Inclusive Development Critical for Preventing Conflict, Speakers Emphasize, as Security Council Debates Maintenance of International Peace, Security
Inclusive Development Critical for Preventing Conflict, Speakers Emphasize, as Security Council Debates Maintenance of International Peace, Security
During a day-long debate featuring nearly eighty speakers and presided over by the President of Chile, the Security Council today urged a common United Nations approach to inclusive development as a key for preventing conflict and enabling sustainable peace.
Through a statement read out this morning by President Michelle Bachelet Jeria of Chile, which holds the rotating presidency for the month of January, the Council underlined the primary responsibility of national authorities to engender inclusive development, with the support of the international community and the participation of civil society, particularly women and youth, in the interest of lasting stability.
“Post-conflict societies must prioritize social, economic and political inclusion if they are to have any hope of rebuilding trust between communities,” United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said as he opened today’s meeting, emphasizing the need to integrate efforts to address challenges under all three pillars of United Nations concerns: peace and security, development and human rights. “We must break out of our silos and work together on all three areas simultaneously,” he said.
In that regard, Mr. Ban stressed the importance of the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, urging all Member States to participate actively in its creation and implementation. Inclusive education, health, employment, and social safety nets were important elements in that regard. “We now have an important opportunity to broaden the development agenda and highlight the fundamental importance of inclusive societies in building a more peaceful world,” he said.
Also speaking at the opening of the meeting, Leymah Gbowee, Nobel Laureate and President of the Gbowee Peace Foundation Africa, said that despite the fact that there was peace now in her country, Liberia, there was a sense of deep fear throughout the world, with many freedoms threatened.
“If this is what international peace and security that should be maintained looks like, I would rather live in war and strive to achieve peace,” she stressed. To remedy the situation, she urged change in the structures that continued to exclude not only women and girls but also, on the global level, a good deal of humanity.
Antonio De Aguiar Patriota of Brazil, Chair of the Peacebuilding Commission, also briefing at the opening, noted that the mutually reinforcing nature of peace and security and development was central to the thinking behind the creation of the Commission, since exclusion was often behind the relapse of countries into violent conflict.
Acknowledging that fact, he said, did not mean that the Council should take on new development responsibilities since the General Assembly, Economic and Social Council and the Peacebuilding Commission were already positioned for that effort.
Following those presentations, most speakers affirmed strong linkages between peace and security and inclusive development. “Peacekeeping and development are two sides of the same coin,” the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Haiti said. Speakers emphasized that exclusion and inequalities were important factors fuelling violent unrest, insurgencies and terrorism.
Thailand’s Foreign Minister, along with many others, underlined that terrorism could not be countered by military means alone. Many mentioned youth employment and education as primary in that regard, and called participation by women critical in all areas and at all levels.
Malaysia’s representative, among others, emphasized the added importance of inclusivity in multi-ethnic and multi-religious societies, noting that ensuring security for all groups, as well as economic opportunity, could prevent divisiveness if coupled with the promotion of values such as tolerance and moderation.
Most speakers welcomed discussion of such issues in the Security Council. The representative of the Russian Federation, however, while recognizing that social development was important to address within the United Nations system, expressed concern over politicization of development and blurring of responsibility by having the Council discuss development.
In that vein, Nicaragua’s representative stressed that the Council must not alter development agreements made in other forums. Human development was the priority for peace; security-based approaches had not brought about the desired results despite the enormous sums devoted to it, he pointed out, advocating for the provision of equal, if not greater, resources for inclusive development.
Ms. Bachelet also made a statement in her national capacity today.
Also speaking at the ministerial or diplomatic levels were the representatives of the United States, Angola, Spain, Nigeria, Jordan, Lithuania, France, Venezuela, China, New Zealand, Chad, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Argentina, Ecuador, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Pakistan, India, Guatemala, Austria, Sweden (on behalf of the Nordic countries), Japan, South Africa (on behalf of the “Group of 77” developing countries and China), Iraq, Luxembourg, Israel, Poland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Colombia, Hungary, Estonia, Germany, Panama, Canada, Slovakia, Iran, Ireland, Slovenia, Rwanda, Turkey, Egypt, Somalia, Peru, Indonesia, Georgia, Morocco, Republic of Korea, Cuba, Kenya, Paraguay, Netherlands, Montenegro, Croatia, Cyprus, Armenia, Viet Nam, Greece, Cambodia, Azerbaijan and Benin.
The representative of the European Union delegation also spoke.
The meeting began at 9:36 a.m. and ended at 6:00 p.m.
BAN KI-MOON, Secretary-General of the United Nations, stressed the importance of integrating the three pillars of United Nations concerns: peace and security, development and human rights. “We must break out of our silos and work together on all three areas simultaneously,” he said, noting that in negotiations on the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, much attention had been paid to all three areas. “We now have an important opportunity to broaden the development agenda and highlight the fundamental importance of inclusive societies in building a more peaceful world,” he said. “Development that excludes part of the population can be socially corrosive. It can contribute to crime and create a sense of hopelessness and alienation,” he added. Women and migrants and those without social safety nets were especially vulnerable to the results.
“Post-conflict societies must prioritize social, economic and political inclusion if they are to have any hope of rebuilding trust between communities,” he said, stressing that gender equality and women’s empowerment were key to reconciliation and reconstruction. Even in countries at peace, inclusive development would not happen by accident; Governments, the private sector and civil society must demonstrate their commitment to education, health, job creation and other crucial elements. Governance and political representation were also critical determinants, as people needed effective channels for addressing their concerns. He affirmed the readiness of the United Nations to increase its support to countries in promoting inclusive development, noting that the Peacebuilding Commission was undergoing a review of how to make that support more robust and flexible.
ANTONIO DE AGUIAR PATRIOTA (Brazil), Chair of the Peacebuilding Commission, said that inclusion was a central aspect of peacebuilding and political exclusion was often a key factor behind the relapse into violent conflict. Political exclusion was particularly dangerous when it coincided with other forms of inequality, along with social, cultural, judicial or economic lines. The mutually reinforcing nature of development, peace and security and human rights was well recognized and central to the thinking behind the creation of the Peacebuilding Commission. Recognizing the interdependency between those distinct approaches did not suggest that the Council should take on responsibilities regarding development matters. The General Assembly, Economic and Social Council and the Commission were in a better position to explore those issues in conjunction with United Nations-mandated development organizations.
He then highlighted a few cases where the Commission had contributed to more inclusive societies. In Burundi, it last year worked closely with Government authorities, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, and the United Nations country team to promote a more inclusive political environment. Despite concerns about some isolated security incidents involving youth wings of political parties, those efforts had promoted greater trust between the Government, political parties and civil society. He went on to cite successful examples of inclusive development in Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone and Liberia.
It was important to focus attention on an inclusive political process that would reinforce national ownership, rebuild the fabric of fractured societies and establish a new social contract, he said. “This should be the cornerstone of our collective efforts aimed at building lasting peace in countries emerging from conflict.” As the General Assembly and the Security Council prepared to conduct the 10-year review of the peacebuilding architecture this year, there was a need to ensure that the United Nations response would live up to the aspirations of millions of people in countries emerging from conflict.
LEYMAH GBOWEE, Nobel Laureate and President of the Gbowee Peace Foundation Africa, related the experience of the women of the Liberia Mass Action for Peace, who came together from different ethnic groups 14 years into the civil war “to achieve peace in a nation that had been ravaged by war”. It was clear, she said, that greed would constantly override the need for peace and women had been prepared to make the ultimate sacrifice by using non-violent tactics and dialogue to promote a negotiated settlement.
There is a peace now in Liberia, she said, but worldwide there is a sense of deep fear, with freedom of worship, freedom of expression, girls’ access to education and their autonomy over their own bodies, and many other things that made life meaningful under threat. “If this is what international peace and security that should be maintained looks like, I would rather live in war and strive to achieve peace,” she stressed. From Liberian women, the lesson could be learned that the spirit of unity was crucial. Today, however, there was division when there should be consensus. “Exclusivity is the order of the day even in the process of attaining peace and security,” she said.
Not only did women continue to be left out of peace processes, the Council was exclusive as well, she said. “Seventy years ago, the rationale to name five permanent members made sense since many countries in this room were colonized by one of those permanent members,” she recalled. As the world had changed, it was time to change some of the systems and structures that made it impossible to achieve international peace and security.
MICHELLE BACHELET JERIA, President of Chile and Council President for the month of January, speaking in her national capacity, observed that the large-scale inter-State warlike confrontations common in the twentieth century were not occurring in present times. However, the so-called “traditional threats to security” had largely been replaced by “new threats” of a non-State and non-military nature, including, among others, intranational wars, terrorism, drug trafficking, arms trade, trafficking in persons and the deterioration of the environment. A multidimensional approach must be adopted that addressed the underlying causes, such as gender, ethnic, tribal, religious and socioeconomic matters. “This is the only way in which we can effectively contribute to conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the world,” she stated.
Echoing the Secretary-General’s statement that the biggest threat to terrorists was not “the power of missiles”, but the politics of inclusion, including education and jobs, she said that Chile was focusing on narrowing social gaps and preventing segments of the population from being left behind. Although her country had “a long way to go”, she said that in many countries the distance between the reality and that ideal of inclusion was huge and did not appear to be lessening over time. Latin America, the region with the most inequality, also had the highest homicide rate and was most affected by drug trafficking and organized crime. Providing an overview of recent events in the Middle East, Africa and Western Europe, she pointed out that, in contrast, the example of Liberia showed that when processes were inclusive they were more likely to be successful. National reconsolidation and peacebuilding had been achieved through mechanisms for inclusion of all concerned sectors, where women, in particular peace activist and Nobel Peace Prize winner Leymah Gbowee, played an outstanding role. Inclusive development was of vital importance towards a more peaceful, safe and fair world for all.
SAMANTHA POWER (United States) said that as threats to international peace and security evolved, so did the conception of those in the Council. One of the main reasons for the quick spread of the Ebola virus in West Africa was the acute underdevelopment of the public health system. There was a connection between such threats as Ebola and violence because extremists thrive in places of underdevelopment. Describing the enormous cost of those threats to development, she said that one place to start was women and girls. In Liberia, women formed a non-violent grassroots movement, which led to a peace agreement between the Government and rebels. In Afghanistan, her Government helped women and girls integrate into society. Now, the rate of women serving in Parliament was higher in Afghanistan than in the United States. Her country had invested heavily in the post-2015 development agenda, which should leave no one behind in both developing and developed countries. Her delegation attached special importance to Goal 16, which related to inclusiveness. Inequality was an enduring obstacle to American prosperity. Many gaps still existed in the United States and in the world.
MANUEL DOMINGOS AUGUSTO, Secretary of State for External Relations of Angola, stressed the importance of national inclusion. States must address problems of ethnicity with particular sensitivity to prevent exclusion and promote full coexistence and equal opportunities. For social inclusion, gender issues must be streamlined in national policymaking. Economic inclusion was crucial for the effective participation of all individuals, and cultural inclusion was vital for social and national cohesion. A post-conflict nation, Angola’s peacemaking processes were consistent with the principles of inclusion. Since 2002, the Government had conducted a broad socioeconomic integration programme for marginalized segments of the population during armed conflict, especially for ex-combatants and their families. Government social inclusion policies focused on the empowerment of women as a way to create a society of free, responsible citizens. Angola had proclaimed 2015 the “Year of the Rural Woman”. Women’s advancements in political, social and economic life had been remarkable in recent years. Angolan authorities had been developing economic policies that would enable all members of society to reap the benefits of gain in recent years. He fully supported the presidential statement to be adopted.
IGNACIO YBANEZ, Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs of Spain, affirmed the interdependence of all pillars of the United Nations. Peace could no longer be seen as just the absence of war, but must be seen as including the personal security of citizens and the overcoming of inequality, as well as educational reform to combat hate speech and promote respect for human rights. Inclusion was key for the internal stability of a country. Spain understood that well, having long been a pluralistic nation and having strove to build unity within diversity. Social policies to integrate immigrants were part of that effort. Spanish development cooperation was guided by inclusiveness, as was diplomacy, with Spain a key participant in United Nations mediation as well as dialogue between cultures. There was no point in having a ceasefire without addressing the root causes of conflict; broad inclusiveness was critical in that effort.
VITALY I. CHURKIN (Russian Federation) fully endorsed improvement in the tools of the United Nation for preventing conflict, including universal standards of international law and building respect for the United Nations Charter, with peacebuilding assistance targeting capacity-building of institutions at a national level. He opposed, however, a broad interpretation of sustainable development, which could lead to greater politicization of the effort. Discussion of development in the Security Council could do just that and obfuscate efforts in the distinct areas of peace and security, development and human rights; his country valued the appropriate division of labour in the Organization. That being said, his country also valued social cohesion throughout society.
KAYODE LARO (Nigeria) said that lessons learned from the Millennium Development Goals had confirmed the link between peace and security and inclusive development. He therefore encouraged the engagement of all parts of the United Nations system for the achievement of inclusiveness. The Council should emphasize, therefore, inclusiveness in all its activities. Nigeria’s strategy to countering extremism prioritized inclusiveness by addressing the key issues fuelling insurgencies, resulting in changes in the educational system and strategies for youth employment. Nigeria played a central role in the region in promoting stability.
MAHMOUD DAIFALLAH MAHMOUD HMOUD (Jordan) said that there were many examples of the link between inclusive development and security, but inclusive development had not received the attention it deserved. Integrated peacebuilding should address the interrelatedness of all United Nations pillars. Structures that led to inequality and insecurity must be changed. He rejected the marginalization of any component of society, warning of the spillover effects. National ownership was key in achieving sustainable peace and all stakeholders must be involved in realistic strategies that took into consideration the particularities of all situations, including local knowledge and internal dynamics. Women must be empowered to participate in all areas, and youth must be a primary focus, not only to combat extremism but also to address the root causes of conflict.
RAIMONDA MURMOKAITĖ (Lithuania) said that the cycle of violence could not be broken and a durable peace could not be built as long as significant inequalities prevailed and economic, political and social inclusion matters remained unaddressed. As demonstrated repeatedly, human rights violations were often the first, early warning signals of a conflict about to erupt, and when ongoing became an obstacle to reconciliation and peacebuilding processes, and, thus, inclusive development. The Human Rights Up Front initiative should lie at the core of all preventive, peacebuilding and development efforts. In addition, women’s full participation in the political, economic, and other domains were a key driving force of societal transformation and economic prosperity. Peace and development could not be sustained without accountability. Failure to address lingering grievances, lawlessness and impunity were “deeply erosive”, sowing mistrust and hampering reconciliation. Conversely, the rule of law, which was at the core of democratic governance, offered a framework of justice and equity. She called for the building of rule of law and national judicial and law enforcement capabilities to be addressed early on within the context of peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts.
ALEXIS LAMEK (France) welcomed today’s debate, noting that the topic had not been discussed in the Council since 2011. Inclusive development was a condition to international peace and security. States should prevent the outbreak of conflict in the first place. Establishing inclusive institutions and upholding the rule of law was key to lasting peace. Gender equality was a fundamental human right, and women were a factor for stabilizing society. His Government had cooperated with UN-Women on numerous projects, including a programme to support young women’s employment in Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt. As countries exited crisis, fair sharing of power between warring parties was crucial. In that regard, women could play a role of game changer. They should be involved in peace negotiations at an early stage. He welcomed undeniable progress made by the peacebuilding architecture since its inception 10 years ago as well as two reviews this year, namely of the United Nations peacebuilding architecture and of its peacekeeping operations. This year also marked the seventieth anniversary of the creation of the United Nations. The Organization’s approach to crisis management should be strengthened to be more preventive and inclusive. As long as exclusiveness existed, peace and security could not flourish.
RAFAEL DARÍO RAMÍREZ CARREÑO (Venezuela) said Latin America and the Caribbean stood out as a zone of peace, characterized by steady improvements in the last two decades in peace, security and development. The international community must join forces in a frank, open way to find the root causes of the political, economic and social imbalances in the current global system, including the current unsustainable production model, which fuelled conflicts. The international community must give higher priority to the sustainable development agenda. Developed countries must fulfil their commitments in terms of official development assistance (ODA), technology transfer and climate change. Developing countries deserved preferential, differentiated treatment in the economic and trade spheres, and aid to reach the Millennium Development Goals without conditions. Donors needed to honour their aid commitments to Haiti. The promotion of inclusive, equitable development in Venezuela was a fundamental part of the Bolivarian Revolution, carried out through social programmes to end poverty, social exclusion, illiteracy, hunger and disease. Development was an inherent right for all Venezuelan citizens.
LIU JIEYI (China) said that inclusiveness could help eliminate the root causes of conflict. The United Nations should attach greater importance to the development agenda as underdevelopment could cause the emergence of conflict and terrorism. Developed countries should step up ODA to developing countries and open markets and transfer technology to them. The United Nations should also strengthen its functions of mediation and good offices enshrined in Chapter VI of the Charter while upholding a culture of peace. Relapse into conflict must be prevented. Reconstruction through coordinated economic and social development was vital. Post-conflict countries must strengthen their governing ability, improve basic services and provide employment to youth and empower women. Planning and coordination must be intensified for greater synergy. The Peacebuilding Commission had an important coordinating role to play. Citing that 70 per cent of the Council agenda related to Africa, he reaffirmed his country’s support for the continent’s peace and security and development by helping African States find their own solutions to their problems.
JIM MCLAY (New Zealand) urged practical approaches and solutions in establishing and ensuring inclusive development, including that departing United Nations missions leave behind a strong workforce which can find long-term employment following any mission drawdown. For sustainable peace to become a reality in a post-conflict situation, addressing that conflict’s root causes required the Council and the Organization as a whole to adopt a multidimensional, integrated approach. Peace agreements and reconciliation must embrace all with “a stake in that peace”, particularly women, youth and former combatants. He welcomed the deploying of gender advisers in missions to ensure the inclusion of women in electoral systems and protect women and girls from sexual violence. In his region, inclusive approaches had been an essential part of sustainable peace and development. New Zealand’s partnership with Timor-Leste had supported that country graduating from being a beneficiary of peacekeeping to becoming a contributor to United Nations peace operations. That country was now a global leader in the “G7+”, which was an example of a beneficiary “giving back”, and its recent interventions had been instrumental in Guinea-Bissau’s return to democracy.
MAHAMAT ZENE CHERIF (Chad) stressed the need to address the numerous conflicts within States before they became threats to international peace and security. As mentioned in the concept note, inequality was a major root cause of conflict and an inclusive society was crucial to development. While States had a primary responsibility to prevent conflict, the Council was playing an important role in such places as Iraq, Yemen, Mali, South Sudan, Central African Republic and Libya. Including youth and women in the post-conflict processes was imperative, he said, urging Governments to increase investment in activities to empower women and the fight against exclusion. He welcomed the presidential statement issued today, highlighting a recommendation to intensify efforts to address underdevelopment, which was a root cause of conflict in Africa. The United Nations could better support regional efforts by providing financial and human resources.
MARK LYALL GRANT (United Kingdom) said that the Council should reflect on how it could support countries to develop inclusive national institutions. First, patience was required because there were no shortcuts to building inclusive national institutions. The World Bank estimated that in a best case scenario, making meaningful improvements to institutions took between 10-17 years. Where national political institutions were not inclusive, the potential for conflict increased. The Council was designed to be “a smoke detector” not just “a fire extinguisher”. The relationship between violent extremism and the absence of inclusivity was complex, as shown in the shocking attacks in France, Yemen, Nigeria, Iraq, Syria and Pakistan. Inclusivity was meaningless without women’s active participation in political institutions, peace negotiations and policymaking. “Without women, we will only achieve unbalanced and unsustainable peace, which ignores the needs of half the population.”
HUSSEIN HANIFF (Malaysia), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said that given an increasingly turbulent world with increasingly complex threats, there was room for a more holistic approach to combating the underlying causes of conflict. States and their partners must identify as a matter of priority factors that could frustrate the aim of achieving cohesive and inclusive societies. Addressing such factors was foremost a national responsibility, but the Council was well placed to support such efforts through peacekeeping and special political missions and other tools. The role played by women was crucial, and Malaysia was carrying out long-term strategies to ensure women’s equitable participation. Youth opportunity was equally important, as were civil and political rights. As a multi-ethnic society, Malaysia was aware of the challenges of diversity in achieving inclusivity. Describing some of his country’s programmes in that regard, he said that inclusiveness must go hand-in-hand with other values, such as tolerance and moderation.
TANASAK PATIMAPRAGORN, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs of Thailand, said that the Council must gear its work towards prevention, in particular addressing conflict’s root causes. Sanctions and military means were “simply not enough” to combat extremism and terrorism. Instead, promoting inclusive political, economic and social policies must be part and parcel of the solution. Inclusive development, on both national and international platforms, would advance sustainable peace and security. Therefore, inclusiveness must be at the core of the post-2015 development agenda and an integral part of conflict prevention and peacebuilding. The Council should bear in mind the nexus between development and security and the direct impact on the lives and livelihood of the people. Human rights, development, and peace and security must go hand-in-hand. Towards that end, coherence among key bodies in the United Nations system must be ensured, as that would help develop the capacity to take early and timely action. Voicing support for the HeForShe initiative on gender equality, he encouraged the Council to do more to increase the number of women peacekeepers, including as the heads of missions, and in mediation or negotiation.
LUIS ALMAGRO, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Uruguay, affirmed the importance of inclusive development to his country and the region, particularly for the efforts of building stability and democratic governance. It was critical for the Council to consider how to incorporate inclusive development and human rights into its peacekeeping mandates and other areas. His country prioritized inclusiveness and human rights, as well as ensuring the participation of women and avoiding the marginalization of youth.
HÉCTOR MARCOS TIMERMAN, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Worship of Argentina, said that the Security Council must not ignore the process of the negotiation of the post-2015 agenda, as peace and development could not been seen as separate matters. Today’s meeting was a way of opening the channels of communication between all actors in that regard. Argentina was determined to ensure that peoples, families and communities were accorded their rights and integrated into all relevant areas. Fighting social marginalization was particularly important at a time when terrorism and transnational crime posed great threats. The fight against terrorism and crime must be accompanied by a fight against inequality for it to be effective.
DULY BRUTUS, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Haiti, stressed that a peacekeeping operation alone was not sufficient to bring peace in a country if the development challenges were ignored. His country knew that as it had hosted a stabilization mission for many years. He supported, therefore, an integrated approach. “Peacekeeping and development are two sides of the same coin,” he said. His Government had always emphasized that structural gaps and poverty must be addressed for stability and the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) had recognized that fact as well. He assured the international community that his country was overcoming the political crisis that had threatened stability, and thanked all partners for their support.
LEONARDO ARIZAGA, Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs and Human Mobility of Ecuador, said that peace in the twenty-first century could not mean an absence of war. Overcoming poverty was a moral imperative. Poverty was the result of a system that excluded, and his country based public policy on people. Ecuador had reduced its poverty rate by 15 percentage points and universalized basic education. Despite the current drop in oil prices, his Government confirmed its decision to allocate budget to the social sector. There needed to be a new economic order and fair trade in solidarity with developing countries as well as reform of the global financial system. He warned against seeking wealth and power, which could lead to human rights abuses. As this year marked the seventieth anniversary of the Organization, its reform was urgently needed. A proposal that attracted consensus must be put forward to the Assembly this year.
VANESSA RUBIO, Vice Minister for Latin America and the Caribbean of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mexico, said that today’s topic was timely as the intergovernmental negotiation process began today at the General Assembly to define the objectives and goals of the post-2015 development agenda. It was crucial to strengthen inclusive development as a factor in ensuring international peace and security. For Mexico, the new parameters of global development should be guided by principles such as social and economic inclusion, so that equality of opportunity for all people would be secured, with emphasis given to addressing marginalization, exclusion and vulnerability. The prevention of conflict was an unavoidable obligation going beyond the 15-member body. That was an unrestricted responsibility of all States that were permanent members of this Organization of universal character, and required a collective effort and political conviction by the various organs and agencies of the United Nations system.
ALEJANDRA LIRIANO DE LA CRUZ (Dominican Republic) said the Council would enhance its credibility if it exerted a firm will to assume global responsibility to protect civilians in armed conflict. The complexity of existing and emerging threats, including marginalization, terrorism and climate change, and the interdependence of security and development were making the Council’s role increasingly difficult and weakening its effectiveness. As such, the Council should identify ways to effectively meet those new challenges and improve the Organization’s early-warning system. As for countries emerging from conflict, addressing extreme poverty and deprivation would ensure lasting peace. Turning to Haiti, she commended support, acknowledging efforts made by MINUSTAH. She urged the international community to devote greater attention to supporting fragile States, including those emerging from conflict, in order to build the national capacity needed to address development and security challenges.
MASOOD KHAN (Pakistan) stressed the many elements that must be taken into account in holistic discussions of peace and security and inclusive development. The Council should not be the main forum for a discussion on development, however. The purpose of today’s meeting was to promote synergy between all relevant bodies, particularly in the post-conflict peacebuilding phase, where inclusive development was essential. Regional commissions and the Peacebuilding Commission were central in that regard. The Council had assisted in implementing many processes that had fostered inclusivity, reconciliation and inclusive peace processes. In any case, the Organization must work together in addressing all such issues to enhance the system’s effectiveness while respecting the boundaries of each forum.
BHAGWANT SINGH BISHNOI (India) said that behind every conflict in the world was “a background” of poverty, hunger, deprivation, and a lack of economic opportunity and social inclusion. Peace and stability within societies could not be considered in isolation from their international context. They were connected to and affected by conditions of instability and insecurity at the international level. It was important to remember that, in regards to political inclusion, there was no “one-size-fits-all”. Efforts for ensuring broader political inclusion within national contexts must reflect national circumstances and realities and avoid reinforcing externally formulated policies and programmes for countries transitioning out of conflict. “The imperative of political inclusion should not become an imposition of prescriptions on the affected population by the Security Council,” he said. In regards to the issues of inclusive development, the Security Council should not encroach on the mandate of the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council. Pointing out that development within the United Nations system had been the most under-funded, he called for the post-2015 development agenda to craft and implement policies for genuine international collaboration for the eradication of poverty and promotion of sustainable development.
MÓNICA BOLAÑOS PÉREZ (Guatemala) said that the debate was timely, as negotiations were beginning in regards to the post–2015 development agenda. The complex links between development and security had been clarified in a wide range of reports and documents. Offering a detailed overview of specific points, she said that poverty and social injustice did not, in and of themselves, lead to violence and/or conflict. What must be attacked were the underlying factors, including the unemployment of youth and the reality of a “first-world” standard of living enjoyed by only a few. Peace and development must be comprehensive and addressed in a coordinated manner throughout the United Nations system, as included in the proposal of the Secretary-General. The Commission was an important institutional bridge between the Council and other bodies, including the Bretton Woods institutions, and she trusted that the upcoming review of peacebuilding architecture would lead to a greater coordination between those bodies. In addition, the role of women in supporting peacebuilding and rebuilding institutional structures was critical and key to establishing broad-based sustainable development and tackling conflict. Broad diplomatic resources were available, including the concept of the responsibility to protect, which sought to ensure that the international community fulfilled its role with how it dealt with its peoples. “The least we could do is to build on that principle,” she stated.
THOMAS MAYR-HARTING, Head of the European Union Delegation, said that to ensure timely and effective responses to threats to sustainable peace and security, the Council could explore innovative ways to work with different actors, including in civil society. Existing tools, such as the Arria Formula meetings, should be better utilized. A comprehensive approach to conflict prevention and resolution would ease the burden on the United Nations system, helping to reduce military spending needed to quell conflicts, avert crises, and free up sustainable development resources. The best prevention was still support of democratic governance, respect for human rights and economic development. The Union’s development policy emphasized engagement in countries most in need. In Mali and Somalia, for example, the full range of instruments was being used, including for development, good governance, rule of law, and building resilient livelihoods. The Union was also enhancing its early warning capacities in order to identify risks, address the gap between warning and response and foster a long-term, comprehensive approach to prevention. The post-2015 development agenda should be people-centred, be based on human rights and seek to combat discrimination.
MARTIN SAJDIK (Austria), speaking on behalf of the Human Security Network, welcomed the presidential statement, which called for a more comprehensive, integrated approach to peacebuilding, promoting inclusive participation of all stakeholders on post-conflict reconstruction, and more preventive actions. Those were core elements of the human security approach. By disaggregating social and economic indicators at the national and local levels, the human security approach could uncover factors of exclusion that impeded women, minorities, ethnic and religious groups and economically marginalized populations. By engaging communities in the development and implementation of solutions to their daily challenges, the human security approach had led to more effective, sustainable responses. The multidimensional, people-centred human security approach supported efforts by post-conflict societies to ensure better transitions to stability and development. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the approach was applied in the reintegration of ex-combatants and disenfranchised and marginalized youth; the lack of sustainable livelihoods; struggling health and educational services; persistent tensions among community members; and acts of gender-based violence. The challenge was to apply the approach more systematically at the national level through national ownership involving local organs and parties concerned, as well as across the United Nations system.
PER THÖRESSON (Sweden), speaking for the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and itself), said inclusive development held the key to addressing conflict’s root causes. Inclusive participation in peace processes, elections and decentralization could help to non-violently resolve and prevent conflicts, with the Security Council playing a crucial role in formulating mandates in its support. Including women in those processes was essential, as any effort that excluded them was “doomed to fail”, he said, while urging the Council to utilize the whole range of available formats. Use of inclusive United Nations mediation should be further developed and used in all stages of the conflict cycle. To prevent future conflict and insecurity, decisive action was needed to face climate change, which was a “threat multiplier” to future strategic security challenges. Anticipating the 2015 reviews of peace operations, peacebuilding and women, peace and security, he said inclusive development was an important piece of the puzzle.
YOSHIFUMI OKAMURA (Japan) said that his country had given considerable attention to inclusivity and its relationship to conflict prevention, having co-organized seminars on the issue and having actively contributed to the Peacebuilding Commission since its inception in 2005. It was particularly important at the point of transition from United Nations missions that exclusion of any group be addressed. Through the Tokyo International Conference on African Development, or TICAD, his country had implemented its assistance with a deep understanding of the interrelationship between peace and development and had promoted an inclusive society, particularly by assisting women and youth. Pledging his country’s continued work in that regard, he looked to the Council to continue its discussion on inclusivity to strengthen its work in peace and security and to improve its relationship with the Peacebuilding Commission.
JEREMIAH NYAMANE KINGSLEY MAMABOLO (South Africa), speaking on behalf of the “Group of 77” developing countries and China, said that the bloc did not usually speak in the Council, but requested the floor due to the topic that related to inclusive development. The link between peace and security, and development was undeniable. The failure to honour development assistance, provide debt relief, open markets and transfer technology had played a negative role in consolidating stability. However, those issues should be considered in their appropriate forum, as the Council’s primary mandate was the maintenance of international peace and security. The principle of the separation of the mandates of the United Nations organs must be respected. The General Assembly remained the highest deliberative body, which afforded all Member States an equal opportunity to participate in development-related debates.
MOHAMED ALI ALHAKIM (Iraq), noting that there was no doubt all peoples of the world aspired to the best of development, said that, without security, that would not be possible. His country had considerable resources, but was faced with constant danger that impeded the Government building a democratic regime that allowed all Iraqis to choose leadership through a transparent process. Iraq was at the head of the list of countries faced with terrorism, which was affecting its infrastructures and cities. That impacted economic activities, which then had a negative impact on sustainable development. Iraq was in need of governance and sustainable democracy that would enable a favourable environment for foreign investment. It was “comforting” to know that the international community was more aware and coherent in combatting the threat of terrorism and its threat to international security. Building on worldwide efforts to combat terrorism, he urged the international community to focus its activities against collaboration with the “Islamic State”, recalling that the commitment of Member States to implement the relevant Security Council resolutions was the best way to combat terrorism.
SYLVIE LUCAS (Luxembourg), associating herself with the European Union, said peace and security could not be guaranteed without development, protection of human rights and democratic governance. Luxembourg continued to dedicate 1 per cent of its gross domestic product (GDP) to development cooperation for the social sector, education and health. Post-conflict peacebuilding was a long-term effort that must mobilize all forces of countries and regions concerned and receive long-term support. Peacebuilding efforts must facilitate inclusive political processes and enable competent international institutions to be created. The situations in South Sudan and the Central African Republic showed that a risk of resurgence of conflict was higher if such challenges were not addressed. Women and youth were agents of change and development, and their marginalization must end. She supported early warning initiatives, particularly the Human Rights Up Front initiative.
RON PROSOR (Israel) pointed out that the debate fell on the day honouring Martin Luther King, Jr., a champion of human rights and human dignity who taught the world that strong societies taught tolerance and embraced diversity. However, challenges before the world were immense, and as the United Nations prepared to unveil a new development agenda, it was everyone’s duty to ensure it was truly transformative and would serve to unlocking a better future around the world. Inclusiveness enriched a society, as seen in Israel where all nationalities and faiths were welcomed and the justice system safeguarded the rights of all. His country was the only country in the Middle East where women participated in all branches of the Government. Youth were critical in the prosperity and stability of a society; however, when they saw a future devoid of jobs and opportunities, frustration set in. Recounting the story of a boy in Syria who, in order to protect his mother, volunteered as an ISIS suicide bomber, he said that radical Islamists were waging war against “our way of life, our values and our freedoms”. Although development could lay the groundwork for stability, it was not enough. Those extremists must be confronted. “We are the first generation with a chance of eliminating extreme poverty,” he stated, urging that all must struggle to break down the barriers that divided and unite to achieve the common dream of a better future for the children and the chance to live in peace and security.
BOGUSŁAW WINID (Poland), noting that development was not a main issue within the scope of the Security Council, said, however, that too many times in the past the Council had had to deal, “in the eleventh hour”, with the effects of underdevelopment and fragility. He, therefore, welcomed the increasing recognition among Council members of the linkages between peace, security and development. Noting the “fruitful” cooperation between the Council and the Peacebuilding Commission, he said that multidimensional mandates of peacekeeping operations and political missions allowed for greater effectiveness, and he urged that the security-development nexus be reflected in the reviews of peace operations and the peacebuilding architecture. Security was not only the lack of conflict but the lack of threats from natural disasters and climate change, he said, underscoring that there were countries that might disappear and entire nations that might need to seek refuge far away from home due to rising sea-levels. The Warsaw Climate Change Conference in 2013 had adopted very important decisions, among them the Warsaw International Mechanism on Loss and Damage, which provided assistance to vulnerable populations. He also stressed that human rights were critical to reducing the likelihood of violent conflict.
INIGO LAMBERTINI (Italy) said inclusive development had become a constant in his country’s action. There was, for example, a multidisciplinary development programme for refugees, displaced persons and returnees in six Central American countries, assisting 700,000 people. It was essential to follow the connection between crime prevention, criminal justice and the rule of law for the sake of inclusive development. Security needs and efficacy in responding to crime could be at odds with the principles of rule of law and separation of powers. In view of the upcoming thirteenth United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, to be held in Doha in April, Italy and four other countries had called for a debate on 24 February, to be chaired by the General Assembly President, on the interlinkages between criminal justice, rule of law and development.
KAIRAT ABDRAKHMANOV (Kazakhstan) said that during the preventive and post-conflict phases in Africa, inclusive economic, political, legislative and judicial institutions should be strengthened and made more accountable and responsive to the needs of all, especially women and children. United Nations peacekeeping operations in Africa should take on increasingly complex, hybrid operations as well as specific social reconstruction tasks designed to create legitimate, inclusive States. Kazakhstan was committed to inclusive people-centred development through its “Strategy 2050” and “Nyrly Zhol — the Path to the Future” political and macroeconomic stabilization plans, which also focused on social protection, quality health care, education, housing and employment. To ensure harmony among all ethnicities in the country, Kazakhstan convened every three years the Congress of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions. The fifth Congress, to be held in June, would focus on the theme “Dialogue of Religious and Political Leaders for Peace and Development”. The Astana Economic Forum, hosted by Kazakhstan and the World Anti-Crisis Conference, had led to and created new road maps for economic stability.
MIGUEL CAMILO RUIZ (Colombia) said that the Security Council needed to consider methods which ensured the establishment and development of conditions for economic and social well-being. It had taken measures to that end, among others, mainstreaming relevant tasks into peacekeeping. However, such efforts were at the “embryonic stage” and the Commission’s work needed to be strengthened. The central participation of women must be part and parcel of the deliberation process and play a key role in implementing peace processes. In a previous debate, his delegation had pointed out that the Council’s decisions had an impact on the long-term. Its work was a fundamental component for sustainable peace. Therefore, it was imperative its actions promoted the well-being of populations. The aim was not to turn the Council into a development agency, but to build synergies with components addressing development issues. National ownership was fundamental and key to establishing security and promoting development. Building and strengthening that capacity should be a priority. The Council had huge potential within its mandate to support inclusive development.
KATALIN BOGYAY (Hungary), stressing that peace was the greatest weapon for development, noted that as Co-Chair of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals, her delegation worked with Member States to ensure that the outcome document explicitly recognized the linkage between inclusion, sustainable development, justice and accountability, among others. Emphasizing that women played a significant role in problem-solving, conflict prevention and resolution, she said that gender equality was an important public issue in Hungary and was reflected in policy decisions. Regarding vulnerable groups, including the Roma population, living in poverty, the Hungarian National Social Inclusion Strategy had set forth a comprehensive approach with projects addressing child welfare, education, health care and housing, to name a few. Her Government also had a zero-tolerance policy against anti-Semitism, and was an active promoter of interreligious and intercultural dialogue and cooperation.
MARGUS KOLGA (Estonia), also speaking on behalf of Latvia and associating with the European Union’s statement, said good governance, respect for human rights, and economic development were the best methods for preventing violent conflicts. Policies and programmes that actively shaped inclusive societies were important to guarantee the rule of law, peace and security. Progress towards sustainable development was best guaranteed by good governance, transparent decision-making and minimal corruption, for which effective, accountable institutions were powerful enablers. A broad approach to development focused on justice, human rights, inequality, jobs and inclusive politics would reduce violence and contribute to peacebuilding. The Council should address peacebuilding as early as possible in crises, he said, adding that current reviews of United Nations peacekeeping operations and peacebuilding architecture must support and complement each other’s aims, and the resulting recommendations must lead to tangible results in gender equality, women’s empowerment and human rights in general. Freedom of expression and association and access to independent media, including social media and the Internet, were integral to good governance and the rule of law, without which societies could not be truly inclusive.
HARALD BRAUN (Germany) said peace and security could only be achieved if societies were inclusive, minorities were respected, the rule of law was observed and poverty was tackled. Conflict undermined social and economic development, social adhesion and respect, and a human rights-based approach was a prerequisite for peace and stability. Gender equality was essential for stable societies and sustainable development, as was conflict prevention and peacebuilding. The Council should be engaged as early as possible and make better use of the Commission’s advisory role, he said, urging for closer cooperation between the bodies. The review of the United Nations peacebuilding architecture could be used to further develop and strengthen relevant instruments, and conflict prevention, peacebuilding and peacekeeping needed to be looked at in a holistic manner and include all stakeholders.
LAURA ELENA FLORES HERRERA (Panama) said human security was a necessary precondition for social inclusion and development. All forms of exclusion were a violation of human rights and at the root of conflicts worldwide. The problem was not conflict, but the loss of human rights. Inclusive development was fundamental for building sustainable peace. Where peacebuilding efforts were rooted in inclusive societies they generated trust and confidence. It was vital that States promoted peace, inclusion and dialogue in order to prevent conflicts and violence. Such issues were interrelated. Today the world spent more on weapons and wars than on development and social inclusion. It was necessary to think outside the box. She called on the Council to show more leadership and promotion of women’s participation in peacebuilding. Panama would soon host a historic Summit of the Americas, which would discuss security, among other issues. She welcomed the presidential statement introduced by Chile.
GUILLERMO RISHCHYNSKI (Canada) said every individual must be able to practice his or her faith in safety and security. Canada, a country of many ethnicities and religions, shared a common humanity of tolerance, acceptance and peace. Lasting peace and stability required the full participation of all citizens. As demonstrated by conflicts across parts of the Middle East and Africa, there could be no peace or security in regions of religious pluralism without dialogue, trust and stability between religious communities. The full participation of women and girls in all aspects of social, political and economic life was a prerequisite for sustainable peace and prosperity, and he urged the elimination of legal and social barriers to empowering women and girls. Child, early and forced marriage; a permissive attitude towards violence against women and girls; and discrimination against them in education, health services, justice and economic resources were unacceptable. Inclusive development was vital for peacebuilding and, as Chair of the Sierra Leone configuration of the Peacebuilding Commission, Canada would continue to work with that Government to ensure adequate resources in support of national peacebuilding. The 2015 review of the United Nations peacebuilding architecture must align with the Organization’s policy reviews, including of peacekeeping, as well as with the post-2015 development agenda.
FRANTIŠEK RUŽIČKA (Slovakia) said sustainable peace and development could not be achieved without considering the needs of all relevant stakeholders, who should participate and contribute to transforming societies. Last week’s Barbershop Conference on changing the discourse of men on gender equality discussed full inclusivity as a prerequisite to peace. As part of the development agenda, peace, rule of law and governance were about ensuring an inclusive approach and building institutions that ensured violence reduction, safety, and among other things, justice for all. The evil of potential conflicts was hidden in exclusion, he said, encouraging Member States to raise the issues discussed today at the high-level meeting of the Group of Friends on security sector reform, scheduled to be held in February and co-chaired by Slovakia and South Africa.
JAVAD SAFAEI (Iran) said that inclusiveness must be established and preserved at both the national and international levels in order to overcome injustices and provide opportunities for all countries. Those States with the lowest human development indicators experienced most of the conflicts. Just as the lack of development could feed conflict, economic and social progress could help prevent it. Countries and regions facing stark inequalities and weak institutions were at an increased risk of conflict, with drug trafficking and international organized crimes finding “fertile ground” in such places. Development was perhaps the most effective route to diminishing the risk of conflict and enabling sustained peace and stability. It was a mistake to look at conflict, unrest and tension in a fragmented way. If those conflicts were not addressed in a comprehensive way, interlinking the political, security and development challenges, the world would have to be ready to face tragic situations. Peace was another name for development, and security was a prerequisite for development, which was only possible in a peaceful environment. The Council, within its mandate, must attach greater importance to the nexus between security and development if it were to fulfil its primary mandate of maintaining peace and security in a pragmatic and efficient way.
TIM MAWE (Ireland) said that, given the severe, large-scale humanitarian crises in Central African Republic, Iraq, South Sudan and Syria, including the highest number of refugees and internally displaced persons since the end of the Second World War, the Council’s record was “mixed”. Each conflict shared a common feature in that tensions had resulted from sectarian, ethnic, socioeconomic or ideological differences where people were excluded, marginalized and denied participation in the political, economic and social life of their countries. In taking forward resolution 2171 (2014), the Council had a clear responsibility to prevent situations from developing into full-blown crises; it must do more to enhance its preventive capacities. Key aspects of today’s debate were institution-building, inclusivity and women’s critical role, as well as the correlation between severe human rights violations and threats to international peace and security. “In shaping a more effective and impactful United Nations, we must seize the opportunities” presented in post-2015 development frame and the reviews of the peacebuilding architecture, he urged.
ANDREJ LOGAR (Slovenia) said a sharp focus must be placed on addressing socioeconomic inequalities — the main drivers of conflict and organized crime — and strong institutions were also needed, especially in fragile States. Since human rights situations were a credible early-warning sign, protecting those rights was important for conflict prevention and for peace and sustainable development, also keeping in mind the critical issue of gender equality. Post-conflict development must consider the issue of landmines and explosive remnants of war, which hindered rehabilitation and reconstruction, he said, noting that the Slovenia-based ITF Enhancing Human Security non-profit organization aimed at, among other things, clearing mines and building capacity. Conflict prevention was at the core of Slovenia’s foreign policy priorities, he said, emphasizing that the United Nations must remain the ultimate and comprehensive framework for addressing the security-development nexus and must turn challenges into opportunities. “The more inclusive the process is,” he said, “the more balanced and achievable the goals we will be able to realize.”
EUGÈNE-RICHARD GASANA (Rwanda), emphasizing that development and peace were connected, pointed to his country’s recent history. Those factors had to become prerequisites in order for Rwanda to become viable. His country, following the 1994 genocide, faced a myriad of challenges. The need to establish a climate of peace and development for all started in a difficult environment and required all Rwandans to make sacrifices towards post-conflict recovery. Inclusive decision-making had to be strengthened in Government structures, and women and youth were the cornerstone in the strategy to build consensus towards a shared vision of a peaceful country. Due to the inclusive political process, there were sharp poverty reductions and increased prosperity, including the introduction of universal health insurance. Participation was not simple, especially with long social and ethnic divisions. “It simply was not an easy task or an easy process,” he said, but Governments had a unique role in promoting collaboration to resolve contentious matters. All stakeholders, within the United Nations system and in concerned countries, should ensure that those processes be inclusive. Furthermore, countries emerging from conflict must be supported.
HALIT ÇEVIK (Turkey) stressed the need to build synergies between the Peacebuilding Commission, Peacebuilding Support Office, Peacebuilding Fund, Security Council and the general United Nations membership, regional and subregional organizations, and international agencies. Strong partnerships with civil society and the private sector also were needed. It was essential to encourage policies that facilitated the participation and economic empowerment of all, including women, children, older persons, minority groups and migrants. Inclusivity bred resilient societies. The Secretary-General’s stated priorities in the synthesis report should guide peace and development work in the future. Serious debate was needed on such matters as narrowing the gaps between diverging views on stigmatization, stereotyping, intolerance, racism, discrimination, and freedom of expression, religion and belief. Building the mediation capacities of conflict countries was a cost-effective way to help solve their issues. The Group of Friends of Mediation, co-chaired by Turkey and Finland, strove to increase the role of that process in the United Nations system.
AMR ABDELLATIF ABOULATTA (Egypt) affirmed that it was difficult to preserve the peace and security of societies without inclusive development that addressed the root causes of conflict. As countries had primary responsibility in that area, he confirmed the need to respect national priorities. He also confirmed the need to ensure empowerment of women and integration of youth and to eliminate racism and other forms of discrimination. Regional initiatives, including the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), were critical to enable countries to implement strategies for inclusive development. All three pillars of the United Nations work must be addressed holistically in the post-2015 development agenda. He trusted, however, that the considerations of the Council today would not set a precedent of the Council impinging on the responsibilities of other bodies.
AWALE ALI KULLANE (Somalia) said his country was keen to learn about and develop strategies to foster inclusive development as it entered a new era of pursuing peace, stability and prosperity for all citizens. The Somali Government had built a foundation and taken an approach to support inclusive politics that encouraged the involvement of all groups. The Government had already improved health services and opened schools. As discourse on peacebuilding in Africa continued, policymakers must consider the plight of women, which had been recognized by Security Council resolution 1325 (2000). Another area of concern was youth unemployment and disenfranchisement, especially in conflict-affected countries such as Libya, Nigeria and Somalia. Despite Security Council assistance in Somalia’s progress over the past decade, his country still faced persistent challenges. Inclusive development in the country should involve grassroots efforts, with a special focus on the inclusion of women. The success of that new strategy would allow Somalia to emerge from its 24-year-long civil war a stronger nation than it had been before the conflict began.
GUSTAVO MEZA-CUADRA (Peru), highlighting the three pillars of the United Nations work — peace and security, development and human rights — noted there was consensus among Member States on the need to deal with deep-seated problems, such as marginalization, inequality and exclusion. It was vital to ensure political participation of groups that had been traditionally excluded. Peru sponsored General Assembly resolution 66/122 that urged States, bearing the main responsibility for social integration and social inclusion, to prioritize the creation of a “society for all” based on respect for all human rights and the principles of equality among individuals. He recognized the role of the Commission in facilitating inclusive development. His Government was committed to building inclusive society domestically and internationally.
MUHAMMAD ANSHOR (Indonesia) said that, as a country of many cultures, religions, ethnicities and languages, his country strongly upheld the values of diversity, inclusion, tolerance and harmony. Indonesia’s stability and progress were due in large part to equitable development coupled with locally and nationally owned peaceful settlement of disputes. Integrating inclusive development perspectives into the Council’s work would help form a robust, comprehensive framework for conflict prevention. The Council should enhance its engagement and coordination with relevant United Nations agencies and international organizations responsible for security and development, and it should align its work with that of other United Nations system entities on developing common peace and prosperity. The Council should be part of collective efforts to ensure the United Nations could “act as one” across the security development spectrum, and adopt a single approach.
KAHA IMNADZE (Georgia) stressed the importance of promoting societies free of radicalization, violence and extremism; embracing universal respect for and compliance with international law; and strengthening the rule of law in addressing transnational challenges and negative foreign influences that fuelled internal conflicts. Inclusive development and preventing marginalization were crucial for Georgia, a multi-ethnic and religious nation. With more than 20 per cent of its territory under illegal foreign occupation, Georgia was committed to a constructive course of action aimed at strengthening engagement with the Georgian regions of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali region/South Ossetia, and reconciliation and settlement. The European Union-Georgia Association Agreement and the Association Agenda sought to extend the benefits of that cooperation to people in the occupied regions. The Russian Federation, following its annexation last year of Ukraine’s Crimea, had taken further steps to annex Georgia’s occupied territories of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali region/South Ossetia. The so-called treaties on alliance and strategic partnership or integration signed with the de facto authorities in Abkhazia and being prepared for signature with those in the Tskhinvali region/South Ossetia were directed against Georgia’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, and aimed to undermine Georgia’s inclusive development.
OMAR HILALE (Morocco) said that the complexities of the modern world required a holistic approach to security, including the promotion of inclusive development and a respect for human rights. Autonomy of all people through growth that provided decent jobs and other goods was key. Political and economic marginalization were factors that engendered conflict within States; it was important for the international community to assist such countries in building capacity to engender inclusive structures. The creation of jobs and consideration of all the challenges of the young were particularly important, as was empowerment of women. Such factors were also critical for the fight against terrorism, and a military approach alone would not contain the scourge; international cooperation was needed to address the root causes in the context of national ownership.
OH JOON (Republic of Korea) said that conflicts around the world showed that without an inclusive process in the political, economic, and social realms of societies, peace and security were fragile. His delegation had supported, over the past two years of Council membership, the prioritization of inclusivity for peace and prosperity. The outcome, however, had not always been rewarding. Sovereignty and territorial integrity had not always been properly invoked for their “genuine raison d’etre”, he said, noting that political consideration sometimes stood in the way of finding reasonable solutions. National stakeholders’ priorities did not always overlap with those of the international community. An important prerequisite was to forge national unity, because if national stakeholders were fragmented, international support would then be fragmented. Leadership in reconciliation and social cohesion was often a “self-sacrificing” task as sharing limited resources with former enemies required courage and vision. The international community could not replace that role, but it could provide assistance so that the full range of inclusivity could be integrated into the entire process of peacemaking, peacekeeping and peacebuilding.
RODOLFO REYES RODRÍGUEZ (Cuba) said that international peace and security was elusive without inclusiveness, warning against the use of force and enforcement of unilateral coercive measures. There needed to be a new international order, which could replace the order established by capitalists. Democratization of the Security Council was outstanding. The world had enough resources to eradicate poverty. What was necessary was political will to bring changes to the existing international systems. The root causes of conflicts, such as hunger and poverty, must be tackled. But arms races had eaten up resources, which could be allocated to economic growth. The Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly were the main bodies to discuss development. The Security Council could best contribute to the matter by undertaking measures against foreign occupation.
KOKI MULI GRIGNON (Kenya) said that the conclusion of the United Nations World Summit in 2005 that “there is no peace without development; there is no development without peace; there is no lasting peace and sustainable development without respect for human rights” was especially poignant today. Equality within nations was central to peacebuilding and development. Poverty and underdevelopment remained major causes of conflicts in most parts of the world. To address the challenges of terrorism and violent extremism, there was urgent need to build and promote stable and peaceful societies through decisive measures to end poverty, inequality and marginalization. Peace and security were important prerequisites for the attainment of sustainable development, he concluded.
GUILHERME DE AGUIAR PATRIOTA (Brazil), noting that the interconnection of peace and inclusive development was included in the United Nations Charter, said that South America illustrated the benefits of social justice for stability. Development should be participatory at all levels, and include those most at risk for marginalization. It was important to reject, however, the notion that poverty itself was a threat to peace; highly militarized societies could also engender war. For that reason, the Council must not keep a sole focus on conflicts involving developing countries. That said, his country had defended mandates — for MINUSTAH, for example — that included capacity-building for social development in the interest of stability. At the global level, international cooperation needed to be enhanced in the context of international law.
FEDERICO A. GONZALEZ (Paraguay) said that the foundation of security was the protection of the individual under the rule of law. For that purpose, States must ensure inclusive development for all persons without distinctions and the United Nations must formulate an ambitious post-2015 agenda that supported their efforts. Regional organizations were important in that regard; the Organization of American States (OAS) had recently noted challenges in extreme poverty and its related ills and called for stepped up efforts to change the situation. Gender equality and social protections were critical to ensure that no persons were excluded. The Security Council should include such factors in all its debates.
KAREL JAN GUSTAAF VAN OOSTEROM (Netherlands) stressed the importance of early warning systems and preventive tools. He recommended the new framework of the Joint Office of the Special Advisers on Prevention of Genocide and Responsibility to Protect for analysing atrocity crimes, which identified patterns of discrimination against protected groups, a key sign of exclusion, as a specific risk factor for mass atrocities. Inclusiveness and social cohesion were the foundation for creating and sustaining stable peaceful societies, and they should guide development strategies. His Government aimed to address challenges to social cohesion in post-conflict States by supporting local organizations that provided basic capacity support for political parties, fostered locally owned interparty dialogue and strengthened democratic institutions. His Government had earmarked $4.5 million in the last three years to support the Department of Political Affairs’ inclusive political processes. It supported the United Nations Development Programme’s Bureau for Conflict and Reconstruction to strengthen social cohesion and support insider mediators in Tunisia, Jordan, Iraq and Yemen. It also helped set up a dialogue between local actors in northern Mali to aid the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA), prepared members of the Syrian Opposition Council for peace negotiations, and supported the United Nations Special Envoy for the Great Lakes region in bringing civil society and women’s groups into peace processes.
MILORAD ŠĆEPANOVIĆ (Montenegro), associating himself with the European Union, said that given the turbulent state of the world today, all Member States, civil societies and individuals had the responsibility to take action for inclusive development based on respect for life, justice, solidarity, human rights and equality between men and women, in order to create a peaceful and just future. His country understood well that those factors, as well as dialogue and good governance, were critical in bringing about peace. To ensure that the United Nations maintained its central position in global governance, it must be reformed to address evolved multifaceted conditions and environments, prioritizing factors that could cause conflict. Those factors must be addressed in the post-2015 development agenda.
VLADIMIR DROBNJAK (Croatia) said his Government considered inclusion of human rights, social equity and women’s empowerment as key building blocks of sustained prosperity for all. Tackling the gender inequalities and removing obstacles that prevented women and girls from exercising their rights must be at the heart of efforts to create sustainable, prosperous and resilient societies. Croatia had organized two high-level events during the ministerial weeks of the sixty-eighth and sixty-ninth General Assembly sessions, dedicated to the political and economic empowerment of women in post-conflict situations. This year would be a pivotal one for the United Nations; a new sustainable development agenda would be adopted in September, while the review processes of the peacebuilding architecture and peacekeeping, as well as the progress in the implementation of Council resolution 1325 (2000), were all under way. Those processes should be bold and ambitious in their recommendations, establishing strong linkages between peace, security, development and human rights. Maintaining peace and security through inclusive and sustainable development was not just a catch phrase from the “UN vocabulary”, but the only possible way forward.
NICHOLAS EMILIOU (Cyprus), associating himself with the European Union, said that a comprehensive approach to conflict prevention required addressing the root causes through a multidimensional approach. There could not be peace without inclusive development and that fact must be taken into consideration in the post-2015 development agenda. Marginalization led to extremism; inclusion and tolerance could help combat such phenomena. It was important to include the most vulnerable such as women, immigrants and disabled persons and to promote governance that garnered the participation of all such groups. Peacekeeping and peacebuilding operations had a role to play in all such areas.
ZOHRAB MNATSAKANYAN (Armenia) said exclusion and discrimination, as the antithesis of inclusive and participatory governance, underlined the challenge to the legitimacy of sovereignty claim over populations and territories. Policies of exclusion were particularly acute and prone to explosion in conflict situations. The ultimate and most dehumanizing form of exclusion and discrimination was genocide and other atrocity crimes. In that regard, his delegation welcomed the recent Framework of Analyses for the Prevention of Atrocity Crimes, developed jointly by the Special Advisers on the Prevention of Genocide and on the Responsibility to Protect. The Security Council should pay heed to the Framework in their analyses of specific situations.
NGUYEN PHUONG NGA (Viet Nam), associating herself with the Group of 77 and China, said there was a close linkage between inclusive development and peace and security. As a nation of 90 million people who lived in harmony despite being from 54 different ethnic groups and very diverse socioeconomic, historical and religious backgrounds, Viet Nam understood that well. National strategies were based on equality, non-discrimination, conciliation and tolerance. Recalling the region’s recent history of warfare, she stressed that those values were important to all members of the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Inclusive development for peace was critical at the international level as well, and required strengthened international cooperation for all nations to thrive.
MICHEL SPINELLIS (Greece), associating with the European Union and the Human Security Network, said that for sustainable peacebuilding to occur no person could be denied universal human rights or basic economic opportunities. The needs of the most disadvantaged and vulnerable must be respected. Economic and political integration of marginalized populations were determinants of peace and security. Fundamental freedoms must be respected, protected and fulfilled, including freedom of expression, association and the press. Democratic governance and the rule of law should prevail. As a member of the Human Security Network, Greece believed a human security approach addressed the multiple vulnerabilities affecting nations and communities. Situated in the eastern Mediterranean region, which had witnessed great political turmoil in recent years, Greece was a strong advocate of inclusive and sustainable development as an enabler of long-term stability and sustainable peace. The country was also strongly committed to the promotion of peaceful societies in the post-2015 development agenda.
RY TUY (Cambodia) said that, in many ways, the world was at a critical juncture and the current picture was “rather bleak”, with serious concerns over recent geopolitical security developments in many regions. While efforts were being accelerating to attain the Millennium Development Goals, internal and external conflicts were still undermining development. Condemning terrorist attacks by ISIS, Al-Qaida, Al-Shabaab and Boko Haram, he reiterated his country’s commitment to engage internationally to fight all forms of terrorism. As many conflicts had arisen from disparity, including socioeconomic, gender inequality, religious and ideological differences, a better and long-lasting solution was needed. Regional and international integration for post-conflict countries were significant in order to prevent a relapse into conflict. Many developing countries had not been able to attain the Millennium Development Goals due to unfulfilled commitments, lack of resources, insufficient dedication and food insecurity. He understood that financial uncertainty in developed countries impacted their commitment to their official development assistance (ODA).
JAIME HERMIDA CASTILLO (Nicaragua), associating himself with the Group of 77 and China, said that matters relating to security must move towards a commitment to the promotion of sustainable human development. In considering that area, however, the Council must not set precedents and not alter major intergovernmental agreements reached by consensus, such as the outcome of the Rio+20 Conference, which was the basis for the post-2015 agenda to be approved. The order of priorities must be reversed. It is sustainable development that would strengthen security, stability and peace in the world. Security-based approaches to peace had not yielded the desired results. Developed countries must fulfil their commitments to provide the necessary resources for development, under respect of non-interference in the internal affairs of States and without conditions.
HUSNIYYA MAMMADOVA (Azerbaijan) said that the cost of armed conflict throughout the world and its implication in every sector was enormous. Accordingly, it was vital the Council continue to promote peace, human rights and development in an integrated manner. As her country had suffered from conflict, it understood that respect for international law, including human rights and territorial integrity, was particularly important. Displacement, forced demographic changes, foreign occupation, illegal exploitation of resources and other factors must be dealt with in a consistent manner that respected the sovereignty of States and the rights of every person.
JEAN-FRANCIS RÉGIS ZINSOU (Benin) said that linkages between peace and security and development were obvious as events worldwide demonstrated the intrinsic link between those notions. He cautioned against State structures that divert public resources to private gains. Not prosecuting financial crimes led to impunity and creation of a tax paradise. Such situations had given rise to crises in recent years on several continents, leading to revolts and civil wars that annihilated efforts and economic progress made over several years. Development must be inclusive, particularly of women and youth as they could contribute to reforms. The international community must take an interest in those structural dysfunctions within States, which had some impact on international peace and security. Those were concerns raised in resolution 1625 (2005). Today, armed violence, natural disasters, climate change, and poverty were threats to human security and to development. His delegation supported the presidential statement just adopted.
The full text of presidential statement S/PRST/2015/3 reads as follows:
“The Security Council reaffirms its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security and its readiness to strive for sustainable peace in all situations under its consideration.
“The Security Council underlines that security and development are closely interlinked and mutually reinforcing and key to attaining sustainable peace. The Council recognizes that their relationship is complex, multifaceted and case-specific.
“The Security Council reiterates that, in order to support a country to emerge sustainably from conflict, there is a need for a comprehensive and integrated approach that incorporates and strengthens coherence between political, security, development, human rights and rule of law activities, and addresses the root causes of each conflict, including through strengthening the rule of law at national and international levels, promoting sustainable economic growth and development, poverty eradication, political, religious and cultural tolerance, freedom of opinion and expression, social cohesion and inclusiveness, national reconciliation, good governance, democracy, gender equality, respect for, and protection of, human rights, and facilitating reintegration and rehabilitation.
“The Security Council affirms that national ownership and national responsibility are key to establishing sustainable peace. The Council reaffirms the primary responsibility of national authorities in identifying their priorities and strategies for post-conflict peacebuilding, with a view to ensuring national ownership.
“The Security Council underlines that integrated action on the ground by security and development actors needs to be coordinated with the national authorities and can significantly contribute to stabilizing and improving the security situation and ensuring the protection of civilians. The Council also notes the importance of cooperation with civil society in this context. The Council affirms that sustainable peace and development cannot be achieved without the inclusion of all relevant stakeholders and underlines that women must be included as active participants in all stages of peacebuilding, peace agreements and development programs. The Council expresses its willingness to engage in dialogue, where necessary, on specific situations on its agenda with other actors, including UN agencies, funds, and programmes and international financial institutions.
“The Security Council encourages Member States to consider developing a UN common approach to inclusive development as a key for preventing conflict and enabling long-term stability and sustainable peace. The Council highlights in this regard the importance of identifying and addressing social, economic, political, cultural and religious exclusion, intolerance, as well as violent extremism, which can be conducive to terrorism, as drivers of conflict. The Council further notes the importance of early awareness and consideration of situations of exclusion in post-conflict States and draws the attention of Member States to the contribution that mitigation actions, including those based on best available practices and models of inclusiveness at the local, national, regional and global levels, can make in this regard.
“The Council recognizes the continuing need to increase women’s participation and the consideration of gender-related issues in all discussions pertinent to the prevention and resolution of armed conflict, the maintenance of peace and security, and post-conflict peacebuilding and reiterates its intention when establishing and renewing the mandates of United Nations missions, to include provisions on the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women in conflict and post-conflict situations.
“The Council calls upon Member States to take concrete measures to further assist youth, particularly those in armed conflict situations, and encourages the involvement of young people, where appropriate, in activities concerning the protection of children and youth affected by armed conflict situations, including in conflict prevention, peacebuilding and postconflict processes.
“The Security Council recalls the need for inclusive and effective disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes (DDR), including those relating to the release and reintegration of children formerly associated with armed forces or armed groups, with the involvement of affected individuals and local communities, while respecting the need to fight against impunity.
“The Security Council stresses that terrorist groups benefiting from transnational organized crime may contribute to undermining affected States, specifically their security, stability, governance, social and economic development, complicating conflict prevention and resolution efforts. The Security Council emphasizes that the combined presence of terrorism, violent extremism, and transnational organized crime may exacerbate conflicts in affected regions and notes that terrorist groups benefiting from transnational organized crime can, in some cases and in some regions, complicate conflict prevention and resolution efforts.
“The Security Council encourages Member States to engage relevant local communities and non-governmental actors in developing strategies, including through interreligious, interethnic and intercultural dialogue, to counter the violent extremist narrative that can incite terrorist acts, address the conditions conducive to the spread of violent extremism, which can be conducive to terrorism, including by empowering youth, families, women, religious, cultural and education leaders, and all other concerned groups of civil society and adopt tailored approaches to countering recruitment to this kind of violent extremism and promoting social inclusion and cohesion.
“The Security Council re-emphasizes the importance of considering and initiating peacebuilding activities from the earliest stages of planning and implementation of peacekeeping operations, as appropriate, including through clear and achievable mandates. The Council stresses the importance of clarity of roles and responsibilities of the UN peacekeeping operation and the UN country team and other relevant actors for the delivery of prioritized support to a country consistent with its specific peacebuilding needs and priorities, as outlined by national authorities, in order to ensure effective integration of efforts, in particular where peacekeeping missions and special political missions are operating alongside other UN peacebuilding actors, and regional and subregional organizations. The Security Council further emphasizes the importance of integration of UN efforts during the transition process of Security Council-mandated operations.
“The Security Council notes that successful implementation of the many tasks that peacekeeping operations could be mandated to undertake in the areas of security sector reform; disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration; rule of law; transitional justice; and human rights requires an understanding of and acting with a perspective which takes into account the close interlinkage between security and development. In this context, the Council notes with appreciation the contribution that peacekeepers and peacekeeping missions make to early peacebuilding, including through creating a conducive environment which enables economic recovery and the provision of basic services. The Council acknowledges that this contribution can help to establish and build confidence in the mission.
“The Council underlines that reconstruction, economic revitalization and capacity-building constitute crucial elements for the long-term development of post-conflict societies and in generating sustainable peace, and, in this regard, attaches special importance to national ownership and stresses the significance of international assistance.
“The Security Council notes that in matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and security under its consideration, conflict analysis and contextual information on, inter alia, social and economic issues is important, when such issues are drivers of conflict, represent a challenge to the implementation of Council mandates or endanger the process of consolidation of peace. In this regard, the Council requests the Secretary-General to ensure that his reporting to the Council contains such contextual information.
“The Security Council recalls the role played by the illegal exploitation of natural resources in fuelling some past and current conflicts. In this regard, the Security Council recognizes that the United Nations can play a role in helping the States concerned, as appropriate, upon their request and with full respect for their sovereignty over natural resources and under national ownership, to prevent illegal access to those resources and to lay the basis for their legal exploitation with a view to promoting development, in particular through the empowerment of Governments in post-conflict situations to better manage their resources.
“The Security Council encourages close cooperation within the United Nations system and with regional, subregional, and other organizations on the ground and at Headquarters in order to properly engage in conflict and post-conflict situations, in accordance with its responsibilities under the Charter of the United Nations, and expresses its willingness to consider ways to improve such cooperation.
“The Security Council calls for the rapid implementation, in consultation with regional organizations, of regional strategies encompassing security, governance, development, human rights and humanitarian issues such as the United Nations integrated strategy for the Sahel region.
“The Security Council encourages Member States, particularly those represented on the governance structures of the UN agencies, funds, and programmes, to promote coherence in the United Nations’ work in conflict and post-conflict situations.
“The Security Council recalls its resolution 1645 (2005) and acknowledges the important role of the Peacebuilding Commission in the Peacebuilding Architecture and stresses its willingness to strengthen its links with the Peacebuilding Commission by, inter alia, making greater use of its advisory role. The Council calls upon the Commission to make further efforts in promoting improved coherence and alignment of partner’s policies around national peacebuilding strategies and priorities, and ensure regional and international support and effective response through engagement and establishing partnerships with international financial institutions, neighbouring countries and regional and subregional organizations. The Security Council underscores the importance of the regional aspect of peacebuilding and the need for engaging and collaborating with regional actors in policy related and country-specific issues in the advice made by the Peacebuilding Commission
“The Security Council highlights the contribution that the Economic and Social Council can make in addressing economic, social, cultural and humanitarian issues and underlines the importance of close cooperation in accordance with Article 65 of the Charter of the United Nations.”