Security Council, Adopting Resolution 2195 (2014), Urges International Action to Break Links between Terrorists, Transnational Organized Crime
Security Council, Adopting Resolution 2195 (2014), Urges International Action to Break Links between Terrorists, Transnational Organized Crime
Speakers Cite National Strategies, Call for Adequate Support to Fight Scourge
During an all-day open debate presided over by the Foreign Minister of Chad, the Security Council called for international action to prevent terrorists from benefiting from transnational organized crime, through securing borders and prosecuting illicit networks.
“Boko Haram, Al‑Qaida, the Taliban, Da’esh and their sinister peers make it abundantly clear that the pervasive synergies between terrorism and cross-border crimes foster conflicts, prevent their resolution and increase the chance of relapse,” Under-Secretary-General Jeffrey Feltman said as he opened the meeting during which the Council unanimously adopted resolution 2195 (2014) on the issue.
“Ensuring that the tools that we have at our disposal are relevant and effective against the new face of international terrorism will be essential to protect innocents, resolve conflicts and promote the principles and values of the United Nations,” Mr. Feltman added.
Through the resolution adopted today, the Council noted that terrorists profited from, among other illicit activities, the trafficking of arms, persons, drugs, artefacts and trade in natural resources including gold, other precious metals and stones, minerals, wildlife, charcoal and oil, as well as from kidnapping for ransom, extortion and bank robbery.
It urged Member States, as a matter of priority, to accede to and implement all international conventions that related to terrorism and organized crime, such as the 2000 Convention against Organized Crime and its Protocols, the 2003 Convention against Corruption, conventions against illicit drug traffic, as well as the international counter-terrorism conventions and protocols.
It requested United Nations entities and bilateral partners to assist Member States in that regard, so as to help them develop their capacity to effectively respond to, investigate and prosecute terrorist and related criminal acts.
The Council, through the text, also stressed the importance of good governance and the need to fight against corruption, money-laundering and illicit financial flows. It also stressed the importance of greater international cooperation in countering the world drug problem and related crimes, underlining that it must be addressed in a balance and multidisciplinary manner.
It urged all Member States, particularly those in the Maghreb and Sahel of Africa, to enhance regional coordination on cross-border terrorism and related crimes, welcoming the establishment of AFRIPOL in that regard. It requested the Secretary‑General to submit a report on United Nations efforts to address the threat of terrorists benefiting from transnational organized crime, with recommendations of concrete options for strengthening Member States’ capabilities to counter it.
Joining Mr. Feltman in briefing the Council ahead of the adoption was Téte António, Permanent Observer of the African Union, who said Africa was particularly vulnerable to the spread of terrorism and related crime because of widespread poverty, illiteracy and high unemployment; insufficient training and discipline of law enforcement; criminal groups’ search for safe havens where there was insufficient security and their quest for new funding sources; their need to conquer new areas for recruitment and redeployment to expand; and Government institutional weaknesses and porous borders.
He pointed to the African Peace and Security Architecture in the Sahelo-Saharan Region, also known as the “Nouakchott Process”, as a model multilateral, multifaceted and multidimensional approach for dealing with the linked problems. Members of that process had agreed to strengthen the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA), among other initiatives, by establishing a rapid intervention force for the fight against armed terrorists.
Following those briefings, representatives of the Council members and other States affirmed their condemnation of terrorism and the need for strengthened regional and international coordination to fight it. Most concurred with the need to coordinate the fight against terrorism with efforts to counter the organized crime that often funded them. Some speakers, such as Argentina’s representative, stressed however that it was important to differentiate the two because of the difference in the legal regimes related to each.
Some speakers shared the experiences of their country in fighting the nexus of terrorism and other transnational crimes, with Jordan’s representative reporting terrorist efforts to build trafficking networks and calling for adequate international support for the efforts of States on the front line of efforts to combat the problem. Iraq’s representative described the trafficking of oil and Iraqi artefacts as well as persons and organs as important sources of funding for ISIL. Ethiopia’s representative called on the Council to ensure action against charcoal smuggling by Al‑Shabaab.
Thanking the many delegations that had again expressed sympathy following the attack on a school in Pakistan that killed over 100 children, the representative of that country pledged the total annihilation of terrorism there.
Also speaking today were the Foreign Ministers of Chad (in his national capacity), Nigeria, Luxembourg and Libya as well as the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Argentina, and the Director-General for Foreign Policy of Chile.
The representatives of the United States, Rwanda, Republic of Korea, France, China, Lithuania, United Kingdom, Russian Federation, Australia, India, Kazakhstan, Algeria, Sweden (on behalf of the Nordic countries), Egypt, Turkey, Guatemala, Brazil, Syria, Colombia, Germany, New Zealand, Israel, Mali, Malaysia, Japan, Netherlands, Morocco, Niger, Iran, Spain, Italy, Senegal, Tunisia, Uganda, Bangladesh and Ukraine also made statements, as well as a representative of the European External Action Service.
The representative of the Russian Federation took the floor a second time.
The meeting began at 10:05 a.m. and ended at 4:30 p.m.
JEFFREY FELTMAN, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, opening the meeting, said: “Terrorism represents today a core threat to international peace and security. Transnational crime is fuelling terrorism with money, arms and support to move across borders and destabilize States, particularly the most challenged.”
Drug trafficking, organized abduction, extraction of natural resources and conducting of joint financial operations were among the “boundless” ways terrorists and organized criminals worked together, Mr. Feltman said. Cross-border crime weakened the authority of the State, and it created the conditions that fostered corruption and human rights violations, thereby undermining the State’s legitimacy.
To counter the linkages, law enforcement must be combined with measures to strengthen good governance, rule of law and human rights. “We will not uproot the ideologies that lead to violence if we do not win over hearts and minds,” he said, noting that the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy took precisely such a comprehensive approach, with the Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force and its 35 sub-entities supporting Member States’ efforts.
Mr. Feltman described the Task Force’s work in monitoring and analysing the threat, assessing the needs of States, implementing tailored capacity-building projects and delivering the assistance in a coordinated and coherent manner to multiply impact. “From a global project on assets freezing to a regional one on border controls in the Sahel and North Africa and a national project in Nigeria on countering violent extremism, the Task Force and its working groups decisively contribute to strengthening the capacities of challenged countries and regions,” he said.
Other United Nations coordination tools included the inter-agency task force on drug trafficking and transnational organized crime, the matrix of task force projects and activities and joint initiatives by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO). Going forward, he said, a better understanding of the implications of terrorist and criminal collaboration needed to be forged, along with systematization of responses and focus on impact in affected countries and regions. Terrorism should be mainstreamed into the work of field operations of the United Nations.
Among urgent issues in that regard, all efforts must be made to ensure the swift operationalization of regional and international initiatives to address the cross-border threat posed by Boko Haram. The United Nations Offices in Central and West Africa would continue to work together in that light. “Boko Haram, Al‑Qaida, the Taliban, Da’esh and their sinister peers make it abundantly clear that the pervasive synergies between terrorism and cross-border crimes foster conflicts, prevent their resolution and increase the chance of relapse. Ensuring that the tools that we have at our disposal are relevant and effective against the new face of international terrorism will be essential to protect innocents, resolve conflicts and promote the principles and values of the United Nations,” he said.
TÉTE ANTÓNIO, Permanent Observer of the African Union, said cross-border criminal activities in Africa had fuelled the onset of conflicts and exacerbated subsequent management and resolution efforts. The situations in Mali, Sahel, Somalia, Horn of Africa and Central Africa illustrated the links between kidnap for ransom and the illegal exploitation of natural resources by terrorist groups, and terrorist activities and financing. The Union’s innovative approaches were a good starting point and lessons for the Council and other relevant United Nations bodies. The African Peace and Security Architecture in the Sahelo-Saharan region, or the “Nouakchott Process”, had, through a series of its meetings, most recently a summit in Nouakchott yesterday on the region, facilitated cooperation in policy and operations. The summit’s final declaration expressed participants’ readiness to help, in consultation with the United Nations, strengthen the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) by creating a rapid intervention force to fight armed terrorist and criminal groups and facilitate completion of stabilization efforts in Mali.
The Union’s Regional Cooperation Initiative for the Elimination of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) was among its most innovative approaches, and its post-conflict reconstruction and development programme helped its member States extend basic infrastructure and services to populations most affected by that group, he said. The African Union Commission was also taking steps to mobilize its member States towards effective implementation of the Union’s normative counter-terrorism framework. Addressing cross-border crime in conflict situations and engaging border communities in defending against such crime and terrorist activity should be made a priority. To that end, they should be given alternatives through quick impact projects and long-term rehabilitation and development. Early warning mechanisms to identify potential conflict situations that could be exploited by terrorist groups must be strengthened.
The African Union Convention on Cross-Border Cooperation aimed to keep porous borders, beneficial to trade, from translating into threats and risks, he said. It was a cooperative framework to transform border areas into catalysts for growth, socioeconomic and political integration; ensure efficient and effective integrated border management; and collectively address cross-border crime and terrorism. Over time, cross-border criminal activity became a self-sustaining enterprise in which the rewards were higher than could be offset by traditional conflict resolution measures. Innovative, collaborative and inclusive approaches, led by concerned States, based on confidence and transparency, without hindrances or restrictions on legal cross-border flows of people and trade, were needed.
MOUSSA FAKI MAHAMAT, Minister for Foreign Affairs and African Integration of Chad, and Security Council President, spoke in his national capacity, saying that today’s text highlighted the need for capacity-building and United Nations efforts to combat terrorism and trans-organized crime. In recent years, terrorist and criminal acts by Boko Haram, Al‑Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb, Lord’s Resistance Army and Al‑Shabaab had increased in the Sahel, Maghreb, and central and eastern Africa, including against civilians, United Nations peacekeepers and infrastructure. They financed their activities through ransom payments and trafficking. Contributing factors included States’ weak ability to control their territory, weak inter-State cooperation in legal and security matters, and poverty. Africa must enhance cooperation through the mechanism set up by the African Union, regional economic communities and individual states.
He said ransoms were a major funding source for terrorist activities, while drug, weapons and human trafficking had hampered African development. Enhanced efforts to combat corruption and control borders were needed. Despite its limited resources, Chad was working to ensure security. With Sudan, it had established joint patrols along their common border to dissuade criminals. Chad also had stepped up its multilateral force in the Lake Chad Basin, while the Chadian army had been active in Mali, among other places. He called on the Counter Terrorist Commission, Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to increase their efforts, and on States with the resources to provide technical and logistical support to countries in the Sahel and Sahara regions.
AMINU WALI, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Nigeria, aligning himself with the Lake Chad Basin Commission, said the transnational character of West Africa had allowed terrorists across the region to form alliances among themselves and with gangs to traffic drugs, arms and human beings. That link presented challenges. As such, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in 2013 had adopted a counter-terrorism strategy and plan to fight such behaviour and facilitate the implementation of counter-terrorism instruments.
Nigeria had established the Economic Crimes Commission in 2004 to fight money-laundering, and in 2009, had adopted anti-money laundering and financing-of-terrorism legislation that aimed to improve detection of terrorist financing, he continued. The value of international cooperation in fighting such crime could not be over-emphasized. In that vein, Nigeria was working with Chad, Cameroon, Niger and Benin to establish a joint task force to combat Boko Haram, as well as with bilateral and multilateral partners to deal with that terrorist group. As terrorists and gangs searched for systemic weaknesses, “it is our duty to remain vigilant”, he said, urging States to close the space available for them to operate.
JEAN ASSELBORN, Minister for Foreign and European Affairs of Luxembourg, associating himself with the European Union, said terrorist groups were trying to control large swaths of territory, such as in northern Mali, Somalia and Iraq. There were links between terrorist groups and organized criminals, especially through the illicit trafficking in natural resources, among them, minerals, charcoal and oil. Cross-border organized crime was increasing the strategic space in which those actors could work. They prospered where States were weak or absent, benefiting from instability, conflict, and the “war economy”. The transnational threat required a coordinated response at the international, regional and national levels, he said, calling for more assistance for States facing that threat.
Luxembourg was contributing to African capacity-building, he said, citing support for training of officials in Senegal to process financial information. In Tunisia, his Government had financed a workshop on terrorist asset freeze, organized by the Counter-Terrorism Committee. The Secretary‑General’s report, to be published in six months, would allow for better identifying the benefits terrorists reaped from organized crime. With that, he called for strengthening border control and judicial structures, noting that the Peacebuilding Commission could play an important role by mobilizing international support for capacity-building in such States. Children associated with terrorist groups must be treated as victims.
SAMANTHA POWER (United States) said that while the motivations of terrorists and organized criminals might differ, they were learning from each other, using sophisticated tactics to raise funds and sow fear. Of the $250 million in charcoal exported from Somalia between 2013 and 2014, 30 per cent was estimated to have gone to Al‑Shabaab. The Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant/Sham (ISIL/ISIS) was increasingly operating like a profit-driven criminal organization, extorting money from local businesses and robbing from local banks and households alike. It netted $1 million a day through black market oil sales, amid evidence it was benefiting also from “blood antiquities” in Syria. Such new funding allowed for diversifying revenue streams. The Council must better understand such tactics and deploy sophisticated tools to disrupt networks and cut off funds. It should build greater international cooperation to fight terrorism and organized crime and encourage States to exchange information. In addition, the Council should acknowledge that weak governance fostered such crime. It should call on States to assist the most affected countries through innovative law enforcement and criminal justice tools, as well as sanctions.
EUGÈNE-RICHARD GASANA (Rwanda) voiced agreement that illicit trafficking had become a lifeline for terrorism, particularly all over Africa where such activities had undermined State structures. Collaboration between all stakeholders was needed. He said he hoped that the requested report of the Secretary‑General would, in that context, make recommendations on the issue as regard to conflict prevention. Cooperation between varied African mechanisms was certainly needed. He welcomed projects to improve border management, but more was needed from the Council and the international community. Focused coordination mechanisms were needed on fighting the linkages between terrorism and other crimes. It was also necessary to tailor capacities to fight terrorism to each relevant peacekeeping mission. Further communication with troop-contributing countries on the issue would be useful in that regard.
EDUARDO ZUAIN, Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Argentina, said States must carry out extensive analysis of root causes of terrorism, while acknowledging, however, that none of those causes provided justification. At the same time, a solely military strategy had been shown to be ineffective. Strengthened rule of law and a just global order was needed. It was important to differentiate terrorism from organized crimes because of the difference in the legal regimes to counter each kind of activity. Recounting terrorist acts against his country, he said that terrorism must be fought with respect for international law in human rights law, as well as the principle of non-intervention in internal affairs. On Syria, he recalled that his country had called repeatedly for international players to refrain from fuelling the violence with provision of arms. In Africa as in the rest of the world, cooperation and coordination was needed, as well as the firm commitment of every State to fight terrorism and not provide support to violent groups. Multilateral action under the United Nations was the only way to effectively secure a safer world for all.
ALFREDO LABBÉ, Director-General for Foreign Policy of Chile, concurred that a unified, effective strategy to fight terrorism and other crimes was needed; attacks such as those in Peshawar were attacks on the entire international community. The interaction between organized crime and terrorism undermined the building of a safe world. Terrorism was an illegitimate political instrument, and the existing arsenal of tools to fight the scourge must be strengthened, particularly in the areas of financing and money-laundering. Lessons-learned by the Council’s subsidiary bodies should be mined for making counter-measures stronger. He acknowledged that there was a difference between terrorism and organized crimes, but at the same time it was undeniably true that many terrorist groups participated in such criminal activities to finance themselves. It must be analysed thoroughly from an operational point of view, and the problem should be tackled from a socioeconomic perspective as well, he said, adding his support for the conception of a strategic review on the issue.
OH JOON (Republic of Korea) voiced concern that oil, drugs and arms trafficking, and kidnapping for ransom were increasingly being used to finance terrorist efforts, noting that ISIL/ISIS had become self-sufficient through oil smuggling, while the Taliban raised funds through the narcotics trade. The international community must step up its efforts to sever the links among those scourges. Illicit trade and criminal activities benefiting terrorists should be disrupted, he said, welcoming the approach taken in the resolution. Furthermore, structural loopholes that terrorists were exploiting must be closed, such as weak governance and porous borders. Countries should boost their legal and institutional capacity vis-à-vis border and customs control, with the Governments obliged to provide access to criminal justice systems that were aligned with international norms.
FRANÇOIS DELATTRE (France), associating himself with the European Union, said in Maghreb and Sahel, terrorist attacks had increased 60 per cent in 2013 year-on-year. Organized crime threatened State stability and offered fertile grounds for terrorists to traffic in arms, drugs and humans — all of which allowed them to fund their operations. The international community must do its utmost to prevent African States from falling into terrorist hands. France had a new strategy for the Sahel/Sahara region, dealing with security development and governance in six countries: Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad. It aimed to enhance State capacity to combat terrorism, trafficking and radicalization, as well as facilitate regional cooperation. Such initiatives represented $500 million of bilateral aid annually. Stressing that African answers must be found to African crises, he said regional and subregional efforts must continue, as must UNODC projects. For its part, the United Nations must prioritize capacity-building, working with African countries and organizations in that regard.
LIU JIEYI (China) urged the international community to strengthen information and intelligence exchange and carry out unified activities to combat terrorism. A unified standard was needed, he said, cautioning against linking terrorism to a specific group or religion. Counter-terrorism efforts also should respect sovereignty, territorial integrity of the countries concerned. Heightened attention should be given to Africa, where terrorists were constraining economic and social development. The General Assembly Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force and the Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate should provide more assistance to African countries. Such work must be well-targeted. Regional efforts should fight both terrorism and cross-border crime, while international assistance should help African countries improve border control, customs and counter-narcotics. Voicing support for finding African solutions to African problems by African people, he added that his Government would continue to do what it could to provide material and other support for such work.
RAIMONDA MURMOKAITE (Lithuania) said that terrorism was nothing less than an assault on humanity. Tragic events, such as the massacre in Peshawar [Pakistan] three days ago reinforced the urgency of tackling the scourge. From Afghanistan and Syria to Sahel, the linkage between terrorism and transnational crime acted as a force multiplier. Countering money-laundering and illicit financial flows was crucial, she stressed, highlighting the importance of the full implementation of the comprehensive international standards set forth by the Financial Action Task Force. Furthermore, terrorist organizations increasingly relied on illegal exploitation of natural resources, drug smuggling, human trafficking and kidnapping for ransom to raise funds. It was vital to counter those activities as well as the illicit movement of terrorists and arms. The importance of regional approaches could not be stressed enough. The African Union–led regional cooperation initiatives were good examples of such an approach.
MARK LYALL GRANT (United Kingdom), welcomed today’s initiative as a timely reminder of Member States’ obligations to suppress terrorist finance, including through kidnapping. All other such sources of illicit income, such as wildlife and charcoal trafficking needed to be addressed as well. ISIL’s illegal trade in oil resulted in tens of millions of dollars of funding for that organization. Adequate criminal justice, strengthening of human rights and effective border management must be addressed in countering the problem, and the most effective use of United Nations tools and specialized units must become part of a unified response. Much more needed to be done in capacity-building as well, to ensure that the international response addressed every element of the terrorist threat.
MAHMOUD DAIFALLAH MAHMOUD HMOUD (Jordan) affirmed that the threat of terrorism was multiplied when it was combined with organized crime. That fact required all Member States to give greater attention to ending the financing of terrorist organizations, she said, adding that the problem was not limited to any one region. In the Middle East, ISIL was a prime example of how terrorists benefited from organized crime. Adequate criminal justice systems, national legislation, border management, freezing of assets, regional coordination and information-sharing, cooperation with the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) were all necessary. Implementation of United Nations sanctions regimes was important, but not sufficient. United Nations entities should strengthen well-planned partnerships with Member States for capacity-building. His country had made great efforts to manage its borders and stem criminal activities by terrorists from neighbouring countries, who were trying to establish smuggling networks throughout the region. He reiterated the call for adequate support to countries on the front lines of the struggle.
EVGENY T. ZAGAYNOV (Russian Federation) said that recent events made evident the urgency of suppressing terrorist and criminal networks such as those found in the Central Asian region with its illicit trade in Afghan drugs. Action by the entire international community under the leadership of the United Nations was required. In Africa, improvement of border management was needed with the support of United Nations mechanisms and other partnerships. He supported the work of UNODC in assisting Member States in such areas and he looked forward to the report of the Secretary‑General on the activities of the Organization’s specialized structures and how they could improve their efforts. He said he hoped that today’s resolution would be followed up by action on the part of the United Nations and Member States aiming to end the nexus between terrorism and organized crime.
GARY QUINLAN (Australia) said that today’s resolution was an important advance. The requested Secretary‑General report should survey the links between terrorism and transnational crime and better position the United Nations system to disrupt the ability of terrorists to establish and benefit from those links. The report must define how the Council could play a more effective role. In the meantime, the Council could sharpen two of its core tools. Eight of the eleven countries facing the highest threat from Al‑Qaida affiliated groups currently hosted United Nations peacekeeping or special political missions, he noted, stressing the need to strengthen those operations’ ability to address the threat. It was also essential that the Council continued to take more innovative steps to enforce the sanctions measures where violations were acute. The Council had done that in Somalia by mandating maritime interdiction of weapons and charcoal, which alone had been giving Al‑Shabaab a financial lifeline to the tune of $80 million annually.
MOHAMED ELHADI DAYRI, Minister for Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Libya, said his country was experiencing unprecedented instability and its army was combating terrorist groups jointly with neighbouring countries. Libya’s challenges were enormous. Terrorist groups allied with Al‑Qaida controlled Libyan towns, having announced their support for Da’esh in Syria and Iraq. They counted citizens of Libya and neighbouring countries among their ranks. Underscoring the link between terrorism and trafficking in weapons, drugs, oil and humans, he stressed the need for international and regional cooperation, especially in putting in place information-exchange mechanisms to prosecute criminals. Foreign fighters continued to join terrorist groups, with weapons flowing in and out of Libya, beyond the Government’s control over its long borders in desert regions. He urged support for the legitimate Libyan authorities so that his Government could exert control over those borders.
BHAGWANT SINGH BISHNOI (India) said his country had been a victim of terrorism for more than two and a half decades. Terrorist groups such as ISIL/ISIS, Al‑Shabaab, Lashkar‑e‑Tayyiba and Al‑Qaida had an ideology that contradicted the basic tenets of humanity. Financing for their activities was often supplemented by drug trafficking, piracy, kidnapping for ransom, extortion and poppy cultivation. Travel bans, asset freezes and arms embargos, meant to cut the lifelines sustaining terrorism, did not always work, he said, citing Lashkar‑e‑Tayyiba’s attack on the Indian consulate in Afghanistan in May of this year. There appeared little the Sanctions Committees could do about such acts, an issue the Council should consider. There was potential for the Council to explore tools that would degrade terrorists’ ability to take advantage of cross-border crimes and he urged “open and complete” consultations with non-Council members on those matters.
KAIRAT ABDRAKHMANOV (Kazakhstan) said that terrorism and cross-border crime undermined economies, corrupted authorities, fuelled conflicts and aggravated drug addition, sexual exploitation and environmental damage, while undermining the rule of law and good governance. One of the most dangerous threats was the ideological influence and spiritual rhetoric of terrorists on the younger generation through modern technologies, as was nuclear proliferation. The challenges demanded long-term coordinated actions by all Member States and other stakeholders. Regional and subregional organizations had a particular role to play. His country was party to all major anti-terrorism conventions and supported implementation of all such mechanisms. It actively engaged in practical security measures of numerous regional groups and was an active member of the Anti-Terrorist Centre of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Nationally, a 2013-2017 State programme for countering religious extremism and terrorism in Kazakhstan was allocated $600 million for its implementation.
SABRI BOUKADOUM (Algeria) said that cross-border crimes had a direct impact on international peace, regional security, national economic development, and rule of law. The connection between terrorism and cross-border crime was particularly true in the Sahel region and the threat was now moving toward western Africa, with terrorist groups increasingly exploiting formal and informal trade routes and illicit markets. Many countries in the continent ran the risk of increasing destabilization. The Council’s conflict prevention and resolution efforts were seriously hampered by such circumstances. Border protection was the responsibility of the national sovereign authority. Through better protection of their borders, States could control cross-border crime. Algeria was committed to fighting terrorism and in agreement with other Sahel countries, had consistently advocated targeted and efficient action, based on ownership by the countries of the region. His country had also participated in many mechanisms of cooperation within the region. Today, the vast majority of peacekeeping operations were dealing with domestic political and humanitarian crises, complicated by the presence of terrorist groups. Therefore, more counter-terrorism expertise was needed in peacekeeping operations and special political missions.
PER THÖRESSON (Sweden), speaking on behalf of the Nordic countries, stated that by 2030, more than 80 per cent of world poverty was estimated to be concentrated in conflict-affected and fragile States. Therefore, violence was likely to be one of the most pressing poverty issues. The trafficking of weapons fuelled armed conflict. The entry into force of the Arms Trade Treaty later this month would be an important tool to combat that phenomenon. Trafficking in persons was one of the most heinous and lucrative criminal activities globally. The funds it generated were often used to fund other forms of organized crime. The narrative of terrorism was that of hate, intolerance and rejection of human rights. The Nordic countries emphasized the importance of creating a strong counter-narrative about democracy and human rights. They would continue to be strong partners and long-standing contributors to the work of the United Nations.
MARA MARINAKI, Managing Director, Global and Multilateral Issues, European External Action Service of the European Union, outlined the bloc’s efforts to address security, counter-terrorism and cross-border crime, noting that those issues were interlinked and citing the Malian crisis, the “taxing” of piracy and charcoal-trading proceeds by Al‑Shabaab and illegal oil trafficking by ISIL. She expressed support for the implementation of the United Nations sanctions regime to cut off revenues to ISIL, and welcomed work on the “kidnapping for ransom” issues by the Global Counterterrorism Forum. Noting that the Union was party to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, she said it supported Sahel and West African countries in tackling drug-related cross-border crime. Progress in the areas of security, justice, human rights and rule of law were crucial, with joint efforts to counter violent extremism and promote conflict prevention requiring enhanced work.
OSAMA ABDELKHALEK MAHMOUD (Egypt), denouncing the vicious attacks that took place in Pakistan and the terrorist siege in Sydney, said that cross-border illicit trafficking of drugs, arms, and humans was fuelling terrorist activities across Africa and in other parts of the world. That was particularly evident in the Sahel region where cross-border smuggling had exacerbated instability and had affected conflict dynamics. Commending the regional cooperative mechanisms in Africa, he added that it was imperative to exchange information on the measures that Member States had undertaken to curb cross-border crimes. While recognizing the importance of States working closely to combat terrorism in all forms, he also reaffirmed that States had the sovereign right to secure their borders in accordance with international law.
LEVENT ELER (Turkey) said that terrorist organizations depended on transnational organized crime as a main source of financing. Turkey was party to the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its three protocols. As well, his country was implementing the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy and all relevant Security Council resolutions, and had been a co-sponsor of resolution 2178 (2014), underlining the importance of international cooperation to counter the threat of foreign terrorist fighters. He emphasized that Da’esh and Al‑Nusra Front could not be eliminated by counter-financing measures alone. They had been strengthened and able to seize territory because of the crisis in Syria, which had become a magnet for foreign terrorist fighters. The threat of foreign terrorist fighters in Africa should not be considered in isolation, but must take into account foreign fighters travelling from North Africa to join Da’esh. Stressing the importance of capacity-building in Africa towards tackling the threat, he said that nearly 4,500 participants from 14 African countries had participated in training programmes organized by the Turkish Police since 2008, including some implemented in partnership with the Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF) and the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Centre (UNCCT).
MÓNICA BOLAÑOS PÉREZ (Guatemala) said that while links between transnational crime and terrorism were being emphasized as causing the destabilization of countries, it was also important to recognize that those problems should be tackled on a case-by-case and region-by-region basis. It was dangerous to say that no country was not affected by terrorism. That seemed to signal that everything fell under the agenda of the Security Council. Not all transnational criminal activity passed the threshold of becoming a threat to international peace and security. Furthermore, the concept note did not address the fact that fighting terrorism was very different from fighting drug trafficking. “We do not support new categories of terrorists,” she said. It was worth recognizing that the motivations of a terrorist were different from that of someone participating in a transnational crime. She expressed support for fostering cooperation between Member States. However, emphasizing enforcement measures ran the risk of a defensive approach.
GUILHERME DE AGUIAR PATRIOTA (Brazil) said that his country was signatory to 14 international legal instruments against terrorism and was engaged in domestic prevention and at the regional and subregional measures. It was also party to international and regional treaties related to transnational organized crime, such as the 2000 Palermo Convention and its additional protocols, some of which had been adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 55/25. The two threats were different problems, requiring different remedies. While the former was fuelled by political and ideological considerations, the latter was motivated by the expectation of financial gain. They had no intrinsic linkages, although an interrelationship could arise between them under specific circumstances. The two should be addressed in different fora. As a threat to international peace and security, international terrorism should be addressed in the Council, while organized crime, primarily a domestic public security issue, required coordinated action pursuant to the Palermo convention, its additional protocols and other relevant international legal instruments. It would be more appropriately addressed as a matter of enhanced international cooperation than as an issue of collective security. In both instances, prevention should be emphasized. Repressive measures and law enforcement alone could not offer a comprehensive strategy against those crimes. The structural factors and root causes, among them social and economic exclusion, must be addressed.
BASHAR JA’AFARI (Syria), extending condolences to the families of those killed in Pakistan, said that such attacks were an example of the nihilistic ideologies that held sway across terrorist groups, from Al‑Qaida to Boko Haram. The threats they presented to international peace could only become so dangerous because of the organic links between terrorist organizations and the Governments of some States who had adopted terrorism as a foreign policy tool. The concept note recognized that following the crisis in Syria, the country now had a growing war economy based on trafficking in weapons, taking of hostages and seizure of oil facilities. Those threats had not come from a vacuum, but resulted from the practices of those Governments who continued to fan the flames in Syria so that they could erode the foundations of the Syrian Government. The Council continued to ignore the activities of those who supported terrorism in the region and outside. Oil and Syrian archaeological treasures were being transported outside the country and foreign terrorist fighters were entering it, in collusion with the intelligence services of those who sponsored terrorism. The Council must hold the perpetrators to account and serve the cause of justice.
MIGUEL CAMILO RUIZ (Colombia) said the Council had been progressively addressing transnational organized crime, in the current instance relating to terrorism. However, it was not in all cases that such crime was a threat to international peace and security. Thus, the Council should not simplify a complex issue. Criminal activities went beyond cross-border trafficking. Measures taken must be balanced, and recognize the rights and responsibilities of sovereign States, including human rights, environmental responsibilities, border security as well as its links to international terrorism. Where there was a link, legal measures existed to address it. The Organization should supply assistance through capacity-building, and increased endowments of technological resources, among other measures. Furthermore, coherent, coordinated action was needed among United Nations entities to create a balanced strategy.
HEIKO THOMS (Germany), aligning himself with the European Union, said the resolution addressed the link between terrorism and transnational organized crime, with a focus on Africa. Terrorists relied on cross-border trafficking to procure arms. Regional initiatives and enforcement measures were crucial to combating that behavior at the local level and should be further pursued. Commending efforts to combat the illicit drug trade, he urged that the recommendations of the West Africa Commission on Drugs be implemented. Wildlife trafficking and poaching were increasingly being conducted by transnational organized criminals who were often linked to terrorist groups — a threat that required a comprehensive international response. For its part, Germany had focused on capacity-building and securing stocks in Libya and Sudan, and was extending its efforts to other Sahel countries. In addition, his Government supported the Subregional Arms Control mechanism, he said.
SAHEBZADA AHMED KHAN (Pakistan), thanking the delegations for their words of sympathy for his country, stated that his Government would prevail in the fight against the scourge. By killing children, the terrorists had attacked the heart of the nation. In response, “Pakistan will go after their jugular”, he said. Reflecting on the heroic response of the teachers, the children and the principal of the school, who had chosen to stay back and help each other instead of simply saving their own lives, he said that made him proud to represent them at the United Nations.
There was a difference, he noted, between cross-border crime and cross-border organized crime. Nevertheless, recognizing that terrorists could take advantage of a lack of border controls, he said he fully subscribed to the need for border control mechanisms. States bore the primary responsibility for taking effective measures against terrorism. Bilateral, regional, and international cooperation, including exchange of information, was crucial. Strategies to counter transnational organized crimes needed to be tailored to their peculiar regional contexts. It was also vital to build the capacities of States facing those challenges. At the same time, all international efforts should respect national sovereignty and territorial integrity of States. He added, “Pakistan mourns today but we will, Insha’Allah, ensure the total annihilation of terrorists and their twisted ideologies.”
JIM MCLAY (New Zealand) pointed out that focusing solely on “terrorist” threats at the expense of the wider context in which terrorists operate was not only outdated, but downright dangerous. The most effective efforts to counter terrorism were those well calibrated to the contours of the threat. Today’s debate and the strategic review were opportunities to refocus attention on ensuring full implementation of existing foundational tools on counter-terrorism, such as Council resolution 1373 (2001). The current United Nation counter-terrorism architecture must genuinely respond to contemporary terrorism challenges. A one-size-fits-all approach could not be effective. Mineral and diamond smuggling had long been at the heart of conflicts in West Africa, but cocaine trafficking was increasingly playing a role. In Central Africa, cross-border wildlife poaching might be a growing factor in conflict dynamics. A good example of assessing current trends and risks was the 1267/1989 Committee Monitoring Team’s recent report on the threat of ISIL and Al‑Nusra Front, which included recommendations for enhancing the sanctions regime to target the smuggling of crude oil, antiquities and other high-value assets.
DAVID YITSHAK ROET (Israel) described a small start-up that had emerged in the region “just a few years ago”, securing funding, recruiting talent and acquiring the necessary equipment for its day-to-day operations. It then turned to social media to amplify its message and gain prominence. “Today, this billion dollar enterprise is a household name — ISIS or Da’esh”, he said, adding that the rise of ISIS was just one example of “terrorism 2.0”. To effectively counter the threat posed by terrorists, the international community must address every means by which radical groups took root and grew. “[W]e must invest in counter-terrorism 3.0 — a three-pronged approach to combating and preventing terrorism”, he said, stating that supply lines originating with organized crime networks must be cut off, by developing a strategy to interrupt the flow of funds from criminal enterprises to terrorist groups. The Council must also address State sponsors of terrorism, among them, Qatar and Iran. Lastly, the international community must broaden and strengthen sanctions against terror groups, with more effective procedures to bring individuals involved in terrorist activities to justice. Noting that every democracy walked a fine line between defending civil liberties and upholding the rule of law, he said that the recent decision by the European Court of Justice was an injustice to the victims of Hamas terror attacks.
SÉKOU KASSÉ (Mali) said that terrorism was the primary threat to peace in the world. Almost every day, world events were characterized by attacks, and Mali had suffered its due share of heinous events. The country had taken a holistic approach to that challenge by developing a strategy that brought together development programmes, combating poverty, and tackling terrorism. Mali had adopted a law in July 2008 to suppress terrorism and trans-border organized crime. Mali, in coordination with neighbouring countries, was developing security policies to fill the gaps in the region. In tackling violent extremism, dialogue and mutual understanding could not be overemphasized. Mali was working to combat the draw of intolerance and prevent the radicalization of young people. His country was grateful to the King of Morocco for the training provided to 500 Malian imams. Such initiatives would permit the spread of the peaceful and moderate values of Islam, he concluded, calling for the strengthening of MINUSMA.
SITI HAJJAR ADNIN (Malaysia) said that the involvement of terrorist groups in cross-border crimes had contributed to undermining the authority of States, their security and stability, rule of law and socioeconomic development. Her delegation agreed with the proposal that it was necessary to look at the strategic impact of the intersection of terrorism and cross-border crime. The proposed measures, however, could perhaps be built on the existing resources and commendable work already being done, including by the Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate and the Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task-Force. Further, individuals and groups in vulnerable and poverty-stricken places served as potentially ripe recruits for radicalization. The international community must therefore redouble its efforts to bring the fruits of balanced and sustainable development to areas where that was lacking.
HIROSHI MINAMI (Japan) said that for more than 20 years, Japan had been holding the Tokyo International Conference on African Development, just last month with a workshop in Tokyo on “Regional Cooperation in Criminal Justice for Counter-Terrorism in North Africa and the Sahel” in which countries from the region participated. The Council should engage in both operational discussions and also strategic and cross-cutting discussions, with the broader perspective of conflict prevention and resolution in mind. He supported conducting a strategic review as suggested in the concept note, with the hope that it would be practical and productive rather than conceptual. In that context, he spoke of Japan’s “One-Stop Border Post” project in Africa, which aimed to eliminate daily cumbersome border procedures with an efficient, high-tech system embracing all border procedures, eliminating the need to stop for both exit and entry, facilitating trade. That system could also positively impact the fight against trafficking in drugs, firearms and persons, transferring terrorists and cross-border crime. While operational measures on the issues in question should be tackled individually, specific measures should be implemented with a cross-cutting view, of which the One-Stop Border Post was an example. He hoped that approach would be mainstreamed in future Council discussions.
MOHAMED ALI ALHAKIM (Iraq) stated that the adoption of resolution 2195 (2014) this morning was an achievement for the international community. The mushrooming of terrorist organizations and their links with cross-border criminal networks was a huge challenge. That not only threatened peace, but also undermined economic social development, and led to the depletion of State resources. By undermining democratic governance, terrorism and cross-border crime had contributed to humanitarian crises. His country had suffered enormously. The smuggling of oil and Iraqi artefacts and trafficking in persons and organs were important sources of funding for ISIL. Weak border controls due to the Syrian crisis had contributed to strengthening of its criminal networks. ISIL relied on a network of Iraqi and Kurdish intermediaries to transfer resources. Therefore, Iraq supported the adoption of the Council’s bold resolution.
KAREL JAN GUSTAAF VAN OOSTEROM (Netherlands), associating himself with the European Union, noted that, along with Morocco, his country chaired the Global Counterterrorism Forum’s new Working Group on Foreign Terrorist Fighters, which would have its inaugural meeting this week in Marrakesh to devise a working plan. Offering an overview of the United Nations role in fighting terrorism, he said that in some African regions, cross-border crime fed directly into the activities of terrorist groups. In addition, the proliferation of arms resulting from the destabilization of Libya was both strengthening and emboldening those terrorist groups, he said, also pointing out the Netherlands’ substantial troop contribution to MINUSMA. With UNODC well equipped to collect much-needed empirical data on the links between transnational organized crime and terrorism, he also suggested that greater use could be made of the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime to combat cross-border crime in Africa. As the impacts of those crimes were felt in Europe as well as in the region, it was crucial to forge new alliances between the countries of Europe and Africa. On 21 January 2015, the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands would host an event to address the adverse effects of transnational organized crime on the sustainable development of countries affected. He encouraged African States to participate.
OMAR HILALE (Morocco) said terrorist and criminal networks were cooperating in the trafficking of arms, drugs and humans. Drugs and weapons traffickers now fortified Al‑Qaida’s ranks and its branch in the Maghreb, and their ability to commit atrocities was increasing. Morocco had been among the first countries to raise awareness about the links among terrorists, armed groups and criminals in the Sahel, having called for action to stem their activities. Morocco’s counter-terrorism strategy was based on security, governance, combating social vulnerability and religious reform. His Government continued to work regionally and subregionally for expertise exchange, as well as through South-South and Triangular cooperation. Urging a strengthening of border security in the Sahel/Maghreb region, he also recalled that Morocco co-chaired with the Netherlands the Working Group on Foreign Terrorist Fighters.
BOUBACAR BOUREIMA (Niger) said terrorism and transnational organized crime were interlinked, hampering regional and subregional efforts to prevent crises. He questioned whether the Council’s instruments were adapted to realities on the ground. States of the Lake Chad Basin had suffered frequent attacks. Expressing appreciation for the bilateral and multilateral support from partners, he urged that the situation be analysed and a well-honed strategy developed. Terrorist activities of Boko Haram, likely in connection with other groups, were on the rise, undermining peace and security in the region and forcing thousands of people to flee and find refuge in neighbouring States. He called on the international community, and particularly the Council, for a response that equalled the equal level of threat in his region. He expressed hope that resolution 2195 (2014) would be effectively implemented.
TEKEDA ALEMU (Ethiopia), aligning himself with the African Union, named the many terrorist groups that had carried out their activities beyond national borders in Africa. In his region, Al‑Shabaab had been benefiting from piracy, charcoal and other sources of finance and had expanded its activities to neighbouring countries. Noting African initiatives to provide an integrated, regional response, he pledged his subregion’s commitment to combat terrorism and coordinated crimes in all their aspects. Existing strategies and available tools to fight cross border must be assessed for application to various regions. In the Horn of Africa, it was particularly important to ensure that resolutions were fully implemented, in such matters as the trade of the charcoal by Al‑Shabaab.
GHOLAMHOSSEIN DEHGHANI (Iran), condemning all acts of terrorism, which he said had affected the daily lives of many nations, including his own, said that Governments and the international community should address root causes that provide breeding grounds for the scourge. Unfortunately, due to narrow national interests, some States had not hesitated to work with terrorists when they saw it as beneficial. There must be a consistent approach to fight the scourge, which would be strengthened by a consensual definition. Rejecting connection of terrorism with Islam, he said that such groups as Al‑Qaida and ISIL were nothing more than terrorist organizations that had grown out of the chaos of the past decade. He maintained that Israel was employing State terrorism against the peoples of the region; its occupation and policies were the most important factor in creating space for terrorist groups such as ISIL. He called Hezbollah a Lebanese party that had resisted continued aggression by Israel.
ROMÁN OYARZUN MARCHESI (Spain) condemned the recruitment and use of children for terrorist activities, especially suicide attacks, saying that children affiliated with terrorist groups should be treated as victims. Capacity-building was particularly important, as State institutions were a primary actor in fighting terrorism. The institutional nature of a State was essential, allowing Governments to tackle criminal justice that was supported by the rule of law. Even if terrorists were not carrying out trans-border crimes, they benefited from them in terms of protecting criminals and carrying out extortion. Spain had signed counter-terrorist agreements with Côte d’Ivoire, Moldova, Panama and Uzbekistan, and in Africa, was working with the African Union and the African Centre for the Study and Research on Terrorism.
INIGO LAMBERTINI (Italy), associating himself with the European Union, expressed deep concern at the link between terrorism and organized crime and urged strengthening the rule of law, governance, and control over borders, arms and financial flows. It was also important to apply international measures to prevent terrorist and criminal activities. Italy had helped to establish the Global Counterterrorism Forum and participated in its international and regional initiatives. In West Africa and the Sahel, it had implemented rule of law, institution-building and training programmes. To “break up the marriage of convenience” between criminal and terrorist networks, the Italian Anti-Mafia Bureau had signed a Memorandum of Understanding with its Nigerian partner on countering human trafficking.
FODÉ SECK (Senegal) welcomed the General Assembly’s adoption of the resolution on the review of the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, as well as the Council’s adoption of resolution 2194 (2014). He commended international action in response to transnational organized crime, the international legal framework for which had been solidified with the adoption of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and the Palermo convention. He also voiced support for the Council’s appeal, in resolution 2133 (2014), for States to reflect on ways to prevent terrorists from profiting from ransom and ensuring that hostages were freed.
MOHAMED KHALED KHIARI (Tunisia) said his country had ratified 14 international instruments against terrorism, including the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols, and the Convention against Corruption. A draft anti-terrorism law was being considered by Tunisia’s legislative body, which incriminated any support, incitement, training, recruitment, glorification, attempts and complicity in terrorist activities. His Government had concluded various bilateral cooperation agreements, focused on assessing terrorist threats, eliminating terrorist funding sources and obtaining information on terrorist plans. It also was strengthening its regional cooperation within the Counsel of Arab Ministers of the Interior, he said.
KINTU NYAGO (Uganda), aligning his delegation with the African Union, affirmed his country’s commitment to the fight against terrorism. At least 20 African countries were affected by systematized terror, following in the steps of the slave trade. Many terrorist-plagued countries were landlocked, or engaged in conflict. Those and other conditions created space for terrorist groups. Illicit trade that resulted from those circumstances was devastating the continent, he said, pointing to the poaching of elephants by the LRA. To redress the problem, he called for support to regional integration efforts by enhancing cross-border transport, as well as supporting capacity-building for weak States.
ABULKALAM ABDUL MOMEN (Bangladesh), strongly condemning acts of terrorism, said that responses to the scourge must be collective and must reflect its evolving nature, its use of new technologies and its easy access to weapons. Addressing root causes, such as marginalization and social exclusion, was also important, he added, stressing that terrorism might not be defeated solely by coercive measures. Soft diplomacy, awareness, education and development to eliminate inequalities and intolerance were also needed. Bangladesh, in that context, had been promoting a culture of peace, an endeavour that required the participation of all institutions as well as civil society and religious leaders. As the nexus between terrorists and criminals had been greatly facilitated by new information technology, he advocated obstructing the use of the web for subversive purposes.
ANDRIY TSYMBALIUK (Ukraine), condemning a range of recent terrorist attacks, supported the central role of the United Nations in suppressing terrorism and noted his country’s cooperation with many organizations and other partners in fighting that evil. Unfortunately, he said, the problem now pertained to his country as well, where just a few months before the Russian annexation of Crimea and the establishment of certain organizations, the risk of terrorism in Ukraine had been deemed low. In that light, he called for the Security Council to strongly address State-sponsored terrorism.
Taking the floor a second time, the representative of the Russian Federation said his Ukrainian counterpart viewed the threat of terrorism and transnational organized crime in a different way than others, stressing that his abuse of today’s topic undermined the chances for creating a single, united Ukrainian society. He cautioned his Ukrainian counterpart against using “propagandistic slogans and statements”. Rather, he should make a contribution to the matter before the Council.
The full text of resolution 2195 (2014) is as follows:
The Security Council,
“Reaffirming its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security,
“Reaffirming that terrorism in all forms and manifestations constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security and that any acts of terrorism are criminal and unjustifiable regardless of their motivations, whenever and by whomsoever committed,
“Reaffirming further that terrorism cannot and should not be associated with any religion, nationality, or civilization,
“Stressing that terrorism can only be defeated by a sustained and comprehensive approach involving the active participation and collaboration of all States and international and regional organizations to impede, impair, isolate and incapacitate the terrorist threat,
“Gravely concerned by the financing of, and financial and other resources obtained by terrorists, and underscoring that these resources will support their future terrorist activities,
“Reaffirming the need to prevent and suppress the financing of terrorist acts,
“Expressing concern that terrorists benefit from transnational organized crime in some regions, including from the trafficking of arms, persons, drugs, and artefacts and from the illicit trade in natural resources including gold and other precious metals and stones, minerals, wildlife, charcoal and oil, as well as from kidnapping for ransom and other crimes including extortion and bank robbery,
“Stressing that the development and maintenance of fair and effective criminal justice systems should be a fundamental basis of any strategy to counter terrorism and transnational organized crime,
“Noting the Communiqué of the African Union Peace and Security Council Summit on countering violent extremism and terrorism held in Nairobi on 2 September 2014, and calling on UN counter-terrorism entities, within existing mandates, and Member States to provide assistance and capacity-building towards Africa’s efforts to counter violent extremism and terrorism,
“Gravely concerned that in some cases individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al‑Qaida continue to profit from involvement in transnational organized crime, and stressing in this regard the need for robust implementation of the measures in paragraph 1 of resolution 2161 (2014) as a significant tool in combating terrorist activity,
“Urging in this respect, all Member States to participate actively in maintaining and updating the list created pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000) and 1989 (2011) (“the Al‑Qaida Sanctions List”) by contributing additional information pertinent to current listings, submitting delisting requests when appropriate, and by identifying and nominating for listing additional individuals, groups, undertakings and entities which should be subject to the measures referred to in paragraph 1 of resolution 2161 (2014),
“Recalling its recent condemnation in resolution 2170 (2014) of any engagement in direct or indirect trade involving ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al‑Qaida, and its reiteration that such engagement could constitute financial support for entities designated by the Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) (“the Committee”) and may lead to further listings by the Committee,
“Deeply concerned that terrorist groups benefiting from transnational organized crime may contribute to undermining affected States, specifically their security, stability, governance, social and economic development,
“Reaffirming the need to increase attention to women, peace and security issues in all relevant thematic areas of work on its agenda, including in threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts, and noting the importance of incorporating the participation of women and youth in developing strategies to counter terrorism and violent extremism,
“Emphasizing the need to address conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism,
“Emphasizing that the combined presence of terrorism, violent extremism, and transnational organized crime may exacerbate conflicts in affected regions, including in Africa, and noting that terrorist groups benefiting from transnational organized crime can, in some cases and in some regions, complicate conflict prevention and resolution efforts,
“Seriously concerned, in this regard, by recent examples of terrorist groups, including those benefiting from transnational organized crime, attacking United Nations personnel,
“Recalling its resolution 2133 (2014) and strongly condemning incidents of kidnapping and hostage-taking committed by terrorist groups for any purpose, including raising funds or gaining political concessions, and expressing its determination to prevent kidnapping and hostage-taking committed by terrorist groups and to secure the safe release of hostages without ransom payments or political concessions, in accordance with applicable international law,
“Noting recent developments and initiatives at the international, regional and subregional levels to prevent and suppress international terrorism, noting the work of the Global Counterterrorism Forum (GCTF), in particular its recent adoption of a comprehensive set of good practices to address the foreign terrorist fighter phenomenon, and its publication of several other framework documents and good practices, including in the areas of countering violent extremism, criminal justice, prisons, kidnapping for ransom, providing support to victims of terrorism, and community-oriented policing, to assist interested States with the practical implementation of the United Nations counter-terrorism legal and policy framework and to complement the work of the relevant United Nations counter-terrorism entities in these areas,
“Reaffirming the need to combat by all means, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and international law, including applicable international human rights, refugee and humanitarian law, threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts, stressing in this regard the important role the United Nations plays in leading and coordinating this effort,
“Recognizing that a comprehensive approach to defeat terrorism is required involving national, regional, subregional and multilateral action,
“Noting the important contribution that public-private partnerships can make in efforts to prevent and combat criminal activities, such as transnational organized crime, corruption and terrorism,
“Reaffirming its respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of all States in accordance with the Charter,
“Reiterating the obligation of Member States to prevent the movement of terrorists or terrorist groups, in accordance with applicable international law, by, inter alia, effective border controls,
“1. Stresses the need to work collectively to prevent and combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, including terrorism benefiting from transnational organized crime;
“2. Calls upon Member States to strengthen border management to effectively prevent the movement of terrorists and terrorist groups, including those benefiting from transnational organized crime;
“3. Urges as a matter of priority that Member States ratify, accede to, and implement the relevant international conventions, such as the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971, the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988, the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime of 2000, the Protocols thereto and the United Nations Convention against Corruption of 2003, and the international counter-terrorism conventions and protocols;
“4. Requests the relevant United Nations entities to assist Member States, upon their request, and within existing mandates and resources, to implement the relevant international legal instruments relating to terrorism, and to develop their capacity to effectively respond to, prevent, investigate and prosecute terrorist acts;
“5. Stresses the importance of good governance and the need to fight against corruption, money-laundering and illicit financial flows, in particular through the implementation of the United Nations Convention against Corruption and the comprehensive international standards set forth in the Financial Action Task Force’s (FATF) revised Forty Recommendations on Combating Money-Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism and Proliferation, including by adopting and effectively implementing legislative and regulatory measures, to enable the competent domestic authorities to freeze or seize, confiscate and manage criminal assets, in order to combat illicit financial activity including terrorist financing and money-laundering, and encourages the States of the African region to further their engagement within the FATF-style regional bodies (FSRBs), such as the Inter-Governmental Action Group against Money Laundering in West Africa (GIABA), the Eastern and Southern Africa Anti-Money-Laundering Group (ESAAMLG), and the Middle East and North Africa Financial Action Task Force in promoting capacity and cooperation (MENAFATF);
“6. Recalls the obligations referred to in operative paragraph 2(e) of resolution 1373 (2001) and recalls them in particular with regard to terrorist attacks against UN staff, peacekeepers and installations;
“International and regional cooperation
“7. Further stresses the importance of strengthening transregional and international cooperation on a basis of a common and shared responsibility to counter the world drug problem and related criminal activities, and underlines that it must be addressed in a comprehensive, balanced and multidisciplinary manner;
“8. Encourages Member States and relevant organizations, as appropriate, to enhance cooperation and strategies to prevent terrorists from benefiting from transnational organized crime, and to build the capacity to secure their borders against and investigate and prosecute such terrorists and transnational organized criminals working with them, including through the strengthening of national, regional, and global systems to collect, analyse and exchange information, including law enforcement and intelligence information;
“9. Commends in this regard, the regional cooperative mechanisms in Africa, notably, the Sahel Fusion and Liaison Unit, the Nouakchott Process on the Enhancement of Security Cooperation and the Operationalization of the African Peace and Security Architecture in the Sahel-Saharan Region, the AU-led Regional Cooperation Initiative for the Elimination of the Lord’s Resistance Army and the Lake Chad Basin Commission Multinational Joint Task Force and its Regional Intelligence Fusion Unit as well as the Economic Community of West African States;
“10. Commends further the initiatives to strengthen security and border control in the region of North Africa and the Sahel-Saharan region, with the adoption of the Action Plan on border security, during the first Regional Ministerial conference, held in Tripoli, in March 2012, and the creation of a regional training centre to enhance border security, during the second Regional Ministerial conference, held in Rabat, in November 2013, as well as other subregional initiatives supported by the United Nations;
“11. Urges all Member States, notably Sahel and Maghreb States, to coordinate their efforts to prevent the serious threat posed to international and regional security by terrorist groups crossing borders and seeking safe havens in the Sahel region, to enhance cooperation and coordination in order to develop inclusive and effective strategies to combat in a comprehensive and integrated manner the activities of terrorist groups, and to prevent the expansion of those groups, as well as to limit the proliferation of all arms and transnational organized crime;
“12. Welcomes and supports the establishment of AFRIPOL and takes note of the elaboration of an African arrest warrant for persons charged with or convicted of terrorist acts;
“13. Calls on Member States in Africa to support the implementation of the African Union Plan of Action on Drug Control 2013-2018;
“Capacity-building and the UN coordination
“14. Calls upon Member States to help build the capacity of other Member States where necessary and appropriate and upon request, to address the threat posed by terrorism benefiting from transnational organized crime, and welcomes and encourages bilateral assistance by Member States to help build such national, subregional or regional capacity;
“15. Recognizes the significant capacity and coordination challenges many Member States face in countering terrorism and violent extremism, and preventing terrorist financing, recruitment and all other forms of support to terrorist organizations, including terrorists benefitting from transnational organized crime, commends work under way by the Counter-Terrorism Committee and its Executive Directorate (CTED) to identify capacity gaps and to facilitate technical assistance to strengthen the implementation of resolutions 1373 (2001) and 1624 (2005), encourages Member States to continue cooperating with the Counter-Terrorism Committee and CTED on the development of comprehensive and integrated national, subregional and regional counter-terrorism strategies, highlights the important role that Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF) entities, in particular the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime, as well as the United Nations Centre for Counter-Terrorism, and other providers of capacity-building assistance should play in technical assistance delivery, and requests the relevant entities of the United Nations, whenever appropriate and within existing resources, to take into account in their technical assistance to counter terrorism the elements necessary for addressing terrorism benefitting from transnational organized crime;
“16. Calls on relevant entities of the United Nations and other relevant international and regional organizations to support the development and strengthening of the capacities of national and regional institutions to address terrorism benefitting from transnational organized crime, in particular law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, and in this regard notes the advisory role of the Peacebuilding Commission, in accordance with its mandate;
“17. Encourages the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force to consider expanding its I-ACT Initiative to the countries of the G5-Sahel and Central Africa, upon their request;
“18. Reiterates that United Nations peacekeeping and special political missions, may, if mandated by the Council, assist in capacity-building for host Governments, as requested, to implement commitments under existing global and regional instruments and to address the illicit trafficking of small arms and light weapons, including inter alia through weapons collection, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes, enhancing physical security and stockpile management practices, record keeping and tracing capacities, development of national export and import control systems, enhancement of border security and strengthening judicial institutions, policing and other law enforcement capacities;
“19. Encourages information sharing, where relevant and appropriate, between Special Representatives of the Secretary-General, the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, the Department of Political Affairs, the Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime, the Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force and the United Nations Development Programme, within existing mandates and resources, when considering means to address, in a comprehensive and integrated manner, transnational organized crime, terrorism and violent extremism which can be conducive to terrorism;
“20. Requests the Secretary-General to submit to the Council a report on the efforts of the United Nations entities to address the threat of terrorists benefiting from transnational organized crime in affected regions, including Africa, with respect to matters with which the Council is seized, with input from the relevant entities of the United Nations system including the UNODC, CTED, the Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team, and other relevant CTITF entities;
“21. Further requests that the report include recommendations of concrete options for strengthening Member States’ capabilities, including financing such proposed UN projects and activities to build capacity with existing resources and contributions in the UN system, as well as UN activities to reduce the negative impacts of terrorists benefiting from transnational organized crime including those relevant to its conflict resolution efforts with a focus on border security, counter-terrorist financing, and anti-money-laundering, and that the report be submitted to the Council no later than six months from the adoption of this resolution;
“22. Recalls the request to the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) and the Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team, in close cooperation with all relevant United Nations counter-terrorism bodies, to report to the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) within 180 days, on the threat posed by foreign terrorist fighters recruited by or joining ISIL, ANF and all groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida in resolution 2178 (2014), and reiterates that this report should also focus on trends related to foreign terrorist fighters joining and working with all terrorist groups listed on the 1267 Al-Qaida Sanctions List, and should include an oral briefing to the Committee and a Committee brief to the Security Council at the next regular briefing on counter-terrorism on those operating in Africa.”