Value of Military Action Debated, as More than 60 Speakers Take Floor
With thousands of foreign terrorist fighters traveling to conflict countries, and groups such as the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant/Sham (ISIL/ISIS) garnering hefty revenues from new illegal sources, the Security Council today urged States, the United Nations and other partners to target the root causes of terrorism as they redoubled efforts to eradicate that scourge in all its forms and manifestations.
During a high-level debate on combating terrorism through international cooperation, Julie Bishop, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Australia, which holds the November Council presidency, issued a statement on behalf of the 15-member body emphasizing that the terrorist threat was “expanding and intensifying”. Terrorism affected more States across most regions, the Council stated, due to global recruitment networks, the spread of violent extremist ideologies, ease of movement of terrorists and access to significant funding streams.
In that context, the Council reiterated its grave concern about ISIL, Al‑Nusra Front and other terrorist entities associated with Al‑Qaida, and the negative impact of their presence on the stability of Iraq, Syria and that region. It expressed concern that more than 15,000 foreign terrorist fighters from more than 80 countries had travelled to join such groups in Syria, Iraq, Somalia, and Yemen, as well as countries in the Maghreb and Sahel regions.
“Terrorism will not be defeated by military force, law enforcement measures and intelligence operations alone,” the Council stated, underlining the need to address the conditions conducive to its spread and the factors driving recruitment and radicalization. As such, States should help build the capacity of other States, where necessary and upon request.
Further, States should improve bilateral, international, regional and subregional cooperation to prevent the travel of foreign terrorist fighters from or through their territories, the Council stated. They should make use of INTERPOL’s [International Criminal Police Organization] databases and require airlines under their jurisdiction to provide advance passenger information to detect departure from, entry into, or transit through their territories of individuals on the Al‑Qaida sanctions list.
On the financial front, the Council expressed concern that oilfields and related infrastructure controlled by ISIL, Al‑Nusra Front and potentially other Al‑Qaida-associated groups were generating a significant portion of their income. States were required, under resolution 2161 (2014), to ensure that their nationals and those in their territory not make assets or economic resources available to those groups.
Specifically, it expressed concern that aircraft departing from territory controlled by ISIL and Al‑Nusra Front could be used to transfer gold or other economic resources for sale on international markets, or to transfer arms for use by those groups. It noted that such individuals or entities could be eligible for listing by the 1267/1989 Committee. It looked forward to the Al‑Qaida Committee’s consideration of recommendations on new measures to disrupt such activities.
As for technology use, the Council urged States to counter violent extremist propaganda on the Internet and social media by developing effective counter-narratives, stressing the importance of partnering with civil society and the private sector in such efforts.
Launching the day-long debate, Secretary‑General Ban Ki‑moon said the United Nations had stepped up its programmes for reporting, monitoring and assisting Member States in such efforts. The Counter-Terrorism Centre was helping States develop policy responses to the foreign terrorist fighter phenomenon, while the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) was working to strengthen related criminal justice capacity in the Middle East and North Africa.
“This rights-centred approach to counter-terrorism must be upfront in our planning, not merely an afterthought,” he said, pledging to work with the Council to respond to the challenge.
Briefing the Council on ISIL and Al‑Nusra Front, Gary Quinlan (Australia), Chair of the Al‑Qaida Sanctions Committee, said most of ISIL’s funds came from its control of oilfields and oil smuggling, sources worth an estimated $846,000 to $1.6 million per day. Al‑Nusra Front relied more on external donations and kidnapping for ransom. As such, the Monitoring Team recommended greater use of Al‑Qaida sanctions, heightened vigilance in the banking sector and flight bans. States should also use INTERPOL’s Transnational Fighters database.
Along similar lines, Raimonda Murmokaité (Lithuania), Chair of the Counter-Terrorism Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001), said some States did not have adequate legislation to meet the challenge of foreign terrorist fighters. Many lacked the capacity to ensure that such individuals were brought to justice, while a lack of information and analytical capacity at border crossings had hampered efforts to prevent foreign terrorist fighters from moving freely.
Following their briefings, more than 60 speakers took the floor to outline national, regional and international measures needed to effectively counter the expanding terrorist threat. While many supported collective military action against ISIL, others cautioned that such tactics would never be enough and were not always productive.
On that point, the representative of the Russian Federation said experiences in Iraq, Syria and Libya had shown that international interventions often engendered terrorism. Terrorists had gained strength in Syria following support from abroad for supposedly moderate rebel groups. Further, air strikes had not suppressed the illicit sale of oil by terrorists.
Héctor Marcos Timerman, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Worship of Argentina, added that innovative terrorist modalities had caused the “virtual globalization of horror,” proof that military action could not be the sole option, as it had failed to staunch such violence.
Also speaking today were foreign ministers, senior officials and representatives of Australia, Luxembourg, Rwanda, Republic of Korea, Lithuania, United Kingdom, China, Nigeria, Jordan, France, Chad, Chile, United States, India, Saudi Arabia (on behalf of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation), Pakistan, Syria, Iraq, Brazil, Denmark, Turkey, Hungary, Germany, Iran, Israel, Egypt, Japan, Qatar, Colombia, Kazakhstan, Burundi, Malaysia, Singapore, Belgium, Kyrgyzstan, Morocco, Kenya, Slovenia, Italy, Algeria, Guatemala, Albania, Sri Lanka, Cuba, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Netherlands, Ukraine, Botswana, Croatia, Bahrain, Romania, Montenegro, Georgia and Yemen. Also addressing the Council was a representative of the European Union.
The representatives of the Russian Federation, Iran, Israel, and Syria took the floor for a second time.
The meeting began at 10:10 a.m. and ended at 6:20 p.m.
BAN KI‑MOON, United Nations Secretary‑General, commended the Council for its unified stance against terrorism while noting that the number of foreign terrorist fighters in Syria and Iraq had grown to over 15,000 from more than 80 countries. The Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant/Sham (ISIL/ISIS), Al‑Nusra Front, Boko Haram and Al‑Shabaab continued to carry out brutal acts and cause profound suffering, with millions living under their control. Technology and globalization had made it easier for them to profit from illicit commerce.
The full implementation of all international tools was needed, he said, noting that the United Nations had stepped up its programmes for reporting, monitoring and assisting Member States in that effort. The Organization’s Counter-Terrorism Centre was helping States develop policy responses to the foreign terrorist fighter phenomenon and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) was working to strengthen related criminal justice capacity in the Middle East and North African countries.
As violent extremism had to be addressed at the grass-roots level, United Nations missions and country teams were examining how to best respond under a multidimensional perspective, he said. “Looking at these challenges solely through a military lens has shown its limits,” he stated. The lack of inclusion was a major factor. It was important not to exacerbate the problem, such as when efforts were not sufficiently targeted and entire communities felt victimized by abuses committed in the name of counter-terrorism. “This rights-centred approach to counter-terrorism must be upfront in our planning, not merely an afterthought,” he concluded, pledging to work with the Council to respond to the challenge.
GARY QUINLAN (Australia), Chair of the Al‑Qaida Sanctions Committee, said the Al‑Qaida Sanctions Monitoring Team considered the scale of the threat posed by ISIL and the Al‑Nusra Front to be “qualitatively and quantitatively” greater because of the nexus between the groups’ control over population and territory, and the thousands of foreign terrorist fighters that had joined them. Both groups posed threats locally and in neighbouring countries, with records of summary killings, sexual violence and trafficking, targeting of humanitarian workers, and hostage-taking and murder for income or political messaging. The groups complicated efforts to forge political order in Iraq and Syria, aggravating and intensifying existing armed violence, exacerbating sectarian tensions and altering demography through campaigns against minorities. The groups’ threat derived from their large and diverse networks of foreign fighters, the power of their ideology and propaganda, and their operational innovation.
He noted that both groups had seized military assets from conventional armies and benefited from an extensive regional economy in arms smuggling. ISIL was especially well armed, having seized equipment from the Government of Iraq, while the Al‑Nusra Front depended more on continued fresh arms supplies. Most of ISIL’s funds came from its control of oil fields and smuggling of oil, with the Monitoring Team assessing that source to be worth between $846,000 and $1.6 million per day, with extortion, kidnapping for ransom and donations also among its sources of funding. Both groups exploited civilians and sold stolen goods, with evidence of ISIL’s involvement in looting and smuggling of antiquities from Iraq. The Al‑Nusra Front lacked ISIL’s range and depth of resources and relied more on external donations and kidnapping for ransom. Funds were used to support recruiting and strengthen operational capacities. Recruits to the two groups were mainly foreign fighters, locally recruited Iraqis and Syrians, and new local affiliate groups. The Internet, personal contact and prison networks were used to draw recruits, and though there was no specific typology for foreign fighters, more data was emerging. Recruits were digitally savvy, generating fresh, transnational social and operational networks. Fighters came from 80 countries, with a significant presence of dual nationals with European passports.
The Monitoring Team had recommended that the Committee promote fuller implementation and greater use of the Al‑Qaida Sanctions Regime, he said, and recommended a number of measures requiring Council action aimed at stemming the flow of funds to ISIL and the Al‑Nusra Front. Flight bans could prevent possible resupply and heightened vigilance was needed in the banking sector. The impact of such measures would be assessed after six months to ensure they affected only their target. Member States should also use INTERPOL’s [International Criminal Police Organization] network and tools, including the Transnational Fighters database. There was also a need for more concerted multilateral and national action to address the “toxic ideas and imagery” promoted by the two groups and others within the Al‑Qaida movement.
RAIMONDA MURMOKAITĖ (Lithuania), Chair of the Counter-Terrorism Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001), said that while implementing its mandate, the Committee, with the support of its Executive Directorate, had prepared a preliminary analysis of the principal implementation gaps. Key findings, among others, revealed that some States did not have adequate legislation to meet the challenge of foreign terrorist fighters. Many States lacked the capacity to ensure that individuals participating in foreign terrorist fighting activities were brought to justice through effective prosecution in accordance with resolutions 1371 (2001) and 2178 (2014).
A lack of relevant information and analytical capability at border crossings hampered States’ abilities to detect and prevent the movement of foreign terrorist fighters, she said, adding that the porous and lengthy nature of many land borders increased States’ vulnerabilities. In addition, when it came to preventing and disrupting terrorist financing, many States had yet to ensure that their legal frameworks included criminalization of terrorist financing. The most critical gap was the inadequate sharing of comprehensive, useful and timely financial information by domestic law enforcement and intelligence partners, or by national agencies and their international counterparts.
One of the most novel aspects of resolution 2178 (2014) was its emphasis on how countering incitement to terrorism and providing a counter-narrative were key to tackling violent extremism, she noted. Another important gap in many States was the lack of effective strategies and programmes for the rehabilitation and reintegration of returning foreign terrorist fighters.
Finally, she said, there continued to be significant gaps in States’ efforts to ensure compliance with their obligations under international law in the context of counter-terrorism measures taken to implement resolutions 1371 (2001) and 1624 (2005). That might foreshadow similar gaps in the implementation of resolution 2178 (2014). Respect for human rights, fundamental freedoms and the rule of law were an essential part of a successful counter-terrorism effort. Failure by States to comply with those and other international obligations, including under the Charter of the United Nations, was one of the factors contributing to increased radicalization.
JULIE BISHOP, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Australia, Council President, spoke in her national capacity, stating that Australians were outraged over the recruitment of young, disaffected men and women from the country by terrorist groups operating in Syria and Iraq. Her country was committed to working with the Iraqi Government, the United States and over 30 partners to attack and degrade ISIL. To prevent recruitment of its citizens, Australia was using an existing legal framework to freeze assets of recruiters and cancel passports. New foreign fighter laws aimed to disrupt the organizing, financing and facilitation of foreign fighters.
A crucial pillar of ending the threat, she said, was working with communities to prevent young people from embracing violent extremism. Everyone, including Muslim communities themselves, must denounce the radical preachers of hate, she stressed, proposing that a United Nations envoy be appointed to build a coherent, coordinated and strategic message to counter the threat of violent extremism and provide much-needed guidance to States. “We must starve terrorist organizations of fighters, funding and legitimacy,” she stated.
HÉCTOR MARCOS TIMERMAN, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Worship of Argentina, said that, in addition to the ongoing cruelty of terrorist acts, innovative modalities of terrorism had caused the “virtual globalization of horror”, demonstrating that a military option could not be the only option, particularly given the failure of such efforts to end the scourge before. Multilateralism must be strengthened for that purpose. He noted that his country had suffered terrorism by both a brutal domestic dictatorship and savage attacks by foreign terrorist groups. A comprehensive approach was needed, within the scope of rule of law and due process, respecting all principles of the United Nations Charter and international human rights and humanitarian law.
In that regard, he said, the establishment of the Office of the Ombudsperson represented an advance in addressing the matter. However, the mandate of that Office needed to be expanded. Among the many international treaties that were relevant in fighting terrorism was the Arms Trade Treaty. He underlined the need for accession to that treaty and expressed hope that non-State actors would at some point soon be added to those subject to its provisions. It was essential to keep weapons away from conflict zones. Across the board, multilateral action through the United Nations was the most effective way to stop terrorism and create a world that was safer.
JEAN ASSELBORN, Minister for Foreign and European Affairs of Luxembourg, said the threat from terrorists groups, including ISIL, the Al‑Nusra Front and Al‑Qaida, was a source of growing concern. He thanked the Monitoring Team for their report which highlighted the nexus of funding and control over large parts of territory and populations, as well as the support from 15,000 foreign fighters and 80 countries. To counter those atrocities, such as the most recent assassination of humanitarian aid worker Abdul Rahman (Peter) Kassig, Member States’ response must be commensurate to the challenge. To help strengthen the international counter-terrorism framework, he called for full implementation of resolutions 2170 (2014) and 2178 (2014). Regarding the latter resolution, his Government had completed a review of its legal framework, with the aim of preventing those who wanted to fight alongside terrorists from travelling to conflict zones, and ensuring effective prosecution of those engaged in terrorist preparation, training and recruitment.
A mentoring and outreach network in consultation with educational and religious institutions and with support of the Red Cross was also being planned, he said. To prevent travel by terrorists, the European Union was undertaking an information exchange system for the Schengen area and through the provision of Passenger Name Records. Luxembourg was intending to pursue those efforts when it assumed the Presidency of the Council of the European Union in the second semester of 2015. His Government had also adopted a complete set of legislative and regulatory measures to help dry up terrorist funding sources such as oil smuggling, trafficking in antiquities, terrorist taxing of populations under their control, and the “despicable” trafficking of women and children.
EUGÈNE-RICHARD GASANA (Rwanda) recalled that the average age of terrorists today was much younger than that of previous generations. In many countries, young people faced challenges related to education, poverty and discrimination. Through social media, they could easily be recruited by jihadists. Any comprehensive approach required States’ continued resolve to address political, economic and social challenges, as socioeconomic hurdles should never justify criminal activities. Terrorists, regardless of their background, must be held accountable for widowing mothers and fathers, orphaning children and destroying communities. While terrorism should never be identified with any religion or faith, religious leaders had an important role to play by rejecting violent narratives and protecting youth from radicalism.
Furthermore, he said, countries of origin, transit and destination for foreign terrorist fighters should work together to stem the flow of those killers. Measures must be put in place to counter the hatred they perpetrated over social media. To staunch youth recruitment by terrorist groups, the 1267/1989 Committee should be ready to impose sanctions against those who supported terrorism. Financing offered another tool to combat terrorism and he called on all States to implement the Security Council’s 28 July presidential statement to ensure their nationals or residents not engage in financial transactions with foreign terrorist fighters. Urging that proactive policies, mechanisms and other measures be put in place to eradicate terrorists, he said such efforts would only succeed if the United Nations worked with regional and subregional organizations.
SHIN DONG-IK, Deputy Minister for Multilateral and Global Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Korea, strongly supported the presidential statement, noting its emphasis on curbing the financing of terrorists. ISIL and the Al‑Nusra Front had terrorized, extorted and sexually enslaved civilians. “This clearly goes against the very values of Islam they claim to represent,” he said. The security implications from the increase of foreign terrorist fighters resonated far beyond the Middle East. Less restrictive border controls, spurred by globalization, had enabled them to move around the world with relative ease, while their adept internet use had made their recruitment more toxic.
For its part, the Republic of Korea had launched an inter-agency process to review relevant laws and systems to identify gaps in border control, financing and information sharing, he said. It had enhanced monitoring of foreign terrorist fighters’ travel by making use of INTERPOL databases and the Advance Passenger Information System. It supported the recent adoption of the East Asia Summit statement on terrorist groups in Syria and Iraq, as well as the initiative by the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate to hold a regional counter-terrorism workshop in North-East Asia next year. Noting that his Government was assisting global efforts to end the malicious use of information and communication technology by terrorists, he urged the Council to explore socioeconomic strategies to address the root causes of terrorism, and the United Nations to strengthen cooperation with organizations such as INTERPOL.
ANDRIUS KRIVAS, Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs of Lithuania, said significant gaps in the implementation of frameworks to tackle the threat of terrorism persisted due to lack of capacities, resources, or political will. Efforts to bridge those gaps needed to be stepped up. At the same time, concrete means and measures needed to be updated and adapted, if not to outpace, then at least to match, the level of innovation and dynamics of terrorists themselves. Noting the significant new challenges posed by social media and modern communication technologies when used by terrorists, he said the United Nations needed to increase its efforts in addressing violent extremism and raising the Organization’s visibility in that area, including through strategic communications.
He said mobility and flexibility also exacerbated the threat of terrorism by providing it with a potentially global reach. In that regard, countries needed to intensify their efforts in improving information-sharing and analytical capabilities at border crossings. Wider and better use of INTERPOL databases must be encouraged. Moreover, capacities of States, especially those neighbouring conflict zones, to control their land borders needed to be further strengthened. It was also essential to step up efforts aimed at disrupting terrorist financing. Many of the activities of terrorist organizations, such as looting, illicit trade in antiquities and protected species, poaching, kidnapping for ransom, human trafficking, and drug trafficking had links with international organized crime networks. States’ ability to detect and prevent terrorism financing in all its varieties was a crucial component of counter-terrorism efforts.
MARK LYALL GRANT (United Kingdom) said that the international community must improve its collective response to increasingly dangerous terrorist practices. Countering the ideology of Islamist extremism was critical; all should denounce ISIL and other groups’ hijacking of religion. Disrupting terrorist income was another priority, and he welcomed the monitoring team’s recent recommendations on that issue. To disrupt the travel of potential terrorists to conflict zones, his country had taken measures including preventing travel and rehabilitating returnees. A comprehensive, global fight against terrorists led by the United Nations should benefit from the combined efforts of the entire system in concert with the international community.
LIU JIEYI (China), noting the new challenges of global terrorism, said that international information-sharing and other cooperation must be increased, under a single standard. Terrorists were the enemies of humankind; all groups must be fought without double standards or selectivity. All principles of the United Nations Charter must be respected in the fight against terrorism, including the sovereignty of States. The root causes of terrorism must be addressed. Noting the rise of cyberterrorism, he said that rigorous steps must be taken against online distribution of propaganda and online financing of terrorism. He looked forward to upcoming meetings on that issue. China had been facing increasing terrorist attacks in recent years and was determined to fight terrorism both on the domestic and international level in cooperation with the international community, particularly in the area of cyberterrorism.
USMAN SARKI (Nigeria) said that cooperation was needed at all levels to fight terrorism, along with stepped-up efforts at the national level. International and regional instruments had been developed for that purpose, he added, describing African mechanisms and strategies that aimed to bring countries together at the subregional level. Nigeria’s President had underscored the country’s commitment to fighting the terrorism that beset it, including bolstering security and legal mechanisms to better deal with the threat of Boko Haram. An approach to de-radicalization had been developed to reintegrate offenders into society. He continued to count on the support of partners in the long, difficult fight against the terrorist scourge. Worldwide it was critical to address alienation, inequality, conflict and other root causes in that effort.
DINA KAWAR (Jordan) said Al‑Qaida and affiliated groups were an imminent threat to the Middle East, controlling resource-rich lands. The lack of a comprehensive political solution in Syria had worsened the situation. It would not be possible to staunch ISIL in Syria without a political transition. Jordan continued to control its borders in order to prevent those groups from expanding. “We should be vigilant to the ideological threat of such organizations,” she said, by spreading awareness and fostering culture and education among local communities. The capacities of countries at the forefront of combating terrorism must be supported, she emphasized, expressing concern that terrorists had committed crimes against civilians in Iraq and Syria.
To combat foreign terrorist fighters, pre-emptive security measures were needed at national and international levels, she said, urging the United Nations to partner with States. Governments should enhance regional cooperation, share information and implement border controls. Her country had taken a comprehensive approach, based on pre-emptive measures that tackled the political, economic and social dimensions of the problem, including the adoption of counter-terrorism laws and implementation of border controls. A planned regional initiative aimed to produce a media plan that would raise awareness of the threat of terrorists’ increased use of information and communications technologies to spread extremist ideology.
FRANÇOIS DELATTRE (France) said the murder of Peter Kassig and 18 Syrians re-emphasized the need to combat terrorism. Da’esh represented an unprecedented global threat, as it had developed links to Ansar al Sharia in Libya and Boko Haram in Nigeria. For its part, France — working alongside the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) — had helped to reduce the terrorist threat, and he called for a redoubling of efforts in that regard. The struggle against Da’esh required a military response from a coalition of States, pointing out that his country was active in Iraq, reinforcing air support. Reports that such efforts had helped to stem that armed group’s territorial expansion were encouraging.
Indeed, Da’esh was feeding off the fragilities of a State beset by division, he said, noting that Iraq’s Prime Minister was working to establish the conditions for reconciliation. He voiced support for those efforts, as well as those to settle the dispute regarding Kurdistan. In Syria, only a political transition would defeat Da’esh. Turning to the situation in Libya, he urged all moderate forces to “put up a single front” against terrorism, calling for more use of the sanctions regime against Al‑Qaida. Noting that the response to terrorism must be carried out in line with international humanitarian and human rights law, he said that France on 4 November had adopted measures to stop individuals thought to have engaged in terrorism from leaving the country, in line with resolution 2178 (2014).
MAHAMAT ZENE CHERIF (Chad) said ISIL and the Al‑Nusra Front had acquired increasingly sophisticated weapons and taken more territory. They were involved in kidnappings, illegal oil sales and the spread of a barbaric ideology. Africa continued to confront violent extremism from groups such as Boko Haram, Al‑Qaida in the Magreb, and Al‑Shabaab, all of which were well coordinated. On 2 September, the African Union Peace and Security Council met to strengthen the legal framework in the fight against terrorism, as well as address arrest warrants and create a mechanism to “dry up” terrorist funding.
“We must attack the deep-rooted causes of such activities,” he said, which were nourished by poverty and unemployment, particularly of young people. Africa’s partners must provide technical and other assistance. For its part, Chad’s commitment was strong, notably in Mali, he stated, voicing support for the presidential statement with hope it would help States implement resolutions 2170 (2014) and 2178 (2014).
VITALY CHURKIN (Russian Federation) said that experiences in Iraq, Syria and Libya showed that international interventions often engendered terrorism. Terrorist groups had gained strength in Syria following support from abroad for supposedly moderate rebel groups. Today’s presidential statement pointed the right direction for fighting terrorism. It was critical to cut off financing; air strikes had not suppressed the illicit sale of oil by terrorists and the European Union’s loosening of strictures on oil purchases had made it easier for such transactions to take place. In other areas, he regretted that his delegation’s text on keeping chemical weapons out of the hands of terrorist groups in Syria had not been acted upon. Gaps in the Council’s regime against terrorism must be filled, for example measures to restrict travelling of potential terrorists should be tied to a specific sanctions regime.
CRISTIÁN BARROS MELET (Chile) said that the Council should be proactive in the fight against terrorism and that constant national effort to implement the organ’s resolutions was needed. His country had acted to fulfil its responsibilities in that regard by strengthening its legal framework and other measures. Information exchange on implementing relevant resolutions was particularly important; regional organizations were useful in that area. Expressing concern over extremist ideologies being spread over the Internet, he stressed that it was important to ask why terrorist narratives had been so successful. It was necessary to maintain respect for diversity and promote inclusiveness in all societies. Financing of terrorism was another area in which cooperative action was needed, along with the prevention of arms trafficking. He pledged his country’s support for both respect for human rights and the fight against terrorism.
DAVID PRESSMAN (United States) said that the cruelty of ISIL threatened the values upon which the United Nations was founded. Noting that foreign fighters were seen in the video featuring the beheading of an American aid worker this past week, he stated that new approaches were needed to harness collective international efforts. His country was working with many States to end terrorist travelling and financing; he noted much evidence of greater international cooperation in that area. Much more must be done, however. The importance of choking off all financial support had been noted by the Council and many of the counter-terrorism bodies were filling in gaps in counter-terrorism regimes. “We must turn outrage into action. We must do so together and we must do so decisively,” he said.
ASOKE KUMAR MUKERJI (India) pointing to the importance of national implementation of Security Council resolutions on terrorism, underlined the need for sharing of national experience in data collection on foreign terrorist fighters. To effectively use such information, the Council must act robustly using the instruments of law. In that context, the Council should add its voice to the early conclusion of the comprehensive convention on international terrorism, so that Member States were obliged to either prosecute or extradite terrorists. Noting that there were as many as 31 separate entities dealing with terrorism in the United Nations but no single focal point or coordinator, he stressed the situation must be rectified. He called on Member States to fulfil their obligations to ensure that their territory was not being used by terrorists. Experience in the 2008 Mumbai attack showed that it was critical to ensure that the Internet was not exploited by violent extremists. Action must also be ensured when terrorist fighters attack peacekeepers, and the working procedures of the Council in counter-terrorism must be constantly communicated to Member States.
ABDALLAH Y. AL-MOUALLIMI (Saudi Arabia), speaking for the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), said that in the past decade, terrorist movements such as Al‑Qaida had transformed from a single organization into a network of autonomous but affiliated groups, targeting anyone who refused to adhere to their “violent and unfounded” ideology. Groups such as ISIL that claimed affiliation to Islam as a way to justify their criminal acts had nothing to do with that faith. The OIC condemned all attempts to associate Islam or any Islamic country, race, religion, culture or nationality with terrorism. “Religious war is the misguided refuge of extremists who cannot build or create anything”, he said.
Addressing the symptoms of terrorism without dealing with its roots would not foster a lasting solution, he said, calling for a “proper” understanding of the political, social and economic environment that bred violent extremism. The Organization was committed to strengthening cooperation in the fight against terrorism by developing a mutually agreed definition of terrorism, exchanging information and building capacity. He affirmed the importance of bringing to justice any person who supported, facilitated, participated or attempted to participate in financing, planning or committing terrorist acts. In that context, he drew attention to Israeli aggression against Palestinians, which he called State-sponsored terrorism.
MASOOD KHAN (Pakistan), emphasizing that violent extremism fuelled terrorism, underlined the need for appropriate military responses. It was also necessary to understand the conditions in which violence and terrorism thrived. In that context, the building of national capacities and addressing the underlying causes was needed, as well as understanding the mindsets of those behind terror so that their ideas could be undermined. Also important was an understanding of the motivations of those engaging in extremism. Calling for the implementation of United Nations measures, he stressed his country’s “zero tolerance” approach, detailing operations to eliminate terrorists, dismantle their networks, stop the flow of fighters and destroy their support systems. Despite the fact that terrorists mistook overtures for dialogue as appeasement, efforts were still being made to de-radicalize and reintegrate youths into the larger society, and investments were being made in social, educational, religious and economic sectors.
Strategies and solutions had to respond to the particular environment in which they were pursued, he said, noting that his country’s national counter-extremism policy had shown the importance of local leadership. Involvement of outsiders often raised suspicions. Youth responded best to direct programmes and projects, while direct advocacy was less effective. Approaches should be underpinned by the rule of law, due process and access to justice. Exacerbation of ideological and religious differences was to be avoided, and community leaders should be involved in mediation and intercession. He noted efforts towards implementing resolutions 2170 (2014) and 2178 (2014) and stressed the importance of coordination. The United Nations had a major role in countering terrorism and he suggested the possibility of establishing a special representative on extremism.
BASHAR JA’AFARI (Syria), calling for the implementation of resolutions 2170 (2014) and 2178 (2014), pointed to the “silence” of the United Nations over Governments which were funding terrorism. As a result, such Governments were acting “even more brazenly”. United Nations agencies’ efforts had taken on a “slow, administrative character”. There had been no reply to official letters submitted by his country to the Committee on resolution 1540 (2004), the most recent of which contained photographs of victims of Da’esh bombings that suggested the group’s use of toxic chemical gases. Despite such revelations, the Committee continued to use the term “armed opposition” when referring to terrorist groups in Syria, highlighting the contradiction between the words and the resolutions of the Security Council. Airstrikes were ineffective, with a flow of 1,000 new fighters per month, and only 500 combatants killed per month. The airstrikes were being carried out without coordination with Governments of affected States, and were targeting gas and oil wells, and assets belonging to the Syrian people. That violated the Charter and threatened international peace and security.
Support for terrorists had to end, he said, noting the involvement of foreign fighters in trafficking of women, kidnapping and beheadings and highlighting the involvement of several other States in backing terror groups. His country’s warnings had met with no reactions from the international community and he pointed out that a terrorist had specifically asserted that the Houla massacre had been carried out at a time deliberately chosen to correspond with a Security Council meeting on Syria. He opposed a claim made by the representative of France that Da’esh had grown with support of the Syrian regime. That was a major contradiction and he could not understand why such a claim had been made despite the assertions of the Chair of the Sanctions Committee, his “Australian colleague” [Gary Quinlan]. Rather, Saudi support had been vital and he recalled that nine of the “9/11” terrorists were from Saudi Arabia, with that country, along with Qatar, sponsoring and financing terrorism.
MOHAMED ALI ALHAKIM (Iraq) described the heavy toll that the conflict was taking on his country. The ranks of terrorist fighters continued to swell, with 15,000 currently involved from 80 countries. Fighters were active in Iraq and Syria, reflecting the existence of sophisticated networks in other countries to facilitate the cross-border flows of fighters. Any State authorizing the existence of such networks needed to be subject to a Security Council response. Resolution 2178 (2014) also needed to be implemented and the Council should demand such implementation by all States.
ISIL’s terrorist acts illustrated its “savagery and brutality”, he said, calling it a “killing machine” that committed crimes against anyone not holding its “ungodly and extremist” views. Iraqi armed forces, the Peshmerga, local police, and citizens’ movements had responded to the Iraqi Government’s call and that of the religious authorities to respond to the threat posed by ISIL. Stemming the group’s financing sources was essential. Purchases of oil from ISIL prolonged its life. The international conference on fighting terrorism was a significant development, as greater solidarity and coordination was needed, with a focus on financing. All States needed to be involved and to abide by resolutions 2170 (2014) and 2178 (2014). His Government was working to mobilize Arab regional cooperation, which he believed was essential for the implementation of resolutions in the region, adding that Syria had to be involved in that process because terror knew no geographic borders.
GUILHERME DE AGUIAR PATRIOTA (Brazil) said that there was no better forum than the United Nations Security Council to consider the issue of terrorism, which was a global threat and had to be treated as such. As resolution 2178 (2014) acknowledged, repressive measures could not by themselves eliminate terrorism. The fight against terrorism had to be undertaken with full respect for human rights, including the right to privacy. In that context, he called attention to a recently issued report entitled “Promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism (document A/69/397) which examined the use of mass digital surveillance for counter-terrorism purposes. If measures to counter-terrorism were undertaken at the expense of international law or respect for human rights, their legitimacy would be compromised, rendering them ineffective.
IB PETERSEN (Denmark), speaking for Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, said that the international community needed to support an inclusive political process in Iraq. As well, it needed to have a strong political engagement to solve the conflict in Syria. The common fight against terrorism always had to comply with international law. Terrorists’ use of social media as a means of communication was of great concern and had to be countered without infringing on freedom of expression; censorship was not a solution. Terrorism and the problem of foreign terrorist fighters could only be defeated through de-radicalization efforts addressing the complex and diverse motivations for radicalization and violent extremism.
The role of women as agents for conflict prevention needed to be fully acknowledged and further explored, he said, adding that civil society organizations, religious leaders, social workers and teachers were examples of those who could make a difference on the ground. He underscored that the international community’s strongest counter-narrative was a firm commitment to democracy, human rights and equality. Those values were end goals in themselves and cornerstones of inclusive societies where no one should feel marginalized and be attracted to violent extremism.
Y. HALIT ÇEVIK (Turkey) said that in order to prevent foreign terrorist fighters from reaching conflict areas, security measures had been reinforced long before the adoption of resolutions 2170 (2014) and 2178 (2014). They included enhanced passenger screening and security checks in regions adjacent to the Syrian border. As a result, 7,420 individuals from more than 80 countries had been included on a no-entry list, and 1,050 individuals had been deported. During the first eight months of this year, 20 million litres of smuggled oil had been seized. However, the flow of foreign terrorist fighters could only be stopped if partners acted in a spirit of cooperation. For sustainable solutions, there was a requirement to counter the spread of radical ideologies, and any attempt to affiliate terrorism with any religion or ethnic group was utterly wrong and would play into the hands of terrorists.
CSABA KŐRÖSI (Hungary), associating himself with the European Union, expressed his appreciation for the measures and comprehensive approach taken by the Council in resolutions 2170 (2014) and 2178 (2014), and commended its stronger focus on the accountability in the fight against terrorism. By implementing those resolutions and making sure that foreign fighters, sources and weapons did not reach the conflict zones, Member States and international organizations were also rendering assistance to countries in need, as described in the Responsibility to Protect principle. The Independent International Commission of Inquiry in the activities of ISIL in Syria seemed to be convinced that besides domestic action and regional international cooperation, international accountability mechanisms, including the International Criminal Court, should also be engaged. There was no reason to doubt that the fact-finding mission would find alarming circumstances related to ISIL activities in Iraq.
HEIKO THOMS (Germany) said that his Government was strongly engaged in countering the threat of terrorism and violent extremism both abroad and at home, contributing to support for the Iraqi Government as well as for people affected by the crises in Iraq and Syria. Germany currently had Salafist followers numbering an estimated 6,200 individuals who promoted a society governed by a fundamentalist interpretation of Islamic rules, as well as approximately 450 radical German Islamists who had travelled to Iraq and Syria. Germany’s existing legal framework allowed the prevention of travel and transit of potential foreign terrorist fighters. De-radicalization measures needed to integrate back into society those who had taken on extremist views, and security organs alone could not accomplish that. His Government had put into place measures to contribute to that endeavour
HOSSEIN DEHGHANI (Iran), speaking for the Non-Aligned Movement, said that terrorism should not be equated with the legitimate struggle of peoples under foreign occupation for self-determination and national liberation. Expressing grave concern over the acute and growing threat posed by foreign terrorist fighters, he emphasized the need for States to address that issue by the implementation of their international obligations. Rejecting actions, measures, or use or threat of force against any member of the Movement under the pretext of combating terrorism, such as categorizing them as terrorism-sponsoring States, he called upon all States to condemn any form of terrorism.
Reaffirming the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, he called for its transparent and comprehensive implementation, and condemned criminal incidences of hostage-taking with resultant demands for ransoms and political concessions by terrorist groups. He also called for an international summit conference under the auspices of the United Nations to formulate a joint organized response of the international community to terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, including identifying its root causes.
Speaking in his national capacity, he stressed that ISIL posed a danger to the Middle East and North Africa. Any positon against that organization should be coupled by action, and all countries, especially those around areas controlled by ISIL, should mean what they say, and mobilize to destroy it. Governments in the region had yet to take the threat seriously and had yet to stop flow of financial aid to that group. On that front, sufficient efforts were not seen on the part of those who bore responsibility for what ISIL had done. That approach could only stoke the fire of sectarianism. His Government had secured its borders, and, in many cases, Iranian officials had apprehended individuals who had tried to send material assistance to terrorists.
AMIT HEUMANN (Israel) said the previous day’s “horrifying terror attack” in Israel showed that countries could not “look the other way” on terrorism. The rate of terrorist attacks had increased five-fold in the previous 14 years and it had to be tackled at its roots. Terrorism’s violent ideology of incitement needed confronting and the six recent attacks in Israel came following “inflammatory statements” by the Palestinian leadership. Taking on incitement was one of the most effective counter-terrorism tools available. Sponsors also had to be countered, particularly Iran, who he said was “terrorism’s primary sponsor, financier and trainer”, backing Hizbullah and Hamas and sending fighters to fight with Assad’s forces in Syria. Qatar also provided financing, weapons and a base for leaders. Counter-terrorism had to evolve to meet new developments. One new trend saw terror groups overrunning nations, he said, citing examples of Hamas, Hizbullah and ISIS. The latter was a “multimillion-dollar enterprise” thanks to capturing oil fields. Jihadist groups like ISIS attracted fighters from around the world, many of whom would return home with radical ideologies, military expertise and dangerous aspirations. In that regard, he welcomed resolution 2178 (2014) but called for matching of intentions with action on the ground.
AMR ABDELLATIF ABOULATTA (Egypt) said it was incumbent on all States to do everything possible at all levels to counter terrorism. His country had been calling for an international response to terrorism since the 1980s, including an international conference to improve coordination of international efforts and to track financing. Concrete measures at the national level had been taken, changing the penal code to define terrorism and criminalizing all acts of terrorism, incitement and financing. Work was also ongoing to refute terrorist and radical ideas through Al‑Azhar Al‑Sharif University and Mosque which dispatched scientists and religious specialists to West Africa to explain and refute extremist ideas. The United Nations was the proper forum to tackle terrorism and provide the means and “know-how” to combat terror. Cooperation with Member States should be enhanced and there should be regular briefings on capacities to tackle terrorism. He supported establishment of a special representative towards that end and said the Office’s mandate should be confined to extreme radicalism while avoiding any links to a specific religion, culture or ethnic group. To tackle Da’esh and the Al‑Nusra Front a holistic approach was needed
THOMAS MAYR HARTING, Head of the European Union Delegation, said that combating terrorism required a long-term, comprehensive approach by the entire international community. The recent political dialogue between the Organization and the Union was an opportunity to further deepen an already strong cooperation. As well, the Union had recently co-hosted a conference in Brussels focused on counter-terrorism capacity-building of the United Nations Counter-Terrorism regional centres. The recent adoption of Security Council resolutions 2170 (2014) and 2178 (2014) had helped the Union and its member States to sharpen their focus in important areas of concern. Furthermore, since June 2013, a range of measures, including improved border checks and intensified efforts to disrupt suspicious travel had been introduced and were now reflected in a legal framework for prosecuting foreign fighters. An upcoming conference on foreign fighters would be convened this November in Brussels.
He also voiced strong support for action taken under resolution 2178 (2014), underscoring that, as the top tier of terrorists was removed, it was increasingly important to ensure that younger recruits did not take their place. The Union had established the Radicalization Awareness Network, which involved approximately 1,000 practitioners dealing with the prevention of radicalization, including online recruitment and counter-narratives. Also recently adopted was a revised Strategy to Combat Radicalization and Recruitment to Terrorism, which opened a dialogue with Internet companies and addressed joint training for law enforcement, industry and civil society. In an effort to help build capacity measures of developing third countries, support was being given to the counter-terrorism efforts of Nigerian authorities. In addition, projects in East Africa and South Asia had been launched, as well as a regional initiative aimed at violent extremism in the Sahel and Maghreb regions.
YOSHIFUMI OKAMURA (Japan) said that the threat of terrorism was different from that of ethnic or religious conflicts. Threats were expanding, not just in Iraq and Syria, but also in Africa, he said, expressing shock that Boko Haram had abducted more than two hundred schoolgirls. Furthermore, in Aménas, Algeria, hostage-taking had been followed by the deaths of 10 Japanese people. Where the younger generation were frustrated by extreme poverty and youth unemployment, terrorism expanded. By achieving social and economic development, a foundation could be created that did not tolerate terrorism. That was the very idea of the Tokyo International Conference on African Development. His Government was working in close cooperation, through many initiatives and dialogues, with the States in Asia, especially the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) on counter-terrorism. Such efforts were key, making it easier to have “more candid exchanges of views and ideas” that could result in effective and practical measures to combat the scourge.
ALYA AHMED SAIF AL-THANI (Qatar) said that, in spite of the sombre picture of terrorism and efforts by terrorists to increase fear in societies, there was a need to remain optimistic about coping with that challenge. Her Government was committed to face terrorism at all levels, and would do everything within its power to achieve that goal. Nationally, a number of measures had been adopted, including several laws to criminalize the use of electronic means in the service of terrorism, and the monitoring of charity organizations so they were not used for terrorism. With regard to implementing the United Nations Strategy, a conference had been organized on preventing the use of charitable organizations to finance terrorism. Without a strategy, terrorism was impossible to deal with. Cooperating on tackling terrorism required institutional work, and a lack of cooperation at the international level had been taken advantage of by terrorist groups. Experience showed that terrorism was not linked to any nationality or religion.
MARÍA EMMA MEJÍA VÉLEZ (Colombia) reaffirmed that terrorism could never be justified. Committed to fighting the scourge, she expressed solidarity with others fighting around the world. Countermeasures were needed that reflected universal principles and were compatible with international human rights norms, international humanitarian law and United Nations tenets. As well, “energetic” efforts were needed to counter the spread as military force could not be the only route. Those included consensus-based multilateral measures with broad participation and the sharing of experiences and best practices vital to boosting cooperation. In addition, international support was needed for national efforts. Her country’s main concern was the diversion of arms to armed groups. The illicit trade in weapons fuelled conflict and undermined States. The Arms Trade Treaty demonstrated progress and its full implementation would help eliminate terror, as would implementation of other related international treaties, and the signing of a blanket international agreement on terrorism.
KAIRAT ABDRAKHMANOV (Kazakhstan) called for a long-term comprehensive approach to fighting international terrorism. Member States had to participate actively at national, regional and global levels. He expressed hope for a comprehensive anti-terrorism convention and improvements to other treaty mechanisms. The Head of the Executive Directorate of the Counter-Terrorism Committee had visited his country’s capital, Astana, meeting law enforcement and finance officials. Kazakhstan was involved in several bodies, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Anti-Terrorist Centre of the Commonwealth of Independent States, and was working closely with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime regional office. He described efforts to implement the Global Strategy in Central Asia and referenced examples of cooperation with the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). On a national platform, $600 million had been allocated to implementing a programme to tackle religious extremism and terrorism.
ALBERT SHINGIRO (Burundi) said that the increasingly heinous acts of terrorism worldwide demanded a stronger global response. The outsourcing and exporting of the terrorist threat had also increased. In that ever more globalized context, it could be seen that military intervention was not enough to end the scourge. It was essential to eradicate the conditions that allow the emergence of terrorism, including ensuring the well-being of the poorest communities. Development aid was critical in that light. It was necessary to understand the strategies of each terrorist group, and to promote understanding, respect for human rights and the rule of law. He pledged his country’s full support for international action against terrorism, as shown by its contributions to the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM).
SITI HAJJAR ADNIN (Malaysia), associating herself with the Non-Aligned Movement, described efforts to enhance the domestic legal framework for combating terrorism and to better comply with Security Council resolutions, including passing of the Security Offences (Special Measures) Act in 2012. The Southeast Asia Regional Centre for Counter-Terrorism worked on capacity-building and technical assistance and worked with the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate and UNODC. Regional cooperation against terrorism took place primarily through the ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crime and the ASEAN Convention on Counter-Terrorism complemented the United Nations Global Terrorism Strategy and provided a regional legislative framework. Malaysia had ratified nine of 14 international conventions and protocols against terrorism and he welcomed the cooperation agreement between the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate and the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations.
KAREN TAN (Singapore) said extremist groups like ISIL infected vulnerable individuals with their ideology. Furthermore, battle-hardened returnees exacerbated the threat of existing terror networks as they could carry out attacks at home. Self-radicalization and spontaneous acts of terror were also concerns given the prevalence of information and communications technology and social media platforms. Approximately 350 South-East Asians, including some Singaporeans, were reportedly in Iraq and Syria, posing a long-term risk to social harmony at home. Her country had contributed assets and personnel to the multinational coalition undertaking “Operation Inherent Resolve”. However, she recognized the importance of also tackling the extremist ideology used to recruit foreign fighters. An integrated approach to combating terrorism included religious-based and community-led initiatives, including a Religious Rehabilitation Group that debunked misconceptions and misinterpretations of scripture. Families and community organizations were also essential to extirpating the roots of “the weed of violent extremism”.
BÉNÉDICTE FRANKINET (Belgium) said that her country was among those States most affected by the foreign fighter phenomenon, as well as being a strong supporter of counter-terrorism efforts. The United Nations had an important role in coordinating the response. Welcoming recent Council resolutions on terrorism, she called on all countries to comprehensively implement them. She also welcomed the Counter-Terrorism Centre’s initiatives in that regard. Describing her country’s programme to prevent radicalization of young people, she stated that efforts in that context should be focused at the local level. On terrorist financing, existing sanctions regimes must be fully implemented. A greater exchange of information at the international level was also critical, as was transparency and due diligence on the part of financial institutions.
TALAIBEK KYDYROV (Kyrgyzstan) reiterated his country’s resolute support for all measures adopted within the framework of the United Nations to combat terrorism, in particular the Global Anti-Terrorism Strategy, which must be kept relevant in light of emerging new threats. As his country was taking steps to implement resolution 2178 (2014), it was important to operationalize provisions that called for building the capacity of States to address the threat posed by foreign terrorist fighters. Regional security must be strengthened in Central Asia, where the impact of the transition in Afghanistan was a leading concern and required greater cooperation from regional frameworks. Supporting the Regional Centre for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia, he called on the Centre to pay special attention to those issues, including national implementation of Council resolutions.
FRANCISCO JAVIER GASSO MATOSES (Spain), welcoming recent Council actions on terrorism, said that root causes, propaganda, financing and travel of terrorism must be addressed within a framework that respected the rule of law. It was essential to delegitimize terrorism while ensuring criminals were held accountable. His country was working to prevent recruitment and traveling of foreign fighters and was strengthening its legal regime in that light. It had developed a strategic plan to counter radicalization; it was important to counter the use of the Internet for propaganda while preserving the right to free speech. Greater international cooperation was needed on prosecuting terrorists and to cut off their financing. No cracks should be left that allowed funds to flow to terrorist groups. It should also be borne in mind that victims of terrorism could play an important role, particularly in combating radicalization.
OMAR HILALE (Morocco), strongly condemning the decapitation of Peter Kassig by Da’esh, which contravened Islam, said that terrorism should not be associated with any religion, nationality or ethnic group. Terrorists were using the Internet and social networks to recruit victims from all nationalities. They had even recruited young people from developed countries, changing the traditional link between terrorism and poverty. Recalling that in 2003 and 2011 Morocco had fallen victim to terrorist attacks, he pledged that his Government would fight that scourge by improving security and governance, as well as promoting sustainable development and restructuring religious policy. To that end, an authority had been created to interpret the Quran, and thereby discourage those considering terrorist activities. In addition, training had been provided to young imams.
KOKI MULI GRIGNON (Kenya), recalling some of the most atrocious acts of terrorism her country had experienced, said terrorism in the region stemmed from perennial instability in neighbouring States, particularly in Somalia where Al‑Shabaab was based. Her country was a target only because of its avowed war on terror and its partnerships with key allies in the fight against terrorism and violent extremism. Its geographical position had made it easier for Al‑Shabaab to recruit and radicalize Kenyan youth. Since that group publicly declared Kenya a target of terror attacks, her Government had mobilized its law enforcement machinery and fostered regional partnerships with neighbouring countries to counter that threat. In addition, it had engaged local communities to fund programmes aimed at reducing the vulnerability of youth to violent extremism.
ANDREJ LOGAR (Slovenia), associating himself with the European Union said his country contributed to global efforts in countering terrorism and violent extremism. It had also, in cooperation with nine other European Union member States, put forward a non-paper regarding the Union’s initiative on sharing best practices in national counter-terrorism arrangements with Western Balkan countries. In October of this year, Slovenia had hosted a Western Balkans counter-radicalization workshop co-organized by the European Union and the United States. In addition, it had been doing outreach to the region in the field of policing since 2008, when the Secretariat of the Police Cooperation Convention for Southeast Europe established its headquarters in his country’s capital, Ljubljana.
INIGO LAMBERTINI (Italy), associating himself with the European Union, said the main and most dangerous expression of terrorism today was ISIL. It posed a major threat to soldiers and civilians in Iraq and Syria and also extended its reach within the borders of European and Western States. Particularly troubling was the ability of ISIL to self-finance through its control over oil fields on the border between Syria and Iraq. Al‑Qaida was still active as was the galaxy of its affiliates in various parts of the world. A threat of that gravity and dimension required a joint effort and a shared response at the global level, through the United Nations and other multilateral fora. There needed to be a multilateral, comprehensive and flexible approach in all the relevant fora, complemented by strengthened bilateral cooperation.
SABRI BOUKADOUM (Algeria) said it was the responsibility of individual States and the international community to stem the scourge of terrorism from which his country had suffered much. Comprehensive strategies at all levels were needed to fight the phenomenon of foreign fighters, including at the level of ideology as well as security. His country had adopted a wide range of legal instruments criminalizing terrorist acts, including incitement. Counter-terrorism was also related to national reconciliation. All sectors of the Government were involved in a coherent response to extremism, fanaticism and intolerance. He pledged his country’s full cooperation with all international efforts to stem terrorism, in light of its experience.
MÓNICA BOLAÑOS PÉREZ (Guatemala) said it was discouraging to see terrorism continue and grow more ruthless despite international efforts. Only collective efforts at all levels could halt the spread of the scourge, including not only security measures but also preventive efforts that addressed root causes such as poverty. National resilience against terrorism must be built through reducing such conditions and countering radical ideologies. A global counter-terrorism convention was very much needed to boost cooperation and fill gaps in the sanctions regimes. The Security Council had an important role, but it could not address the conditions that engendered terrorism. Coordination throughout the entire United Nations system was important in that light, with current structures analysed before new organs were created, she stated, expressing solidarity with victims and their families.
FERIT HOXHA (Albania), noting that terrorists’ tactics had adapted to modern times, said ISIL took pride in being ruthless killers and war crimes offenders, rather than the “United Nations of Islam” it had professed. He applauded action by European States and their allies, which had produced encouraging results. Eradicating ISIL would take time. His country supported the new Iraqi Government and was committed to providing military and humanitarian assistance. Furthermore, Albania had been among the first countries in the region to adopt stiff criminal penalties for participation in foreign conflicts, as well as for the organization of foreign terrorist fighters. The military defeat of ISIL was the most immediate objective. He urged closer State cooperation through early warning, and the sharing of information and best practices. Countering extremist ideology at the national level was most crucial.
LANKA VARUNI MUTHUKUMARANA (Sri Lanka), associating herself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said that no terrorist group could survive without support from international networks. Thus, international cooperation to curtail their ideological, financial and logistical support and recruitment should be a priority. The international community should also share best practices and intelligence on terrorist activities, while remaining vigilant not to create opportunities for terrorists and their sympathizers. Her country’s efforts to end a three-decade terrorist conflict had been assisted through complex, multi-faceted and comprehensive coordination with the international community. States must engage relevant local communities and other actors to develop strategies to counter violent extremist narratives, as well. Enumerating ways in which her country participated in combating international terrorism, she also noted that, as an island nation, Sri Lanka strove to fulfil its responsibilities in terms of maritime security. She also stressed that every effort should be made towards the finalization and adoption of the comprehensive convention on international terrorism.
RODOLFO REYES RODRÍGUEZ (Cuba) said his country was party to 16 international counter-terrorism conventions and abided by Security Council resolutions 1267 (1999), 1373 (2001) and 1540 (2004). He supported the development of a counter-terrorism convention and convening of an international conference, under United Nations auspices, on a coordinated response. However, that had not been possible, owing to opposition from certain States. The United States Department of State had included Cuba on its 2013 list of State sponsors of terrorism, marking that listing the thirty-second time. That was simply an excuse to justify the more than 50-year-old blockade against his country. Terrorist attacks had been carried out against Cuba from United States territory. He said that he rejected that the United States had allowed the perpetrators to live freely, while unjustly imprisoning Cuban counter-terrorism fighters. Cuba should be expunged from that arbitrary list, he said, pressing the United Nations to devise an international legal framework for tackling terrorism.
MICHAEL DOUGLAS GRANT (Canada) said that the “heinous and senseless attacks” against members of his country’s armed forces should remind everyone that no country was immune from terrorism. Canada, however, had been spared the magnitude of the threat faced by Israel, with recent attacks fuelled by incitement by persons in positions of responsibility. He also recalled the Mumbai attacks in India six years ago, which demonstrated how violent extremism could become even more dangerous when abetted by the capacities of a sovereign State. In Iraq, Canada was proud to stand with its allies against the global threat posed by ISIS. An effective response required commitment and cooperation among the entire international community. His country’s counter-terrorism strategy emphasized four mutually reinforcing approaches: prevent, detect, deny and respond. In countering violent extremism both community and law-enforcement capacity was being built, along with mechanisms for early intervention, to stem radicalization. Internationally, Canada would continue to work with partners to counter terrorism in all its forms.
DOCTOR MASHABANE (South Africa) said international efforts should support an integrated approach to address terrorists’ abuse of financial systems, as well as cybersecurity, use of social media and the Internet in radicalization, and the merging of ideological extremism and transnational organized crime. As such, he supported the global campaign against terrorism within the United Nations framework, notably in dealing with new threats. Terrorism could not be defeated militarily nor dealt with solely through the use of force or coercive measures. He urged addressing the conditions that made terrorism attractive to the disaffected. Conflicts around the world must be resolved. International cooperation should also include a joint commitment to eradicate poverty and under-development.
JIM MCLAY (New Zealand) said that terrorism, particularly the “barbarous acts” of ISIL and entities associated with Al‑Qaida, was a serious but not insurmountable threat to international security that demanded collective action. In the short-term, military action to halt ISIL’s advance was vital. Long-term solutions would require bringing about inclusive governance in Iraq and a political solution in Syria, as well as countering the narrative of violent extremism. He expressed support for the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Strategy as well as implementation of all relevant Council resolutions. His country’s national approach was based on a coordinated, whole-of-Government response, as well as building resilience to radicalization and recruitment at the grass-roots level. He also urged States to contribute to the work of the Global Counterterrorism Forum in all such areas, and to foster progress in adopting the comprehensive convention on international terrorism.
TEKEDA ALEMU (Ethiopia) said that the common threat of terrorism required a common response from the international community. However, he pointed out, that response had been marred by frequent double standards and a lack of cooperation. Genuine cooperation had yet to be forged at all levels; there was much hypocrisy. Practical cooperation was needed in Africa, as well, and had been the subject of recent meetings. Ethiopia had established such cooperation in its subregion on the issue.
DESRA PERCAYA (Indonesia), associating with the Non-Aligned Movement and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, supported implementation of the Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, with priority accorded to Pillar 1. Noting that preventive measures were among the best approaches for addressing terrorism, he said tolerance and respect were critical to Indonesia’s work to counter the ideology of violence. Opening the minds of convicted terrorists was the backbone of its de-radicalization programme, which included law enforcement agencies and religious authorities at national Government and community levels. In some cases, reintegration of hard-core terrorists risked positioning them to spread their extreme views to other prisoners. Other preventive measures involved alignment with religious groups and community leaders to dissuade people from becoming foreign terrorist fighters.
PETER VAN DER VLIET (Netherlands), aligning with the European Union, said the Global Counterterrorism Forum had adopted non-binding good practices to address the foreign terrorist fighter phenomenon, covering both response and preventive efforts. At the national level, the Netherlands action programme to deal with foreign fighters aimed to protect democracy and the rule of law, diminish the threat posed by those fighters and remove the breeding ground for radicalization. At the United Nations, he urged mainstreaming measures to prevent radicalization across the agenda and effectively using the sanctions regime to combat the financing of terrorism. His Government would also welcome more work on the role of long-term counter-terrorism policies in the context of United Nations peacekeeping, peacebuilding and conflict prevention.
ANDRIY TSYMBALIUK (Ukraine) shared the concerns expressed by the Security Council on the seriousness of the terrorist threat, particularly over extremist groups in Syria and Iraq. He supported the central role of the United Nations in global cooperation to fight the scourge, as well as the Global Counterterrorism Strategy. In that light, he called for all States that had not done so to consider becoming parties to all related international instruments. Ukraine was party to about 20 multilateral conventions and protocols on the issue. Playing a leading role in non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, his country responsibly implemented its pledge to get rid of national stocks of highly enriched uranium. Unfortunately, he said, his country was now fighting terrorism in the east of its territory, with foreign factors involved. He expressed extreme concern that one of his country’s neighbours continued to break its international obligations on terrorism, which had led to the occupation of Crimea and destabilization of other areas. He called for action to counter State-sponsored terrorism against other Member States.
CHARLES THEMBANI NTWAAGAE (Botswana), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said poor governance, discrimination, political exclusion and inequitable economic development were among the factors that had been found to create social tension and had the potential to precipitate terrorism. In that regard, Governments should guard against such conditions. The development of strong institutions of governance, promotion of the rule of law and protection of human rights provided a foundation for countering terrorism. States must protect their citizens from crimes against humanity, genocide, war crimes and crimes of aggression. The international community should intensify its cooperation towards assisting in strengthening institutions.
VLADIMIR DROBNJAK (Croatia) encouraged the regular sharing of best practices by the United Nations and States in the context of Council resolutions 2170 (2014) and 2178 (2014). “The United Nations needs to play a central role in the global counter-terrorism efforts,” he said, citing, on one hand, a variety of suppressive and preventive tools at its disposal, and on the other hand, untapped potential in addressing the conditions conducive to the spread of violent extremism. While law enforcement and military operations were necessary, he cautioned against an approach that exclusively emphasized the security dimension, and voiced support for one that integrated political, social, economic, environmental and security aspects. He also expressed support for the mainstreaming of counter-terrorism programmes throughout the United Nations agenda.
JAMAL FARES ALROWAIEI (Bahrain) said his Government was combating terrorism on the security and military fronts. Terrorist ideologies perverted Islam, while financing allowed such groups to acquire weapons and attract young people. To stem terrorist financing, he urged creating mechanisms for halting such support. Specialized conferences focused on addressing all forms of terrorism were of growing importance. As such, Bahrain had hosted a conference on terrorism financing and the need to deal with suspicious transfers, notably by implementing relevant resolutions and working group recommendations. Participants had highlighted the need for prosecuting terrorists and for collective sanctions. They also underlined the need for follow-up on efforts to combat terrorist financing.
SIMONA MICULESCU (Romania) spoke about international judicial cooperation for the collection of evidence necessary for criminal proceedings involving foreign fighters. Having in mind a universal scope, she wondered whether the existing framework on mutual legal assistance in counter-terrorism proceedings was adequate and sufficient for all the offences referred to in paragraph 12 of resolution 2178 (2014), read in conjunction with paragraph 6. The post-2178 setting was yet to be assessed, specifically the impact of extending the catalogue of offences within the same mutual legal assistance conventional framework. Transnational evidence-gathering was a particularly sensitive field of mutual legal assistance. Therefore, she proposed for that topic to be considered by the Council’s subsidiary bodies, in order to support uniform compliance across different legal systems and to facilitate the work of national investigators and prosecutors.
MILORAD ŠĆEPANOVIĆ (Montenegro), associating himself with the European Union, said that the fight against global terrorism and violent extremism demanded an integrated and well-coordinated international response as well as full implementation of relevant international conventions and Security Council resolutions. His country actively participated in the prevention and suppression of terrorism at all levels and contributed to the strengthening and development of anti-terrorism cooperation. Noting that there was no military solution to the threat of foreign fighters, he stressed the need to work together to counter the violent extremism that could radicalize, recruit and mobilize individuals to engage in terrorism and violent extremism. To that end, his country had been a sponsor of the recently adopted Council resolution 2178 (2014). However, in fighting terrorism, all measures taken must comply with international law, humanitarian law and refugee law. He pointed out that Montenegro was party to all major international counter-terrorism instruments.
VAKHTANG MAKHAROBLISHVILI (Georgia), associating himself with the European Union, acknowledged the growing threat of international terrorism and its new forms. His country was developing national anti-terrorist capabilities, increasing border prevention and cooperating with neighbouring countries in order to prevent transit through the country by international terrorist groups. Georgia had also ratified all United Nations counter-terrorism conventions. He further welcomed the extension of the mandate of resolution 1540 (2004) until 2021 as a vital component in the international community’s toolbox in combating weapons of mass destruction. The occupied territories of Georgia, like other “grey zones” in the world had the potential to be used for illegal activities, including those related to terrorism. Several attempts had been made to smuggle radioactive materials through occupied Georgia, which should be of concern to the international community.
KHALED HUSSEIN MOHAMED ALYEMANY (Yemen), stressing that his country had always grappled with terrorism, cited Al‑Qaida’s efforts in the Arabian Peninsula to undermine State authority and take advantage of the humanitarian situation. International partnerships were needed to tackle terrorism. Yemen’s national strategy, in line with its ministerial decree in 2012, covered financial and economic areas, as well as judicial training and awareness-raising for the military and law-enforcement sectors. However, Government agencies entrusted with implementation were hamstrung by resource constraints. Despite military campaigns to eliminate Al‑Qaida and its branches in the country, an unstable political climate persisted. He urged donors to honour their commitments, saying that 70 per cent of Al‑Qaida combatants had come from other countries. Foreign fighters earned $500 per month, versus $100 for Government soldiers.
Taking the floor a second time, the representative of the Russian Federation said that some delegations during today’s meeting had made inappropriate allusions or interpretations not having to do with the topic, which could take focus from the topic of the day on international cooperation against terrorism.
The representative of Iran, taking the floor for the second time, said that the occupier of the Palestinian Territory had made false remarks about his country. He considered its statement today as just another way to distract the international community from its own activities.
Also taking the floor for a second time, the representative of Israel said it was ridiculous to hear the dictatorship of Saudi Arabia criticizing the only democracy in the Middle East; he would not even respond to comments from the Syrian Government which was acting against its own people. Furthermore, the truth was that Iran was the main sponsor of terrorism around the globe and it had spent millions supporting groups in Syria that had cost thousands of lives.
The representative of Syria, taking the floor a second time, stated that the Middle East experienced terrorism, but only after the occupation by Israel, which brought terrorist bodies with it, beginning in the 1940s. Terrorism spread to other regions of the world only afterwards.
The full text of presidential statement S/PRST/2014/23 reads as follows:
“The Security Council reaffirms that terrorism in all forms and manifestations constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security and that any acts of terrorism are criminal and unjustifiable regardless of their motivations, whenever and by whomsoever committed.
“The Security Council emphasizes that the threat of terrorism is expanding and intensifying, affecting a greater number of Member States across most regions, due to, inter alia, global recruitment networks, the spread of violent extremist ideologies that can be conducive to terrorism, ease of movement of terrorists, including foreign terrorist fighters and access to significant funding streams.
“The Security Council reiterates its grave concern about Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), Al-Nusrah Front (ANF) and other terrorist entities associated with Al-Qaida and the negative impact of their presence, violent extremist ideology, and actions on the stability of Iraq, Syria and the region, including the devastating humanitarian impact on the civilian populations which has led to the displacement of millions of people, and about their acts of violence that foment sectarian tensions.
“The Security Council further expresses its concern that, according to reports, more than 15,000 foreign terrorist fighters from over 80 countries have travelled to join or fight for terrorist entities associated with Al-Qaida, including in Syria, Iraq, Somalia, Yemen, as well as several countries in the Maghreb and Sahel regions.
“The Security Council recalls its resolutions 1267 (1999), 1373 (2001), 1624 (2005), 2161 (2014) 2170 (2014), 2178 (2014), and underlines the importance of Members States taking urgent action to implement their obligations therein.
“The Security Council reaffirms its respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of all States in accordance with the United Nations Charter.
“The Security Council reaffirms that Member States must ensure that any measures taken to counter terrorism comply with the UN Charter and all their other obligations under international law, in particular international human rights law, international refugee law and international humanitarian law.
“The Security Council recognizes that terrorism will not be defeated by military force, law enforcement measures and intelligence operations alone, and underlines the need to address the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism, as outlined in Pillar I of the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy (A/RES/60/288), and reiterates the need to address the factors driving recruitment and radicalization to terrorism, and furthermore recognizes that a comprehensive approach to defeat terrorism is required involving national, regional, subregional and multilateral action.
“The Security Council recognizes the significant capacity and coordination challenges many Member States face in countering terrorism and violent extremism, and preventing terrorist financing, recruitment and all other forms of support to terrorist organizations; commends work under way by the Counter Terrorism Committee and its Executive Directorate (CTED) to identify capacity gaps, and to facilitate technical assistance to strengthen the implementation of resolutions 1373 (2001) and 1624 (2005) which supports compliance with resolution 2178 (2014); encourages Member States to continue cooperating with the Counter-Terrorism Committee and CTED on the development of comprehensive and integrated national, subregional and regional counter-terrorism strategies; highlights the important role that Counter Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF) entities, including United Nations Centre for Counter-Terrorism and United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime, and other providers of capacity-building assistance should play in technical assistance delivery; and in this respect notes the threat posed by foreign terrorist fighters to countries of origin, transit, destination, as well as States neighbouring zones of armed conflict in which foreign terrorist fighters are active.
“The Security Council calls upon Member States to help build the capacity of other Member States where necessary and upon request, to address the threat posed by terrorism, and welcomes and encourages bilateral assistance by Member States to help build such national, subregional or regional capacity.
“The Security Council welcomes recent listings by the Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267/1989 of foreign terrorist fighters and recruiters, and urges Member States to identify and propose additional foreign terrorist fighters and those individuals who facilitate or finance their travel and subsequent activities for possible designation by the 1267/1989 Committee.
“The Security Council expresses its determination to consider listing pursuant to resolution 2161 (2014) individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida who are financing, arming, planning, or recruiting for them, or otherwise supporting their acts or activities, including through information and communications technologies, such as the Internet, social media, or any other means.
“The Security Council welcomes recent developments and initiatives at the international, regional and subregional levels to prevent and suppress the foreign terrorist fighter phenomenon, notes the work of the Global Counterterrorism Forum (GCTF), in particular its recent adoption of a comprehensive set of good practices to address the foreign terrorist fighter phenomenon, and the establishment of its Working Group on Foreign Terrorist Fighters, and the work of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the European Union, the African Centre for the Study and Research on Terrorism and the Meeting of Heads of Special Services, Security Agencies and Law Enforcement Organizations.
“The Security Council takes note of the Communiqué of the African Union Peace and Security Council Summit on countering violent extremism and terrorism held in Nairobi on 2 September 2014, and calls on UN counter-terrorism entities, within existing mandates, and Member States to provide assistance and capacity building towards Africa’s efforts to counter violent extremism and terrorism.
“The Security Council urges Member States to improve bilateral, international, regional, and subregional cooperation, to prevent the travel of foreign terrorist fighters from or through their territories, including through increased sharing of information for the purpose of identifying foreign terrorist fighters, understanding patterns of travel by foreign terrorist fighters, and sharing practices in evidence-based traveller risk assessment and border screening, noting the need to address the challenges posed by evasive travel routes of foreign terrorist fighters.
“The Security Council reiterates, as called for in resolutions 2161 (2014) and 2178 (2014), its call on Member States to make use of the INTERPOL databases and to require that airlines under their jurisdiction provide advance passenger information to detect the departure from, entry into, or transit through their territories of individuals on the Al-Qaida Sanctions List, and additionally encourages that they provide Passenger Name Records, where appropriate, to the appropriate national authorities, and requests CTED to report, within 180 days, to the Counter-Terrorism Committee on gaps in the use of advance passenger information, and make recommendations to expand the use of advance passenger information, including plans to facilitate the required capacity-building in this regard, working with the Al-Qaida Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team and relevant CTITF entities including International Civil Aviation Organization, as well as industry representatives such as the International Air Transport Association.
“The Security Council reiterates that the increasing threat posed by foreign terrorist fighters is part of the emerging issues, trends and developments related to resolutions 1373 (2001) and 1624 (2005), and encourages the Counter-Terrorism Committee to hold Special Meetings in 2015 with the participation of Member States and relevant international and regional organizations to discuss ways to stem the flow of foreign terrorist fighters, and to prevent terrorists from exploiting the internet and social media to recruit and incite terrorist acts, while respecting human rights and fundamental freedoms, and in compliance with other obligations under international law; and in this regard notes the importance of the Committee holding meetings in affected regions on issues related to the mandate of the Committee.
“The Security Council calls on Member States to ensure, in conformity with international law, in particular international human rights law and international refugee law, that refugee status is not abused by the perpetrators, organizers or facilitators of terrorist acts, including by foreign terrorist fighters.
“The Security Council expresses grave concern at the spread of violent extremist ideologies that underpin the terrorist narrative, and that foreign terrorist fighters are using their extremist ideologies to promote terrorism, and reiterates the need to counter violent extremism through effective national responses including by building community resilience, as well as through cooperation at the subregional, regional and international levels, with a strong role for the UN in supporting these efforts, and underscores the role education can play in countering terrorist narratives.
“The Security Council highlights the continued need to improve the visibility and effectiveness of the UN’s role in countering the spread of violent extremist ideologies that are conducive to terrorism, including through strategic communications, and underscores the need to enhance the efforts of the UN and its Member States to tackle this issue more effectively and for further steps in this regard.
“The Security Council encourages the sharing of national and regional experiences in countering violent extremism, and welcomes the efforts of the Counter-Terrorism Committee with the support of CTED to conduct dialogue with Member States and to hold open briefings on these issues to support efforts to counter incitement and violent extremism, and notes the need for sharing of experiences to address the threat posed by terrorists and foreign terrorist fighters, including on rehabilitation and reintegration.
“The Security Council notes that terrorism and violent extremism is impacting a growing number of conflict situations including in States that host UN field missions, and in this regard encourages information sharing, where relevant and appropriate, between Special Representatives of the Secretary General, Department of Political Affairs, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, CTED, the Al-Qaida Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team, and other relevant CTITF entities, within existing mandates and resources.
“The Security Council recommends that UN regional offices located in regions that face terrorist threats to undertake regional information analysis and inter-mission information sharing on terrorism and violent extremism, within existing mandates and resources.
“The Security Council expresses concern over the increased use by terrorists and their supporters of communications technology for the purpose of radicalizing to terrorism, recruiting and inciting others to commit terrorist acts, including through the internet, and financing and facilitating the travel and subsequent activities of foreign terrorist fighters.
“The Security Council urges Member States to act cooperatively to prevent terrorists from recruiting, to counter their violent extremist propaganda and incitement on the internet and social media, including by developing effective counter narratives, while respecting human rights and fundamental freedoms and in compliance with obligations under international law, stresses the importance of cooperation with civil society and the private sector in this endeavor, and encourages relevant CTITF entities to support regional initiatives in this regard.
“The Security Council expresses its deep concern that oilfields and related infrastructure controlled by ISIL, ANF and potentially other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida, are generating a significant portion of the groups’ income, which support their recruitment efforts and strengthen their operational capability to organize and carry out terrorist attacks.
“The Security Council reaffirms that States are required by resolution 2161 (2014) to ensure that their nationals and those in their territory not make assets or economic resources, directly or indirectly, available to ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida; and notes that this obligation applies to the direct and indirect trade in oil and oil products.
“The Security Council encourages Member States to report to the 1267/1989 Committee seizures or transfers of oil that they have reason to believe originated from ISIL- and ANF-controlled territory and seizures of oil refining and related material believed to be for transfer into ISIL- and ANF-controlled territory; encourages the Committee to immediately consider designations of individuals and entities engaged in these activities; and expresses its intention to consider additional measures to disrupt this source of terrorism financing, including prohibitions on the transfer of oil, oil products and oil refining and related material to and from territory controlled by ISIL, the ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida.
“The Security Council stresses that donations from individuals and entities have played a role in developing and sustaining ISIL and ANF, and that Member States have an obligation to ensure that such support is not made available to those terrorist groups and other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida by their nationals and persons within their territory, and urges Member States to address this directly through enhanced vigilance of the international financial system and by working with their non-profit and charitable organizations to ensure financial flows through charitable giving are not diverted to ISIL, ANF or any other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida.
“The Security Council expresses its concern that aircraft or other transport departing from territory controlled by ISIL and ANF could be used to transfer gold or other valuable items and economic resources for sale on international markets, or to transfer arms and materiel for use by ISIL and ANF, and notes that individuals or entities engaged in such activities may be eligible for listing by the 1267/1989 Committee; expresses its concern regarding reports that items of archaeological, historical, cultural, and religious importance are being illegally removed from territory controlled by ISIL and ANF which may be generating income for those groups, and calls upon Member States to take appropriate measures to prevent such illegal trade; and in this regard, reminds all States that they are required to ensure that no funds, financial assets or economic resources are made available, directly or indirectly, for the benefit of ISIL, ANF, and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida; and looks forward to thorough consideration by the Al-Qaida Committee of the relevant recommendations regarding new measures to disrupt such activities contained in the report on the Al-Qaida Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team report pursuant to resolution 2170 (2014), with a view to further disrupting the activities of those groups.
“The Security Council strongly condemns incidents of kidnapping and hostage-taking committed by ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida for any purpose, including with the aim of raising funds or gaining political concessions, notes with concern that ransoms paid to terrorists are used as one of the sources of funding for their activities, including further kidnappings, expresses its determination to prevent kidnapping and hostage taking committed by terrorist groups and to secure the safe release of hostages without ransom payments or political concessions, in accordance with applicable international law, calls upon all Member States to prevent terrorists from benefiting directly or indirectly from ransom payments or from political concessions and to secure the safe release of hostages, and reaffirms the need for all Member States to cooperate closely during incidents of kidnapping and hostage-taking committed by terrorist groups.
“The Security Council highlights the relevance of Financial Action Task Force (FATF) recommendations in support of implementing resolutions 2170 (2014) and 2178 (2014), including its recommendation to States to implement cash declaration/disclosure systems for both incoming and outgoing transportation of currency, and other measures to address the threat that some foreign terrorist fighters and facilitators are acting as cash couriers for terrorist organizations.
“The Security Council expresses its concern regarding the connection, in some cases, between terrorism and transnational organized crime and illicit activities such as drugs, arms and human trafficking, and money-laundering.
“The Security Council reiterates that States are required to prevent the direct or indirect supply, sale or transfer to ISIL, ANF and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida from their territories or by their nationals outside their territories, or using their flag vessels or aircraft, of arms and related materiel of all types including weapons and ammunition, military vehicles and equipment, paramilitary equipment, and spare parts for the aforementioned, and technical advice, assistance or training related to military activities, as well as its calls for States to find ways of intensifying and accelerating the exchange of operational information regarding traffic in arms, and to enhance coordination of efforts on national, subregional, regional and international levels.
“The Security Council further reminds all States of their obligation to ensure that any person who participates in the financing, planning, preparation or perpetration of terrorist acts is brought to justice and ensure that such terrorist acts are established as serious criminal offenses in domestic laws and regulations and that the punishment duly reflects the seriousness of such terrorist acts, and encourages CTED to provide guidance upon request.
“The Security Council stresses that the intolerance, violence, and hatred that ISIL, ANF and other groups associated with Al-Qaida espouse must be countered, and expresses its determination to defeat the threat to international peace and security posed by terrorism.”
 Preliminary analysis of the principal gaps in Member States’ capacities to implement Security Council resolutions 1373(2001) and 1624 (2005) that may hinder their abilities to stem the flow of foreign terrorist fighters pursuant to Security Council resolution 2178 (2014) (S/2014/807).