independent Electoral Commission and Boundaries and Federation Committee are operational without further delay, and emphasizes the importance of reconciliation across the country as the basis of any long term approach to stability;
“26. Underlines the need to ensure progress in the constitutional review process without further delay in order to establish an effective federal political system and a comprehensive reconciliation process that brings about national cohesion and integration, and underlines in this regard the importance of supporting the peaceful and inclusive completion of the state formation process and providing effective mediation when necessary and encourages close dialogue between the Federal Government of Somalia, regional administrations, civil society and the Somali public in this regard;
“27. Calls on all key actors and institutions in Somalia, including Parliament, to engage constructively to ensure progress on Vision 2016 before an electoral process in 2016;
“28. Underlines the importance of governing in a spirit of national unity in an inclusive manner, in order to ensure no further delays in the political process;
“29. Expresses concern at continued violations and abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law in Somalia and underscores the need to end impunity, uphold human rights and to hold accountable those responsible for such crimes, encourages the FGS to finalise its Human Rights Roadmap and establish its National Human Rights Commission and to pass legislation including legislation aimed at protecting human rights and ensuring investigations and prosecutions of perpetrators of human rights violations;
“30. Expresses concern at the increase in forced evictions of internally displaced persons from public and private infrastructure in major towns in Somalia, stresses that any eviction should be consistent with relevant national and international frameworks, and calls upon the FGS and all relevant actors to strive to provide concrete durable solutions for internal displacement;
“31. Expresses concern at the ongoing humanitarian crisis in Somalia and its impact on the people of Somalia, commends the efforts of the United Nations humanitarian agencies and other humanitarian actors to deliver life-saving assistance to vulnerable populations, condemns any misuse or obstruction of humanitarian assistance, and reiterates its demand that all parties allow and facilitate full, safe and unhindered access for the timely delivery of aid to persons in need across Somalia; and underlines the importance of proper accounting in international humanitarian support, and encourages national disaster management agencies in Somalia to scale up capacity with support from the United Nations to take a stronger leadership role in coordination of humanitarian response;
“32. Underlines the importance of respect for international humanitarian law and the protection of civilians, especially women and children, by all armed groups in Somalia;
“33. Reaffirms the important role of women and youth in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and in peacebuilding, stresses the importance of their participation in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security, notes that women are not adequately represented in the assemblies of the new interim regional administrations, and urges the FGS and Interim Regional Administrations to continue to promote increased representation of women at all decision-making levels in Somali institutions, and encourages UNSOM to enhance its interaction across Somali civil society, including women, youth, and religious leaders in order to ensure that the views of civil society are incorporated in the various political processes;
“34. Welcomes Somalia’s progress towards ratifying the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) and calls for increased implementation of the two Action Plans signed in 2012 and strengthening of the legal framework for the protection of children, especially in light of continued abductions and recruitment of children as detailed in the Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict of 5 June 2015;
“35. Requests the Secretary-General to keep the Security Council regularly informed on the implementation of this resolution, including through oral updates and no fewer than three written reports, with the first written report by 12 September, and every 120 days thereafter;
“36. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.”