Success of Sanctions Regimes in Defeating Terrorism, Staunching Flow of Weapons Depends on Resolute, Concerted Action, Security Council Told
Success of Sanctions Regimes in Defeating Terrorism, Staunching Flow of Weapons Depends on Resolute, Concerted Action, Security Council Told
|Department of Public Information • News and Media Division • New York|
7184th Meeting (AM)
Success of Sanctions Regimes in Defeating Terrorism, Staunching Flow of Weapons
Depends on Resolute, Concerted Action, Security Council Told
Cooperation had intensified among the three committees established to counter terrorism, address the Al-Qaida threat and halt proliferation of mass destruction weapons, the chairs of those subsidiary bodies told the Security Council today, emphasizing that the evolving terrorist landscape underlined the need to deliver better results.
Indeed, the effectiveness of those bodies — the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001), known as the Counter-Terrorism Committee, the Committee established pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida, and the 1540 Committee concerning the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction — depended on information exchange, outreach and participation in a broader counter-terrorism framework, the Committee Chairs said.
Delivering a joint statement, Raimonda Murmokaitė ( Lithuania), said the three committees and their respective expert groups had extended invitations to each other when arranging thematic briefings, including those by visiting officials from international and regional organizations. The expert groups regularly coordinated their outreach activities and country visits, and worked closely within the Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force. Going forward, the committees would explore ways to strengthen their coordination, while maintaining respect for their respective mandates.
Speaking next as Chair of the Counter-Terrorism Committee, she said national and regional assessment and follow-up — including to ensure that States were provided with timely capacity-building assistance — was a central focus. New tools had been developed for that purpose, including the “overview of implementation assessment” and the “implementation survey”, designed to give a detailed review of national, regional and global challenges, as well as ensure more targeted capacity-building. In the coming months, the Committee would work towards the preparation of a special meeting on the issue of kidnapping for ransom, in accordance with resolution 2133 (2014).
Oh Joon ( Republic of Korea), Chair of the 1540 Committee, said that body would continue the practice of cooperating with other committees, as well as of coordinating activities with regional and subregional organizations. It had conducted two visits to Niger and Bangladesh, at their invitations, and had participated in 46 information-related activities around the world, providing an excellent opportunity to carry out resolution 1540 (2004). Moreover, during a meeting in Vienna, the Points of Contact from States and international and regional organizations had shared their experiences, an encouraging step towards the creation of a contact network for the resolution’s full implementation.
Rounding out the briefings, Gary Quinlan (Australia), Chair of the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida, said they sought to act “quickly and strategically” to ensure that the sanctions imposed supported national and regional responses to the evolving Al-Qaida-led terrorist threat. Improving the implementation of sanctions measures was an important focus and the Committee sought to collect biometric data on listed individuals from States, both for existing entries on the sanctions list, as well as proposals to add new ones. It was reviewing more than 150 entries on the Al-Qaida sanctions list, as well as entries that had not been reviewed in three or more years. He encouraged State responsiveness in that regard.
In the ensuing debate, speakers stressed that the kidnappings of girls in Nigeria, bombings in Yemen and attacks at a Jewish museum in Belgium were stark reminders of the need for swift and effective action to address the evolving terrorist threat. Several expressed concern at the emergence of new entities associated with Al-Qaida, which were using new information technologies and tactics with easily available resources, especially the Internet. A comprehensive international response was needed, they said.
While some called for a “whole-of-United Nations” approach to tackling such threats, others, including China’s representative, pressed the Organization to play a greater role by laying out clear-cut criteria and avoiding double standards.
On that point, there was a widely recognized need to develop “fair and clear” procedures in United Nations sanctions regimes, added Belgium’s representative, on behalf of the Group of Like-Minded States on targeted sanctions ( Austria, Costa Rica, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland). As long as national and regional courts considered that United Nations sanctions fell short of minimum due process standards, national authorities could find themselves unable to fully implement them.
The United Nations’ success in fostering efforts to combat terrorism had been threatened by its politicization and inappropriate labelling, Syria’s representative asserted.
Nonetheless, resolution 1267 (1999) remained among the most effective measure in countering terrorism, said the representative of the Russian Federation, urging the Committee to minimize “red tape” in order to streamline its work. The goals of resolution 1540 (2004) were more relevant than ever, he added.
As 2014 marked the tenth anniversary of the 1540 resolution, Japan’s representative appreciated the Committee’s work to raise awareness among senior policymakers about the importance of non-proliferation. It should enhance its matchmaking role by mapping assistance needs and acting as a clearing house for providers and recipients.
Also speaking were representatives of the United Kingdom, Chile, United States, Nigeria, Rwanda, Jordan, France, Argentina, Chad, Luxembourg, Israel, Pakistan and Jamaica.
The Head of the European Union Delegation also participated.
The meeting began at 10:07 a.m. and ended at 1:01 p.m.
The Security Council met today to hear briefings by the Chairs of three of its subsidiary bodies: the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001), also known as the Counter-Terrorism Committee; the Committee established pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida; and the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1540 (2004), or the 1540 Committee, concerning the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. A debate on the subject was expected to follow.
RAIMONDA MURMOKAITĖ (Lithuania), Chair of the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001) concerning counter-terrorism, delivered a joint statement on behalf of committees established pursuant to resolutions 1373 (2001), 1540 (2004), 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011). The three committees and their respective expert groups continued the practice of sharing relevant information and meeting to discuss common issues. They also had extended invitations to each other when arranging thematic briefings, including those by visiting officials from international and regional organizations. Further, they regularly had coordinated their outreach activities and country visits, she said, citing this week’s comprehensive assessment visit to Mongolia, conducted by the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED).
As for broader regional perspectives, she said, members of the 1267 Monitoring Team had participated in the Executive Directorate-facilitated workshops in South-East Asia and South Asia in December and in West Africa in April. Another step in regional engagement was marked with the establishment of a shared focal point for the Caribbean region to work on issues relevant to the three committees and their respective expert groups. Those groups continued to work with each other within the framework of the Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force, as well as coordinate during participation in the work of counter-terrorism entities, such as the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Centre, on the design, facilitation and pursuit of technical assistance programmes.
Ms. Murmokaitė next gave an overview of developments in the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001) concerning counter-terrorism. Speaking as Chair, she said national and regional assessment and follow-up — including to ensure that States were provided with timely capacity-building assistance — was a central focus. That work had been strengthened by the introduction of new tools, namely the “overview of implementation assessment” and the “implementation survey”, designed to give a detailed review of national, regional and global challenges, as well as ensure more targeted capacity-building. Thus far, the implementation efforts of 27 States had been assessed with those new tools.
The assessment process included regional dialogue with counter-terrorism practitioners, she said, aimed at achieving a more complete understanding of their needs, while encouraging practical approaches to capacity-building. The convening of regional and thematic meetings had helped to create an environment that best served the interests of potential recipient States. More broadly, the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate continued to assist States in Central Africa in their development of a regional integrated strategy on counter-terrorism and the non-proliferation of small arms and light weapons. In Kenya, it had facilitated a national workshop on the implementation of resolution 1624 (2005). It also continued to engage with States on ways to develop more effective judicial responses to emerging trends.
OH JOON ( Republic of Korea), Chair of the Security Council Committee pursuant to resolution 1540 (2004), said that body would continue cooperating with other committees, and coordinate activities with regional and subregional organizations. It also had embarked on a compilation of effective practices. Since his last briefing to the Council, the Committee had conducted two visits — to Niger and Bangladesh — at their invitations, and had participated in 46 information-related activities around the world, providing an excellent opportunity to carry out resolution 1540 (2004).
He went on to say that a Point of Contact was in place for 79 States and 12 international and regional organizations, noting that, at a meeting in Vienna, the Points of Contact had shared their experiences, which was an encouraging step towards the creation of a contact network for the full implementation of resolution 1540 (2004). As the resolution celebrated its tenth anniversary, there was a substantial agenda ahead. The Committee would continue to cooperate with all stakeholders to address all aspects of the resolution to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons to non-State actors.
GARY QUINLAN (Australia), Chair of the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida and associated individuals and entities, said the Committee sought to act “quickly and strategically” to ensure that the sanctions imposed supported national and regional responses to the evolving Al-Qaida-led terrorist threat, citing the fifteenth report of the Analytical Support and Sanctions and Monitoring Team in that regard. That text raised the issue of Al-Qaida-associated foreign fighters affiliating with Jabhat-al-Nusrah, which could lead to new pan-Arab and pan-European extremist networks. To ensure an effective sanctions regime, he encouraged States to consider proposing a name for listing or delisting.
Improving the implementation of sanctions measures was an important focus, he continued, noting that the Committee sought to collect biometric data on listed individuals from States, both for existing entries on the sanctions list, as well as proposals to add new ones. It had initiated a Council-wide engagement with the World Customs Organization to amend the Joint Guidelines on Advanced Passenger Information, which it issued with the International Civil Aviation Organization and International Air Transport Association. In sum, the Committee was reviewing more than 150 entries on the Al-Qaida sanctions list, or more than half the total. It was also reviewing entries that had not been reviewed in three or more years, he said, noting the importance of State responsiveness in that regard.
MICHAEL TATHAM ( United Kingdom) said serious emerging trends included kidnappers demanding ransom. In addition, while the nature of Al-Qaida had changed, the threat it posed had not. The sanctions regime was an able tool to combat terrorism, as illustrated by the recent sanctions on Boko Haram. The regime should be strengthened, however, to remain effective and robust. States must work together to stifle terrorism, he said, noting that resolution 1540 (2004) remained as important today as when it was adopted a decade ago. In that regard, he encouraged all States to take relevant measures to stop the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
CRISTIÁN BARROS MELET ( Chile) said monitoring teams and the Office of the Ombudsperson had been critical to progress, as had the speed and effectiveness with which Boko Haram was added to the list. The “1373” Committee had also been effective, with its focus on, among others, technology transfers to assist States in their counter-terrorism efforts. He supported the cooperation between the Committee, the Executive Directorate and States, which was essential in the successful implementation of resolutions 1373 (2001) and 1624 (2005). Regarding the “1540” Committee, he said while it had made forward steps, more work remained to be done, as non-State actors were a continuing threat. He called for promotion of joint information presentations for State authorities and civil society.
JEFFREY DELAURENTIS ( United States) said recent incidents, including the kidnappings of girls in Nigeria and the bombings in Yemen, were stark reminders of the need for swift and effective action. A “whole-of-United Nations” approach was needed to address the ever-changing terrorism landscape. The Committee Chairs had produced excellent work in promoting the respective Council resolutions. Issues now requiring the Council’s undivided attention included kidnapping for ransom and cross-border combatants. Effective implementation of the resolutions by States would, among other things, curb the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), which were causing many deaths around the world. Also necessary, the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate could and should serve as a “matchmaker” for those States most in need of help. Each State must identify its own gaps and needs, and everyone should be open to information sharing.
KAYODE LARO ( Nigeria) said joint meetings, visits and outreach activities were among the effective tools that allowed the committees to share information and successfully coordinate efforts, creating a “win-win” situation whereby their overall ability to fulfil their mandates was improved. “What really counts is results,” he said. Turning to his Government’s efforts to address the situation in his country, he said a counter-terrorism strategy had aimed to root out terrorism nationwide. Also active was a national counter-terrorism coordinator, and a proactive de-radicalization effort was also under way. Capacity-building to combat terrorism had become more imperative. With social technology in play in the planning and launching of attacks, he urged all States to lend support to address those and other threats. In particular, he hoped the recent listing of Boko Haram would aid Nigeria’s efforts.
WANG MIN ( China) urged the United Nations to play a greater role in counter-terrorism efforts by laying out clear-cut criteria and opposing double standards. China was against linking terrorism with any country, ethnic group or religion, and supported enhanced dialogue among nations. The international community must address terrorists’ use of Internet recruiting and financing. He supported the Counter-Terrorism Committee’s country visits, urging that body to maintain dialogue with States, enhance its coordination with other United Nations agencies, and continue its State capacity-building work. As for the “Al-Qaida Committee”, China supported enhanced communications with the countries concerned in the listing and delisting process, as well as reviewing the listing schedule. With the tenth anniversary of resolution 1540 (2004) approaching, the next step was to promote universal and balanced implementation of that text, he said, pressing the Committee to collect State reports, summarize good experiences and support cooperation.
OLIVIER NDUHUNGIREHE ( Rwanda) said the absence of a central command for Al-Qaida had not dissuaded the group from carrying out attacks around the world, expressing concern over its influence in creating groups such as Al-Shabaab and Boko Haram. Instability and the unregulated supply of weapons could be grounds for incubation of new groups, if efforts did not address the root causes of conflict. Welcoming the listing of Boko Haram on the sanctions list, he urged support for Nigeria and its neighbours to eradicate that terrorist group. The Executive Directorate must help States improve their counter-terrorism activities. While it was critical to continue the fight against terrorists, he called for heavy investment in education and poverty eradication to curb that scourge. Success in fighting terrorism went hand in hand with information exchange at the national, regional and international levels. With that, he encouraged increased cooperation among the committees.
EIHAB OMAISH ( Jordan) expressed concern over the emergence of new entities associated with Al-Qaida, which were using new information technologies and tactics with easily available materials. He cited the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) in that regard, pressing the Counter-Terrorism Committee to continue its work, particularly in the Middle East. The international community must confront such threats with increased international and regional cooperation, as well as improved exchange of information, expertise and good practices. He also drew attention to State implementation of sanctions regimes and State participation in the listing and delisting processes, both at national and regional levels. The role of the Monitoring Team should be strengthened, he said, underlining its recommendation to provide biometric data on listed individuals. The Committee must coordinate assistance to States, in line with their needs and based on evolving security situations, while the Executive Directorate should have a strategy in place to regularly review such assistance.
PHILIPPE BERTOUX ( France) said the “1267” Committee’s efficiency permitted swift action, citing as an example the Council’s imposition last week of sanctions against Boko Haram. The Committee must urgently take action against the emerging phenomenon of foreign combatants, a trend that should also be addressed by the “1373” Committee, which was already seeking to counter the growing threat of ransom demands. Turning to resolution 1540 (2004), he said the eponymous committee had made progress, noting that a majority of States had adopted national measures to staunch proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery means. Now, the “1540” Committee must shape an implementation strategy for the coming years, he added.
Mario Oyarzábal ( Argentina) said it was important to continue strengthening the coordination of United Nations-led counter-terrorism efforts. The sanctions regime should remain an effective response, including the continued relevance of the List and the transparency and fairness of that process. Regrettably, the Ombudsperson’s report in January had indicated that she was required to report on her trips; it was essential that the confidentiality of her work was protected and that she had the right tools to fulfil her mandate. The availability of the List in the six official languages of the United Nations was also crucial and relevant, he said, voicing hope that a solution would be found soon.
MAHAMAT ZENE CHERIF ( Chad) welcomed the committees’ work, as well as the renewal of the “1373” Committee’s mandate with regard to the emerging issue of abductions for ransom. He commended the “1540” Committee’s programme of work and planned visits and efforts at awareness-raising. He called for greater dialogue between the Committee and the States that had not yet submitted their reports. Concerned about the growing threat of Boko Haram, he welcomed the recent sanctions put in place. He was also worried about militants streaming into Syria from Mali and, in general, the terrorists’ mobility, including their use of the Internet. He called for an examination of the listing process in connection with the sanctions regime.
EVGENY T. ZAGAYNOV ( Russian Federation) said recent events had shown that terrorism remained a threat to international peace and security. Violence in Syria was spilling over to Africa and the Middle East, and terrorists were using the latest advances in information and communications technology, and exploiting legal loopholes. Emerging risks must be examined and terrorist ideologies must also be addressed, including through media efforts. Preventing the scourge was vital, for which efforts should involve civil society and the media. Commending the work of the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate, he called for its strengthened role, including by maintaining the current rate of country visits. Resolution 1267 (1999) had remained among the most effective measures in countering terrorism, he said, supporting Member States’ proposals of new entities. Additionally, the Committee should minimize “red tape” in order to streamline its work. The goals of resolution 1540 (2004) were more relevant today than ever before, he added.
SYLVIE LUCAS ( Luxembourg) drew attention to daily reminders of the spread of terrorism in the Sahel, the Horn of Africa and the Middle East, and commended the efforts of the Council’s three competent committees to closely coordinate their efforts. The sanctions against Al-Qaida were among the most important multilateral tools to combat terrorism. At the same time, it should be ensured that the listing process was based on equity, respect for rights, credibility and transparency. Both the counter-terrorism and the “1540” committees were facilitating implementation of Council resolutions. The synergy created by the three bodies should continue along that path.
DAVID YITSHAK ROET ( Israel) said his country had never known a single day free from terrorism, and the recent attack on the Jewish Museum in Brussels showed that both anti-Semitism and terrorism were not confined by national borders. Lending support to the Abbas-Hamas partnership was the same as lending legitimacy to terror attacks against Israel. Hamas and Hizbullah received funding from the world’s primary sponsor of terrorism — Iran. The international community must stand firm in combating the scourge, he said, adding that the three committees were essential parts of the global effort to isolate terrorists and deny them the means to inflict harm.
BASHAR JA’AFARI ( Syria) said since the last report from the committees six months ago, his country, along with Nigeria, Pakistan and others, had witnessed brutal terrorist-related events. Days ago, Jabhat Al-Nusra had exploded two car bombs in Homs, killing innocent civilians. Regrettably, some senior Secretariat officials and reports of the Secretary-General described Jabhat Al-Nusra as an “armed opposition”. The United Nations was the main international forum to foster global efforts to combat terrorism. Success in that endeavour was threatened by its politicization and inappropriate labelling. Boko Haram’s abduction of Nigerian girls was as condemnable as terrorist attacks on women in Syria. Fighters from the United States, Maldives, France and other States were in his country. Some called them “foreign fighters”, but they were actually terrorists, he said, adding that Saudi Arabia and Qatar had supported terrorists in Syria. State-supported terrorism from countries such as Israel, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Qatar had brought terrorism to the region, and he condemned those States and others supporting terrorists. Foreign occupation was the most dangerous form of terrorism and Israel represented that threat.
THOMAS MAYR-HARTING, Head of the European Union delegation, said the full implementation of resolution 1540 (2004) was not simply a legal requirement but was crucial for all interests and, fortunately, universal reporting in line with that text was within reach. As the terrorist threat evolved, with more than 10,000 attacks in 2013, resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1373 (2001) were as pertinent as ever. Terrorism should be fought as a crime by law, with full respect for fundamental rights. Welcoming the Council’s steps to reinforce fair and clear sanctions procedures, he reiterated the call for all Member States to extend full cooperation to the Ombudsperson in each and every case.
Turning to the “1373” Committee, he said preventing terrorists’ misuse of travel documents was crucial, given that many States faced the growing threat of increased flows of international recruits, including foreign fighters. Sharing information and best practices for detecting and preventing such people from travelling abroad was vital and he strongly supported further work in that area. The collective resolve to defeat terrorism must never weaken or falter, he said, noting that the committees’ work must remain a priority.
KAZUYOSHI UMEMOTO ( Japan) said that given current trends, a renewed focus should hone in on the importance of coordination among the three committees. For its part, Japan’s efforts to fight terrorism included a $3 million pledge to support capacity-building in the Middle East and Africa. Japan had also conducted dialogues and consultations with several countries to enhance abilities to cope with terrorism and share practices and lessons learned. Japan expected that the committees would continue to carry out their roles actively, for which his country would continue to lend support.
MASOOD KHAN ( Pakistan) strongly condemned terrorism “committed by whomever, wherever and for whatever purposes”, stressing that such acts could not be associated with any race, ethnicity, value system or society. Pakistan’s counter-terrorism approach was based on development, dialogue and deterrence. More broadly, a comprehensive international response to such violence was needed, one that was long-term and multi-pronged to include dispute resolution and political settlements. Al-Qaida had evolved with its use of electronic safe havens to host training seminars, requiring the sanctions regime to take a more efficient, targeted and evidence-based approach. The 1540 Committee should enhance its matchmaking role by mapping assistance needs and acting as a clearing house for both providers and recipients. The committees’ joint activities should be done in close consultation with all Council members.
BÉNÉDICTE FRANKINET (Belgium), also speaking on behalf of the Group of Like-Minded States on targeted sanctions (Austria, Costa Rica, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland), said there was a widely recognized need to further develop fair and clear procedures in United Nations sanctions regimes. The Group supported efforts to enhance fairness and transparency to contribute to the regimes’ credibility and effectiveness. The creation and strengthening of the Ombudsperson process were vital steps towards an independent and effective sanctions review mechanism. However, due process concerns persisted and legal challenges had been filed in jurisdictions worldwide, including the European Union Court of Justice ruling in the Kadi case in July 2013. As long as national and regional courts considered that United Nations sanctions fell short of the minimum standards of due process, national authorities could find themselves unable to fully implement them.
Highlighting proposals to further strengthen the effectiveness of the United Nations sanctions regime, she said the Office of the Ombudsperson should be made permanent and information-sharing should be improved between Member States and the Ombudsperson, the sanctions committees, Member States and national and regional courts. Transparency should be enhanced and committees must continue to conduct the triennial review in a timely manner. The Group also proposed longer-term efforts, including providing the Ombudsperson with the authority to decide, when a delisting request was made, whether to maintain or delist an individual or entity. The Group also proposed reflection on improving due process in other sanctions regimes, given that one of them was already subjected to review by the European Court of Human Rights.
SHORNA-KAY MARIE RICHARDS ( Jamaica) said the three counter-terrorism resolutions constituted the cornerstone of ongoing global efforts. The genesis of the Caribbean region’s implementation initiative had derived from the Caribbean Community’s recognition of the inherent challenges in devising national programmes and appropriating the necessary resources to do so. Regional implementation would leverage the existing security cooperation, which was the most logical and efficient way to move forward and innovative thinking would allow States with limited resources to better coordinate important non-proliferation mandates. Such concerted and novel joint efforts would ensure continued meaningful and measurable gains in preventing proliferation and in availing Member States of the necessary tools to confront terrorism in a comprehensive coordinated and successful way.
* *** *