Security Council Hears Briefings by Committees Charged with Defeating Terrorism, Including Preventing Non-State Actors from Acquiring Mass Destruction Weapons
Security Council Hears Briefings by Committees Charged with Defeating Terrorism, Including Preventing Non-State Actors from Acquiring Mass Destruction Weapons
|Department of Public Information • News and Media Division • New York|
6658th Meeting (PM)
Security Council Hears Briefings by Committees Charged with Defeating Terrorism,
Including Preventing Non-State Actors from Acquiring Mass Destruction Weapons
Speakers Note Some Success in Disrupting Terrorist Networks, Creating Robust
Legal Frameworks, but Warn of Resilience, Shifting Tactics, New Financing Sources
Terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction continued to pose a serious threat to international peace and security, the Chairman of the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1540 (2004) said as the Security Council reviewed the work of its three anti-terrorism Committees.
Speaking on behalf of the three committees — the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001), also known as the Counter-Terrorism Committee, the Committee established pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida, and the 1540 Committee concerning the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction — Baso Sangqu (South Africa) said it remained important to maintain close cooperation and effective coordination between the three bodies and their expert groups.
Noting that the 1540 Committee had adopted its tenth programme of work in July, he said that Committee continued its work with multilateral organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), and had, among other things, facilitated the development of potential recommendations on combating proliferation financing with members of the Financial Action Task Force.
Peter Wittig (Germany), Chairman of the Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida and associated individuals and entities, said the threat posed by Al-Qaida continued to evolve. The Al-Qaida Sanctions List contained 253 Al-Qaida individuals and 91 Al-Qaida entities. Since the last briefing, the Committee had added the names of eight individuals and four entities and had amended eight entries. It had removed 12 individuals and three entities from the list. The Committee had continued its cooperation with INTERPOL and had approved a new agreement on areas of cooperation beyond the issuance of INTERPOL-United Nations Security Council Special Notices.
He said the office of the Ombudsperson had forwarded 18 de-listing requests to the Committee as well as eight Comprehensive Reports, resulting in the de-listing of four petitioners by the Committee. Resolution 1989 (2011) had further strengthened the mandate of the Ombudsperson. Since then, two individuals had been de-listed. The Committee would also continue its consideration of linkages between Al-Qaida and the Taliban.
Hardeep Singh Puri of India, Chair of the Counter-terrorism Committee pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001), said the Committee had met on 28 September to commemorate the tenth anniversary of resolution 1373 (2001), during which the Committee had adopted an outcome document urging “all Member States to ensure zero tolerance towards terrorism and take urgent action to prevent and combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations through the full and effective implementation of resolution 1373 (2001) and other relevant international instruments relating to terrorism”.
He said the Committee had issued an updated global survey of the implementation of resolution 1373 (2001) by Member States, prepared by the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate, which underscored that Member States continued to struggle to secure porous borders, monitor financial systems, strengthen their judicial systems and prosecute or extradite terrorist suspects, due to inadequate funding and training. According to the survey, terrorists were increasingly turning to the Internet and other new technologies to recruit, incite and raise funds for their activities. Another concern was the link between terrorist networks and organized crime.
In the ensuing debate, speakers said that the United Nations, led by the Security Council, must adapt to find the most appropriate tools to fight the continuing threat of terrorism, as terrorists adapted to new situations, using new technologies such as the Internet for recruitment and incitement. Terrorist networks, they said, had proved adaptable and resilient, shifting tactics, adopting new technologies and identifying new sources and methods of financing. Effective international cooperation, therefore, was more important than ever.
In that, they stressed the need for the Committees to enhance their synergies. Also critical were global cooperation and concerted action against terrorists and their sponsors, including the complete dismantling of terrorist safe havens, training grounds and financial and ideological support structures.
The representative of France said in that regard that reviewing the Council sanctions regime against Al-Qaida and the Taliban, whose relationship had changed with the leadership of those groups, had followed the process of improving procedural guarantees for listing and de-listing of individuals and entities subjected to sanctions, consequently enhancing the 1267 Committee’s credibility regarding the sanctions regime. The review had made the resolution “a living tool”, he said.
Many speakers welcomed the changes to the sanctions regime, including those made by the Council in June when it decided to split the Al-Qaida and Taliban sanctions regime through the unanimous adoption of resolution 1988 and 1989, and lauded the enhanced role of the Ombudsperson to the 1267/1989 Committee, but noted that the Ombudsperson should be provided the necessary means and cooperation to implement her mandate, which included the provision of information.
Speaking on behalf of the informal group of like-minded States on targeted sanctions, Switzerland’s representative said that national parliaments, as well as national and regional courts, tended to scrutinize the sanctions regime critically. He, therefore, encouraged the Council to proactively continue its efforts to improve fair and clear procedures, including by introducing a sunset clause for all listings.
There was broad support among delegations for international efforts to prevent non-State actors and terrorists from acquiring mass destruction weapons and their delivery means. Many welcomed the adoption of the tenth programme of action by the 1540 Committee, as well as the recent visit to the United States, and hoped the policy of country visits would continue. They encouraged Committee efforts to improve its matching of assistance offers to requests by States in implementing the resolution’s provisions. Better cooperation was necessary, they stressed, with the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs and such agencies as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
Also welcome in today’s interventions was the 10-year existence of the Counter-Terrorism Committee. The global survey on implementation of resolution 1373 (2001) prepared by the Committee’s Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate had noted gaps and deficiencies in States’ implementation, speakers said, but it had also showed that States had developed legal and operational frameworks for dealing with terrorism. The Committee was encouraged to strengthen dialogue with Member States and collaborate with the Counter-Terrorism Task Force and other relevant United Nations bodies. Particular attention should be paid to respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms in implementation of the resolution’s provisions, they stressed.
The representatives of the United States, Russian Federation, China, Brazil, Nigeria, Colombia, Lebanon, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Gabon, United Kingdom, Portugal, Japan, Pakistan, Spain, Israel, Cuba, New Zealand and Syria also spoke, as did the Head of the Delegation of the European Union.
The meeting started at 3:23 p.m. and adjourned at 7:40 p.m.
The Security Council met today to hear briefings by the Chairs of three of its subsidiary bodies: the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001), also known as the Counter-Terrorism Committee; the Committee established pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida; and the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1540 (2004), or the 1540 Committee, concerning the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. A debate on the subject was expected to follow.
In the wake of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 1373, which, among its provisions, obliges all States to criminalize assistance for terrorist activities, deny financial support and safe haven to terrorists, and to share information about groups planning terrorist attacks.
Seeking to revitalize the Committee’s work, in 2004, the Council adopted resolution 1535, creating the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate to provide the Counter-Terrorism Committee with expert advice on all areas covered by resolution 1373 (2001). The Executive Directorate was also established with the aim of facilitating technical assistance to countries, as well as promoting closer cooperation and coordination, both within the United Nations system of organizations and among regional and intergovernmental bodies.
During the September 2005 World Summit at the United Nations, the Security Council — meeting at the level of Heads of States and Government — adopted resolution 1624 concerning incitement to commit acts of terrorism. The resolution also stressed the obligations of countries to comply with international human rights laws.
With resolution 1540 (2004), the Council adopted the first international instrument dealing with weapons of mass destruction, their delivery means and related materials, in an integrated and comprehensive manner (see Press Release SC/8076 of 29 April 2004). The main objective of the text is preventing the proliferation of mass destruction weapons and deterring non-State actors from accessing or trafficking in such items.
The Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999) had concerned Al-Qaida and the Taliban and associated individuals and entities and had monitored implementation of the provisions of that resolution, including a freeze of funds and financial assets of designated individuals and entities put on a list by the Committee; a travel ban of designated individuals; and an arms embargo on designated individuals and entities. On 17 June, the Council unanimously adopted resolutions 1988 (2011) and 1989 (2011) as successor texts to resolution 1904 (2009). By so doing, it decided to split the Al-Qaida and Taliban sanctions regime. Resolution 1989 (2011) stipulates that the sanctions list maintained by the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999) will henceforth be known as the “Al-Qaida Sanctions List” and include only names of those individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida.
BASO SANGQU ( South Africa), Chair of the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1540 (2004), updating the Council on the work of the three anti-terrorism Committees overall, said they had continued to attach great importance to coordination and cooperation, with outreach and country visits facilitating the full implementation of their respective mandates. Those activities had included a workshop in Central Asia, which, among other things, demonstrated the complementary mandates of the Counter-Terrorism Committee and the 1540 Committee regarding illicit movement of weapon-related nuclear, chemical and biological material and how coordinated efforts were essential to assist the region’s States in coping with existing trafficking. Several country visits organized by the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate included the participation of the 1267 Committee Monitoring Team. The 1540 Committee experts, for the first time, would join an Executive Directorate-organized visit, in Myanmar this month, he said, hoping the 1540 Committee would reciprocate in the near future.
He said the Committees also welcomed progress made in applying the common strategy paper of the three expert groups on cooperation with intergovernmental organizations, with the coordinated approach enriched by the Executive Directorate and the 1267 Monitoring Team’s significant contributions. The Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force continued to provide a platform for cooperation among expert groups and more than 30 concerned United Nations system organizations, agencies and programmes.
Information exchange among the expert groups was carried out on a regular basis, covering forthcoming meetings and relevant activities, monthly Executive Directorate reports to the Counter-Terrorism Committee and highlights of summary reports of the 1540 Expert Group, the latter of which had begun to be posted on the group’s website. Joint meetings and representation was another element, taking place as needed.
Terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction continued to pose a serious threat to international peace and security, he said. It remained important to maintain close cooperation and effective coordination between the three Committees and between their expert groups. In that respect, the three Committees looked forward to receiving further guidance from the Security Council on the areas of common interest, in order to better coordinate their efforts and facilitate cooperation.
Then, speaking in his capacity as Chair of the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1540 (2004), Mr. Sangqu said the main developments since the last briefing to the Council in May had been the adoption in September of the report on compliance with resolution 1540 through the achievement of the implementation of its requirements as mandated in resolution 1810 (2008), and the adoption of its tenth programme of work, which incorporated the new mandate and tasks for the Committee, found in resolution 1977 (2011). Activities focused on implementation, cooperation with international organizations, assistance and outreach and transparency.
While no new first reports on implementation had been received in the past six months, the Committee had received additional information from Croatia, Peru and Qatar, a national action plan from France and information from many other States during country-specific dialogues and activities, he said. In accordance with resolution 1977 (2011), the Committee had increased its effort to engage States in dialogue, completing a visit to the United States in September and receiving invitations from Albania, Croatia and Madagascar for future visits. The Committee had also completed country-specific missions to Indonesia, Kenya and Mexico, in cooperation with the Organization of American States, and anticipated more requests for those types of visits in the future. The Committee had continued matchmaking assistance requests, from Armenia, Guyana and Mexico, with offers of assistance or the status of such programmes from France, Hungary, Mexico, Portugal and the United States, he said.
The Committee, he said, continued its work with multilateral organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), and had, among other things, facilitated the development of potential recommendations on combating proliferation financing with members of the Financial Action Task Force.
He noted too the Committee’s contribution to the development of the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in Central Asia. It had also participated in activities with other international, regional and subregional organizations, such as the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. In addition, a new commitment had arisen from its international efforts through a United States-European Union joint statement on 1540 issued at a side event last month, organized by the Government of Poland on the margins of the General Assembly’s First Committee (Disarmament and International Security). Outreach and transparency activities included regional workshops. To promote transparency, the Chair had, among other things, briefed a September meeting of the Africa Group on the Committee’s work.
The Committee was now discussing two important tasks in line with resolution 1977 (2011), he said. First, it intended to present recommendations for the Committee and for the group of Experts in accordance with paragraph 5 (b) of the resolution. Second, the Committee had begun the process of drafting an annual report to review implementation in line with requirements of operative paragraph 9 of that resolution. Completion of those two tasks would be a major focus of the work of the 1540 Committee over the next few months, he said.
Speaking in his national capacity, Mr. Sangqu said much had been achieved. Noting the exceptional support given to the Counter-Terrorism Committee, he said his country had also welcomed the meeting in September regarding resolution 1540 (2004), an event that had proved to be a useful exchange between the United Nations and the 1540 Committee. He also welcomed the adoption of resolutions 1989 (2011), 1267 (1999) and 1373 (2001). He reiterated that any access of non-State actors to weapons of mass destruction was a threat to international peace and security. South Africa was pleased that by resolution 1977 (2011), the mandate of the 1540 Committee had been extended for 10 years, and that the text had recognized the reality that non-State actors could acquire weapons of mass destruction.
PETER WITTIG (Germany), Chairman of the Committee pursuant to resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011) concerning Al-Qaida and associated individuals and entities, said that in June, the Council decided to split the former 1267 Al-Qaida-Taliban list through adopting resolutions 1988 and 1989 (2011). The Al-Qaida sanctions list now included only names of groups, entities and individuals associated with Al-Qaida. Taliban individuals formerly designated under the 1267 Consolidated List had been transferred to the sanctions regime established pursuant to resolution 1988 (2011). He would brief in January on the Taliban Sanctions Committee.
He said the threat posed by Al-Qaida continued to evolve. The Committee, with the assistance of the Monitoring Team, would analyze that threat and take the necessary decisions. The Al-Qaida Sanctions List contained 253 Al-Qaida individuals and 91 Al-Qaida entities. Since the last briefing, the Committee had added the names of eight individuals and four entities, and had amended eight entries. It had removed 12 individuals and three entities from the list. The Committee would continue its efforts to keep the list up-to-date. It was engaged in reviewing the listings of entities that reportedly no longer existed and would review entries lacking sufficient indentifying information. The first triennial review of all list entries that had not been reviewed in three or more years would start in December.
Regarding linkages between Al-Qaida and the Taliban, he said, the Committee had received the Monitoring Team’s 90-day report and was drafting a position paper on the Team’s recommendations. The Committee had continued its cooperation with INTERPOL and had approved a new agreement on areas of cooperation beyond the issuance of INTERPOL-United Nations Security Council Special Notices. The Committee had also taken note of information provided by the Monitoring Team regarding the lack of sanction implementation by some Member States and reminded all Member States of their obligation to fully implement the sanction measures stipulated in resolution 1989 (2011).
The Committee had succeeded in making public narrative summaries of reasons for all listings on the Committee’s website in all official languages, he said. The Office of the Ombudsperson had forwarded 18 de-listing requests to the Committee, as well as eight Comprehensive Reports. That had resulted in the de-listing of four petitioners. Resolution 1989 (2011) had strengthened the mandate of the Ombudsperson and, since then, two individuals had been de-listed.
He explained that resolution 1989 (2011) stipulated that in cases where the Ombudsperson recommended de-listing, the petitioner was removed from the List 60 days after the Committee had completed its considerations of the Comprehensive Report, unless the Committee decided by consensus to retain the listing or a member requested referral to the Council. That provision had significantly raised the bar for Committee members who did not share the Ombudsperson’s recommendations. The same decision-making process with a reversed consensus requirement had been introduced when de-listing requests were submitted by designating States.
He then briefed the Council on ways the Monitoring Team had provided assistance to the Committee, noting that a detailed overview would be made accessible on the Committee’s website.
Speaking in his national capacity, Mr. Wittig said his country supported the 1540 Committee and remained committed to preventing weapons of mass destruction and their delivery means from falling into the hands of non-State actors and terrorists. He welcomed the Committee’s constructive visit to the United States and encouraged the Committee to continue using that new tool. He also described several outreach events Germany was organizing, including with business organizations.
Turning to the work of the Counter-terrorism Committee, he said human rights and counter-terrorism were mutually reinforcing. He, therefore, encouraged the Committee in its activities aimed at promoting human rights during country visits. The General Assembly and the Counter-Terrorism Task Force should play a leading role in terrorism prevention.
He said the Al-Qaida Committee must reflect on the evolving threat of the Al-Qaida network. The List, therefore, should focus on key activists. He attached great importance to ensuring that the mandate of the Ombudsperson was fully implemented. The Committee should take a more proactive role in working with Member States to implement counter-terrorism measures.
Also briefing the Council, HARDEEP SINGH PURI (India), Chair of the Counter-terrorism Committee pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001), said the Committee had met on 28 September to commemorate the tenth anniversary of resolution 1373, during which it had adopted an outcome document urging “all Member States to ensure zero tolerance towards terrorism and take urgent action to prevent and combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations through the full and effective implementation of resolution 1373 (2001) and other relevant international instruments relating to terrorism”. Also on that day, it had issued an updated global survey of the implementation of resolution 1373 (2001) by Member States, prepared by the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate on the basis of information available as of 31 May, evaluating Member States’ strengths and vulnerabilities.
That survey, he said, underscored that Member States continued to struggle, with, among other concerns, securing porous borders, monitoring financial systems, strengthening their judicial systems and prosecuting or extraditing terrorist suspects, owing to inadequate funding and training. According to the survey, terrorists were increasingly turning to the Internet and other new technologies to recruit, incite and raise funds for their activities. Another concern was the link between terrorist networks and organized crime. States, however, had made significant progress over the past decade and had strengthened solidarity and dialogue among themselves in their efforts to counter terrorist threats.
He said the survey offered several recommendations aimed at strengthening the resolution’s implementation. It was essential that Member States address terrorism with means other than law enforcement. Prevention was critical as was the effectiveness of a comprehensive strategy.
Pursuant to resolution 1963 (2010), the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate was currently preparing a global survey of implementation of resolution 1624 (2005). The Committee continued to focus on regional-specific discussions and on issues identified in the 2011 global survey (S/2009/620, annex). Some of the major issues considered recently by the Committee included facilitating provision of technical assistance to Member States, and the challenges involved in adopting and implementing counter-terrorism measures relating to legislation and law enforcement, with an emphasis on prevention and emergency response.
The Executive Directorate had conducted several workshops on specific topics, aimed at a specific regional audience, he added. Tomorrow would be the beginning of a subregional workshop on control of physical cross-border movement of cash and bearer negotiable instruments in Kuala Lumpur, for instance. In addition, the Committee and Executive Directorate continued to enhance their ongoing dialogue with Member States, donors and beneficiaries on the facilitation of technical assistance for capacity-building at national and subregional levels. Both the Committee and the Executive Directorate would continue to pay close attention to respect for human rights and the rule of law in counter-terrorism measures taken by States.
He said that the Committee would continue to play a critical role in the global fight against terrorism, and would strive to do so in a more strategic and transparent manner so that it could more effectively contribute to the global counter-terrorism efforts within the scope of its mandate.
Speaking in his national capacity, Mr. Puri said it was important that the three Committees continue to explore ways and means to enhance their synergies. International cooperation and concerted action against terrorists and their sponsors, including the complete dismantling of terrorist safe havens, training grounds and financial and ideological support structures, were critical imperatives to defeat the scourge. The 28 September outcome document of the Counter-Terrorism Committee provided strategic direction to the Committee’s work aimed at strengthening States’ capacity in their counter-terrorism efforts.
South Asia had been wracked by the activities of Al-Qaida, Taliban, Lashkar-e-Taiba and others, he said. The splitting of the 1267 sanctions regime in June would enable the Afghan Government to have a greater say in confronting the challenges of terrorism. It was critical that all Council-established sanction regimes ensure due process in their procedures. The decision-making process should be swift, fair and transparent. The 1267/1989 Committee and the 1988 Committee must continue to focus on the linkages between Al-Qaida and the Taliban.
He supported international efforts to prevent non-State actors and terrorists from acquiring weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery. The international community must join hands to eliminate the risks relating to sensitive materials and technologies falling into the hands of terrorists and non-State actors in a national, as well as in a multilateral and global response.
GÉRARD ARAUD ( France) said to counter terrorism’s continuing threat, the United Nations, led by the Security Council, must adapt to find the most appropriate tools. Reviewing its sanctions on Al-Qaida and the Taliban, whose relationship had changed with the leadership of those groups, had followed the process of improving procedural guarantees, with resolution 1989 (2011) enhancing the role of mediators regarding listing and de-listing of individuals, consequently enhancing the 1267 Committee’s credibility regarding the sanctions regime. The review had made the resolution “a living tool”.
He said that for more than a decade, the 1373 Committee had been looking at individual States’ needs, an impossible task without Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate assistance. There was now a need to look at how to identify gaps; promoting the rule of law should also be examined, he said, noting the recent example of Executive Directorate-organized seminars of specialist prosecutors. The United Nations had an essential role to play and should take advantage of regional efforts. However, threats remained significant, a point indicated in the 1540 Committee report, and a lot remained to be done.
While Resolution 1267 (1999) ensured a clear mandate for the Committee, a group of experts must be formed to submit its recommendations to the Council as soon as possible, he said. Using those new instruments would bolster the effectiveness of the resolution. For its part, France had submitted its national action plan to the 1540 Committee. As president of the Group of Eight (G-8), France had also worked in that area, and progress in the Committee had been made, he said, welcoming the development of specific country visits, including the recent Washington, D.C., visit and the delivery assistance and meeting requests from Governments. Efforts should be strengthened with other entities, such as the Global Forum against Terrorism.
JEFFREY DELAURENTIS (United States) said the September high-level symposium, and the work of the Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force, had demonstrated broad support for United Nations efforts to counter extremism and terrorism. The adoption of a strategy and the institutionalization of the Task Force and the unit for counter-terrorism represented “milestones” in the United Nations counter-terrorism efforts and deserved widespread support. Regarding resolution 1373 (2001) and the Counter-Terrorism Committee, over the decade, the Council had shown strong support to strengthen national and regional legal frameworks in that regard, and that Committee had developed “tailored” dialogues with States, producing unprecedented information, in what was essential a “worldwide audit” of counter-terrorism efforts.
Indeed, the evolution of the counter-terrorism framework had been impressive, he said, hoping there would be more flexibility for the Counter-terrorism Committee and Executive Directorate to work to, among other things, take action against a broad range of terrorism threats. Challenges of unmanned borders also posed great challenges. He looked forward to intensifying efforts with the Executive Directorate, including with civil society.
He welcomed the 1267 enhancements to listing and de-listing processes. Ensuring fair processes was important, but so was ensuring that cases of non-compliance were addressed. He looked forward to working with the Committee to, among other things, enhance implementation efforts. He also looked forward to active collaboration with key stakeholders in the context of the 1540 Committee.
To ensure greater implementation successes, his country had made a $3 million contribution to the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs, he said, noting that resolution implementation of resolution 1540 (2004) had matured beyond a report-focused process. He noted the Committee’s visit to his country in September and hoped that other States would offer similar invitations. His country also encouraged additional efforts, including improving matching of assistance requests and offers. The work of its Chair, the Committee and the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs must be better integrated to maximize their impact.
VITALY CHURKIN (Russian Federation) said the Counter-Terrorism Committee had stepped up its efforts to enhance the efficiency of counter-terrorism activities. During a special meeting commemorating the 10 years of its existence, Member States had acknowledged the Committee’s high authority on counter-terrorism as well as the relevance of resolution 1373 (2001). The Committee’s outcome document and the updated version of the global survey reflected successes and gaps in implementation and provided recommendations for the future. The Committee’s plan of action, initiated by the Russian Federation, had established priorities, including preventing radicalization of societies, combating violent extremism and preventing the use of media and the Internet by terrorists.
He hoped that the modifications to the 1267 sanctions regime and the splitting of the Consolidated List would push the Government of Afghanistan to carry out its strategy of national reconciliation. The 1267/1989 Committee must remain a key mechanism in the Council’s counter-terrorism activities. The distinction between Al-Qaida and the Taliban, however, was very difficult, leading to duplications on both lists. Adoption of sanctions must continue to be based on a case-by-case basis, with the Ombudsperson offering relevant input. Sanctions’ effectiveness, however, depended on States’ implementation of the resolution.
Valuing the work of the 1540 Committee, he welcomed that body’s intention to make its actions more consistent and better planned. Resolution 1540 (2004) was a key international instrument to prevent terrorists from acquiring mass destruction weapons and their delivery means. It was important that the Committee continue as a priority assisting Member States in the implementation of that and subsequent resolutions.
WANG MIN ( China) said the Al-Qaida Committee was an important counter-terrorism tool of the Council. The Committee had put a lot of work in updating its Consolidated List and was carrying forward the List’s periodic review. He hoped Member States would cooperate with the Committee in order to enhance its credibility.
He expressed support also for the Counter-Terrorism Committee, which had held regional symposiums and was providing technical assistance to Member States. The 1540 Committee had adopted its tenth work plan and had made progress in promoting the implementation of the resolution. He hoped it would continue to assist Member States in their efforts to implement the resolution. Terrorism was the common enemy of the international community and China was also a victim of it; however, it opposed the use of double standards to fight it.
LEONARDO LUÍS GORGULHO NOGUEIRA FERNANDES (Brazil) said in the last decade the Security Council’s evolving role in counter-terrorism should move even further ahead by widening dialogue with States. He encouraged the 1373 Committee to continue to fulfil assistance requests. He noted that progress had been made on the 1267 Committee, including the adoption of resolution 1989 (2011), encouraging the latter Committee to take other States’ opinions into consideration. Commending the work of the 1540 Committee, he said it should work closely with other agencies, such as IAEA, to avoid duplication of efforts. Non-proliferation commitments had to be matched with disarmament obligations, he concluded.
RAFF BUKUN-OLU WOLE ONEMOLA (Nigeria) said that the recent meeting on resolution 1373 (2001) had been an opportunity to reflect on its significant progress over the last decade. Despite improvements, more needed to be done to, among other things, build new partnerships in and among regions. The effectiveness of efforts should be based on examining the causes of terrorism and prevention, targeting the motivations, including extremism and intolerance. He called on the Committee to expedite action on the implementation of resolution 1624 (2005). The 1540 Committee had worked seriously on ensuring a better understanding and improved visibility of its work, as well as improving its procedures. It should strive to sustain efforts to match requests with assistance offers. On resolution 1977 (2011), he commended the United States Government for hosting the Committee in September, hoping that would generate more requests for such visits. He also commended the 1267 Committee for improvements in the sanctions regime. Consistencies with international standards of due process would reinforce the regime’s credibility.
NÉSTOR OSORIO ( Colombia) said it was essential to continue strengthening coordination among the counter-terrorism related Committees, consistently monitoring their working methods and reinforcing available tools. The 1540 Committee had implemented measures to prevent the possession of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and their delivery systems by non-State actors. It had prevented the spread of those weapons by strengthening international non-proliferation regimes. The Committee’s creation of four working groups, including on national monitoring and enforcement, deserved special emphasis. Outreach activities conducted by the Committee had promoted States’ implementation of resolution 1540 (2004). Colombia would hold a workshop in March 2012 to promote further interaction among Members States and organizations.
Regarding Committee 1267/1989 on Al-Qaida, he welcomed reforms to improve respect for due process, transparency and the quality of information contained in the Consolidated List. It was very important that the summary of reasons for listing be available in the United Nations official languages. The Office of the Ombudsperson and its strengthened mandate had been fundamental to strengthening the regime’s legitimacy, as evidenced by the number of de-listing requests processed, the Committee’s report and the decisions taken to date. The quality of information submitted by States to the list and the provision of technical assistance to States, however, could be further improved.
Concerning the Counter-Terrorism Committee, he supported the idea of celebrating the tenth anniversary since the adoption of resolution 1373 (2001). Highlighting the global study on implementation of that resolution, he said that examination had provided an overview of progress achieved thus far. Although that report conveyed gaps and deficiencies, it had also showed that States had developed legal and operational frameworks for dealing with terrorism. The Committee should strengthen dialogue with Member States and collaborate with the Counter-Terrorism Task Force and other relevant United Nations bodies. During counter-terrorism activities, particular attention should be paid to respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. To ensure that the voice of terrorism victims was heard during criminal proceedings, for example, he hoped the Handbook on the Criminal Justice Response to Support Victims of Acts of Terrorism, developed by the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs, would be a basis for the capacity-building activities of the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate.
IBRAHIM ASSAF (Lebanon) commended the measures taken in resolution 1989 (2011) to enhance transparency and fairness in the methods of the Committee’s work and to guarantee the fundamental rights of individuals and entities listed. Enhancing the mandate of the Ombudsperson would end cases of arbitrary listing. The number of requests submitted to her was an indication of the importance of the Office. She should have all resources necessary to carry out her mandate. He also welcomed the announcements on the reasons for listing in all six official languages on the Committee’s website. All decisions of the Committee should be accompanied by a justification, and sanctions must always be in compliance with the United Nations Charter and provisions of international human rights law.
He also commended the efforts of the Counter-Terrorism Committee and the Executive Directorate to promote the capabilities of States to combat terrorism and encourage continued dialogue with States and regional organizations on implementation of resolution 1373 (2001). The Committee’s global survey on the text’s implementation addressed developing challenges and risks and discussed gaps.
He further welcomed the tenth programme of work of the 1540 Committee and emphasized the importance of cooperation by States with the Committee. He also commended the efforts of the task forces concerning monitoring, cooperation with national and regional organizations and outreach activities. Assistance to countries requesting it was one of the priorities of the Committee in preventing terrorists and non-State actors to get their hands on weapons of mass destruction. In that regard, he underlined the activities of the League of the Arab States in keeping the Middle East free of those weapons, including regarding a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East, in compliance with the plan of action of the 2010 Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Lebanon knew the dangers of terrorism because it had suffered from those attacks.
Emphasizing constructive cooperation with the three Committees, he stressed that the success of counter-terrorism efforts would primarily require addressing the root causes of terrorism by eliminating areas of tension, eliminating the use of double standards, as well as ending foreign occupation and addressing poverty. He encouraged the dialogue between cultures and religions, which was an indispensable tool in counter-terrorism efforts.
IVAN BARBALIĆ ( Bosnia and Herzegovina) said that terrorism still represented an “undefeated, challenging and demanding threat” and held the highest priority. The split of the 1267 regime was a necessary response to different requirements and the evolved threat of terrorism, where specific new approaches and perspectives were needed to make the fight more efficient. Bosnia and Herzegovina fully supported the reform of the sanctions regime, and added that resolution 1989 (2011) further reinforced and strengthened substantial improvements introduced in resolutions 1822 (2008) and 1904 (2009). The delegation emphasized the additionally enhanced role of the Ombudsperson and new de-listing procedures as crucial aspects in a continuous demand for a more clear, fair and effective overall system. In that respect, upholding the credibility of the sanctions regime, by means of its effective, transparency and fairness, required constant attention and careful consideration of future steps.
He said his delegation placed special emphasis on the full implementation of resolution 1373 (2001), as well as the strengthening of its key aspects, together with resolution 1624 (2005). It unconditionally supported every effort of the Counter-Terrorism Committee, together with those of the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate. It was pleased that the Chair was planning continued engagement of the Committee in those discussions and in making greater use of its outcomes and results. Those actions could complement the monitoring component and appropriately direct the delivery of technical assistance.
Prevention and proliferation of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their delivery means, especially their potential acquisition by non-State actors, was critical to international peace and security. Resolution 1977 (2011) and the extension of the 1540 Committee’s mandate for 10 years sent a strong message that resolution 1540 (2004) remained an important instrument of global non-proliferation and counter-terrorism. The delegation attached great importance to the role of the 1540 Committee and its group of experts; the effective implementation of that text required continuous, long-term efforts at the national, regional and international levels. However, for many States, that was a complex and costly process. The Committee, therefore, should strengthen its role in channelling assistance to States, and Member States should extend their financial contributions.
NOEL NELSON MESSONE ( Gabon), strongly supporting the work of the three Committees, emphasized that the fight against terrorism required more active international cooperation. He commended the 1267 Committee for, among other things, maintaining a dialogue with States to better understand the difficulties they faced concerning resolution 1989 (2011). Regarding resolution 1373 (2001), he said reinforcing States’ capacities to fight terrorism was essential for an effective global strategy. The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction constituted a grave threat to international peace and security, and the 1540 Committee must aim to better promote international disarmament and non-proliferation instruments. He hoped for intensified cooperation between the three committees in facing menacing situations in States or certain regions, including smuggling arms and weapons of mass destruction, as well as between international, regional and inter-regional organizations to promote 1540’s implementation.
MICHAEL TATHAM (United Kingdom) said important milestones had passed since the review last May and much had been achieved over the last decade. The adoption of resolution 1989 (2011) had ensured that responses remained effective and fair regarding resolution 1267 (1999). He welcomed innovations in de-listing processes, including the introduction of “smart” subset clauses. The procedures introduced by the Council would lead to a more targeted and focused tool. Turning to proliferation, he said all countries had a responsibility under resolution 1540 (2004) to prevent the spread of those weapons. Making linkages to border security would make reporting to the Committee more accurate, he said, concluding that his country supported the work of all the Committees.
JOSÉ FILIPE MORAES CABRAL (Portugal) thanked the Ambassadors for their briefings and for their leadership in their respective committees. Portugal aligned itself with the European Union’s forthcoming statement. He commended the Counter-terrorism Committee’s work and the 2011 Global Survey on resolution 1373 (2001). He noted the relevance of the fight against terrorism in the Counter-Terrorism Committee. Regarding human rights and rule of law, he said respecting those areas would contribute to the development of the fight against the spread of terrorism. On the 1267 Committee, he supported the positive achievements, including the developments in the work of the Ombudsperson’s Office, which enhanced due process of the sanctions regime. He congratulated that Committee in re-evaluating the links between the Taliban and Al-Qaida. He also welcomed the 1540 Committee’s work, including efforts to provide forward-looking perspectives and practical guidelines between assistance requests and offers, and underlined the importance of the United States-European Union initiative. He welcomed the cooperation of all three Committees to maximize efforts aiming to fight terrorism.
KAZUO KODAMA (Japan) commended the Secretary-General’s Symposium on International Counter-Terrorism Cooperation and the Special Meeting of the Counter-Terrorism committee, which enhanced international cooperation in the field. He welcomed the official launch of the Global Counter-terrorism Forum, calling it an “unprecedented forum to foster discussions on counter-terrorism measures” and strengthening international cooperation to contribute to a more coherent and holistic implementation of counter-terrorism measures. While progress in the fight against Al-Qaida was reflected in the deaths of Al-Qaida executive members, he warned that the organization had not been eliminated and still had the “capacity to conduct serious terrorist attacks”.
He said the Security Council’s three counter-terrorism committees played important roles combating terrorism‘s “imminent and global threat”, welcoming Security Council resolutions 1988 and 1989 against Al-Qaida and the Taliban, and giving particular credit to the enhanced role of the Ombudsperson in reviewing the Consolidated List, which was essential to the legitimacy and credibility of United Nations counter-terrorism measures. He called for Member States to back non-proliferation through supporting the 1540 Committee and taking measures to implement that resolution. Japan, he noted, had hosted a seminar on non-proliferation and disarmament to increase awareness and promote sharing of knowledge and experiences, and was planning a follow-up seminar in December. It was critical for Member States to fully implement Security Council resolutions, including by adopting export control laws and strengthening capacity. All States should discuss how best to achieve such objectives.
RAZA BASHIR TARAR (Pakistan) said his country strongly condemned terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, committed by whomever, wherever and for whatever purposes. “No religious tradition or doctrine should be depicted as encouraging or inspiring acts of terrorism,” he said, adding that Pakistan’s commitment to the fight against terrorism was unwavering. As the biggest victim of terrorism, Pakistan needed the international community’s solid and unwavering support. Pakistan had deployed 160,000 troops on its border with Afghanistan and had set up 822 border posts to interdict Al-Qaida/Taliban members. The country had lost 30,000 innocent men, women and children.
Regarding the fight against terrorism on the financial front, he said Pakistan had become a party to the United Nations Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism and had enacted a landmark anti-money-laundering bill. A Financial Monitoring Unit had been established in the State Bank of Pakistan to monitor suspicious financial transactions, and the country was an active member of the Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering.
Pakistan welcomed the split of the 1267 sanctions regime into the Al-Qaida Committee and the 1988 Committee focusing on the Taliban with its country-specific regime. Pakistan appreciated that the Ombudsperson’s role had been enhanced with Security Council resolution 1989 (2011) and noted with appreciation that, since June, two individuals had already been de-listed on the Ombudsperson’s recommendation. Pakistan hoped that a similar role for the Ombudsperson would be devised in all other sanctions regimes for ensuring due process and transparency in the work of the Council’s committees. Finally, Pakistan believed that Council resolution 1977 (2011), which had extended the mandate of the 1540 Committee, should have been negotiated after an open debate by the Council. An open and inclusive process would have helped increase confidence in the process for all United Nations Member States, which ultimately had to implement the resolution rooted in State-driven efforts.
JUAN PABLO DE LAIGLESIA (Spain), aligning himself with the European Union, said systematic international cooperation was needed to combat terrorism, with the United Nations system integral to that as the guarantor of international law. He praised work done on the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, Security Council resolutions and international legal instruments, reiterated his support for the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations as an instrument of preventive diplomacy, and welcomed the Secretary-General’s call for a new symposium in support of victims of terrorism.
He highlighted the work of the 1267 Committee concerning Al-Qaida, stressing the need to continue securing impartiality and transparency and praising the work of the Monitoring Team. He also noted the work of the Counter-Terrorism Committee and its Executive Directorate in ensuring compliance with Security Council resolutions, calling for reinforcement of its human and material capacities to increase its presence and improve its abilities to give technical assistance to States for capacity-building. Noting the important work of the 1540 Committee to counter the “serious threat” of the proliferation of technologies and materials for weapons of mass destruction to non-State actors for terrorist purposes, he welcomed resolution 1977 (2011), which strengthened the 1540 mandate by encouraging arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation.
RON PROSOR ( Israel) said terrorists would take advantage of any weakness of any Government or organization, and those weak links could be exploited with devastating consequences for the world. The United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy provided a framework for collective action. The recent global survey on the implementation of resolution 1373 (2011) outlined the challenges ahead, including the failure of many States to have enacted counter-terrorism legislation that met international standards and issues of border-control. Greater attention should be made between links of Hizbullah and international criminal networks, with the criminal fabric addressed as a whole.
He called for a new assessment of technical assistance for counter-terrorism. A knowledge base must be collected so assistance programmes could be tailored more effectively, and successful models should be shared. His country worked with several States, areas spanning financing to money laundering.
The 1267 Committee had made procedural changes since the last review, including the de-listing element, he noted. Israel supported resolution 1540 (2004). A blind eye could not be turned from States supporting terrorists, including Iran, and from those firing rockets from Gaza. There was no grey area. Turning a blind eye to terrorism was to choose terrorism. Promoting or overlooking incitement was to choose to educate the next generation of terrorists. It was time that all States joined together to take effective action, and he urged all Member States to set aside differences and to realize that complacency was not an option in that struggle.
PEDRO NÚÑEZ MOSQUERA (Cuba), supporting the work of the three Committees, said measures to eliminate terrorism should be based on the United Nations Charter and international humanitarian and human rights laws. Supporting the Non-Aligned Movement position, Cuba opposed the unilateral creation of lists accusing States of supporting terrorism, as those lists were not compatible with international and United Nations resolutions. The United States’ Government had persisted in its decision to include Cuba on a list of States sponsoring terrorism. Those claims were false, and could not be substantiated, he said. The list was prepared by the United States State Department, without any international authority. Including a State such as Cuba, which fought terrorism, only harmed the credibility of the United States.
He said his country did not possess weapons of mass destruction, and in fact, urged the total elimination of those weapons worldwide. For years, Cuba had been presenting information to the Council on terrorist actions against it. Terrorism against Cuba had killed and injured many of its people. For years, the confessed assassin Luis Posada Carriles had operated under the protection of the United States with impunity. Meanwhile five Cubans were suffering long, cruel prison sentences in the United States. Double standards should end, he said, adding that closer cooperation was needed between States to fight terrorism.
PAUL SEGER (Switzerland) also speaking on behalf of the informal group of like-minded States on targeted sanctions, including Austria, Belgium, Costa Rica, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Liechtenstein, Netherlands, Norway and Sweden, said the group fully recognized that targeted sanctions were a useful and necessary tool to effectively combat international terrorism. The latest reforms had contributed considerably to the overall fairness and effectiveness of the Al-Qaida sanctions regime. He also commended the Ombudsperson for her excellent work. There was now a strong built-in presumption that her presentations were based on in-depth analysis, well founded and well received by the Committee.
He said cooperation by Member States with the Ombudsperson, including the provision of confidential information in individual cases, would be key to ensuring the envisaged results. Of equal importance was the provision of adequate resources for her Office. The effectiveness of the Al-Qaida sanctions regime would also be judged by the number of appeals to the Council, which retained the authority to oppose a de-listing recommendation. He appealed to Committee members to discourage such appeals without exceptionally compelling and comprehensible reasons.
National parliaments as well as national and regional courts tended to scrutinize the sanctions regime critically, given, for instance, recent challenges to implementation of United Nations sanctions decisions in Europe, including a decision of at the General Court of the European Union of September 2010, which was still under appeal. The group of likeminded States, therefore, encouraged the Council to proactively continue its efforts to improve fair and clear procedures, including by introducing a sunset clause for all listings. Noting that some of the institutional features designed to increase the fairness of procedures in the Al-Qaida sanctions regime did not apply to the new Taliban regime in resolution 1988 (2011), the group reaffirmed its strong view that the question of fair and clear procedures was relevant for all sanctions committees.
BERNADETTE CAVANAGH ( New Zealand) said that since 2001, there had been success in disrupting and dismantling international terrorist networks, establishing robust legal, normative and institutional frameworks at national and global levels. Terrorism, however, still posed a threat to the values of the United Nations and the interests of all Member States. Terrorist networks had proved adaptable and resilient, shifting tactics, adopting new technologies and identifying new sources and methods of financing. Effective international cooperation, therefore, was more important than ever.
She hoped that the decision to separate the Consolidated List into separate designations for the Taliban and Al-Qaida could complement Afghanistan’s national reconciliation efforts. It was important that the Ombudsperson was sufficiently resourced to carry out her enhanced role and that Member States provided her with their full support, including through the provision of relevant information. She also hoped that the 10-year extension of the 1540 Committee would facilitate a longer term approach to supporting national implementation of the text and welcomed the Committee’s increased emphasis on targeted technical assistance.
She said the targeted approach taken by the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate in providing technical assistance had helped many States strengthen their counter-terrorism frameworks, and her country had partnered with the Executive Directorate in several initiatives. She also supported the Counter-terrorism Committee’s emphasis on the role of regional cooperation. In May, her country had hosted the seventh annual meeting of the Pacific Islands Forum Working Group on Counter-terrorism, which had provided opportunities to coordinate activities and share best practices. New Zealand was also a founding member of the Global Counter-terrorism Forum launched in September. That Forum should further boost international counter-terrorism capacity-building efforts, thereby complementing the work of the United Nations.
THOMAS MAYR-HARTING, Head of the Delegation of the European Union, said it stood firm on the position that the Al-Qaida sanctions regime continued to play an important role and was proving its effectiveness. The Union fully supported the importance of an effective sanctions regime to disrupt the financial flows financing terrorist acts. “We express our support to all improvements of the [United Nations] system aimed at reassuring that the procedures for designating individuals are fully compliant with fundamental rights. In order to improve transparency and visibility, narrative summaries of reasons for listing represent a particularly appropriate tool,” he said.
He welcomed Security Council resolution 1988 (2011) to create a new sanctions regime targeted at the Afghan insurgency and 1989 (2011) to amend the existing 1267 sanctions regime to target those associated with Al Qaida. The Union especially commended the work of the Office of the Ombudsperson which, in line with resolution 1989 (2011), could present recommendations to the Committee to de-list individuals and entities. That enhanced procedure would improve effectiveness and transparency. Access to relevant information was key for the Ombudsperson to carry out her mandate, and performance of that Office’s duties was meaningful for due process in international, regional and national courts.
Also welcome was the “zero-tolerance” approach towards terrorism, included in United Nations standards for the first time, he said. The European Union had developed specific instruments to support countries in their counter-terrorism efforts and cooperated closely with the Organization in that work. The Union also supported implementation of the recommendations of the Financial Action Task Force on terrorist financing, while the regional body’s strategy for the Sahel combined security and development to foster a global approach on countering terrorism.
The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery, and the risk that terrorists could gain access to such weapons, called for a global approach, as well as national and regional actions, he said. The European Union was working on initiatives in support of the 1540/1977 resolutions, with special focus on country visits and the provision of long-standing solutions. Those initiatives, together with the Union’s capacity-building with regard to establishing Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear “centres of excellence” worldwide, provided tangible contributions to counter-terrorism.
BASHAR JA’AFARI ( Syria) said his country had never stopped reaffirming its condemnation of terrorism, an ongoing threat to peace and security. The General Assembly played a central role in fighting terrorism and achieving consensus on that topic and the Council’s counter-terrorism committees could also play a role in that fight, through transparent, fair and impartial mechanisms. Concerted action to deal with terrorism would not advance unless State terrorism was addressed, the clearest example being the actions of Israel, he said. The last act of aggression against Gaza was against the peace flotilla in international waters trying to bring assistance to a people under siege. There was also, he said, the killing of Palestinians and nuclear terrorism in the region. Syrian citizens in the Golan area were the victims of war crimes, he added.
He said his country, in light of suffering terrorist actions on its territory, was cooperating fully with the three Committees. Syria had established national joint commissions to ensure appropriate implementation of those resolutions. Yet, his country had continued to suffer from that scourge, as armed groups were committing terrorist criminal actions against civilian and military populations, destroying public and private facilities — doing so because of foreign financial support to undermine stability in Syria and to implement agendas that served neither national nor regional stability.
Last Saturday, his delegation had sent letters to the Security Council and the Secretary-General and co-chairs of the Counter-terrorism Committee, containing detailed information on arms trafficking operations across the Syrian border heading to terrorists, and other operations transporting communication equipment.
Syria had been among the first signatories of the NPT and the IAEA general safeguards agreement, he noted. Israel was the only country in the region that refused to adhere to the Treaty or submit its nuclear facilities to IAEA monitoring. Thus, Israel did not support resolution 1540 (2004) or the committees seeking to eliminate weapons of mass destruction. Reading an article published in the Israeli press, he quoted a professor saying that Israel had the capability of hitting European cities with its nuclear weapons, with most European capitals were within Israel’s range. In the article, he said a Hebrew University professor reported that collective deportation was Israel’s only meaningful effort to get rid of the Palestinians. On other matters, Mr. Ja’afari said military exercises in Europe were being conducted publicly, without any condemnation from anyone, even though those exercises were clearly to train Israeli pilots to target a United Nations Member State.
Responding to Syria’s statement, ADY SCHONMANN (Israel) said that Syria was deaf to the cries for freedom of the Syrian people. Listening to him brought to mind George Orwell’s 1984. That Syria continued to gun down its own people and was one of the primary sanctuaries of terrorist organizations was no secret. Damascus was the global headquarters of numerous terrorist organizations. Whenever Syria spoke about terrorism, listeners had the opportunity to gain some insight into the mind of a State sponsor of terrorism.
Taking the floor for a second time, Mr. JA’AFARI ( Syria) said that a General Assembly resolution considered occupation as the worst crime of aggression. That was the ultimate response to what had been said by the representative of Israel, which occupied Palestinian and Arab territories. State terrorism by Israel was well-documented, including the assassination of United Nations representatives and the killing of Palestinian leaders even outside Palestine. The documentation of Israel’s State terrorism and its crimes against humanity could fill an entire an encyclopaedia. The irony was that those who preached about their pains as a result of the Holocaust — which was not of Arab making — were causing a Palestinian holocaust of Israeli making. Noting that he was not alone in saying that Israel committed war crimes and crimes of genocide, he said Israel remained the only State in the world that had adopted a policy of targeted killings.
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