Cooperation between United Nations, Regional, Subregional Organizations ‘Mainstay’ of International Relations, Security Council Hears throughout Day-long Debate
Cooperation between United Nations, Regional, Subregional Organizations ‘Mainstay’ of International Relations, Security Council Hears throughout Day-long Debate
|Department of Public Information • News and Media Division • New York|
7015th Meeting (AM & PM)
Cooperation between United Nations, Regional, Subregional Organizations ‘Mainstay’
of International Relations, Security Council Hears throughout Day-long Debate
Presidential Statement Supports Further Development of Partnerships,
As Secretary-General Says Architects of UN Charter ‘Visionary in Foreseeing’ Them
The Security Council today encouraged the continuing involvement of regional and subregional organizations in the peaceful settlement of disputes, including through conflict prevention, confidence building and mediation, and underlined the importance of utilizing their existing and potential capabilities.
Through a presidential statement issued by Argentina’s delegation, which holds the Council’s presidency this month, the 15-member body stressed the importance of further developing effective partnerships between the United Nations and regional entities to enable early responses to disputes and emerging crises.
The statement, building on the language of the one agreed by the Council in January 2010, recognizes that regional and subregional organizations are well-positioned to understand the causes of armed conflicts, owing to their knowledge of the region. That, said the Council, could benefit efforts to influence prevention or resolution of the disputes.
The wide-ranging text reaffirms the primacy of the United Nations Charter for maintaining international peace and security, but expresses the Council’s intention to expand cooperation, as appropriate, with relevant organizations.
On specific matters, the Council stressed the need for those organizations to work to ensure that women and gender perspectives were fully integrated into all peace and security efforts, and encouraged the continued mainstreaming of child protection into advocacy, policies, programmes and mission planning.
Also emphasized was the importance of regional and subregional organizations in addressing the illicit small arms and light weapons trade and, in that context, the Council encouraged the establishment or strengthening of subregional or regional mechanisms, in particular, trans-border customs cooperation and information-sharing networks, with a view to eradicating the illicit cross-border trade.
Turning to the rule of law and the fight against impunity, the Council highlighted the contribution those organizations could make to accountability through support for enhancing the capacity of national justice systems, and through cooperation with international mechanisms, courts and tribunals, including the International Criminal Court.
In his opening address, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said that the architects of the United Nations Charter were visionary in foreseeing a world where the 193-nation body and regional organizations worked together to prevent, manage and resolve crises. But they likely did not anticipate the interconnected nature of today’s threats or range of cooperation that would exist between them.
Describing the United Nations partnerships in various regions, including Latin America, Africa, Middle East, Asia and Europe, Mr. Ban said that their challenges, along with differing approaches to a given crisis and diverse mandates and memberships, could lead to different perspectives.
Regional and subregional organizations had deep knowledge, unique insights and strong local networks, which were critical for mediation, planning a peacekeeping operation or helping a country to build lasting peace, he said. The United Nations added its universal membership and legitimacy, long experience and operational capacity. “We need to learn from the lessons of our collaborations to build ever more innovative and flexible partnership arrangements that draw on our respective strengths.”
Following Mr. Ban’s statement, remarks were delivered by the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), the African Union, the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and the League of Arab States.
Speaking for CELAC, Bruno Rodríguez Parrilla, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Cuba, called on the Latin American and Caribbean community to contribute more to the “equilibrium of the world”. CELAC’s unity in establishing the region as a zone of peace, free from nuclear weapons, and its unanimous support of Argentina’s claim on the Malvinas (Falkland Islands)* were examples of its influence.
There was broad agreement among the nearly 60 speakers that, as Haiti’s Foreign Affairs Minister put it, the proliferation of regional conflicts made cooperation between them and the United Nations a “mainstay” of international relations. Similarly, Guatemala’s Foreign Affairs Minister said regional organizations were “destined to be active partners in this multipolar world”.
While many speakers acknowledged that the cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations was most developed in Africa, Ethiopia’s representative, on behalf of the African Union, stressed the need for greater funding for Security Council-authorized African Union peace missions. Some progress had been made, but it was still “a far cry” from what the Joint African Union-United Nations Report on African Union Peacekeeping Operations — the so-called “Prodi Panel” — had proposed, he said.
Similarly, Rwanda’s delegate said the cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations had yet to reach its full potential. He was concerned that the nature and structure of that cooperation was often overshadowed or even undermined by the interests of some Council members. He urged the Council to regularly consider the position of the African Union and its regional economic communities and to continue “desk-to-desk” dialogue on issues of mutual interest and consultations on how to take the partnership forward.
Several speakers assessed the comparative advantages of the organizations, including the representative of the Russian Federation, who highlighted the United Nations universal membership and universal recognition of its legitimacy, while pointing out that regional organizations often had more nuanced understanding of a situation and, therefore, could adopt preventive and peacekeeping mechanisms that fit regional realities.
Agreeing that regional organizations often provided detailed knowledge of regional issues at play and even served as mediators, the representative of the United Kingdom spotlighted several examples: the European Union-facilitated dialogue between Belgrade and Pristine had led to improved relations between Serbia and Kosovo; the Gulf Cooperation Council, in Yemen in 2011, had helped to broker an agreement that should lead to elections in 2014; and efforts by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 2011 had resulted in the cessation of violence along the Thai-Cambodian border.
Speaking in her national capacity, Argentina’s President Cristina Fernández, who presided over today’s debate, noted the importance of implementing United Nations resolutions, saying that was “the crux of resolving conflict and central to the effectiveness of the Security Council in settling difficult matters”.
Lack of respect for resolutions could lead to difficulties, she said, adding that Argentina and the United Kingdom, for instance, could engage in conversations under General Assembly resolution 2065 regarding the Malvinas (Falkland Islands). She was not saying that her Government was “right”. But when there was a resolution, it was no longer a matter of difference of opinion, she said.
Also making statements at the ministerial level were representatives of Peru (on behalf of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR)), Azerbaijan, Morocco, Chile, Brazil, Bolivia, Venezuela, Uruguay, Colombia and Ecuador.
Statements were also delivered by the representatives of the United States, Australia, Luxembourg, Pakistan, France, Togo, China, Republic of Korea, Kyrgyzstan (on behalf of the Collective Security Treaty Organization and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization), Mexico, Egypt, New Zealand, Honduras, Viet Nam (on behalf of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)), Syria, Ukraine, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Uganda, South Africa, Costa Rica, Malaysia, Turkey, Indonesia, India, Thailand, Fiji, Lithuania, Nigeria, Armenia, Botswana, Qatar, Sudan, Solomon Islands and Georgia.
The Secretary-General of the Organization of American States also spoke as did a representative of the European Union delegation.
Returning to the floor for a second time were representatives of the United Kingdom, Argentina and the United States.
The meeting began at 9:55 a.m. and suspended at 1:15 p.m. It resumed at 3:15 p.m. and ended at 7:56 p.m.
As the Security Council met today to discuss cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations in maintaining international peace and security, it had before it a letter dated 1 August 2013 from the Permanent Representative of Argentina to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General (document S/2013/446), forwarding a concept note on the topic.
CRISTINA FERNANDEZ, President of Argentina, opened the debate by noting that the Council last had discussed the subject on 13 January 2010 during which it had adopted a presidential statement stressing the Council’s primacy in maintaining global peace and security, the importance of developing effective partnerships and its intention to consider more ways to promote closer cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations in early warning, conflict prevention, peacemaking, peacekeeping and peacebuilding. Today’s debate would consider the role of regional and subregional arrangements and organizations and explore ways to strengthen those relationships.
BAN KI-MOON, United Nations Secretary-General, said the architects of the Charter were visionary in foreseeing a world where the United Nations and regional organizations worked together to prevent, manage and resolve crises. But they likely did not anticipate the interconnected nature of today’s threats or range of cooperation that would exist between them.
“Chapter VIII is as relevant today as ever,” he said, noting that many regional and subregional organizations had long histories of engagement in conflict prevention and mediation, peacekeeping and peacebuilding; others were becoming increasingly active in those areas. In Latin America and the Caribbean, there was a long history of partnership, including joint missions with the Organization of American States (OAS). Today, collaboration existed in a range of areas from mediation and dialogue to combating illicit trafficking. He welcomed the emergence of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), and their contributions to both peace and security and sustainable development on the continent.
Noting his participation last month in the seventh United Nations-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) General Meeting, he said that the United Nations cooperated closely with the African Union and subregional economic communities. Through joint peacekeeping and mediation efforts in Darfur, the African Union and the United Nations were committed to facilitating a comprehensive, inclusive settlement to the conflict. In Somalia, the United Nations worked hand-in-hand with the African Union Mission there (AMISOM) and assisted Somali partners to successfully conclude an eight-year political transition.
Collaboration with the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the African Union was essential to the United Nations response in Côte d’Ivoire, and central to its efforts in Mali, he said. The early deployment of the African-led International Support Mission to Mali, known as AFISMA, combined with ECOWAS-led mediation efforts in the north, had laid the foundations for the peace process. The Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo — supported by 11 African leaders, the African Union, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the International Conference for the Great Lakes Region and the United Nations — represented the best opportunity in years for forging a durable peace.
Additionally, he continued, the United Nations and the League of Arab States were supporting inclusive political processes in Tunisia, Libya, and Yemen, and the Organization continued to search for a political solution to the crisis in Syria, including through the deployment of its joint envoy, Lakhdar Brahimi. Regular joint consultations with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) continued to create important opportunities for mutual cooperation, including promoting peacebuilding, reconciliation and political reform in Myanmar, and preventive diplomacy in Mindanao.
In recent years, the Organization had strengthened collaboration with the European Union in the Middle East, Somalia, Mali and elsewhere, he said. The European Union was the champion of the United Nations work in mediation and recently had facilitated a historic agreement between Pristina and Intervention Belgrade. With the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the United Nations partnered to advance human rights, confidence-building, counter-terrorism and disarmament in South-Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
But their challenges, along with differing approaches to a given crisis and diverse mandates and memberships, could lead to different perspectives, he said. “This debate is a welcome opportunity to explore the nature of these challenges and consider how to improve cooperation,” he said, stressing the “combined value of our respective strengths”. Regional and subregional organizations had deep knowledge, unique insights and strong local networks which were critical for mediation, planning a peacekeeping operation or helping a country to build lasting peace. The United Nations added its universal membership and legitimacy, long experience and operational capacity.
Through concrete initiatives, the parties involved were building on collective strengths, he said, pointing to formal partnership agreements and work plans, which guided day-to-day collaboration; staff exchanges that created networks, which facilitated response to evolving situations on the ground; and joint mediation deployments, training and capacity-building for evolving common understanding and a united front. However, there was always room for improvement, and he called for greater efforts towards swift response and long-term prevention.
“We need to learn from the lessons of our collaborations to build ever more innovative and flexible partnership arrangements that draw on our respective strengths,” he said, encouraging expanded cooperation and dialogue with a broader range of organizations in pursuit of international peace and security.
BRUNO RODRÍGUEZ PARRILLA, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Cuba, speaking on behalf of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), said the organization had reached common understandings on social development, education, health, environmental protection, energy and finances, and was preparing to work together on nuclear disarmament, corruption, agriculture, science and technology. It had presented to the United Nations its common vision on some of the main challenges faced in the maintenance of international peace and security and the prevention of conflicts, as well as on peacekeeping efforts. To achieve stability and avoid relapse of conflict, the United Nations presence in the field should become more strategic, comprehensive and coordinated. Concurrently, national institutions, and reconstruction and development should be strengthened. Improved coordination between Member States and United Nations organs was necessary.
Lasting peace depended on development, especially the eradication of hunger, poverty and inequality, he said, noting the importance played by the United Nations and the international community in that regard in Haiti. Such efforts needed to be part of a long-term, sustainable project under the leadership and guidance of the Haitian Government. He said It was high time for the region to contribute more to the “equilibrium of the world”, taking pleasure in CELAC’s participation in the Security Council debate and stressing the united front that the organization presented at the United Nations. CELAC’s unity in establishing the region as a zone of peace, free from nuclear weapons, and its unanimous support of Argentina’s claim on the Malvinas (Falkland Islands) were examples of the sort of influence the body could have.
TEKEDA ALEMU (Ethiopia), speaking on behalf of the African Union, said that today’s debate came at the right time when Africa was making tremendous efforts at continental and subregional levels to address the peace and security “deficit” there. The Union was convinced that a principled, consistent and predictable cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations was indispensable for the maintenance of international peace and security.
The signing and implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in Sudan, the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur and the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) were illustrative examples of cooperation based on flexibility, making best use of the comparative advantages of the African Union, subregional organizations and the United Nations in prevention, effective mediation, peacekeeping, peace support missions and peacebuilding strategies.
But much remained to be done to ensure that the comparative advantages of each were used optimally. Citing the Secretary-General’s remarks in 2010, he noted the need for “revitalized and evolving interpretation” of Chapter VIII of the Charter as well as the need for “a clearly defined expectation” of the role of regional organizations in maintaining international peace and security.
He also noted the need for greater cooperation in the area of funding for the Security Council-authorized African Union peace support missions. Some progress had been made but it was still a far cry from what the Prodi Panel had proposed. No less vital was the need for consultation and effective coordination between the two organizations. The United Nations should intensify regional initiatives and accelerate its efforts to implement the United Nations-African Union 10-year Capacity-Building Programme for the African Union. More efforts were also required to fully operationalize the African Union Continental Peace and Security Architecture, including the Stand-by Force and the Continental Early Warning System. To that end, enhanced cooperation between the Security Council and the African Union Peace and Security Council was vital.
EDDA RIVAS FRANCHINI, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Peru, speaking on behalf of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), said there were no inter-State conflicts in South America that threatened global peace and security. Nor were there situations of extreme violence. UNASUR members were convinced that the best way to achieve global peace and security was through integration based on respect for international law. The Union’s Constitutive Treaty and its activities were compatible with the United Nations Charter, and special importance was given to respecting State sovereignty and autonomy and to maintaining close cooperation with the United Nations and Security Council.
UNASUR, she added, had an important role in preventing conflict. South American nations viewed integration as a vital process for strengthening multilateralism, promoting peace and eliminating the use of force and illegitimate uses of defence, including nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. A challenge for the region was to promote disarmament and nuclear-weapon-free zones, in line with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco) and its Second Protocol.
UNASUR’s South American Defence Council provided a space for intergovernmental cooperation, dialogue and diversity, she said. It had contributed to regional stability and peace, and lessons had been learned from various forms of cooperation, which had facilitated technology transfer and capacity-building. In 2011, a register of South American military spending had been created, a South American military inventory was in the experimental stage, and a manual for confidence-building and security measures was being developed.
UNASUR countries participated in the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) and the International “Simon Bolivar” Civic Military Rescue and Assistance Brigade, she noted, adding that its creation of a technical secretariat in Haiti was a sign of its support for that country. She also affirmed its support for the peace process between Colombia and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, known as FARC.
During their sixth summit in Lima on 30 November, UNASUR members had demonstrated their respect for international law, global treaties and the Charter when they approved the Declaration of South America as a Zone of Peace, she said. They committed to use peaceful means to settle disputes and abstain from the use of force and interference in State sovereignty. The Declaration also envisioned making South America a zone free of anti-personnel mines and it supported bilateral efforts towards that end. Further, it issued a call, within the framework of the South American Defence Council, for negotiations on a peace, security and cooperation protocol — a Peruvian initiative. Also at the Summit, a special communiqué of support to defeat terrorism had been adopted, reiterating members’ commitment to strengthen domestic laws and adopt new prevention methods.
AHMED FATHALLA, Permanent Observer of the League of Arab States, recalled that the cooperation between the League and the United Nations dated back to 1981, supported by a General Assembly resolution, which took into account Middle East issues. Problems threatening international peace and security required various measures, including extending humanitarian assistance to victims of conflict and natural disasters, helping post-conflict States rebuild, and mitigating risks of relapse into conflict. The Security Council had also issued numerous resolutions on a myriad of issues, but despite that body’s credibility, many had gone unimplemented, including ones concerning the Palestinian question.
He noted that the Charter’s Chapter VIII encouraged regional organizations to address matters related to international peace and security. The changing international landscape made it necessary to buttress cooperation between the League and the United Nations and, in that regard, various developments unfolding in the Arab world must be reflected. He highlighted the outcome of the general meeting on cooperation between the secretariats of the United Nations and League of Arab States and their specialized organizations, held in Vienna in July 2012.
In particular, he continued, cooperation between the two had been emphasized in light of developments in his region, including the radical transformation led by youngsters aspiring to build democratic institutions. He noted the importance of holding periodic meetings between the two organizations, upgrading the level of cooperation, adopting implementable programmes in peacebuilding and peacekeeping, paying more attention to humanitarian assistance to address the suffering of refugees and victims, and supporting League States in development. Cooperation between the two organizations was also important in the context of the Syrian crisis. Today’s presidential statement should reflect changes in the region.
FERNANDO CARRERA, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Guatemala, said that his country and its subregion, Central America, had accumulated more than 60 years of successful experiences in the realm of intra-regional cooperation, promoted by common multilateral organizations. That culture of intra-regional cooperation sought to resolve common problems through joint actions and was supported by a web of institutions and intergovernmental mechanisms. Indeed, the level of common interest that existed between the countries of the subregion had strengthened respect for the principle of resolving all conflicts or misunderstandings through peaceful means and dialogue.
Describing Latin America’s significant contributions to United Nations peacekeeping missions, he said that the region was taking an active part in the activities of the Security Council. Guatemala, since assuming its seat as an elected member, had supported cooperation between the Council and regional and subregional organizations. However, that support was nuanced by the acknowledgement that “there are no formulas of universal validity” in that matter. At the same time, such partnerships were not always exempt from difficulties. In that vein, decisions taken by regional organizations should be reconciled with those adopted by the United Nations, including the Security Council. What was clear was that overcoming conflicts and the route to sustainable peace depended on a joint endeavour, which intertwined the agendas of security, justice, respect for human rights, and sustainable development. “The regional organizations are destined to be active partners in this multipolar world,” he added.
ELMAR MAHARRAM OGLU MAMMADYAROV, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan, cited some examples of progress towards enhancing cooperation between the United Nations and regional partners, including the increased role of the African Union over the past decade. In addition, the League of Arab States had proven to be capable in taking the lead in promoting peace, security and stability in the region. As a member of the Security Council and an observer to both organizations, Azerbaijan would further support the development of partnerships between those bodies, he said. At the same time, however, it was important to admit that some serious challenges remained. While regional organizations were normally well-positioned to understand the causes of armed conflict, owing to their local knowledge, not all of them could boast the ability, political will and institutional capacity to ensure compliance by Member States with their statutory commitments.
First and foremost, he said, it was crucial that all Member States adhere strictly to their Charter-based obligations, with respect to the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of States. Azerbaijan was concerned at attempts undertaken in some situations of armed conflict with a view to misinterpreting the norms and principles of international law and downplaying the relevance of Security Council resolutions. The Council had stressed that regional partners must keep it informed of their peace and security activities. Priority attention should be given to the implementation of Council resolutions, particularly those related to conflict prevention, management and settlement. In addition, all peace settlements must be consistent with international law. Finally, he said, as a country suffering from occupation and large-scale ethnic cleansing, Azerbaijan strongly supported the contribution of regional and subregional organizations to the principle of individual accountability.
EUGÈNE-RICHARD GASANA (Rwanda) said the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), AMISOM and ECOWAS had exercised irreplaceable leadership in support of the United Nations. He noted, in particular, their joint efforts in Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan and Mali. He commended the growing role of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, to which Rwanda was a member, in confronting the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. He noted ASEAN’s role in Cambodia and the work of the Organization of American States in Haiti and Nicaragua.
Still, he said, cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations had yet to reach its full potential and should be substantially mainstreamed. The nature and structure of that cooperation was often overshadowed or undermined by the interests of some Council members. He urged the Council to regularly consider the position of the African Union and its regional economic communities and to continue “desk-to-desk” dialogue on issues of mutual interest, as well as increase consultations on how to take that partnership forward. Such cooperation would lead to effective coordination and minimize duplication of efforts, he said.
Steps to improve strategic cooperation would benefit from more regular, substantive interaction with executive representatives of those organizations and the Security Council on matters linked to peace and security in their respective jurisdictions. In that regard, he looked forward to the annual consultative meeting between the Council and the African Union Peace and Security Council later this year. He called for better predictability, sustainability and flexibility of financing regional organizations’ peace and security-related efforts. The June announcement by African leaders to set up a rapid reaction force, fully funded by African countries, was a good step towards self-reliance. In the spirit of South-South cooperation, countries should share best practices in election monitoring, security-sector reform, law enforcement and border control.
SAMANTHA POWER (United States), acknowledging regional organizations as “invaluable partners” of the Security Council, said the Obama Administration intensified cooperation with those entities. Stressing the comparative advantages of regional organizations, she noted that they could help prevent conflict by leveraging local knowledge. Because they understood that instability in one country could adversely impact its neighbouring nations, they had a keen interest in regional peace and security. For instance, the League of Arab States had been able to signal an early warning against developments in Libya.
She also described how the cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations played a role in maintaining peace and security in Sudan, Mali, Somalia and elsewhere in Africa, as well as in Haiti, which also had been struck by a natural disaster in January 2010. Lastly, she stressed the need for cooperation to be based on the situation on the ground, as well as the importance of seeking solutions “together”.
YOUSSEF AMRANI, Minister Delegate for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Morocco, said some regional and subregional organizations had become major protagonists in working with the United Nations. Morocco had consistently contributed to the United Nations aims in peacekeeping, international security and development and, as a founding member of the African Union, placed stability in Africa in the forefront of its foreign policy. Morocco now sought to bolster cooperation between the United Nations and Africa. It had participated in regional endeavours to settle disputes among African countries, and had supported democratic processes in many nations. Regional groups played a major role in reaching regional aspirations. In Africa, countries were engaged in achieving similar goals to those that had been achieved in South America.
He said Morocco had worked with other Council members to seek resolution in Mali. Building up the Arab Maghreb was a priority for his country, of the view that that would lead to sustainable development for countries in that area. Recent events in Mali called on Sahel and Maghreb countries to step up cooperation to deal with democratic and economic development challenges. He stressed the need for an inclusive security approach that incorporated all aspects of socioeconomic development, and commended the Council’s recent adoption of an approach towards that end. He lauded the cooperation between the League of Arab States and the United Nations and noted that his delegation had worked towards adoption of a presidential statement in that regard.
In closing, he expressed hope that the United States’ efforts to advance the Arab Peace Initiative would bear fruit. There must be a clear vision and respect for the United Nations Charter and those of regional and subregional organizations. Duplication of efforts should be avoided. Conflict prevention strategies must be adopted, and the root causes of conflict should be tackled.
GARY QUINLAN (Australia) saw an “increasingly instrumental” role for regional organizations, seen most clearly with the African Union and African subregional organizations. Cooperation and partnership worked best when the roles of the United Nations and regional bodies were based on comparative advantages. The Security Council could engage most fruitfully with regional organizations where the latter had a mandate and the capacity to work on international peace and security issues. Such was the case in the Pacific Islands Forum’s response to the crisis in the Solomon Islands, which had been in line with the Biketawa Declaration of 2000. In strengthening dialogue and capacity-building, the United Nations should share its knowledge of peacekeeping with regional organizations. The relationship between the United Nations and African Union pointed to cooperation practices that could apply elsewhere. He also called for partnerships on thematic areas, including on human rights and humanitarian issues.
SYLVIE LUCAS (Luxembourg), aligning with the European Union, said the Council rightly recognized the contributions of regional and subregional organizations in prevention, management and settlement of conflict in line with the Charter’s Chapter VIII. She was pleased with the long-established cooperation between the European Union and the United Nations in the maintenance of peace and security and other fields, including beyond the continent. Synergies in which the two organizations worked side-by-side were considerable, she said, citing as examples Kosovo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia, and Mali.
She said that cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations was most developed on the African continent. For instance, the cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union had helped Somalia “turn a new page”. The same kind of productive cooperation was needed for the Central African Republic. Partnership between the League of Arab States and the United Nations could enhance the protection of children in armed conflict. The African Union’s regional cooperation initiative against the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) was a perfect example. Her country was committed to scaling up the cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations.
MASOOD KHAN (Pakistan) said it was evident that the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations were cooperating more closely than ever to maintain international peace and security and prevent, manage and resolve crises. This past year had been good for partnerships, he said, citing positive developments in the Great Lakes region and elsewhere in Africa, such as Mali and the Central African Republic. Regional organizations possessed unique perspectives and deeper understanding of local conflict and cultural norms, and they had enormous influence over parties to a dispute. The United Nations, when formulating strategies for cooperation, however, must take into account that every regional organization had a unique historical background, as well as distinct objectives, diverse memberships, and differing capacities.
He urged the League of Arab States, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation and the Gulf Cooperation Council to use their clout to persuade all sides in Syria to attend a second Geneva conference. Turning to Africa, he applauded the European Union for providing funding for the United Nations-mandated African Union peace support operations and urged other donors to follow suit. Lastly, he endorsed the presidential statement issued today for its comprehensive coverage of key issues.
MARK LYALL GRANT (United Kingdom), citing examples of cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations, said the European Union-facilitated dialogue between Belgrade and Pristina had led to better relations between Serbia and Kosovo. In Yemen in 2011, the Gulf Cooperation Council had played an invaluable role in negotiating an agreement that should lead to elections in Yemen in 2014. ASEAN’s efforts in 2011 had resulted in the cessation of violence along the Thai-Cambodian border. That illustrated how regional organizations could provide detailed knowledge on social and regional issues at play and serve as mediators, among other helpful roles. Regional organizations operating in Kosovo had demonstrated their valuable role as independent election monitors, and where there was credible evidence of serious irregularities, they must be able to voice their concerns.
He said that the African Union policy of zero tolerance towards military coups was an important factor in facilitating democratic governance in Africa. Noting differences that challenged the partnership between the United Nations and regional organizations, he said ECOWAS and the African Union had taken different approaches to the conflict in Côte d’Ivoire. Regional organizations’ capacity must be considered realistically. Sometimes they had the political will but not capacity to lead responses to conflict. The Council must look at its own conduct and differences of approach, such as to Syria, he said, noting that the League of Arab States had been forthright about what it expected of the Council.
ALEXIS LAMEK (France) said the seriousness and number of conflicts in the world required recourse to all available tools. Cooperation with regional and subregional organizations was crucial. Mali was a good example of how such cooperation had allowed a country to emerge from conflict. The European Union was a prime example, given the close cooperation it enjoyed with the United Nations. It had the operational capacity to fund and participate in peacekeeping and missions focused on post-conflict stability. Since 2004, it had provided €740 million in predictable funding to peacekeeping missions to enable urgent and longer-term responses. Since 2007, it had provided funding to AMISOM and, recently, it had supported the deployment of MINUSMA to Mali. It played a key role in coordinating activities in Libya through border monitoring missions, and in Georgia, it had participated in discussions on confidence-building steps with Abkhazia, which had led to an agreement.
The role of regional organizations would only grow, he said, adding that France was supporting the creation of regional security bodies. Challenges to the United Nations relationship with regional organizations related to insufficient funding, military know-how, and oversight over Council-authorized operations should not be obstacles. It was vital to respond to them effectively and swiftly.
VITALY I. CHURKIN (Russian Federation) said the importance of today’s topic was demonstrated by the number of leading organizations participating in this debate. The global nature of modern challenges and threats and the establishment of a collective approach required enhanced cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations in the area of peacekeeping and security. Turning to the comparative advantages of the United Nations, he cited its universal membership and universal recognition of its legitimacy. Regional organizations often had more nuanced understanding of a situation and, therefore, could adopt preventive and peacekeeping mechanisms that fit regional realities.
However, he noted, it was important that regional organizations be focused on seeking peaceful and political settlements to emerging conflict. Those groups should not fall under excessive pressure from certain members who might be following their personal agendas. He went on to describe how cooperation between regional organizations and the United Nations held promise, including with the Collective Security Treaty Organization and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.
KOKOU NAYO MBEOU (Togo) said that while the Security Council had the primary responsibility of the maintenance of international peace and security, a growing number of conflicts were increasingly complicated and multifaceted, which had caused regional and subregional organizations to take a firm position and an increasing role in the prevention and settlement of crises in their respective geographical areas. Cooperation among them must go beyond the traditional framework, and seek to identify the root causes of conflict and successful strategies for conflict prevention and settlement, peacebuilding, civilian protection, and combating impunity for serious human rights violations.
He described the ways in which the African Union was evolving to take over the role of maintaining peace and security on the continent. In that regard, it was essential to clarify relations between its Peace and Security Council and the United Nations Security Council because strategic differences often led to lack of understanding or frustration.
WANG MIN (China) stressed the importance of regional and subregional organizations in conflict prevention and post-conflict reconstruction. He supported the United Nations collaboration with them, but said that must be guided by the Charter and should be in line with Council resolutions. Those organizations had a unique role to play in the context of Chapter VIII and their work should be tailored to local situations. Flexible and pragmatic mechanisms should be actively explored, and the United Nations should strengthen support to regional organizations to deal with security threats and challenges. Many organizations, such as the African Union, had made great efforts to promote post-conflict reconstruction, but they faced capacity constrains. The United Nations should provide them with greater support to play a greater role in peace and security matters. China was read to join the international community to push to strengthen cooperation between regional and subregional organizations. It supported the statement to be made by Kyrgyzstan, on behalf of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.
KIM SOOK (Republic of Korea) noted variations between intra-regional arrangements and called for their recognition to ensure that the international community’s approach was flexible, responsive and adaptive. No singular, uniform modality of cooperation was appropriate. For example, his region had no significant regional organization and efforts to promote greater regional cooperation should not lead to imbalance between States that were part of regional groups and those that were not. Nonetheless, regional organizations were valuable in addressing regional conflict, complementing the Council’s efforts to maintain international peace and security. Regional organizations should enhance their capacities, focusing on ending impunity for human rights and humanitarian law violators, better implementation of sanctions regimes, non-proliferation of mass destruction weapons and better coordination to address piracy and trafficking.
CRISTINA FERNÁNDEZ, President of Argentina, speaking in her national capacity, noted the participation of 14 Foreign Ministers in today’s debate, 12 of whom were from Latin America. The representatives of Cuba and Peru, on behalf of CELAC and UNASUR, respectively, had also taken the floor. Argentina was a founding member of both. Each had dealt with conflict, including between Ecuador and Colombia, as well as in Bolivia and Chile.
Noting that the representative of the League of Arab States said that all United Nations Member States must implement its resolutions, she said that was “the crux of resolving conflict and central to the effectiveness of the Security Council in settling difficult matters.” Permanent Council members with the right of veto should abide by the Charter. She called for operational reform of the United Nations, including of the Council, in order to respond to current realities, which differed from those of the cold war era with the imminent danger of nuclear holocaust. At that time, veto power had been a safeguard.
Lack of respect for United Nations resolutions could lead to difficulties, she said. For instance, Argentina and the United Kingdom could engage in conversations under General Assembly resolution 2065 regarding the Malvinas (Falkland Islands). She was not saying that her Government was “right”; simply stating that the resolution should be implemented and that both countries should sit down and discuss controversial matters. When there was a resolution, it was no longer a matter of difference of opinion; the text needed to be implemented.
ALFREDO MORENO CHARME, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Chile, said that, for Latin America and the Caribbean, meeting the needs of the people was, in essence, a collaborative effort for peace. That vision guided the Organization of American States, UNASUR, MERCOSUR and CELAC. Today, the task facing the region was to pursue development through common projects geared to integration. Collective action was also imperative if the world was to cope with traditional and emerging threats, and Chile interpreted Chapter VIII to mean that such action was strengthened by the involvement of subregional and regional organizations.
In that vein, he said, Chile recognized the importance of the Inter-American System, which had provided the region with a set of instruments constituting a fundamental political and legal heritage for good governance in the hemisphere. His delegation attached paramount importance to the adoption of democratic clauses, integration projects and confidence-building measures, which played an effective role in conflict prevention, peacekeeping and post-conflict processes. He underscored the role of countries in the region in Haiti’s reconstruction, through MINUSTAH, and the cooperation in support of regional and subregional mechanisms, and he highlighted UNASUR’s contribution in that regard.
ANTONIO DE AGUIAR PATRIOTA, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Brazil, pointed to a history of successful political coordination in South America. Heads of State and Government of MERCOSUR (Southern Common Market) had recently adopted a decision condemning acts of espionage by the United States, which had been followed up by a meeting with the Secretary-General. Noting the different forms and varied intensity of articulation between the United Nations and regional organizations, he described work by UNASUR, the South American Defence Council, CARICOM and CELAC. He supported Argentina’s claim to sovereignty of the Malvinas (Falkland Islands) and pointed to the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic (ZOPACAS), whose member States supported a South Atlantic free of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.
He said the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was not acting within the bounds of the Charter’s Chapter VIII, having “loosely interpreted mandates” for action. There must be explicit authorization by the Council for coercion. He praised the efforts of the African Union in Sudan and Somalia and expressed commitment to partnerships with the African continent. He welcomed the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and was confident that the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUSCO) would protect civilians, with the military component supporting a political strategy. In Guinea-Bissau, harmonization of messages and positions between regional and multilateral efforts was needed.
No military solution existed for the Syrian conflict, he went on, voicing support for a new Geneva conference. Concerning the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, neither regional nor multilateral organizations had delivered tangible results. The diplomatic Quartet had been inoperative and the Security Council needed to fully assume its responsibilities and refrain from outsourcing them.
DAVID CHOQUEHUANCA CÉSPEDES, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Bolivia, said that it was anachronistic to maintain permanent and non-permanent categories in the Security Council. Indeed, some of the so-called super-Powers were the cause of many conflicts around the world. Latin America was a zone of peace, thanks to the desire of its leaders and its ability to avoid foreign intervention. In the twenty-first century, it was unacceptable to see monarchistic practices within the United Nations. Member States must respect the very principles of democracy within the Organization.
“The day will come when all the member countries exercise their rights on equal conditions — when, in other words, there is true democracy in the United Nations,” unless veto power in the Council persisted, he said. It was time to put into practice the Charter-based principle of the equality of small and large nations, alike. The world required a Security Council that was small, flexible and authoritative. However, it also needed one that was open to all countries. In closing, he condemned the practice of espionage by the United States, and expressed grief for the attack against President Evo Morales, which violated human rights and international standards.
ELIAS JAUA MILANO, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Venezuela, speaking on behalf of MERCOSUR, said new regional mechanisms continued to strengthen democratic systems and build a culture of peace. He stressed the importance of social justice, democracy and access to all necessary resources for development and peace. MERCOSUR had grown from a commercial agreement into an important social instrument, with a clear commitment to democracy and peace throughout its existence. He listed several instances in which it had sought to act to maintain stability and prevent coups d’état, and described the actions taken in the wake of Paraguay’s 2012 coup. MERCOSUR’s methods had always been peaceful, with no economically punitive measures and no use of military force.
Restating the position of Venezuela’s former President, Hugo Chavez, he called for the democratization of the Security Council. Without it, the United Nations message and discourse could lose credibility and the Council could become merely a “platform to encourage armed interventions in sovereign States” and “regime change”, which ran counter to international law. He rejected colonial situations, such as in the Malvinas (Falkland Islands), reasserting support for Argentina’s sovereign rights. He called for an end to the blockade against Cuba and for Palestine’s full United Nations membership. He condemned States that stopped Bolivian President Morales from flying over their territory and rejected espionage by the United States, which undermined State sovereignty. Multilateral agreements were needed in response and MERCOSUR was discussing the matter. He stressed solidarity with other States that offered asylum to Edward Snowden.
LUIS ALMAGRO, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Uruguay, said that, notwithstanding the responsibility of the Security Council, the work ofregional and subregional organizations was invaluable. In his region, the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone was a fundamental instrument to facilitate peace and cooperation between countries, as well as to ensure human rights. It existed in the context of respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity and the principle of non-intervention of States. The South Atlantic was a zone free of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, he added, urging other States to recognize it as such and to further disarmament as a top priority.
He said his country understood the importance of mediation, preventive diplomacy and good offices. Concerned by the exploitation of natural resources in his region, he urged action on that front. He also reaffirmed the need to support the current peace processes and peacekeeping operations of the United Nations. The South Atlantic zone of peace supported efforts of States in conflict resolution. In that vein, he called for a peaceful solution to the question of the Malvinas (Falkland Islands) as soon as possible, in line with United Nations resolutions, which called on the two parties to avoid all unilateral actions. He was concerned at any illegitimate activities, such as oil exploitation, in the disputed area.
MARÍA ÁNGELA HOLGUÍN CUÉLLAR, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Colombia, said that regional and subregional organizations were playing an increasingly important role. Citing a number of examples of situations where the contributions of such organizations had determined the decisions of the Council — including Libya, Yemen, Mali, Côte d’Ivoire, Somalia, Sudan and South Sudan — he added that, in Haiti, the Council’s resolution 2070 (2012) had recognized the tangible results of UNASUR’s contribution.
She said: “The fulfilment of the mandate of the Security Council benefits from the understanding of the geographical, social, cultural and political context that regional and subregional organizations give regarding crisis or conflicts on its agenda.” Perspectives that reflected the realities in the region allowed for consideration of alternative solutions that might not coincide with universally applicable formulas. It was of the utmost importance that, in compliance with Chapter VIII, priority be given to regional and subregional mechanisms to resolve peace and security matters, before referring them to the Security Council.
RICARDO PATINO, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Human Mobility, Ecuador, said the story of Edward Snowden was “akin to a cold war spy novel”. The leaks that the former analyst revealed brought the inhabitants of the planet closer than ever to an “Orwellian nightmare”. It had become apparent that the surveillance went as far as discrete monitoring of email and that it was undertaken, not just against organized crime, but to gain advantages in trade negotiations with other countries. All creditors and debtors, friends and enemies, were suspects for the United States. Now States knew that their communications were fully monitored. The wounds that had been opened up needed to be addressed in a multilateral forum.
He said that while he recognized the United States legitimate need to deal with its national security, the imbalance that had been created threatened trust and peace. The activities ran counter to universal moral values, and the Security Council needed to take up the issue and act responsibly. International cooperation was threatened, possibly already in the field of organized crime, and in the future, on trade negotiations and security. The Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America States had been pressured because they had considered a request for asylum by Edward Snowden. Asylum was a right. He also called for an investigation into the disruption to President Morales’ flight from Moscow to La Paz.
PIERRE RICHARD CASIMIR, Minster for Foreign of Affairs of Haiti, said that the proliferation of regional conflicts around the world had made cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations a mainstay of international relations. He cited the multiplicity of peacekeeping and peacebuilding operations on all continents in recent years. Haiti had undergone a “descent into hell”, from which it was thankfully emerging, with the help of regional and other organizations. Indeed, throughout the last 25 years, it had been aided by several interventions by the United Nations, and regional and subregional organizations, sometimes acting together. He commended that solidarity, but cautioned that the missions must align themselves with the priorities of the Haitian Government. Haiti hoped MINUSTAH would achieve the goals for which it was created.
Despite its spectacular development and success, cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations continued to fall well short of expectations of the international community, he went on. Many challenges existed, including regional organizations’ lack of resources. A “new paradigm” was needed in the relationship between the United Nations and regional organizations. As recently stressed by the Council, it was necessary to reconcile United Nations legitimacy with the advantages of regionalism and bridge that gap. Moreover, he said, “we must renew this vital partnership”, basing it on core principles, ensuring a functioning framework and granting it the needed resources.
JOSE MIGUEL INSULZA, Secretary-General of the Organization of American States, said implementing and fulfilling the organization’s obligations meant establishing peace and security on the continent. The States of the Americas contributed their own realities and principles to the global spread of those ideas. They had signed the Bogota Pact, which was the basis for solving conflicts in the region, and they had not deployed a military mission since 1966, with the implicit understanding that it would not do so in the future and that it would respect the primacy of the Security Council in the area. The organization would support United Nations missions with its civilian capacities, such as in Haiti, El Salvador and Nicaragua.
The Organization of American States also assumed responsibility for remedying the lasting effects of internal conflicts, he said, listing mine clearance and destruction of firearms. Regional agreements had strengthened peace, although the continent still faced security threats, particularly from organized crime and trafficking, as well as pandemics and natural disasters. The guiding principles for the hemisphere’s security revolved around the idea of multidimensional security, in the context of human security. That concept had been accepted by almost all of the organization’s member States in 2004, thereby gaining official status and guiding decisions in the realm of security. The organization also addressed non-traditional threats, such as trafficking.
IOANNIS VRAILAS, a representative of the European Union delegation, said that challenges facing United Nations peacekeeping operations — including the ever increasing demands for their deployment — highlighted the need for increased cooperation with and capacity-building of regional organizations. Over the years, the European Union, in many locations, had provided operational, financial and political support to peacekeeping efforts. In crisis management and early peacebuilding, regional organizations could develop a mutually supportive relationship with the United Nations. Emphasizing the need to exchange best practices, he underlined the importance of the Union’s cooperation with the United Nations in conflict prevention and its strong element of experience-sharing.
He said that the European Union should share its experience on preventing conflict, including that which erupted over natural resources and energy-related challenges. Every regional organization had an inherent historical background, distinct objectives and diverse membership. In formulating strategies for cooperation, it was important, therefore, to strengthen global regional cooperation in a results-oriented and pragmatic manner, he said, emphasizing that “no one size fits all”.
TALAIBEK KYDYROV (Kyrgyzstan), speaking on behalf of the Collective Security Treaty Organization, said that the United Nations was the “linchpin” of international cooperation. However, he noted the growing influence of regional entities and their significant contribution to the United Nations in carrying out its mandate. The treaty organization had emerged as a key instrument in its region. It was a multi-functional structure with the capacity for rapid response to a number of threats and challenges, including organized crime, trafficking and illegal migration, he said, adding that several of its goals were to counter terrorism, drug trafficking and other challenges in Afghanistan. In that vein, there was a need for coordination, as well as the development and implementation of an agreed approach to Afghanistan by all players.
Last year, he recalled, a memorandum of understanding had been signed between the organization and the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations to pave the way for practical considerations in the field of peacekeeping. The priority of the Treaty Organization’s members was to achieve peace through political means.
Speaking next on behalf of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, he said that the organization sought to transform its region into one of peace, stability and security. It worked to combat separatism and terrorism, including by creating a regional counter-terrorism structure, and undertook efforts to tackle transnational organized crime. Peace and stability in the region as a whole depended on the situation in Afghanistan, he said, describing the organization’s efforts in that regard. Highlighting several cooperation agreements, he said that strengthening cooperation with the United Nations, in particular, would contribute to the achievement of the goals of both.
JORGE MARIO MONTAÑO Y MARTÍNEZ (Mexico) cited trafficking, transnational organized crime, climate change, and food insecurity among threats to international peace and security. Regional and global organizations played a crucial role, and he recognized the importance of the Organization of American States and CELAC in maximizing cooperation and integration. He also touched on the role of CARICOM, the Central American Integration System, and MERCOSUR in building a prosperous, peaceful and democratic world. It was nearly 10 years since the adoption of the Declaration on Security in the Americas, yet diverse and multidimensional challenges to security still confronted the hemisphere. A comprehensive vision, which included social development and education, was needed to achieve security, and he pledged to tackle poverty, inequity and social exclusion.
MOOTAZ AHMADEIN KHALIL (Egypt) said that synergy between international, regional and subregional organizations was a prerequisite for the success of peace and security efforts. In the Middle East, cooperation between the United Nations and the League of Arab States was indispensible, he said, citing the establishment of the mission of the Joint Special Representative for Syria. “This cooperation should extend to conflict prevention and resolution,” he said, adding that that could lead to lasting solutions to the two major chronic problems of the region, namely, the Palestinian question and the issue of nuclear weapons. The United Nations could benefit from the regional convening power and regional consensus building among both the League and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. But for that to happen, the Security Council had to be more responsive to the regional mechanisms. Consultations should take place regularly and have concrete outcomes.
JIM MCLAY (New Zealand) said last month in Honiara regional leaders had celebrated the success of the decade-long regional assistance mission in the Solomon Islands. He understood the importance of strong, effective regional institutions and their competitive advantage, but he also shared the realism about the need in difficult cases for the support of the United Nations. He shared Africa’s concern that the Council was not doing enough to respond to the African Union and other African regional organizations. At times, the Council overshadowed or marginalized the African Union or regional institutions; at others, it was too passive and did not respond in a timely way.
He urged the Council to interact in a collective way to build real partnerships with the region, adding that it must be perceptive and flexible in responding to particular situations. The present model for UNAMID in Darfur was causing dissatisfaction on all sides. Practical partnerships should be built at a much earlier stage of an emerging problem. Formats like the Ad Hoc Working Group on Conflict Prevention could be a useful entry point for such partnerships.
MARCO A. SUAZO (Honduras), expressing support for Cuba’s statement, said his country was a founding member of the Central America Integration System. Regional and subregional mechanisms should play a role in fostering multilateralism and in combating international terrorism, transnational organized crime and trafficking. The collective efforts of those organizations were crucial for creating regional programmes to combat climate change, mitigate natural disasters and facilitate humanitarian aid. States’ commitment to strengthen cooperation with international, regional and subregional bodies was the highest expression of multilateralism. He also stressed the importance of capitalizing on the comparative advantage of regional and subregional organizations and of encouraging countries to resolve differences through dialogue, reconciliation and other peaceful means. Central America had a regional parliament, integration system and bank. Strengthening the partnership with the United Nations would strengthen the international community’s ability to address crises.
LE HOAI TRUNG (Viet Nam), speaking on behalf of ASEAN, said that the last few years had witnessed enormous changes and emerging paradigms in the area of international peace and security, putting to the test the established framework for global governance. “In the face of these changes, it is critical to strengthen a regional-global cooperation and coordination,” he said. The 10 countries in his region were building the community envisioned in the ASEAN Charter. In its efforts to promote peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond, ASEAN attached great importance to cooperation with the United Nations.
He noted that ASEAN-United Nations cooperation and been institutionalized with the adoption of a comprehensive partnership. ASEAN member States had actively and constructively contributed to the work of the United Nations in the field of peace and security. Both secretariats were crucial in the implementation of the partnership agreement, with the United Nations providing expertise and helping to organize workshops and training, among other things. The growing cooperation had benefitted international and regional peace and security, and the building of the ASEAN political-security community. Emerging issues such as climate change, energy security and maritime security would be aided by improved cooperation between ASEAN and the United Nations, including its specialized agencies.
BASHAR JA’AFARI (Syria) said that the United Nations Charter had set forth the legal framework for cooperation with regional organizations, many of which had made positive strides towards fulfilling the goals of the Organization. Such success, however, required that all efforts be consistent with international law, as well as the Charter and its provisions. Regarding the role of the League of Arab States in assisting with the settlement of issues in the Arab region, he recalled that his country had in fact been an original founder of the League. Syria deeply believed in its “Arab nature” and had welcomed the engagement of the League in settling its crisis, in the hope it would help to put an end to the violence. It had thus cooperated with the League, and committed to its work plan.
However, he said, certain Arab States, especially Qatar and Saudi Arabia, had taken advantage of the instability of the region to impose external agendas that were not in the interest of the Arab people. The League, he said, “has fallen victim to the hegemony of the petrol dollar”, and armed groups across Syria were also serving external interests and seeking to “internationalize” the Syrian crisis. Qatar and Saudi Arabia had exerted pressure to adopt a decision allowing States to provide arms to Syrian rebels. All those actions had only fanned the fires of the Syrian crisis and hindered efforts to find a political solution. He called upon the League to be part of a peaceful political solution and to revert to the tenets of reason and respect for international law.
YURIY VITRENKO (Ukraine), aligning with the European Union, highlighted several ways to advance collaboration between the United Nations and OSCE. In the last several years, OSCE had boosted its cooperation with the United Nations on three platforms: the politico-military, economic and environmental, and human dimensions. It also paid particular attention to addressing post-conflict challenges, humanitarian needs and transnational threats. He looked forward to its continuing evolution with respect to meeting security challenges and to close engagement on mediation with the United Nations. OSCE must support the United Nations by helping to create more synergies in key regions of common concern, in particular, with the security, political and economic transition in Afghanistan. OSCE focused on a range of transnational threats, including human trafficking.
ABDALLAH YAHYA A. AL-MOUALLIMI (Saudi Arabia) said that his country retained its active role in resolving regional conflicts in cooperation with relevant regional organizations. He highlighted various ways Saudi Arabia was involved in Yemen, Libya and Syria. Concerning Syria, he said Saudi Arabia had been the first Arab country to break its silence about the suffering of peaceful demonstrators exposed to bullets, arrests, and torture. Unfortunately, the failure of the Security Council to adopt the position of the League of Arab States had fuelled the crisis. The position of some Council members not only defied regional consensus but also contradicted the will of the international community as expressed by several consecutive General Assembly resolutions. He stressed the importance of establishing effective mechanisms for coordination between the efforts of the United Nations and those carried out by regional and subregional organizations to enable the latter group to play a more effective role.
JUN YAMAZAKI (Japan) said that regional and subregional organizations were well-placed to play crucial roles in conflict prevention, mediation and conflict resolution, due in part to their proximity to the conflicts and abundant knowledge of the region and influence on the stakeholders. In line with Chapter VIII, those organizations could play their respective roles in peacekeeping activities. There was also further room for cooperation and coordination with the United Nations. A mechanism, such as the annual joint meeting of the Security Council and the African Union Peace and Security Council, helped to harmonize their respective policies. The United Nations should reach out to regional and subregional organizations in the fields of conflict prevention and preventive diplomacy.
RICHARD NDUHUURA (Uganda) said it was essential for the United Nations and its partners to provide effective, predictable and timely support to regional and subregional organizations in conflict prevention and resolution. Those organizations played a pivotal role in addressing peace and security challenges and contributing troops, logistics and political leadership. However, in many cases, regional and subregional organizations lacked the requisite resources and capacity to do so, as the experiences in Somalia and Mali had shown. When the African Union or any other regional or subregional organization undertook peacekeeping or peace enforcement initiatives, they shouldered the responsibility of the Security Council and, therefore, should be adequately supported. He called for regular interaction between the United Nations and the secretariats and commissions of regional and subregional organizations on matters of common interest, and stressed the need to link peace and security with development.
JEREMIAH NYAMANE KINGSLEY MAMABOLO (South Africa) said that despite inadequate financial resources, regional and subregional organizations remained a reservoir of critical knowledge about the nature of conflicts in their regions, including their evolution and dynamics, and other fundamentals, which could be essential for preventing and resolving conflicts. Intra-State conflicts in Africa warranted the African Union’s increased involvement. The innovative Force Intervention Brigade piloted by the SADC could eventually serve as a model of United Nations regional collaboration. The annual meeting between the Security Council and the African Union Peace and Security Council had the potential to move their bilateral relationship in a more strategic direction, but their joint collaboration had challenges; the differences and indecisiveness in resolving the Syrian conflict was a painful reminder.
He said that given regional organizations’ often scarce financial and human capital, a clear division of labour and productive burden-sharing with the United Nations was critical for sustainable conflict resolution and prevention. Regional organizations could benefit from flexible, predictable financial support from the United Nations and other global institutions and stakeholders, he added.
EDUARDO ULIBARRI (Costa Rica) said that without armed forces, international law and the multilateral system were the main tools for protecting Costa Rica’s integrity. The Americas had a wealth of experience with regional and subregional groups, and the Organization of American States had been their first such arrangement. Similar ones had followed. He went on to describe CELAC’s contribution to the Esquipulas II agreement, noting that Costa Rica’s President, Oscar Arias, had been awarded the Nobel Peace prize.
He proposed that the United Nations, particularly the Security Council, devote at least as much time to conflict prevention as to resolution and to address conflict’s root causes. Cooperation on peace and security between the Council and regional bodies should rely more on Article 26 of the Charter, instead of just Articles 52 to 54. To enhance the “organic” connection with regional bodies, the United Nations should take into account the different focuses, specialities, and reaches of regional groups when orienting that coordination.
HUSSEIN HANIFF (Malaysia), associating with ASEAN, said the Association had dealt with threats to collective peace and security from its inception, with the pace of cooperation gathering speed. The ASEAN-United Nations Comprehensive Partnership was an example of that evolution and it was yielding tangible results on conflict prevention and preventive diplomacy. A comprehensive approach to regional security threats was needed, with root causes, such as poverty, addressed holistically. Subregional organizations, such as the Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines East Asia Growth Area, enabled more effective handling of threats that could otherwise remain “under the radar” of national Governments. The Growth Area’s Working Group on Customs, Immigration and Quarantine helped prevent arms smuggling and the cross-border movement of suspected terrorists.
Y. HALIT ÇEVIK (Turkey) said that in today’s volatile security environment, laden with multidimensional and complex challenges, the United Nations was not capable on its own of dealing with all the problems threatening international peace and security. Furthermore, its cooperation with regional and subregional organizations should not be limited to peacekeeping. Just as central were conflict prevention through early warning, political mediation, cooperative interaction, confidence-building and protection of civilians. He welcomed the collaboration between the secretariats of the United Nations and regional organizations in mediation, specifically in capacity-building. Technical assistance provided by the Mediation Support Unit of the United Nations Department of Political Affairs to such organizations had enhanced their capacities. Overall, cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations “could be closer”.
DESRA PERCAYA (Indonesia) welcomed the presidential statement, and commended the work of various regional and subregional organizations in advancing peace in their respective regions. It was important to more clearly define the comparative advantages of the United Nations and of regional organizations in solving problems and contributing to global peace and security. A one-size-fits-all approach was not appropriate. Rather, he called for constant consultations between the United Nations and subregional and regional organizations to develop an understanding of those lessons and mechanisms that were transferrable and those that were not.
He said that regional frameworks were needed to help develop and strengthen cooperation in early warning, conflict prevention, mediation and post-conflict peacebuilding. ASEAN formed an integral part of Indonesia’s foreign policy. Among the key outcomes of Indonesia’s chairmanship of ASEAN in 2011 were the ASEAN-United Nations Comprehensive Partnership and the Bali Concord III. ASEAN had enabled countries in the region to channel their resources into development. The United Nations should help ASEAN and other subregional and regional organizations continue building capacity.
ASOKE KUMAR MUKERJI (India) supported the role of regional and subregional organizations to maintain global peace and security, while insisting that cooperation with them should fully comply with the Charter. National sovereignty, political independence, unity and territorial integrity must be respected. Cooperation with one regional organization should not come at the cost of another. While acting under Chapter VIII, regional and subregional organizations should make every effort to help their members peacefully settle disputes in cooperation with the United Nations, as appropriate.
He said that as three-quarters of the Council’s time was spent on African issues, the success of the Council’s cooperation with regional organizations would be determined in significant measure by its cooperation with the African Union. The Council should listen to Africa and its organizations to ensure that its activities were based on Africa’s needs and complemented the efforts of African countries and organizations. The focus should be on building the capacity of the African Union’s peace and security architecture to make it a more effective, capable United Nations partner.
CHAYAPAN BAMRUNGPHONG (Thailand), aligning with ASEAN, expressed particular concern at the increase of conflicts and violence that originated from sectarian tension or are precipitated by hate speech, religious rhetoric and racial incitement. Regional and subregional arrangements could serve as mechanisms for early warning when tensions rise. Furthermore, those organizations could play a vital role in creating a culture of peace by promoting respect and appreciation for diversity and harmony among peoples with different cultures, faiths and beliefs. Essential knowledge should be shared of specific geography and situations on the ground, unique local community cultures, “the dos and don’ts” to ensure that international forces were better equipped to perform their duties.
PETER THOMSON (Fiji) said that today’s peacekeeping missions included mandates that went well into peacebuilding and sometimes developmental mandates related to rebuilding national capacities in the security sector. Hence, the contributions of regional and subregional groupings from similar backgrounds to the host country were advantageous. One element often missing from the discussion was how to encourage contributions to peacekeeping from regions that were most suited to the local situation, and to encourage and use collective peacekeeping capabilities accordingly. He highlighted his country’s well-established record in the service of United Nations peacekeeping in various parts of the world.
RAIMONDA MURMOKAITĖ (Lithuania) agreed with the European Union that while applying lessons learned was important, there was no one-size-fits-all approach with regard to cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations. Needed were flexible, case-specific and creative partnerships. She outlined ways her country was involved in Africa, specifically in the deployment of military advisers to a European Union training mission in Mali, as well as troop deployment off the Somali coast. Regional and subregional organizations should use their rallying power in support of accountability and justice, as well as in tackling impunity for crimes against civilians, including sexual violence in conflict. The United Nations, together with those organizations, must take a long-term view aimed at breaking the pattern of relapse into conflict, which still plagued individual States and regions, in order to achieve sustainable development.
EMMANUEL OKAFOR (Nigeria) said cooperation between the African Union and the United Nations on peacekeeping had been fruitful in Darfur and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. African-led responses to other crises elsewhere on the continent had also been successful. Dynamic, ongoing cooperation was needed with subregional organizations to bring benefits in promoting peace and development. ECOWAS showed what could be achieved, and more impetus for implementation of the United Nations-African Union 10-year capacity-building programme for the African Union was needed, as was operationalizing its Standby Force and Continental Early Warning System. Mali had illustrated the importance of early warning. ECOWAS had tried several times to alert the international community to the situation; had its warnings been heeded, the current crisis could have been avoided.
GAREN NAZARIAN (Armenia), aligning with the Collective Security Treaty Organization, welcomed the increasingly close relations with the United Nations. Both organizations had been working closely in the area of preventive diplomacy, and, among others, combating cross-border and organized crime. In an increasing number of its operations on the ground, the United Nations was calling for the assistance of regional and subregional organizations; in some instances, those could be mandated to perform the tasks of the United Nations, and rightly so. Turning to OSCE, which had been involved in the settlement of the conflict in Nagorno Karabakh since 1992, he said that the agreed format had enough capacity to maintain its lead in the negotiation process. One of the advantages of OSCE Minsk Group was that it was based on the principles of compromise. He detailed cooperation between the United Nations and the Council of Europe during Armenia’s recent presidency.
CHARLES THEMBANI NTWAAGAE (Botswana) said that, as a SADC member, his country was proud of its contribution to a peaceful world order. The rising number of conflicts and consequent peacebuilding missions had strained the Council’s ability to deploy resources at every corner of the globe. Furthermore, the cost of managing and maintaining peace very often depended upon regional dynamics and sensitivities, which could be better addressed by local institutions, as those understood the culture and language of the region concerned. Their partnership with the United Nations not only relieved the burden on the Security Council in dispensing its primary responsibility, but also helped to cultivate a culture of peace and security. That shared responsibility had become the “ultimate instruction manual” for resolving complex emergencies, through conflict management and peacekeeping. United Nations and regional and subregional cooperation also ensured that impediments related to limited resources, capacity constraints and political and economic fragilities were more easily overcome. His delegation, therefore, could not overestimate the importance of training, logistical and other material support to the military, police and civil personnel on an ongoing basis.
SHEIKH MESHAL HAMAD M.J. AL-THANI (Qatar) said that regional organizations were the best and least costly vehicle for understanding and tackling conflicts and they had played important roles in helping to settle several conflicts. As such, they deserved greater attention. In the Middle East, specifically in Syria, lack of implementation of the Charter’s Chapter VIII had fuelled instability, but enhanced cooperation with the League of Arab States could help to remedy that. Despite the importance of the League’s resolutions in that connection, they had been met by a lack of response. Nor had the Security Council carried out its role, in spite of more than 100,000 Syrian deaths, the displacement of several million people, the involvement of external militias and the threat posed to wider regional stability. Meanwhile, the Syrian regime had ignored the will of its people, diverting attention from its war crimes and crimes against humanity.
DAFFA-ALLA ELHAG ALI OSMAN (Sudan) said that the founding fathers of the United Nations had included language in the Charter aimed at supporting regional and subregional organizations in work towards both peace and development. The recommendations of the joint African Union-United Nations team, established by Council resolution 1809 (2008), had been aimed at providing mechanisms of sustainable financing for African Union peacekeeping missions that were supported by the United Nations. In the context of that partnership, he commended the ongoing consultations between the United Nations and the African Union’s Peace and Security Council since the latter’s establishment in 2004, but said that he looked forward to an even closer partnership. He highlighted cooperation in the context of the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), which was a successful example of cooperation; UNAMID was said to have a “pure African character […] whereas the United Nations provided financial, technical and logistical support”. He also spotlighted several regional mediation efforts, which had played an important role both within Sudan and between Sudan and South Sudan.
VANESSA M. KENILOREA (Solomon Islands) said the primary responsibility for peace and security lay with the Security Council, but over time, regional groups had been established, some of which had contributed directly to peace and security but which had received little recognition. Following ethnic conflict in the Solomon Islands, the Pacific Islands Forum had dispatched a regional assistance mission comprised of 2,000 personnel from Australia, New Zealand and other States. It had military, police and civilian components and was led by a civilian. It took on peacekeeping, peacebuilding and peacemaking roles, and the military component had by now withdrawn. She stressed the success of the mission, with only one life lost in its 10 operational years, and its adaptive, flexible nature in terms of its resources and close partnership with the Solomon Islands Government.
KAHA IMNADZE (Georgia), aligning with the European Union, said the Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (GUAM) partnered with the United States on several issues of concern. The resolution on cooperation between the United Nations and GUAM adopted in December 2012 envisaged greater cooperation, and he looked forward to increased support on anti-terrorism, illegal drugs trafficking, human trafficking, and border management. As Chair of the Organization, Georgia wanted to promote political interaction between States on the basis of their closely aligned foreign policy priorities; to facilitate cooperation on economic projects among GUAM States and with the United States and Japan; and to activate the inter-parliamentary dimension. He welcomed United Nations cooperation with the European Union and OSCE on security, particularly mediation between Georgia and the Russian Federation, and he hoped for restoration of a full-fledged mission in Georgia. The United Nations also had an important role to play in relation to the Incident Prevention and Response Mechanism, a format that promised much, but which had been deadlocked since April 2012.
The representative of the United Kingdom, responding to a number of statements made today, questioned the relevance of certain topics raised to today’s debate and regretted that some participants had used the event as a platform to express positions on unrelated issues. Referring to what some delegations had called Argentina’s “legitimate claim” to the Falkland Islands (Malvinas), he said that there was, in fact, no such thing. To the representative of Cuba, who had said that respect for self-determination was a founding principle of CELAC, he responded that, in March, the people of the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) had exercised that right and voted overwhelmingly to remain a British Territory. That view could not simply be ignored, he stressed.
Finally, he rejected the assertion made by the representative of Uruguay that illegal oil operations were being conducted in the waters off the Falkland Islands (Malvinas). That decision had been made by the people of those islands in accordance with their right to self-determination and in line with international law and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, he said.
Council President MARÍA CRISTINA PERCEVAL (Argentina), speaking in her national capacity, said her country’s position on the Malvinas (Falkland Islands) was well known and had been cited frequently during the debate.
The representative of the United States, responding to condemnations of his country’s efforts to prevent terrorism and the recent disclosure of classified technologies to do so, said that “all Governments do things that are secret”. That was a fact of Government in the modern world, he stressed, adding that it was “ultimately about saving lives”. All States should be concerned about damage that those disclosures could cause. In that context, he welcomed a fair discussion about the appropriate balance between privacy and security.
The full text of presidential statement S/PRST/2013/12 reads as follows:
“The Security Council recalls its previous relevant resolutions and statements of its President which underscore the importance of developing effective partnerships between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the relevant statutes of the regional and subregional organizations.
“The Security Council recalls the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and reaffirms its primary responsibility under the Charter for the maintenance of international peace and security.
“The Council further recalls that cooperation between the United Nations and the regional and subregional organizations and arrangements in matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and security, as are appropriate for regional action, is an integral part of collective security as provided for in the Charter of the United Nations, and can improve collective security.
“The Security Council reiterates that the growing contribution made by regional and subregional organizations can usefully complement the work of the United Nations in maintaining international peace and security, and stresses in this regard that such contribution must be made in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, including the need for regional and subregional organizations at all times to keep the Security Council fully informed of activities undertaken or in contemplation for the maintenance of international peace and security.
“The Security Council expresses its intention to consider further steps to promote closer and more operational cooperation, as appropriate, between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations in the fields of conflict early warning, prevention, peacemaking, peacekeeping and peacebuilding, and to ensure the coherence, synergy and collective effectiveness of their efforts. In this regard, it welcomes the already existing strong cooperation initiatives between the United Nations and regional organizations.
“The Council commends the ongoing efforts and contributions made by the Secretariat to consolidate partnerships with regional and subregional organizations, and expresses its intention to continue to expand consultation and cooperation, as appropriate, with relevant regional and subregional organizations, as agreed by the Council in S/PRST/2010/1 and Note S/2006/507 and subsequent related documents and Notes by the President.
“The Security Council recognizes that regional and subregional organizationsare well positioned to understand the causes of armed conflicts owing to their knowledge of the region which can be a benefit for their efforts to influence the prevention or resolution of these conflicts.
“The Security Council stresses the importance of a coordinated international response to causes of conflict and recognizes the need for the development of effective long-term strategies and emphasizes the need for all United Nations organs and agencies to pursue preventive strategies and to take action within their respective areas of competence to assist Member States and regional and subregionalorganizations to eradicate poverty, strengthen development cooperation and assistance and promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
“The Security Council reaffirms the obligation of all Member States to settle disputes and resolve conflicts in accordance with the United Nations Charter, and calls upon the international community to assist, as appropriate,the efforts initiated by regional and subregional organizations aimed at the peaceful settlement of disputes and the prevention and resolution of conflicts in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and relevant Security Council resolutions.
“The Security Council encourages the continuing involvement of relevant regional and subregional organizations in the peaceful settlement of disputes, as appropriate, including through conflict prevention, confidence-building and mediation efforts, and underlines the importance of utilizing the existing and potential capabilities of regional and subregional organizations in this regard.
“The Council stresses the utility of continuing to develop effective partnerships between the United Nations and relevant regional and subregional organizations, in order to enable early responses to disputes and emerging crises and to strengthen the role of the United Nations in the prevention of conflict.
“The Security Council recognizes the important role of the good offices of the Secretary-General, and encourages the Secretary-General to continue to use mediation as often as possible to help resolve conflicts peacefully, working in coordination and closely with relevant regional and subregional organizations in that regard, as appropriate.
“The Security Council welcomes the continuing important efforts and enhanced peacekeeping role of regional and subregional organizations, consistent with the Charter of the United Nations and Security Council resolutions and decisions, to prevent, mediate and settle conflicts.
“The Security Council recognizes that in deploying peacekeeping operations authorized by the Security Council, regional and subregional organizations are contributing towards the maintenance of international peace and security, in a manner consistent with the provisions of Chapter VIII of the United Nations.
“The Security Council invites the Secretariat and all regional and subregional organizations that have a capacity for peacekeeping to enhance their working relations and to further explore how their collaboration could better contribute to the fulfillment of United Nations mandates and goals, so as to ensure a coherent framework for peacekeeping.
“The Security Council underlines the importance of partnership and cooperation with relevant regional and subregional organizations and arrangements, in accordance with Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter, in supporting peacekeeping operations, including on issues relating to the protection of civilians, taking into account the respective mandates of peacekeeping operations, and peacebuilding activities as well as forging greater regional and national ownership.
“The Security Council recognizes the role that regional and subregional organizations can play in post-conflict peacebuilding, recovery, reconstruction and development processes, and affirms the importance of interaction and cooperation between the Peacebuilding Commission and regional and subregional organizations and arrangements. The Council encourages the Commission to continue to work in close consultation with regional and subregional organizations and arrangements, with a view to ensuring more consistent and integrated strategies for post-conflict peacebuilding and recovery.
“The Security Council recognizes the need for close cooperation, including through its subsidiary bodies, with regional and subregional organizations, as appropriate, in order to enhance the implementation of its resolutions in a coherent and effective manner, including those on thematic issues applicable to a wide range of conflict situations. In this regard, the Council further encourages regional and subregional organizations to provide full cooperation to United Nations sanctions committees and their Groups of Experts in the implementation of their mandated activities.
“The Security Council reaffirms the vital role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, peace negotiations, peacebuilding, peacekeeping, humanitarian response and post-conflict reconstruction, further reaffirms the importance of the prevention of and protection from sexual violence in armed conflicts and post-conflict situations, and stresses the need for the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations to work to ensure that women and gender perspectives are fully integrated into all peace and security efforts undertaken by the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations, including by building the necessary capacity.
“The Security Council recognizes the valuable contribution pertinent regional and subregional organizations and arrangements make for the protection of children affected by armed conflict. In this regard, the Security Council encourages the continued mainstreaming of child protection into the advocacy, policies, programmes and mission planning of these organizations and arrangements as well as training of personnel and inclusion of child protection staff in their peacekeeping and field operations and establishment, within their secretariats, of child protection mechanisms, including through the appointment of child protection focal points.
“The Security Council stresses that regional and subregional organizations have an important role in addressing the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons and the need to take into account in peacekeeping operations’ mandates, where appropriate, the regional instruments enabling states to identifyand trace illegal smallarms and light weapons. The Council encourages the establishment or strengthening, where appropriate, of subregional or regional cooperation, coordination and information sharing mechanisms, in particular transborder customs cooperation and networks for information-sharing, with a view to preventing, combating, and eradicating the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons across borders.
“The Council encourages international and regional cooperation in identifying the origin and transfer of small arms and light weapons in order to prevent their diversion, including to Al-Qaida and other terrorist groups. The Council underlines the significant steps that have been taken by Member States and international and regional organizations in this regard. The obligation of Members States to enforce Security Council arms embargoes should be coupled with enhanced international and regional cooperation concerning arms exports.
“The Security Council recognizes the need to enhance coordination of efforts at national, regional, subregional and international levels, as appropriate, in order to strengthen the global response to the serious challenge and threat to international peace and security posed by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery.
“The Security Council is mindful of the need to continue to explore with international, regional and subregional organizations and arrangementsexperience-sharing and lessons learned in the areas covered by resolution 1540 (2004), and the availability of programmes which might facilitate implementation of the resolution and areas in which they are able to provide assistance, including through the designation of a point of contact or coordinator for the implementation of resolution 1540 (2004).
“The Security Council welcomes the efforts undertaken by its subsidiary bodies with responsibilities in counter-terrorism to foster cooperation with regional and subregional organizations, and notes with appreciation the efforts made by an increasing number of regional and subregional organizations in countering terrorism. The Council urges all relevant regional and subregional organizations to enhance the effectiveness of their counter-terrorism efforts within their respective mandates and in accordance with international law, including with a view to develop their capacity to help Member States in their efforts to tackle the threats to international peace and security posed by acts of terrorism.
“The Council also notes with appreciation in this regard the activities undertaken in the area of capacity-building, technical assistance and its facilitation by United Nations entities, including the Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate (CTED) and the Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF), in coordination with other relevant international, regional and subregional organizations to assist Member States, upon their request, in implementing the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy and encourages CTED and CTITF to ensure focused delivery of capacity-building, technical assistance and its facilitation.
“The Security Council recalls that justice and rule of law are of key importance for promoting and maintaining peace, stability and development in the world. In this regard, the Security Council emphasizes that ending impunity is essential in a conflict and post-conflict society’s efforts to come to terms with past serious crimes under international law, and in preventing future serious crimes under international law. In this regard, the Security Council highlights that regional and subregional organizations and arrangements can contribute to accountability through support for enhancing the capacity of national justice systems, as appropriate, and through cooperation with international mechanisms, courts and tribunals, including the International Criminal Court.
“The Security Council recognizes the importance of strengthening the capacity of regional and subregional organizations, as appropriate, in conflict prevention and crisis management, and in post-conflict stabilization. The Council underlines the importance of regional and subregional organizations enhancing their peacekeeping capabilities and the value of international support to their efforts. The Security Council invites all Member States to contribute, as appropriate, more actively in this regard.
“The Security Council reiterates that regional organizations have the responsibility to secure human, financial, logistical and other resources for their organizations, including through contributions by their members and support from their partners. The Council stresses the need to enhance the predictability, sustainability and flexibility of financing regional organizations when they undertake peacekeeping under a United Nations mandate, and welcomes the valuable financial support provided from partners in this regard.
“The Security Council encourages regional and subregional organizations and arrangements to strengthen and increase cooperation among them, including to enhance their respective capacity, in the maintenance of international peace and security. The Security Council underlines the importance of the United Nations political support and technical expertise in this regard.
“The Security Council notes the ongoing efforts by the Secretariat to extend and enhance regular interaction, consultation and cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations and arrangements, and underlines the importance to enhance the efforts in this regard.
“The Security Council encourages the Secretariat and regional and subregional organizations and arrangements to further explore, as appropriate,information-sharing on their respective capabilities and lessons-learned in maintaining international peace and security and to continue to compile best practices, in particular in the field of mediation, good offices and peacekeeping. The Council also encourages strengthening of cooperation and dialogue among regional and subregional organizations in this regard.
“The Security Council highlights the importance of the role of regional and subregional organizations and arrangements and of cooperation with them, consistent with Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter, with regard to conflict prevention, conflict resolution, peacekeeping, peacebuilding, including the maintenance of constitutional order, the promotion of human rights, democracy, the rule of law, and the fight against impunity. The Security Council encourages cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations and arrangements to cooperate across a broad agenda of mutual concern.
“The Council further encourages enhanced cooperation between the United Nations and the regional and subregional organizations and arrangementsto foster a global dialogue for the promotion of tolerance and peace, to promote better understanding across countries, cultures and civilizations.
“The Security Council commends the Secretary-General’s efforts to include in his regular reporting to the Security Council assessments of progress on the cooperation between the United Nations and relevant regional organizations, and requests that he continues such efforts. The Council further requests that the Secretary-General includes in his next biannual report to the Security Council and the General Assembly on Cooperation between the United Nations and regional and other organizations recommendations on ways to enhance cooperation between the United Nations and relevant regional and subregional organizations and arrangements.”
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* A dispute exists between the Governments of Argentina and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland concerning sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Malvinas).