Security Council, Adopting Resolution 2185 (2014), Resolves to Make Policing Essential Part of Peacekeeping Mandates, Adequately Funded
Security Council, Adopting Resolution 2185 (2014), Resolves to Make Policing Essential Part of Peacekeeping Mandates, Adequately Funded
Delegates Urge Swift Deployment of Skilled Police, Including More Women
The Security Council this morning resolved to make policing an integral part of the mandates of United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions, where appropriate, in its first-ever stand-alone resolution on the topic.
The Council stressed that such policing mandates must be clear, credible and achievable and matched by appropriate resources, through the unanimous adoption of resolution 2185 (2014), which also called on police-contributing countries and the Secretary‑General to ensure the professionalism and effectiveness of United Nations police through proper training, equipping, standards, leadership, gender expertise and a range of other means.
“The number of police deployed in United Nations peacekeeping missions and special political missions has increased dramatically in recent times, and police-related tasks in mission mandates have become more complex,” Julie Bishop, Foreign Minister of Australia, Council President for November, said, as she opened the meeting at which the resolution was adopted.
Also briefing the Council were Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations and three United Nations Police Commissioners: Greg Hinds, from the mission in Liberia known as UNMIL, Fred Yiga, from the mission in South Sudan known as UNMISS and Luis Miguel Carrilho, from the mission in the Central African Republic known as MINUSCA.
“It is appropriate that the Council consider, in a holistic way, the increasingly important role the United Nations’ work on policing plays in the restoration and maintenance of international peace and security,” Ms. Bishop said.
Through today’s resolution, the Council also requested that security sector reform of host countries be considered as part of the strategic planning of peacekeeping operations, where appropriate. The Council urged Member States and international partners to support, on request, host-State efforts to professionalize the law enforcement sector and to ensure that international policing support to those efforts was well coordinated with plans nationally agreed upon through inclusive processes.
The Council also affirmed the central role of protection of civilians, where appropriate, in the work of police components, including protection against gender-based violence, and encouraged police-contributing countries to increase the percentage of women in their components.
Briefing the Council prior to its adoption of the resolution, Mr. Ladsous noted that United Nations police often were the face of peacekeeping operations for the population, saying, “Wisdom starts with the gendarmerie.” Community-oriented and intelligence-led policing was key. Police mandates — which ranged from providing operational support to host-State police services, to conducting interim law enforcement roles to supporting the reform, restructuring and rebuilding of host State police — must be adequately funded.
Underscoring the growing need to increase the sophistication of police, he appealed for greater linguistic skills. “We’re working in theatres of operation that require a mastery of the language spoken,” he said, pointing to particular needs in Arabic and French. There was also a need for more women, with a long way to go to reach the United Nations goal of having women comprise 20 per cent of all police. They were especially needed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti and Liberia. The Department would continue to work with the heads of United Nations police to make progress in that area.
In his remarks, Mr. Hinds said that in institution-building, community-oriented policing strategies that acknowledged the distrust of the police by the population were more effective than the more traditional security-focused mandates. A standardized, cohesive approach to capacity-building was needed at the start of a mission. Reform planning must be done in consultation with the host State and stakeholders, ensuring national ownership, while strategic reform planning must happen throughout the lifecycle of peacekeeping missions. Joint development plans, such as those used by the United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT) and the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), were important, as was cooperation with United Nations country teams and bilateral, multilateral, regional and local partners. Careful analysis of skills necessary for institution-building must be undertaken, with consideration of filling gaps with civilian experts deployed within police components.
Mr. Yiga said that to strengthen the police role in peacekeeping operations police contributors must take a closer look at the guidance, training and skills selection before deployment. Partnerships between host nation police and United Nations police must be maintained without compromising the principle of impartiality, while those with regional organizations must be enhanced. States must ensure that police components were equipped to do their work and that their activities were embedded in Council discussions. He closed by touching on several challenges police faced in South Sudan, stressing that such work had been largely carried out by combatants and former combatants, whose experiences were often those of soldiers in battle.
Mr. Carrilho said the implementation of a protection of civilians strategy was a cross-cutting responsibility that worked on two fronts: protecting civilians from physical violence and creating a protective environment. Patrols, protection of the freedom of movement and road security for humanitarian aid were important related activities. In that context, increasing women’s presence in the United Nations police had increased the force’s ability to establish trust with local populations and helped create a safe environment for victims of sexual violence to report crimes. Recalling the goal of increasing to 20 per cent the number of women in police by 2014, he noted that proactive measures had so far led to the nomination of 2,000 women, but more were needed.
Following those briefings, Council members took the floor, acknowledging the increased complexity and responsibility of United Nations policing. Most speakers agreed on the need, in that light, of ensuring the best expertise was deployed as quickly as possible for both immediate stability and for capacity-building for national security sectors. For all such tasks an increase in deployment of women police was urged by most speakers.
Most speakers also prioritized protection of civilians by police, while the representative of the Russian Federation stressed that such protection was a national responsibility and national sovereignty must be respected. Speakers also asked the Police Commissioners a number of questions about the challenges facing them, to which the Commissioners responded at the end of the meeting.
Speaking were representatives of Australia (in her national capacity), Rwanda, Luxembourg, United States, Lithuania, France, Jordan, United Kingdom, Russian Federation, Chile, Chad, Republic of Korea, Argentina, Nigeria and China.
The meeting began at 10:05 a.m. and ended at 1:05 p.m.
Council President JULIE BISHOP, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Australia, speaking in her national capacity, said that the lessons her country had learned as a contributor to peace operations in the Indo-Pacific region, from Cambodia to Solomon Islands, had deepened its appreciation of United Nations policing. Timor-Leste, in particular, provided a striking example of building effective host-nation police and other law enforcement institutions, given the security sector battles there that resulted in Australia leading an international stabilization force comprised of 200 of its police.
Professional policing, she said, could repair the community’s faith in local authorities, build a sense of safety and security, and lay the groundwork for long-term stability and development. Today’s resolution reflected the breadth of contemporary developments in United Nations policing, including adoption of modern technologies and use of specialized teams. Highlighting the importance of training, standards of guidance, building of police institutions, building gender capacity and coordination of all related initiatives, she expressed the hope that today’s Council action would make a practical contribution to enduring peace, security and stability.
OLIVIER NDUHUNGIREHE (Rwanda), noting that his country was the seventh largest police contributor to United Nations missions, concurred with the increasing importance and complexity of policing in peacekeeping. He said that cohesiveness of all components was crucial to the effectiveness of such operations and asked about progress in security sector reform in Liberia, given the impact of Ebola; about equipment lacking by the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) and best practices for protection of civilians and South Sudan and other areas of operation. Noting that a third of Rwandan police contributed to peacekeeping were women, he said that perhaps relaxing rigid requirements could increase the female police contribution of other countries.
SYLVIE LUCAS (Luxembourg) said that today’s resolution made an important contribution to United Nations policing, given the increased importance and complexity of the matter. It was essential for police to be well qualified and trained to protect civilians, particularly women and children. She asked the commissioners about coordination in protection of civilians between police components and military components, and what the Council could do to improve protection capabilities. She also underlined the importance of increasing the number of women in police components and in leadership positions, and asked about the sustainability of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) programmes in Liberia.
SAMANTHA POWER (United States) recalled that in April, 1,800 police had been deployed to the Central African Republic — more than all United Nations police deployed in 1994, when there were only 1,677 members. United Nations police work had evolved from passive monitoring to taking on law enforcement duties and local force training. Host country law enforcement must be strengthened, which was why the United States had provided training for 15 formed police units. In South Sudan, three United Nations police units were responsible for providing internal security in nine camps that sheltered 100,000 internally displaced persons. Five police units in the Central African Republic capital of Bangui were responsible for public security from 4 to 8 p.m. daily. The Council needed more regular feedback from the police on what worked. She asked about obstacles United Nations police faced in civilian protection work, and about balancing the provision of law and order with the need to avoid being a “crutch” for host countries.
RAIMONDA MURMOKAITĖ (Lithuania) said the number of police had increased two-fold in the last 20 years, and today, were deployed in 12 of 16 peacekeeping missions. Protection of civilians was often at the “front and centre” of police deployment, through patrolling, public order management and securing camps for refugees and internally displaced persons. Protection against sexual violence was a priority and United Nations police were expected to be at the forefront of such work. Female police not only inspired local girls and women to stand up for their rights; they served as role models, encouraging them to join justice institutions. Training was a challenge. United Nations and police contributors should do their utmost to ensure police could act as a single team. Police must be willing to pass on their experience to national authorities and remain close with communities by speaking the local languages. She asked what was being done to ensure police in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) had the skills to help sexual and gender-based violence victims.
ALEXIS LAMEK (France) said civilian protection required United Nations police to be well equipped and trained, including in combating violence against women and children. Such work was vital, as local police would eventually help rebuild trust with local communities. More staff and expertise was needed. Apart from public security, United Nations police were required to rebuild the capacity of local police. They must be supported through specialization, notably the ability to speak local languages. They also needed to transfer to host countries standardized norms in order to facilitate national ownership, he said, highlighting the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) police division in that regard. Combating organized crime should be integral to United Nations policing activities. More cooperation — specifically information and expertise sharing — should take place among the Secretariat, host countries, regional and subregional organizations, the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and regional police organizations.
DINA KAWAR (Jordan) said that, since 1983, her country had participated in more than 20 peacekeeping operations, as well as several special political missions. Improved performance of United Nations police was urgently needed, as demand for their work had markedly increased. Police work had evolved from traditional to more modern responsibilities. The resolution adopted today underscored the crucial role of police in peacekeeping operations and addressed practical issues to improve performance. For its part, Jordan had played a lead role in peacekeeping operations, she said, noting that it aimed to step up specialized training for police in order to respond to growing and diverse needs. Their high skill level would, in turn, help increase trust with civilians. She asked commissioners how to enhance the United Nations police experience in the context of Ebola.
PETER WILSON (United Kingdom), welcoming more Council attention to United Nations policing, said that the need for such policing was likely to increase even more in the future, as it could be a more effective means of supporting at-risk countries than use of the military. He asked whether in such missions as UNMISS the balance was optimal between military and police forces. Policing by consent was the basis of British policing and was critical in United Nations operations so that policing focused on the welfare of citizens. Reform of United Nations policing was needed at Headquarters and in the field, particularly in creating a standard approach to training, in getting the right expertise on the ground quickly, in increasing deployment of female police and getting the right expertise for capacity-building. For those purposes, coordinated planning with all actors was needed. His country was committed to doing its part, with police deployed in three missions and support to security and justice programmes in some 18 more. He asked the commissioners how better detail on key challenges could be communicated to the Council.
PETR V. ILIICHEV (Russian Federation) agreed that police components were an integral component of peacekeeping missions. Their responsibilities had gone far beyond observation and reporting. In that context, however, it was crucial that they strictly stayed within their mandates and respected the sovereignty of the host country. Specific country situations must be kept in mind. Civilians were increasingly endangered in conflict situations, but protection of civilians was, he stressed, the responsibility of the countries themselves, which could be supported by the international community in various ways. Predictable financing and proper equipment of police components was necessary. In that light, he pledged that his country, as a major police contributor, would continue to train and equip its personnel.
CRISTIÁN BARROS MELET (Chile), noting the increasingly complex responsibilities of United Nations police, said that they must be guided above all by consideration of human rights, rule of law and national ownership. It was important to protect the civilian population. That function also provided the benefit of increasing the ability of police components to act as early warning mechanisms. He encouraged greater deployment of women police and more effective capacity-building for national security sectors and, in that regard, noted his country’s programme for training Haiti’s national police. In today’s resolution he would have liked specific mention of the role of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, also known as the Committee of 34, in the development of United Nations policing.
MAHAMAT ZENE CHERIF (Chad) said strengthening the police component of peacekeeping and special political missions had helped to stabilize post-conflict situations, citing work to reform security sectors, protect civilians and build the rule of law. Issues related to training, skills, equipment and geographical distribution were important and police contributors needed to ensure that such resources were adapted to specific contexts. States should identify shortcomings, and those with resources should provide them to those in need. Police must have linguistic and cultural knowledge of the host country, questions that should be considered in the selection process. The number of women in peacekeeping operations should be increased, especially in leadership positions. Further, there should be more cooperation between United Nations police and the African Union, which had established a regional policing operation. He asked commissioners whether linguistic and cultural knowledge should be made selection criteria.
PAIK JI-AH (Republic of Korea) said police faced less psychological resistance than military officers in certain situations, a comparative advantage that should be fully used and systematized in United Nations police units. Post-conflict societies required an end to impunity, as well as transitional justice and national reconciliation. Political leadership must work in a transparent, impartial and inclusive manner in that regard. Scenario-based training must be continuously expanded, especially in an Ebola context, and she asked Mr. Hinds about coordination with host Governments and obstacles that hindered the work of security institutions. She asked Mr. Yiga about work to protect civilians since last May, and about any negative repercussions of having suspended support for South Sudan’s capacity-building.
MARIO OYARZÁBAL (Argentina) said today’s resolution outlined the relevance of United Nations police in peacekeeping operations in various areas, as well as in the protection of civilians, which was, first and foremost, a responsibility of the host country. Argentina would have preferred more emphasis on the role police could play in protecting civilians from human rights violations, especially women and children. He agreed that deployed personnel should have the skills necessary in peacekeeping operations that had multidimensional and complex mandates, citing rule of law and security sector reform experts in that regard. The text lacked a reference to the Special Committee, standardized language that had been repeated through the years without being questioned. The Special Committee was the only United Nations forum entrusted with reviewing peacekeeping operations, including measures to improve the Organization’s ability to carry out such work. He did not understand the resistance to referring to that Committee.
USMAN SARKI (Nigeria) said today’s resolution outlined the Council’s commitment to policing mandates with appropriate resources. That was important, as police were taking on more multidimensional tasks. The text recognized the need for consultations among Secretary‑General, the Special Committee and States in order to promote system-wide coherence. The General Assembly’s prerogative should be respected in that regard. Nigeria’s involvement in United Nations police dated to 1960, when 400 officers had been deployed to Congo. Since then, Nigeria had participated in more than 20 missions, having deployed 12,000 Nigerian police officers. The heads of police components should be invited to brief the Council annually and participate in deliberations as needed. Policing mandates must be clearly formulated, which required cooperation among the Council, Secretariat and police contributors. Workable standards, including for training, must be devised to facilitate implementation. Police contributors should be encouraged to provide skilled personnel, while equipment and funds must be made available. Host States must guarantee the safety of — and cooperate with — United Nations police.
WANG MIN (China), noting that United Nations police and peacekeeping mandates had grown more complex, said balance was needed between mandate formulation, on the one hand, and efficiency and scale, on the other. Police should abide by the three peacekeeping principles. To strengthen the focus of United Nations policing, the Council should ensure that mandates were practical and prioritized tasks. “All-inclusive” mandates should be avoided and responsibilities adjusted, in line with host State developments. To increase efficiency, rapid deployment had a bearing on whether missions could play a role at critical moments. Communications should be improved, with the Secretariat valuing the views of police contributors. He urged efficient resource use, avoiding both waste and overlap. To strengthen the capacity-building of police, he supported the Secretariat’s engagement with police contributors and the Special Committee. The United Nations should increase its support for regional organizations and help them play a greater role in maintaining regional peace and security. China was the largest police contributor on the Council, having sent more than 2,000 police to eight missions.
Response to Questions
MR. HINES, responding to questions by Council Members, said that there had been steady progress in building Liberia’s police force; the Ebola epidemic had shown, however, gaps in capabilities and the importance of effective decentralized structures. Local authorities, including local police, were taking on additional responsibilities during the crisis.
MR. YIGA said that United Nations police needed as much resources as could be provided and suggested that police institutions train as many officers as possible for peacekeeping purposes. Criminal expertise was also needed in order to better detail challenges. On other questions, he said much progress in security sector reform and training in South Sudan had been lost because of this year’s fighting, but efforts were being made to recoup capabilities.
Mr. CARRILHO reaffirmed the importance of women’s police participation in peacekeeping. For that to happen it would be helpful if contributing States trained more women police. He said that in MINUSCA, police and military were coordinated through a single command, which had boosted effectiveness. Through a single operational centre, the efforts of national security forces and other partners were also coordinated with United Nations efforts.
On civilian protection, he affirmed that it was a national responsibility and expertise had been deployed in many areas to build capacity in the Central African Republic. Cooperation with local judicial authorities was ongoing and included training. Roles of different partners were clearly defined through the central command centre. On questions of resources, he said every police official would ask for more resources, but he assured the Council that all efforts would be exerted to fulfil the mandate no matter what resources were available. MINUSCA, he added, was coordinating with regional partners and African police resources. Finally, he said that language abilities were indeed important in Central Africa; virtually all personnel at UNPOL [United Nations police] spoke French.
The full text of resolution 2185 (2014) reads as follows:
“The Security Council,
“Recalling its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security,
“Recalling its resolutions 2151 (2014) on security sector reform, 2167 (2014) and 2086 (2013) on United Nations peacekeeping operations, 1894 (2009) on the protection of civilians, 1325 (2000) and all subsequent resolutions on women, peace and security, 2143 (2014) and previous resolutions on children and armed conflict, 2117 (2013) on small arms and light weapons, and the statements of its President of 21 February 2014 on the rule of law (S/PRST/2014/5) and 20 December 2012 on post-conflict peacebuilding (S/PRST/2012/29), as well as other relevant resolutions and statements of its President,
“Reiterating the need for a comprehensive approach to conflict prevention and sustainable peace, which comprises operational and structural measures for the prevention of armed conflict and addresses its root causes, including through strengthening the rule of law at international and national levels and promoting sustained economic growth, poverty eradication, social development, sustainable development, national reconciliation, good governance, democracy, gender equality and respect for, and protection of, human rights,
“Stressing that the success of the mandates of peacekeeping operations and special political missions requires close cooperation between the different elements of these missions under the overall leadership of the Head of Mission,
“Reaffirming its commitment to uphold the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, including its commitment to and respect for the principles of political independence, sovereign equality and territorial integrity of all States in conducting all peacekeeping activities and the need for States to comply with their obligations under international law,
“Reaffirming that respect for the basic principles of peacekeeping, including consent of the parties, impartiality, and non-use of force, except in self-defence and defence of the mandate, is essential to the success of peacekeeping operations,
“Recognizing that the mandate of each peacekeeping operation and special political mission is specific to the needs and situation of the country concerned,
“Reaffirming the principles of impartiality, consent of the parties, national ownership and national responsibility, and stressing the significance of the views of and dialogue with countries hosting special political missions,
“Noting that host-State policing institutions are often the primary link between the Government and communities on security issues, and reiterating that professional, effective, accountable, and accessible law enforcement, corrections, and judicial institutions are necessary to lay the foundation for sustainable peace and national development,
“Acknowledging the significant growth in the role of Police Components as an integral part of United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions, and the increasingly diverse and complex policing-related tasks in the mandates of such operations and missions, noting that Police Components can include both uniformed United Nations Police officers and civilian policing experts, noting the distinct roles performed by Individual Police Officers (IPOs) and Formed Police Units (FPUs) and the increasing demand for these different capacities, stressing that use of these capacities should be based on the situation and the needs of the host State and noting the necessity of aligning tasks of United Nations police components with missions’ mandated tasks,
“Stressing that United Nations policing-related work makes an invaluable contribution to peacekeeping, post-conflict peacebuilding, security, the rule of law, and the creation of a basis for development,
“Recalling that policing-related aspects of mandates of United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions may include support for the reform, restructuring and development of host State policing and other law enforcement institutions; providing operational support to host-State policing and other law enforcement institutions; and conducting interim policing and other law enforcement,
“Underlining the importance of close coordination of the range of United Nations policing activities, both at Headquarters and in the field, in particular between Security Council-mandated missions and the United Nations Country Team, as appropriate, and encouraging relevant United Nations entities mandated to undertake policing activities to work through existing coordination mechanisms, as appropriate,
“Noting that United Nations Police Components face a range of challenges, including a need for specialized skills and equipment and to ensure a unified policing approach, given the various policing models across police-contributing countries,
“Recalling reports of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations of the General Assembly which have provided guidance to the United Nations Secretariat on the subject of United Nations policing, including the development of a United Nations standardized approach to policing, and recognising the inclusive consultative process undertaken by the Police Division of the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations in the development of the Strategic Guidance Framework for International Police Peacekeeping,
“Emphasizing the importance of Member States contributing police with professional skills, experience and expertise to carry out the mandated tasks, who are appropriately trained and vetted and, where appropriate, operationally ready and deployed with the full complement of contingent-owned equipment, welcoming cooperation between the United Nations, police-contributing countries, other Member States and relevant regional and international organizations to help ensure FPUs are properly trained and equipped, and underscoring the importance of such cooperation,
“Noting the increasing use of modern technologies by United Nations Police Components, including information and communication technologies such as closed circuit television, specialized crime data software and geographic information mapping systems, and other technologies such as advanced metal detectors, laboratory equipment and drug, explosive and ballistic detection and analysis systems, to increase their abilities to carry out their mandates efficiently and effectively and to enhance their safety and security, and encouraging the United Nations Secretariat to ensure that these technologies, when deployed, are integrated effectively into United Nations policing work consistent with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and of the basic principles of peacekeeping, and that the confidentiality of all data gathered by such assets is preserved as detailed in relevant specific procedures,
“Welcoming the announcement of the Secretary‑General of a comprehensive review of United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions and taking note of the announcement of the Secretary‑General of the establishment of a high-level independent panel to conduct the review,
“Noting the designation of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the United Nations Development Programme as the joint global focal point for police, justice and corrections areas,
“Recalling the sovereign right and the primary responsibility of the State concerned to determine the national approach and priorities of security sector reform, including reform of policing and other law enforcement institutions, and recognizing that such reform should be a nationally owned process that is rooted in the particular needs and conditions of the country in question and encouraging the development of expertise in the field of security sector reform at the national level,
“Noting the important role that United Nations Police Components can play in supporting, and coordinating international support for, reform of host State policing institutions and building policing capacity in a comprehensive way that emphasizes a community-oriented approach and is integrated with other areas of security sector reform and the rule of law,
“Emphasizing that good governance and oversight of policing and law enforcement services, within the framework of a functional justice and corrections system, are important in ensuring that those services are accountable, responsive and capable of serving the population,
“Highlighting the important role that United Nations Police Components can play, where mandated, in consultation with the host State and in collaboration with other components, in supporting host States to uphold their primary responsibility to protect civilians as well as respect and ensure the human rights of all individuals within their territory and subject to their jurisdiction, including inter alia through: monitoring and deterrence, early warning and prevention, support to basic safety and security, physical protection, creating protective environments, assisting national security sector reform programs, capacity-building, and political engagement with host-State counterparts,
“Reaffirming the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and in peacebuilding, stressing the importance of their equal participation and full involvement in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security, and the need to increase their role in decision-making with regard to conflict prevention and resolution, including in relation to policing and the rule of law,
“Taking note of and encouraging the increased participation of female police in United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions, thereby contributing to the effectiveness of relevant mandate implementation, including by providing diverse perspectives which can assist in building trust with local communities; improving the protection of women and children from violence and abuse; and facilitating gender-sensitive police approaches and mentoring,
“Recalling the launch of the United Nations Global Effort in 2009 to promote an increase in the percentage of female police officers in United Nations peacekeeping missions to 20 per cent by 2014, welcoming the increase in female police in peacekeeping operations since the launch of the United Nations Global Effort, and encouraging States and the United Nations Secretary‑General to strengthen efforts to support the realization of the 20 per cent goal,
“Recognizing innovative practices to improve the success of United Nations policing in recognizing specific needs of women in conflict and post-conflict environments, including the need for protection from sexual and gender-based violence and for community strategies that reflect women’s needs, such as the deployment of women within FPUs and the establishment of special protection units,
“Reiterating that the protection of children in armed conflict should be an important aspect of any comprehensive strategy to resolve conflict and build peace, reiterating in this regard the importance of providing United Nations Police Components with specialized pre-deployment and in-mission training on mission-specific child protection and on appropriate comprehensive child-sensitive prevention and protection responses, as well as monitoring and reporting on violations and abuses committed against children, and stressing the importance of enhancing coordination between Police Components and child protection advisers as well as gender and women protection advisers,
“Highlighting the important role that United Nations Police Components can play in building the capacity of host-State policing and other law enforcement institutions, as mandated, to address organized crime, particularly through support in the areas of border, immigration and maritime security and crime prevention, response and investigation,
“Highlighting that impartial, responsive, accountable, community-oriented police institutions with well-trained personnel can help to counter violent extremism, including through building trust and dialogue between state authorities and communities,
“Noting the role that Police Components can play in assisting host governments in implementation and compliance monitoring of Council-mandated sanctions measures including, where mandated, through provision of advice and assistance,
“Recognizing the role that regional and subregional organizations can play in post-conflict peacebuilding including security sector reform (SSR) and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR), rule of law, recovery, reconstruction and development processes, including through support for host State policing and other law enforcement institutions, and affirming the importance of interaction and cooperation between peacekeeping operations and special political missions and regional and subregional organizations and arrangements,
“Paying tribute to the memory of United Nations peacekeepers who have lost their lives in the cause of peace, and in this regard, underscoring the importance of safety and security of United Nations peacekeepers, expressing grave concern about the security threats and targeted attacks against United Nations peacekeepers in many peacekeeping missions that constitute a major challenge to United Nations peacekeeping operations, condemning in the strongest terms killing of and all acts of violence against United Nations peacekeeping personnel, and emphasizing that perpetrators of such attacks must be brought to justice,
“Reaffirming that the primary responsibility for the security and protection of personnel employed by the United Nations system organizations rests with the host Government, and noting that complementary to the host Government responsibility, the safety and security of individually deployed police personnel in United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions, including, but not limited to United Nations police officers, or members of FPUs when not deployed with their unit, falls under the security arrangements of the United Nations Security Management System,
“1. Resolves to include, as appropriate, policing as an integral part of the mandates of United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions, and to give clear, credible, and achievable mandates for policing-related activities, matched by appropriate resources;
“2. Stresses the importance of strong cooperation and coordination between United Nations Police Components and other elements of peacekeeping operations and special political missions, in support of the mandate and under the overall leadership of the Head of Mission;
“3. Urges police-contributing countries to continue to contribute professional police personnel with the necessary skills, equipment and experience to implement mission mandates, including, where relevant, multidimensional peacekeeping mandates, underlining the importance of appropriate language skills at relevant levels to fulfil the mandate and of gender expertise, and urges prospective police-contributors to also contribute such personnel, to help ensure the demand for professional police personnel in United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions is fully met;
“4. Requests the Secretary‑General to further promote professionalism, effectiveness and system-wide coherence in the policing-related work of the United Nations including, in close consultation, as appropriate, with Member States and the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations in full respect of its vital role, through:
a. the development and implementation of standards and guidance for United Nations policing-related work, through the Strategic Guidance Framework for International Police Peacekeeping;
b. the development of comprehensive, standardized training for United Nations Police Components, including pre-deployment, induction and in-service training;
c. the provision of senior police leadership training, including through the Senior Mission Leaders’ Course;
d. the development of strong processes for evaluating the effectiveness of United Nations policing-related work;
e. the streamlining and improvement of recruitment and deployment procedures for United Nations police and civilian policing experts, recognizing that the Fifth Committee is the appropriate main committee of the United Nations General Assembly entrusted with administrative and budgetary matters; and
f. the coordination of work within the United Nations system on reform of policing and law enforcement institutions;
“5. Recognizes that political leadership and the will of national authorities are critical to reforming host State policing and other law enforcement services, emphasizes the lead role of the host-State’s authorities in developing, as part of an inclusive national vision for its security sector, a strategy for policing and other law enforcement that promotes the rule of law and respects human rights, coordinating the implementation of the vision, dedicating national resources towards policing, law enforcement and other security institutions, and monitoring the impact of security sector reform processes, including policing reform;
“6. Urges Member States and international partners to support, upon request, host State efforts to professionalize policing and other law enforcement agencies, within the context of broader security sector reform, and to ensure that international policing support is well-coordinated in support of a nationally agreed plan, and underscores that such support should be tailored to the needs of the host State;
“7. Recognizes that reform of police and other law enforcement institutions needs to be in support of, and informed by, inclusive political processes and agreements, to enhance the legitimacy of the institutions concerned and ensure wide ownership of such reform;
“8. Notes the important role that United Nations Police Components can play, where mandated, in strengthening the rule of law in conflict and post-conflict situations, by inter alia, providing operational support to host State policing and other law enforcement institutions, and supporting the reform, restructuring and rebuilding of such institutions including through technical assistance, co-location, training and mentoring programs, in the context of broader efforts to strengthen the rule of law and reform the security sector, where mandated;
“9. In this regard, requests the Secretary‑General to consider, as appropriate, security sector reform, including reform of policing and other law enforcement institutions, in the overall strategic planning of peacekeeping operations and special political missions in each country-specific context, and to work with Member States to enhance the capabilities and expertise of United Nations Police Components in relation to capacity development and institution building, including in the areas of:
a. operational policing, including community-oriented policing and information-based policing;
b. administration, management and leadership;
c. governance, oversight and evaluation;
d. policy formulation and strategic planning; and
e. coordination with partners;
“10. Emphasizes the role of peacekeeping operations and special political missions in supporting host-State policing institutions in their preparation to transition to function self-sufficiently, and underlines that this preparation for transition should be based on a timely analysis of need, in consultation with the host State, of any assistance beyond the duration of the presence of the peacekeeping operation or special political mission, to enable United Nations peacebuilding and development actors, including the United Nations Country Team, to undertake the necessary strategic planning and resource mobilisation, working in close partnership with host-State authorities, and to transfer skills and expertise to host-State officials and experts as quickly as possible in order to ensure a successful and durable transition;
“11. Encourages the Secretary‑General’s Special Representatives and Envoys to fully take into account the strategic value of security sector reform, including reform of host State policing and other law enforcement institutions, in their work, as appropriate, in the context of broader security sector reform efforts, including through their good offices where mandated;
“12. Welcomes the work of the United Nations Standing Police Capacity in providing expertise across the broad range of policing activities and providing a rapid, coherent, effective and responsive start-up capability for the Police Components of United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions, and assisting existing missions through the provision of advice, expertise, baseline assessments and evaluation;
“13. Requests the Secretariat to continue refining the composition of the United Nations Standing Police Capacity to ensure it includes skill sets to meet contemporary demands, including through enabling partnerships with member states and regional organisations;
“14. Notes with appreciation the efforts made by the Department of Peacekeeping Operation’s Police Division to continue to explore the use of “specialized police teams” for police capacity-building, and requests the Secretary‑General to report on this use, as appropriate;
“15. Notes the Secretariat’s efforts to enhance inter-mission cooperation, including through the rapid redeployment of FPUs, recognizes that such cooperation can provide timely responses for critically needed capacity as an interim, short-term measure, notes the logistical challenges that can undermine the effectiveness of inter-mission cooperation, and encourages the Secretariat, in consultation with police-contributing countries, to continue to assess the practice of inter-mission cooperation with a view to streamlining standing operating procedures and improving the effectiveness of such cooperation;
“16. Notes the importance of the deployment of civilian policing experts, with adequate and appropriate skills and expertise, to United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions;
“17. Affirms the central role of the protection of civilians, where mandated, in the work undertaken by United Nations Police Components;
“18. Affirms the importance of the role that United Nations Police Components can play, where mandated, in supporting the efforts of host authorities in the protection of civilians, particularly those under imminent threat of physical violence, including all forms of sexual and gender based violence, and in this regard, while recognizing that protection of civilians is the primary responsibility of the host State, helping to build and reform policing and law enforcement institutions of the host State so they are able to sustainably and consistently protect civilians;
“19. Highlights the critical role that United Nations Police Components can play in facilitating the participation and inclusion of women in dialogue on conflict resolution and peacebuilding, including on rule of law and security issues;
“20. Encourages police-contributing countries to increase the percentage of women police in deployments to United Nations peacekeeping operations, in particular senior officers, including in leadership roles, and requests the Secretary‑General to continue to support innovative efforts to encourage such deployment of women police and to enhance coordination between Police Components and child protection advisers as well as gender and women protection advisers;
“21. Encourages police-contributing countries to provide all police personnel with adequate training to carry out their responsibilities in relation to sexual and gender-based violence and child protection, and further encourages relevant United Nations entities to make available appropriate guidance and training modules, including in particular the United Nations pre-deployment scenario-based training on prevention of sexual and gender-based violence and on children and armed conflict;
“22. Requests the Secretary‑General to continue and strengthen efforts to implement the policy of zero tolerance on sexual exploitation and abuse by United Nations personnel, as well as the policy on prohibition of child labour in United Nations peacekeeping operations, and urges police-contributing countries to take appropriate preventative action, including pre-deployment and in-mission awareness training and other action to ensure full accountability, including prosecutions, in cases of such conduct involving their nationals;
“23. Notes the importance of United Nations policing-related support to non-United Nations security forces adhering to the Human Rights Due Diligence Policy;
“24. Reiterates that United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions, including Police Components, located in a host State with Council-mandated sanctions regime, may, if deemed necessary by the Council, provide appropriate expertise to the host government, relevant sanctions committee and relevant experts groups, in the implementation and the compliance monitoring of that sanctions regime, and further notes the importance of appropriate training for United Nations Police Components in this regard;
“25. Reiterates that United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions, including Police Components, may, if mandated by the Council, assist in capacity-building for host Governments, as requested, to implement commitments under existing global and regional instruments and to address the illicit trafficking of small arms and light weapons, including inter alia through weapons collection, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes, enhancing physical security and stockpile management practices, record-keeping and tracing capacities, development of national export and import control systems, enhancement of border security, and strengthening judicial institutions, policing and other law enforcement capacities;
“26. Encourages information-sharing, where relevant and appropriate, between Special Representatives of the Secretary-General, the Department of Peacekeeping Operations including its Police Division, the Department of Political Affairs, the Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime, the Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force and the United Nations Development Program, within existing mandates and resources, when considering means to address, in a comprehensive and integrated manner, transnational organized crime, terrorism and violent extremism which can be conducive to terrorism;
“27. Encourages the Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate to enhance its dialogue and information-sharing with Special Envoys, the Department of Political Affairs and the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, with respect to policing activities, including during the planning stages of missions, as appropriate, in relation to implementation of resolutions 1373 (2001) and 1624 (2005), and requests the Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate to identify principal gaps in Member States’ capacities, including the capacities of their policing and other law-enforcement institutions, to implement Security Council resolutions 1373 (2001) and 1624 (2005);
“28. Affirms that United Nations Police Components, deployed as part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation, may, if mandated by the Council, provide support, in consultation with the host State, as feasible and where appropriate, to the efforts of national authorities, without prejudice to the responsibilities of those authorities, to bring to justice those responsible for serious international crimes;
“29. Encourages closer coordination and cooperation on policing issues between the United Nations Secretariat and international, regional and sub-regional organisations, INTERPOL and regional police organizations, including through training, the sharing and exchange of information, thematic expertise, and operational support, as appropriate;
“30. Reiterates the need to further strengthen cooperation and consultation with police-contributing countries, including through triangular cooperation between the Security Council, troop and police-contributing countries and the United Nations Secretariat, to foster a spirit of partnership, cooperation, confidence and mutual trust;
“31. Expresses its intention to consider holding an annual meeting on policing issues with the Heads of United Nations Police Components;
“32. Encourages the Secretary‑General to consider the increasing role of policing, along with the many other critical issues related to peacekeeping operations and special political missions, in his upcoming strategic review of United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions, as appropriate;
“33. Requests the Secretary‑General to submit a report by the end of 2016 on the role of policing as an integral part of peacekeeping and post-conflict peacebuilding, with particular focus on the challenges faced by Police Components of United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political missions, and making recommendations on how best to strengthen their contribution to the achievement of mission mandates.”