|Department of Public Information • News and Media Division • New York|
Sixty-seventh General Assembly
6th Meeting (AM)
‘Fully Fledged War’ Needed to Eradicate Poverty, Second Committee Told
as It Concludes General Debate
Efforts in Agriculture, Energy, Disaster Risk Reduction Also Highlighted
The international community must launch a “fully fledged war” to eradicate poverty, the world’s greatest challenge, the representative of the Dominican Republic told the Second Committee (Economic and Financial) today, as it concluded its general debate.
Poverty denied people their right to a decent life, broke down democratic institutions and made full participation in society elusive, he said, adding that it was no coincidence that drastically reducing poverty was the major aim of the Millennium Development Goals. Pointing out that his Government was committed to a 15 per cent poverty reduction target over the next four years, he said it was developing employment, education, food and infrastructure policies as part of its strategy to fight poverty on all fronts.
Addressing the same theme, Zambia’s representative agreed that poverty was “endemic” and noted that her country was unlikely to achieve most of the Millennium Development Goals. Nonetheless, Zambia remained fully committed to the Goals and to establishing a United Nations development agenda for the period after 2015, including the Sustainable Development Goals, which should draw on the successes, concerns and challenges encountered during the Millennium Development Goals era. The front on which Zambia would fight against poverty was the development and strengthening of the agriculture sector, which was particularly important because of its labour-intensive nature and the fact that it employed most rural dwellers, she said.
Israel’s representative pointed out several areas of agricultural development in which his country had expertise, saying it had offered assistance to developing countries. Israel was introducing agricultural technology across the world, he said, citing a drip-irrigation project in Senegal that was being extended to South Africa, Ghana and Niger, and a wastewater treatment project in Kenya that was reducing water pollution, creating economic opportunity and strengthening that country’s tilapia export industry.
On the link between education and sustainable development, Georgia’s representative focused on last month’s Tbilisi+35 Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education for Sustainable Development, which had restated the global appeal contained in the 1977 Tbilisi Declaration on environmental education as a means to sustainable development. The Conference had provided a platform for enhancing international cooperation, acknowledging achievements in the field so far and presenting recommendations in light of recent developments, especially the Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development.
The Special Representative to the United Nations and Director of the International Labour Organization (ILO) cited global unemployment figures amounting to approximately 200 million, including 75 million young people between the ages of 15 and 24. Roughly 40 million people were estimated to enter the labour force every year in economies that could not accommodate them, on top of which 910 million workers had jobs but earned less than $2 per day, she said, adding that the ILO’s Decent Work Agenda offered a coherent policy framework that could integrate the macroeconomic, employment, social and environmental dimensions into an effective development model. She urged Governments to place people and their livelihoods at the core of policymaking.
The representative of the Republic of Moldova said his country’s sustainable development efforts were directly linked to a strategic approach to energy efficiency, and had positive environmental, economic and social effects. The Government had adopted the comprehensive National Development Strategy “Moldova 2020”, which articulated a strategic vision for the creation of a competitive and efficient energy complex so as to bring about a new paradigm for economic growth. It was also expected to have a significant impact on poverty reduction by ensuring access to affordable energy sources.
Costa Rica’s representative noted his country’s location on the Central American isthmus and its consequent susceptibility to natural disasters. He called for increased investment in disaster risk reduction, especially given the current environmental disequilibrium, and pointed out Costa Rica’s membership of the Troika on Climate Vulnerability, alongside Bangladesh and the Maldives. With Bangladesh, Costa Rica had recently coordinated an event to call on the international community to address increased vulnerability due to climate change, and had also played a part in establishing the relevant trust fund.
Myanmar’s representative said recent political events in his country had not prevented the Government from undertaking a series of accelerated economic reform measures in order to improve the every day lives of its people.
Yemen’s representative, on the other hand, said that political events in his country had caused instability, damage and violence, doubling the Yemeni people’s suffering, and leading to a rise in poverty and a decline in employment.
Meanwhile, Tunisia’s representative had a different outlook on the “Arab Spring”, expressing hope that countries in transition would be given support to deal with new challenges more effectively.
Other speakers today were representatives of Ghana, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, United Republic of Tanzania, Georgia, Viet Nam, Armenia, Venezuela and San Marino.
The Second Committee will reconvene at 10 a.m. on Monday, 15 October, to take up the United Nations operational activities for development.
The Second Committee (Economic and Financial) met this morning to conclude its general debate.
ERTUĞRUL APAKAN ( Turkey) said there was still room for improvement on the Millennium Development Goals and the post-2015 development agenda was being widely discussed at the United Nations. Those discussions should not undermine the Millennium Development Goals agenda, he said, adding that his country looked forward to agreement on an approach that balanced the three pillars of sustainable development, with particular emphasis on strengthening the social pillar. Turkey also welcomed discussions in the High-level Panel of Eminent Persons on specific sustainable development goals and targets for the post-2015 period, and was pleased with the initial steps taken at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20).
He said Turkey took its role as an emerging donor country seriously and, he said, adding that, having hosted the Fourth United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, attached the utmost importance to full and timely implementation of the Istanbul Programme of Action. Political commitments to least developed countries had been reiterated at the Rio+20 Conference, he recalled, calling also for implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action and others’ efforts in supporting countries with special development needs. In light of the important and growing role of cities in economic, social and cultural life, Turkey looked forward to hosting the Third United Nations Conference on Housing and Urban Development (Habitat III) in 2016.
ESTHER MCHEKA CHILENJE NKHOMA (Malawi), associating herself with the Group of 77, the Group of Landlocked Developing Countries, and the Group of Least Developed Countries, said rising energy prices and declining investments had exacerbated the challenges of trying to achieve sustainable development. That had in turn hindered progress on the Millennium Development Goals, she said, emphasizing that the Committee should pay special attention to the needs of Africa, including Malawi. The Government had pledged to continue its efforts to attain the Millennium Goals in the fields of education, gender equality and health care. Malawi had great potential for development due to its natural resources.
She said her country’s current development projects included the completion of essential roads and rail lines, the establishment of alternative energy sources, and reforms to make the business climate reform more attractive to investment in agro-processing and mining. However, climate change was a serious problem for Malawi, she said, pointing out that least developed countries experienced its most negative effects though they had contributed least to the problem. Malawi looked forward to the fruitful climate change deliberations to be held in Doha, she said. Concerned about the continuing suspension of the Doha Round of World Trade Organization negotiations, she urged the major trading countries to show some flexibility and political will to conclude the negotiations in a manner favourable to developing countries.
SAUL WEISLEDER ( Costa Rica) associated himself with the Group of 77 and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), saying that the Rio+20 Conference had proved the continuing relevance of multilateralism in solving common challenges. Now it was the Second Committee’s turn to ensure that the outcome document remained relevant and a cause for hope. Commitments and proactive sustainable development-based resolutions were needed to overcome poverty, fragility and uncertainty in the global economy, to achieve full employment and to reverse environmental degradation. Costa Rica’s location on the Central American isthmus left it susceptible to natural disasters, even more so given the current environmental disequilibrium, he said, emphasizing, however, that the country remained committed to innovative policies, although it still lacked sufficient means to take more steadfast action.
He called for increased investment in disaster risk reduction, preserving a balance with nature and ensuring sustainable development. Noting that his country was a member of the Troika on Climate Vulnerability, alongside Bangladesh and the Maldives, he said Costa Rica and Bangladesh had recently coordinated an event to call on the international community to address the increased vulnerability of countries due to climate change. Costa Rica had also played a part in establishing the trust fund on the issue, managed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Committed to prioritizing social investment and the sustainable use of natural resources, he called for multilateral aid in support of national policies. He said the quadrennial comprehensive policy review (QCPR) should contribute to a shared vision while addressing operational activities within the United Nations. The internal coherence effort must result in improvements, taking lessons learned into account, he added.
HENRY TACHIE-MENSON (Ghana), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the African Group, said he was pleased to see the outcome document from the Rio+20 Conference even though the gathering had failed to gain agreement on a land-degradation-neutral world, eliminating agricultural subsidies and the means for implementing agreed actions. He called for expedited follow-up on the agreements reached, especially on the Sustainable Development Goals and the means for their implementation. He said his country would meet its Millennium targets on extreme poverty, gender parity in education and safe drinking water, but not those on infant and child mortality, maternal health and environmental sustainability targets. Ghana, therefore, expected an extension of the Millennium Development Goals beyond 2015, with a reformulation to address criticisms and lessons learned, and to incorporate other development areas and emerging challenges like trade, infrastructure development and employment. The future international development agenda should focus on investing in the resources of the poor, namely land, he said, pointing out the many challenges of agriculture development and food security. Ghana had introduced several youth-targeted programmes to develop agriculture and ensure food security, and was actively pursuing public-private partnerships.
KIM UN CHOL (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea), associating himself with the Group of 77 and China, called for a fair and non-discriminatory international economic system at the earliest date possible. “The economic crisis of today is nothing more than an inevitable result that has originated from speculative and unfair international economic relations, being also monopolized by some countries only pursuing a profit-based policy,” he said. He called upon developed countries to abandon their voracious and speculative economic policy, pursued over several decades, and adopt new development methods which must also respect the interests of developing countries.
As underlined in the Rio+20 Conference outcome document, every country, according to its specific condition and environment, had a legitimate right to decide its own economic policy and development strategy, he said. That was crucial given that some developed countries had neglected to implement their official development assistance (ODA) commitments under the pretext of economic crisis. The international cooperation activities and economic development of developing countries were being repressed because of exclusive protectionism in trade, the pressure for open markets and their international competitiveness. Developed countries should, therefore, establish a true development partnership with developing countries, based on the principles of respect, sovereignty and equality, and on commitments given at various important international conferences.
TUVAKO NATHANIEL MANONGI (United Republic of Tanzania), associating himself with the Group of 77 and the Group of Least Developed Countries, said his country had suffered adverse shocks in 2011. Regional drought conditions had led to higher food prices as well as a fall in hydroelectric power generation. With a parallel rise in global fuel prices, inflation had risen to almost 20 per cent at the end of 2011, but had shown signs of falling to 15.7 per cent in July 2012. The country continued to experience challenges relating to volatility in commodity prices and exchange rates, increasing debt challenges, reduced export opportunities and unpredictable development assistance. He called on the international community to continue supporting the efforts of poor countries to eradicate poverty as a “number one” priority.
The United Republic of Tanzania wished to continue its focus on agriculture and food security as a necessary prerequisite to improving nutrition, he said. To ensure a comprehensive and multi-sectoral approach to sustainable development, the Government would continue to scale up efforts to address the energy challenge by adopting a number of options, he said, adding that he looked forward to the completion and implementation of the Doha Round, which was of significant importance to his country. “The fears and mistrust that have divided the North and South must be overcome,” he urged. Commodity prices were another important issue as the cost of food, oil and agricultural products had a negative impact on development gains, he said. He called on the international community to address the root cause of excessive speculation by instituting a regime to manage speculation and future trading practices in order to protect the interests of poor countries.
ELENE AGLADZE ( Georgia) associated herself with the European Union and expressed particular satisfaction that the Rio+20 Conference had strongly affirmed its commitment to the right to education in the context of sustainable development. To build on that, Georgia had worked with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to convene the Tbilisi+35 Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education for Sustainable Development last month, with the aim of restating the global appeal made in the 1977 Tbilisi Declaration for environmental education as a means to sustainable development. It had provided a platform for enhancing international cooperation, acknowledging achievements in the field so far, and presenting recommendations in light of recent developments, especially the Rio+20 Conference. The Conference had resulted in a comprehensive document which called for fortified incorporation of the agreed approaches to and good practices in education for sustainable development within national, regional and global frameworks.
LE HOAI TRUNG (Viet Nam), aligning himself with the Group of 77 and the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), recognized the active response of the United Nations to global challenges, notably through the 2009 Conference on the World Financial and Economic Crisis and Its Impact on Development and the Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development. Both had provided insights and helped to mobilize international attention. Nonetheless, he called for further enhanced policy discussions between the United Nations and international economic, financial and trade institutions.
A primary priority remained the promotion of mandates entrusted to the United Nations, in particular those relating to the Millennium Development Goals, he said, noting that a decline in real terms of resources for development cooperation had many negative implications. Viet Nam looked forward to the QCPR, considering the important place of development cooperation in the work of the United Nations, he said, adding that his country attached great importance to charting the post-2015 development agenda. That agenda should have clear goals and build on past achievements, benefiting from lessons learned and avoiding unnecessary duplication, he stressed.
AHMED AL-OJARI (Yemen), associating himself with the Group of 77, the Arab Group and the Group of Least Developed Countries, said the world was experiencing very difficult and delicate times in terms of the economy and the environment. The 2008 financial crisis had affected development in developing countries and it was the international community’s responsibility to continue to maintain the flow of ODA to those most in need. Concerning the recent events in Yemen, he said they had had a major effect, rendering achievement of the Millennium Development Goals extremely difficult, if not impossible. The resulting instability, damage and violence had doubled the Yemeni people’s suffering, he said, adding that they had also caused a rise in poverty and a decline in employment. The events would have long-term consequences as young Yemenis would have trouble finding productive work. If those issues were left unaddressed by the international community, there was a chance of the problem growing larger, he said, warning that more countries could fall into a similar pattern.
HAN THU (Myanmar) associating himself with ASEAN, and the Group of 77 and China, said that while his country had undergone political changes in the last 18 months, it had also undertaken a series of accelerated economic reform measures in order to improve the every day lives of its people. The Government, enabled by vast natural and human resources, and by its close proximity to large markets in China, India and other ASEAN nations enjoying rapid economic growth, was placing an emphasis on the emergence of the new economic platform in Asia. It had also adopted long- and short-term plans that had been incorporated into various areas such as rural development, human resource development, investment and trade and development, among others.
In the financial sector, Myanmar had given priority to macroeconomic stability, having successfully adopted the managed float exchange rate system, he said. The flow of local and foreign investment would create much-needed job opportunities. Furthermore, the Government was learning the lessons, experiences and good practices of other countries and had taken steps towards sustainable use of land, water, forest, and mineral resources for the long-term benefit of the people. Myanmar believed in the green economy as a new development policy, contributing to poverty eradication, improving human welfare and creating new opportunities and decent jobs for all, while maintaining a healthy cycle in national ecosystems.
HÉCTOR VIRGILIO ALCÁNTARA MEJÍA (Dominican Republic), associating himself with the Group of 77 and CELAC, called for a “fully fledged war” to tackle the world’s greatest challenge — eradicating poverty, especially extreme poverty. It denied people their right to a decent life, broke down democratic institutions and made full participation in society elusive. It was no coincidence that the drastic reduction of poverty was the major aim of the Millennium Development Goals, he said, noting that, despite public, private and charity efforts as well as international commitments, poverty continued to ruin lives and societies.
The Dominican Republic was also committed to fighting hunger, unemployment, education, income inequity and low economic growth, he said. On that basis, the Government was improving and redefining its strategies and following a variety of proven programmes. The President had committed to a 15 per cent poverty reduction target over the next four years, and to lifting 400,000 people out of poverty through job creation. Improvements in education were tackling illiteracy, which would be eradicated in the next two years, leading to better distribution of wealth. The Dominican Republic’s strategy was to fight on all fronts, he said, emphasizing that it must form part of a greater international effort.
DAVID GOVRIN (Israel), noting that the Rio+20 Conference outcome emphasized the interconnectedness of the three pillars of sustainable development, described the concrete actions of his country’s Agency for International Development Cooperation (MASHAV), saying it had trained more than 270,000 people around the world. Israel was introducing agricultural technology across the world, he said, citing a drip-irrigation project in Senegal that was being extended to South Africa, Ghana and Niger, and a wastewater treatment project in Kenya that was reducing water pollution, creating economic opportunity and strengthening that country’s tilapia export industry. Israel understood the tremendous potential of renewable energy for sustainable development and was a world leader in that field, he said, pointing out that in November, his country would host the Eilat-Eilot Renewable Energy and Innovation Conference. Promoting entrepreneurship was a key element of Israel’s development agenda, he said, adding that MASHAV had trained more than 22,000 young people in Central and South America, he said.
MWABA P. KASESE-BOTA (Zambia), associating herself with the Group of 77, the Group of Landlocked Developing Countries, the Group of Least Developed Countries and the African Group, said her country was unlikely to achieve most of the Millennium Development Goals, but remained fully committed to them. There was now heightened interest in the post-2015 development agenda, she said, urging States to ensure that the successes, concerns and challenges encountered during the Millennium Development Goals era were incorporated into the new agenda. Describing poverty as “endemic”, she said levels in her country stood at 60.5 per cent, and 42.3 per cent for those in extreme poverty.
She went on to note that the Bretton Woods institutions had reclassified her country as a lower middle income country in 2011 although it was far from achieving its poverty target of 22.3 per cent. The reclassification was based on high copper prices and improved gross domestic product (GDP) and constant growth of 6 per cent or more over 10 years. However, although macroeconomic indicators pointed to a strong economy, progress on poverty reduction had lagged, she said. Growth must be broadened and more inclusive, and it was important to strengthen the agriculture sector because of its labour intensity and the fact that it employed most rural dwellers. She encouraged solidarity in coordinated and comprehensive global responses to global economic governance issues, and in undertaking actions aimed at strengthening the United Nations development system.
VLADIMIR LUPAN ( Republic of Moldova) said that sustainable development in his country was directly linked to a strategic approach to energy efficiency. The country’s dependence on natural gas imported from a single source generated economic vulnerability and social disparities, and in that connection, the Republic of Moldova had adopted the comprehensive National Development Strategy “Moldova 2020”, which articulated a strategic vision for the creation of a competitive and efficient energy complex that would bring about a new paradigm for economic growth. It was also expected to have a significant impact on poverty reduction by ensuring access to affordable energy sources.
Migration was another area that demanded attention, he said, adding that he looked forward to the Second United Nations High-level Dialogue on International Migration and Development, to be held in 2013. The Republic of Moldova was committed to further developing national policies and contributing to the improvement of international cooperation in that regard, building on the results and conclusions of the Informal Thematic Debate on International Migration and Development, held in New York in 2011. While recognizing the contribution of migrants to development, given their increasing role in human and financial mobilization, the Government was shifting its efforts from a consumption-based growth model, fuelled by revenues from workers abroad, to a dynamic one based on investment and exports. It hoped that improving the business climate, investing in infrastructure, fighting corruption and aligning the education system with the labour market would help build an economically sustainable society.
NIKOLAY SAHAKOV ( Armenia) said his country had been involved in the Rio+20 process, supporting not only existing proposals on the transition to a green economy and poverty eradication, but also the strengthening of the institutional basis for sustainable development. Agenda 21, the Millennium Development Goals, the Doha Development Agenda, the Monterrey Consensus of the International Conference on Financing for Development and “The Future We Want” were the building blocks to address the economic, environmental and social pillars of development in an integrated and balanced manner, he said, and their effective implementation was crucial.
It was also of vital importance to recognize the vulnerabilities of developing countries, he said. Despite difficulties, Armenia was committed to the timely achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, and was aware that the task would require “enormous efforts and hard work”. As a landlocked developing country, Armenia continued to face geographical disadvantages caused by its lack of access to the sea, which, combined with its isolation from world markets and high transit costs, imposed serious constraints on development. It was important that the international community address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and implement the Almaty Programme of Action, he stressed.
ELYES LAKHAL ( Tunisia), associating himself with the Group of 77, the Arab Group and the African Group, said the Second Committee must work to implement the measures approved during the United Nations Conference on the World Financial and Economic Crisis and Its Impact on Development. That was required to establish a more equitable international economic order and accelerate reform of the Bretton Woods institutions to include developing countries and improve standards. Consensus was vital in the follow-up to the Rio+20 Conference and the QCPR, he said, adding that implementation of the “ Rio+20 The Future We Want” outcome document was of particular importance in achieving sustainable development goals. The response should incorporate a more coherent and consistent approach to the transfer of finance and technology in particular.
Unemployment, especially among younger people, including university graduates, was of great importance, he said, calling for a holistic strategy to solve the problem. Citing International Labour Organization (ILO) initiatives, he said they were supplemented by nationally applied United Nations strategies, bringing all stakeholders together, the international financial and development institutions in particular. On climate change, he urged the Second Committee to send a strong signal to the Doha Conference, reflecting the political will to achieve progress in vital areas for a legally binding agreement. Tunisia hoped to identify ways and means for developing and transition countries to deal with new challenges more effectively, he said, welcoming the Secretary-General’s inclusion of assistance to transition countries among the Organization’s priorities. Emerging from dictatorship, Tunisia needed political, legal and administrative support to recover funds stolen by the previous regime, he emphasized.
VÍCTOR LAUTARO OVALLES- SANTOS ( Venezuela), associating himself with the Group of 77 and CELAC, called for reform of the international system and architecture, especially the banking system, and suggested that the General Assembly be required to formulate new rules for a new economic governance system. It was important to establish predictable funding for developing countries and an international mechanism to deal with international debt, he said, emphasizing that the role of the United Nations was not merely to mitigate the impact of the crisis. The Organization must also coordinate policy discussions for the benefit of all humankind, which meant urgently substituting a democratic and cooperative model that respected sovereignty.
There was also an urgent need to promote new and innovative mechanisms to deal with debt on the basis of the true needs of States, he said, calling also for a discussion on regional economic commissions. Although an oil producer, Venezuela was extremely conscious of sustainable development, especially with regard to energy. Some 70 per cent of the country’s energy needs were met by hydroelectric power, and the principles of solidarity and social justice underpinned its energy policy, which extended beyond its borders. Venezuela’s energy policy was defined by its emphasis on cooperation, especially with other developing countries, he said.
DANIELE D. BODINI (San Marino) said that unless the international community tackled the unrelenting financial and economic crisis, it would be quite difficult, if not impossible, to meet all the climate change, green economy and other goals and initiatives outlined at the Rio+20 Conference. There was a great need for global economic governance to resolve interrelated universal challenges such as unemployment among women and youth, debt deleveraging as well as curbing financial and commodity prices speculation.
He underlined the great relevance of the High-level Thematic Debate on the State of the World Economy and Finance as a way to reaffirm the central role of the United Nations, and the General Assembly in particular. It would also enhance the Organization’s deeply democratic nature and its indisputable legitimacy in dealing with issues affecting the entire world community, he said of the debate. Concerning food security, he warned that increases in the prices of food products and persistent inequalities, between States and among citizens within States, would most likely spread violent social tensions throughout the world. It was more necessary than ever to find strategies and new solutions and, more importantly, to create a sense of solidarity among countries and their own citizens, he stressed.
TELMA VIALE, Special Representative to the United Nations and Director, International Labour Organization (ILO), said global unemployment stood at around 200 million, including 75 million young people between the ages of 15 and 24. Roughly 40 million people were estimated to enter the labour force every year in economies that could not accommodate them. Those figures combined indicated that the world faced a 600 million-job challenge in the next decade, which did not include the roughly 910 million workers earning less than $2 per day and known as the “working poor”.
She drew attention to two recent decisions adopted by the International Labour Conference in June 2012, saying they could supplement the Committee’s work. First, the resolution “Call for Action” recognized the urgent need to tackle the youth unemployment crisis and highlighted the importance of a balance between supply and demand policy measures. Second, the Conference had adopted a new international labour standard, “National Floors for Social Protection”, which called for providing people with essential health care and benefits, as well as basic income security. Emphasizing that people and their livelihoods must be at the core of policymaking, she said the ILO Decent Work Agenda offered a coherent policy framework that could integrate the macroeconomic, employment, social and environmental dimensions into an effective development model.
AJAY MADIWALE, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), said that shocks, both big and small, had tremendous humanitarian and economic costs for those affected, often leaving individuals and communities more vulnerable than they had previously been. Developing countries were especially vulnerable to both the incidence and impact of such shocks, which often had the effect of reversing development gains. While Governments recognized the importance of disaster risk reduction and disaster preparedness, donor countries in particular needed to see the two issues as developmental concerns and resource them accordingly, she stressed.
For its own part, the Federation had committed to allocating up to 10 per cent of all the funding it received to emergency appeals for risk reduction activities, she said, encouraging other agencies to do the same. Concerning food security, she said it was not enough to wait for a crisis to reach emergency proportions before acting, as had been done with the drought in the Horn of Africa. Early action in chronic food crises was cost-efficient and had the potential to save more lives. In addition, Governments must address inequities in access to health care, particularly among women and children. Lastly, he called for the accelerated implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action, which focused specifically on building community and national resilience to disaster, emphasizing that resilience at the community level must be adequately integrated into both national and international planning, as well as into the post-2015 development agenda.
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