Adopting Resolution 2180 (2014), Security Council Approves One-Year Renewal for United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti
Adopting Resolution 2180 (2014), Security Council Approves One-Year Renewal for United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti
Reaffirming that Haiti was at an “important juncture” in the consolidation of stability and democracy, the Security Council today extended the mandate of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) until 15 October 2015.
Unanimously adopting resolution 2180 (2014) under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council decided that overall force levels would consist of up to 2,370 troops and 2,601 police personnel, as recommended by the Secretary-General. It also called on the Secretary-General to ensure that a force level close to the current size would remain in Haiti until his next report to the Council and to alert the 15-member body of any major changes in the situation.
The Secretary-General, in his latest report (document S/2014/617), had recommended a two-step drawdown of MINUSTAH based on a review of overall stability, the security situation and the capacity of the national police. As a first step, he had proposed a military drawdown to 2,370 troops by June 2015.
According to the resolution, the Council affirmed that adjustments to the force configuration should be based on the ground situation, compatible with MINUSTAH’s capacity to maintain security in the context of impending parliamentary and local elections and presidential elections in 2015, the increasing development of Haitian capabilities, notably the ongoing strengthening of the Haitian National Police, and the national authorities’ increasing exercise of responsibility over stability and security.
In addition, it called on the Mission to maintain capacity, including appropriate air assets, to deploy troops rapidly throughout the country, reaffirming the Council’s commitment to “act at any time” to adapt MINUSTAH's mandate and force levels, if compelled by a change of conditions in Haiti. Recognizing Haiti’s primary responsibility over all aspects of stabilization, the Council, by other terms, encouraged MINUSTAH to intensify efforts to provide logistical and technical expertise, within available means.
On the political front, the Council strongly urged Haiti’s political actors to work cooperatively and without further delays to ensure the urgent holding of free, fair, inclusive and transparent legislative, partial senatorial, municipal and local elections — including those which were “long overdue”, in line with Haiti's Constitution.
Strengthening the capacity of the Haitian National Police was paramount, the Council reaffirmed, and building its capacity remained a “most critical” task for MINUSTAH. It requested the Mission to strengthen institutional and operational capacities through renewed efforts to mentor police and corrections personnel.
Signalling its intention of a further mandate renewal, the Council, nonetheless, recognized that the overall security situation in Haiti remained relatively stable, allowing MINUSTAH to continue to draw down and adapt its configuration without undermining Haiti’s security.
Speaking after the action, Cristián Barros Melet (Chile) said he had voted in favour of the text as an expression of his country's commitment to the democratic process, the rule of law, promotion of human rights and socioeconomic development in Haiti. He regretted that, unlike in prior years, Chile was not in a position to co-sponsor the text, citing recommendations that had given rise to apprehension. Chile supported the gradual drawdown of forces, bearing in mind the electoral calendar, as a drastic drawdown in MINUSTAH’s military contingent could diminish its preventive capacity. As operational concepts were still not clear, Chile could not guarantee its continued participation. Any decision to increase or decrease troops should be made based on the ground situation. He hoped that provisions outlined in the third operative paragraph would be strictly applied, calling for Haitian political leaders to agree to hold elections and guarantee the conduct of presidential elections in 2015. When evaluating reconfigurations, the opinion of troop contributors must be considered, he said.
Peter Wilson (United Kingdom) welcomed the Council's unanimous adoption and spirit of compromise seen during negotiations, which sent a strong message of support for the Mission. Noting the concerns expressed over drawdown provisions, he welcomed that Haiti had seen no recent military conflict. MINUSTAH’s role should be to help Haiti take responsibility for its security. The text outlined the responsible scaling back of the Mission’s military component, based on an assessment of the security situation.
Samantha Power (United States) thanked the Council for its efforts to forge consensus, welcoming that it was united in its support of Haiti’s aspirations for stability. The ground situation should drive decision-making and MINUSTAH would continue to make an important contribution to Haiti's security. Noting that several troop contributing countries were on the Council, she said the United States looked forward to continued work together and with Haiti to achieve durable peace, security and democracy.
María Cristina Perceval (Argentina) said she had voted in favour of the text, with the understanding that Haiti had agreed with the terms of the mandate renewal. She would have preferred that proposals and concerns expressed by Argentina and other Latin American troop contributors would have been reflected in the text, as that was why her Government could not co-sponsor it. Voicing concern that the security situation had not improved enough to favour an abrupt drawdown or a substantial change in MINUSTAH's mandate, she said the Haitian National Police did not have — nor would it have in the next year — the capabilities to maintain law and order. She was concerned that the military component would not have the ability to carry out deterrence and conflict-prevention tasks. Argentine troops could be called on to carry out functions that went beyond Argentine law, she said, adding that Argentine armed forces did not carry out repressive tasks, at home or abroad.
Mónica Bolaños Pérez (Guatemala) said troop contributors must be consulted at every stage of the Mission’s life cycle, as they were key partners in a common effort. The political and security situation in Haiti had not improved enough for an abrupt troop drawdown. The text interrupted MINUSTAH’s 2013-2016 consolidation plan, replacing the five options that had been under the Council's consideration with a single new option that carried “considerable” consequences. It ignored a key condition — progress in professionalizing the National Police — whose plan would be completed in 2016. It was important to maintain a proper presence in Haiti, especially during elections. Yet, the measures adopted could endanger their conduct. MINUSTAH should not remain in Haiti longer than necessary and she regretted that a “post-2016 scenario” had been imposed in 2014. Guatemala was not in position to co-sponsor the text, she concluded.
Xavier Lasso Mendoza (Ecuador), noting that his country was a troop contributor, expressed concern about the text, as decisions about consolidation should be based, above all, on information taken from the situation on the ground, making it possible to operate under such principles as objectivity and justice, which were crucial. An accelerated consolidation of the Mission was not appropriate, given the political and security situation in Haiti. Other factors included progress in professionalizing the Haitian National Police and uncertainty around the imminent electoral processes. A gradual drawdown strategy was needed, he said, stressing that consideration of factors outside the situation on the ground could bring about less desirable consequences.
The meeting began at 10:24 a.m. and ended at 10:49 a.m.
The full text of resolution 2180 (2014) reads as follows:
"The Security Council,
"Reaffirming its previous resolutions on Haiti, in particular its resolutions 2119 (2013), 2070 (2012), 2012 (2011), 1944 (2010), 1927 (2010), 1908 (2010), 1892 (2009), 1840 (2008), 1780 (2007), 1743 (2007), 1702 (2006), 1658 (2006), 1608 (2005), 1576 (2004) and 1542 (2004),
"Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and unity of Haiti,
"Recognizing that, over the past year, Haiti has taken steps towards stabilization, including the signing of the El Rancho Accord, which called for the conversion of the Transitional College of the Permanent Electoral Council into a new Provisional Electoral Council and provided for a period within which the 2013 electoral law would have been amended to allow for legislative, partial senatorial, municipal and local elections in 2014,
"Noting with great concern that some elections have been postponed for three years and that Haiti still does not have an amended electoral law and that as a result the Provisional Electoral Council has concluded that it will not be possible to organize elections on 26 October as called for by the government,
"Recognizing that the overall security situation remained relatively stable with some improvement since the adoption of its resolution 2119 (2013), which allowed MINUSTAH to continue to drawdown and to adapt its configuration without undermining the security and stability of Haiti, and recognizing the importance of condition-based security-related decisions about the future of MINUSTAH,
"Recognizing the critical role of MINUSTAH in ensuring stability and security in Haiti, and commending MINUSTAH for continuing to assist the Government of Haiti to ensure a secure and stable environment, and expressing gratitude to the personnel of MINUSTAH and to their countries and paying tribute to those injured or killed in the line of duty; commending also the wide range of reconstruction efforts in Haiti and the successful work achieved by MINUSTAH’s military engineering units,
"Underlining the need to further strengthen Haitian judicial and correctional systems, in order to support a more integrated and cohesive Haitian security sector, and noting the commitment by the Government of Haiti to strengthen the rule of law, and to make further progress in security sector reform, and encouraging Haitian authorities to continue to pursue efforts in that regard,
"Recognizing also the interconnected nature of the challenges in Haiti, reaffirming that sustainable progress on security, the rule of law and institutional reform, national reconciliation and development, including the combat against unemployment and poverty, are mutually reinforcing, and welcoming the continuing efforts of the Government of Haiti and the international community to address these challenges, in line with the government’s priorities,
"Reiterating the critical role of the Haitian National Police (HNP) to Haiti’s security and stability; stressing the importance of the ongoing strengthening, professionalization and reform of the HNP in order to enable it to assume full responsibility for Haiti’s security; noting the progress made in the implementation of the five-year 2012-2016 Haitian National Police Development Plan and reiterating the importance of maintaining support for it, especially in the area of recruitment and retention,
"Underscoring the importance of adequately funding the Haitian National Police to enhance its logistic, administrative and operational capacities, and encouraging the Government of Haiti to take advantage of the support being provided by the international community to guarantee the provision of adequate security for the Haitian people and calling on all international partners to strengthen their coordination in this regard,
"Recognizing the steps taken by the Superior Council of the Judiciary, including the adoption of its internal rules of procedure in June 2014, to carry out its mandate and promote the strengthening of judicial independence, and expressing the need to further address human rights concerns that still remain in the corrections system, such as prolonged pretrial detentions, prison overcrowding and sanitary conditions,
"Acknowledging that while important progress has been made in 2014, Haiti continues to face significant humanitarian challenges, with approximately 85,432 internally displaced persons, whose living conditions in the remaining camps, which are characterized by malnutrition, uneven access to water and sanitation, affecting especially women and children, must be further addressed,
"Welcoming the ongoing efforts by the Government of Haiti to control and eliminate the cholera epidemic, the progress made in reducing the incidence of cholera in Haiti, and urging the United Nations country team in coordination with other actors to continue to support the Government of Haiti in addressing the structural weaknesses, in particular in the water and sanitation systems, and underscoring the importance of strengthening the Haitian national health institutions, and recognizing United Nations efforts to combat cholera, including through the Secretary-General’s initiative to support the National Plan for the Elimination of Cholera; stressing the importance of adequate and sustainable support with particular attention to rapid and targeted medical responses to outbreaks designed to reduce the threat, welcoming the visit that the Secretary-General undertook in July 2014 to Haiti, and taking note that he, among other things, launched jointly with Prime Minister Lamothe the “Total Sanitation Campaign” as a key initiative against cholera, and the creation of the High-Level Committee for the Elimination of Cholera,
"Emphasizing that progress in the reconstruction of Haiti, as well as in Haiti’s social and economic development, including through effective, coordinated, commendable international development assistance and increased Haitian institutional capacity to benefit from this assistance, are crucial to achieving lasting and sustainable stability, and reiterating the need for security to be accompanied by social and economic development, including efforts in risk reduction and preparedness that address the country’s extreme vulnerability to natural disasters, efforts in which the Government of Haiti plays a leading role,
"Welcoming the continued development of the Government of Haiti’s Framework for the Coordination of External Aid (CAED) as its preferred donor coordination mechanism and venue for supporting the Government of Haiti’s development priorities and welcoming also the increased joint programming of the United Nations country team in Haiti in alignment and coordination with the Government-endorsed Integrated Strategic Framework, and welcoming also the commitment to foster greater alignment of international assistance with national priorities, increase transparency and strengthen mutual accountability, as well as the need for stronger coordination,
"Urging donors to complete the pledges made at the 2010 New York Conference in order, inter alia, to help promote access to services and jobs for the most vulnerable, and underlining the Government of Haiti’s responsibility to provide clear guidance to donors on its priorities and to facilitate delivery of assistance to those most in need,
"Emphasizing the role of regional organizations in the ongoing process of stabilization and reconstruction of Haiti and calling on MINUSTAH to continue to work closely with international financial institutions, regional and subregional organizations, and other stakeholders, in particular the Organization of the American States (OAS), Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM),
"Welcoming the continued efforts of the HNP to patrol and enhance its presence and engagement directly with the population; recognizing MINUSTAH’s continued community policing efforts, in close coordination with camp committees, in camps for internally displaced persons, and welcoming their engagement with the population,
"Expressing serious concern that sexual and gender-based violence, especially against women and children, remains a substantial problem, particularly in marginalized districts of Port-au-Prince, remaining internally displaced persons camps and remote areas of the country,
"Recognizing that strengthening national human rights institutions as well as respect for human rights, including of children, and due process and combating criminality, sexual and gender-based violence, and putting an end to impunity and ensuring accountability are essential to ensuring the rule of law and security in Haiti, including access to justice,
"Reaffirming the authority of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General in the coordination and conduct of all activities of United Nations agencies, funds and programmes in Haiti, and reaffirming also its support to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General’s role in ensuring optimal coordination and collaboration between MINUSTAH and the United Nations country team in connection with the aspects of their respective mandates that are correlated particularly as part of MINUSTAH’s condition-based consolidation plan,
"Taking note of the Secretary-General’s report S/2014/617 of 29 August 2014,
"Mindful of its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security under the Charter of the United Nations,
"Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, as described in section 1 of operative paragraph 7 of resolution 1542 (2004),
"1. Decides to extend the mandate of MINUSTAH as contained in its resolutions 1542 (2004), 1608 (2005), 1702 (2006), 1743 (2007), 1780 (2007), 1840 (2008), 1892 (2009), 1908 (2010), 1927 (2010), 1944 (2010), 2012 (2011) 2070 (2012), and 2119 (2013) until 15 October 2015, with the intention of further renewal;
"2. Decides that MINUSTAH’s overall force levels will consist of up to 2,370 troops and of a police component composed of up to 2,601 personnel, the force levels recommended by the Secretary-General; calls on the Secretary-General to ensure that a force level close to the current level would remain in the country until his next report to the Council, and to alert the Council in this report of any major changes in the situation;
"3. Affirms that adjustments to the force configuration should be based on the situation on the ground, compatible with the capacity of MINUSTAH to maintain security in the context of impending parliamentary and local elections as well as presidential elections in 2015, taking into account the importance of maintaining a secure and stable environment and the impact of social and political realities on Haiti’s stability and security; the increasing development of Haitian State capabilities, in particular the ongoing strengthening of the Haitian National Police; and the national authorities’ increasing exercise of the Haitian State’s responsibility for the maintenance of stability and security in the country; calls upon MINUSTAH to maintain capacity, including appropriate air assets, to deploy troops rapidly throughout the country;
"4. Affirms its commitment to act at any time to adapt MINUSTAH’s mandate and force levels, if compelled by a change of conditions in Haiti, if necessary to preserve the progress Haiti has made towards durable security and stability;
"5. Takes note of the implementation of the conditions-based consolidation plan of MINUSTAH, which focused the Mission’s activities on a core set of mandated tasks as agreed with the Government of Haiti;
"6. Recognizes the ownership and primary responsibility of the Government and the people of Haiti over all aspects of the country’s stabilization; encourages MINUSTAH to intensify its efforts to provide logistical and technical expertise, within available means and consistent with its mandate, and coordinating as appropriate with the United Nations country team and others active in stabilization efforts, to assist as requested by the Government of Haiti, to continue to implement decentralization efforts and build the capacity of its institutions at the national and local levels, with a view to enhance further the Government of Haiti’s ability to extend State authority throughout Haiti and promote good governance and rule of law at all levels;
"7. Strongly urges Haiti’s political actors to work cooperatively and without further delays to ensure the urgent holding of free, fair, inclusive, and transparent legislative, partial senatorial, municipal, and local elections, including those which are long overdue, in accordance with the Constitution of Haiti in order to ensure the continued functioning of the National Assembly and other elected bodies;
"8. Welcomes the Special Representative of the Secretary-General’s efforts to support the political process under way in Haiti; reaffirms its call upon MINUSTAH to continue to support this process; calls upon MINUSTAH to deliver and coordinate, as appropriate, international electoral assistance to the Government of Haiti in cooperation with international stakeholders including the OAS, UNASUR, and CARICOM as appropriate;
"9. Reaffirms that Haiti is at an important juncture in the consolidation of stability and democracy, and the engagement of its political leaders and stakeholders in dialogue and compromise is vital to securing the gains made in recent years, in order to set Haiti firmly on a path towards lasting stability and economic development and to enable Haitians to assume even greater responsibility in that regard;
"10. Recalls its resolutions 1325 (2000) and 2122 (2013) and encourages the Government of Haiti, with the support of relevant stakeholders, to promote increased women’s political participation in Haiti, in accordance with the Constitution of Haiti;
"11. Reaffirms that, in the framework of the improvement of the rule of law in Haiti, strengthening the capacity of the Haitian National Police is paramount for the Government of Haiti to take timely and full responsibility for the country’s security needs, which is central to Haiti’s overall stability and future development;
"12. Reiterates that the Haitian National Police’s capacity-building remains a most critical task for MINUSTAH; requests MINUSTAH to continue its efforts to strengthen the institutional and operational capacities of the Haitian National Police, in particular by renewed efforts to mentor and train police and corrections personnel, including at intermediate rank levels; calls on MINUSTAH to align skills of UNPOL personnel to support these objectives and provide skilled trainers and technical advisers;
"13. Underlines the need to ensure effective support from the Government of Haiti and its international and regional partners for the 2012-2016 HNP Development Plan, in order to achieve the goals of a minimum of 15,000 fully operational serving police officers by 2016, adequate logistic and administrative capacity, accountability and respect for human rights and rule of law, a robust vetting process, enhanced recruitment procedures and training, strengthened land and maritime border control, and improved deterrence of transnational organized crime;
"14. Stresses the need for close coordination among MINUSTAH, donors, and the Government of Haiti to enhance the effectiveness and sustainability of HNP capacity-building efforts; requests also MINUSTAH to facilitate this coordination and to continue to provide technical guidance to donor-funded projects as requested for the rehabilitation and construction of police and corrections facilities as well as for other projects aiming to support HNP’s institutional capacity as appropriate;
"15. Encourages MINUSTAH, in cooperation with the appropriate international actors, to assist the Government in effectively tackling gang violence, organized crime, illegal arms trafficking, drug trafficking and trafficking of persons especially children, as well as ensuring proper border management;
"16. Encourages the Haitian authorities to continue to implement justice reform by taking the necessary steps, including through ongoing support to the Superior Council of the Judiciary, to ensure the independence and effectiveness of the judicial institutions, and to continue to address the issue of prolonged pretrial detentions and prison conditions and overcrowding, with special regard to women and children held in detention;
"17. Calls on all donors and partners, including international and non‑governmental organizations as well as the UN country team, to better coordinate their efforts and work closely with the Haitian Government through its Framework for the Coordination of External Aid (CAED), which is intended to help the Government ensure increased transparency, national ownership and coordination of foreign assistance and to strengthen the Government’s capacity to manage external assistance;
"18. Requests the United Nations country team, and calls upon all actors, to complement security and development operations undertaken by the Government of Haiti with the support of MINUSTAH with activities aimed at effectively improving the living conditions of the concerned populations, in particular women and children;
"19. Requests MINUSTAH, working in coordination with the United Nations country team, to continue to implement quick-impact projects that contribute in building a secure and stable environment and enhance national ownership and the trust of the Haitian population towards MINUSTAH, particularly in the priority areas identified by the Mission’s leadership and consistent with the Government of Haiti’s priorities as appropriate;
"20. Strongly condemns the grave violations against children affected particularly by criminal gang violence, as well as widespread rape and other sexual abuse of women and girls, and calls upon the Government of Haiti, with the support of MINUSTAH and the United Nations country team, to continue to promote and protect the rights of women and children as set out in Security Council resolutions 1325 (2000), 1612 (2005), 1820 (2008), 1882 (2009), 1888 (2009), 1889 (2009), 2106 (2013), and 2122 (2013) and encourages all actors in the Haitian Government, the international community and civil society to renew their efforts to eliminate sexual and gender-based violence in Haiti; as well as to improve response to rape complaints and access to justice for the victims of rape and other sexual crimes; encourages national authorities to promote national legislation in this regard;
"21. Requests MINUSTAH to continue to pursue its community violence reduction approach, in close collaboration with the Haitian Government, with a particular focus on at-risk youth, women, the displaced and those living in violence-affected neighbourhoods and to ensure that this activity is coordinated with, and supports the work of, the United Nations country team to build local capacity in this area by taking into account Haitian priorities;
"22. Encourages MINUSTAH to continue assisting the Government of Haiti in providing adequate protection to the civilian population, with particular attention to the needs of internally displaced persons and other vulnerable groups, especially women and children, including through joint community policing in the camps, in line with Security Council resolution 1894 (2009);
"23. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to take the necessary measures to ensure full compliance of all MINUSTAH personnel with the United Nations zero-tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse, and to continue to keep the Council informed, and urges troop- and police-contributing countries to redouble efforts in preventing cases of misconduct and to ensure that acts involving their personnel are properly investigated and punished;
"24. Reaffirms MINUSTAH’s human rights mandate as an essential component of the Mission and recognizes that respect for human rights is an essential element for Haiti’s stability, in particular attention to individual accountability for grave violations under past governments, urges the Government to ensure with the support of the international community, as appropriate, the respect and protection of human rights by the Haitian National Police and the judiciary, and calls on MINUSTAH to provide monitoring and support in this regard;
"25. Encourages MINUSTAH, within its mandate, to continue to use existing means and capabilities, including its engineers, with a view to enhancing stability in Haiti while fostering greater Haitian ownership in the context of its condition-based consolidation plan;
"26. Requests MINUSTAH to continue to support the Haitian authorities in their efforts to control the flow of small arms, the development of a weapons registry, the revision of current laws on importation and possession of arms, reform of the weapons permit system and the development and implementation of a national community policing doctrine;
"27. Underscores the importance that planning documents for MINUSTAH’s military and police components, such as the concept of operations and rules of engagement, be regularly updated, as appropriate, and be in line with the provisions of all its relevant resolutions, and requests the Secretary-General to
fully report in a timely manner on them to the Security Council and troop- and police-contributing countries;
"28. Requests the Secretary-General to keep it regularly informed, and to report to the Council on the implementation of MINUSTAH’s mandate, semi-annually and not later than forty-five days prior to its expiration;
"29. Requests the Secretary-General to continue to include in his reports a comprehensive assessment of the situation in Haiti, and to propose, as appropriate, options regarding MINUSTAH’s reconfiguration based on conditions on the ground, and to continue to present a progress report of the consolidation plan as an annex to his next report;
"30. Decides to remain seized of the matter."