|Department of Public Information • News and Media Division • New York|
6479th Meeting (AM & PM)
Security Council Presidential Statement Stresses Need to Consider Economic, Social
as well as Political Factors in Maintaining International Peace, Security
In Day-long Debate, Speakers Underline Importance
Of Ensuring Coherence, Coordinated Action among United Nations, Other Actors
The Security Council stressed today the need to take into account the economic and social dimensions of conflict, in addition to the political factors of maintaining international peace and security, as more than 60 speakers, including Government ministers, the Secretary-General and a World Bank official, took part in a day-long debate.
“[I]n order to support a country to emerge sustainably from conflict, there is a need for a comprehensive and integrated approach that incorporates and strengthens coherence between political, security, development, human rights and rule-of-law activities, and addresses the underlying causes of each conflict,” the Council reiterated in a statement read out by Foreign Minister Antonio de Aguiar Patriota of Brazil, which holds the rotating Council presidency this month.
In that context, the Council noted with appreciation the contribution of peacekeepers to the creation of an environment conducive to economic recovery and the provision of basic services, and recognized the role of the United Nations in empowering countries to manage their resources in a way that did not fuel conflict but instead promoted development.
Also by the statement, the Council affirmed the importance, for building sustainable peace, of national ownership of peacebuilding activities, their timely planning and implementation, and clarity in the responsibility of different actors, as well as cooperation on the part of all relevant entities of the United Nations system, among themselves and with regional organizations.
Opening the debate, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said: “Recent events around the world are a sharp reminder of the need for political stability to be anchored in peace, opportunity, decent standards of living and the consent of the governed.” He noted that 9 of 10 countries with the lowest human development indicators had experienced conflict within the last 20 years. Inequality, week institutions, youth unemployment, drug trafficking could all contribute to instability, he added.
Addressing the roots of conflict, he said equitable sharing of wealth, better access to agricultural lands, as well as strengthening governance and justice could all contribute to stability. He outlined United Nations efforts to act on those insights in recent years, saying that, “in short, conclusive development on the basis of consensus and consultation is perhaps the most effective route to diminishing the risks of conflict and enabling long-term stability”.
Eugene-Richard Gasana (Rwanda), Chairperson of the Peacebuilding Commission, pointed out that it was the unique organ of the United Nations that brought together security and development actors to promote common, integrated and mutually reinforcing approaches. He said such approaches should be put in place early, and emphasized the critical importance of the Council mandating multidimensional peacekeeping missions and encouraging coherence among all actors.
Sarah Cliffe, Director of the World Bank’s 2011 World Development Report, said the survey showed that national transformations that had ended violence and secured lasting peace were based on phased efforts and initiatives — as seen in Ghana, Chile, Indonesia and the Republic of Korea — rather that “one off” events. They built coalitions that were inclusive enough to provide a platform for working with local community leaders.
She said the survey also noted the importance of making tough decisions on priorities for institutional change, stressing job creation and ending corruption. The World Bank’s experience had revealed that the mere exercise of holding elections did not guarantee that fragile societies would not slip back into instability; they must be part of a wider peace and security development initiatives.
Following those presentations, country representatives agreed that there was “no security without development and no development without security”, citing economic factors that affected conflict, from food crises to the illegal exploitation of minerals and climate change. Many speakers noted the important involvement of women in both security and development, and Thailand’s, speaking on behalf of the Human Security Network, maintained that human rights must equally be addressed to ensure stability.
Many speakers cautioned, however, that the Council should not be directly involved in development activities, which were beyond its competence. Cuba’s representative said part of the problem was that the Security Council had been encroaching on the functions of other bodies, with disastrous results for development.
Minister Patriota said it was not the intention of the debate to blur the lines between United Nations bodies or to turn the Council into a development organ, but instead the aim was to raise awareness of the importance of associating development with security strategies conceived for sustainable peace, and to foster better cooperation among the Council, the Peacebuilding Commission and developmental actors.
Noting yet another link between development and peace, Foreign Minister René Castro Salazar of Costa Rica said worldwide military expenditures had exceeded $1.5 trillion in 2009, which would have gone a long way towards meeting development goals. When Costa Rica had abolished its armed forces 62 years ago, freeing resources for the welfare of its citizens, it had put into practice a security paradigm based on development, he said.
Also speaking today were the Foreign Ministers of Germany, Colombia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Portugal, India and Slovenia, as well as the Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs of Gabon.
Also speaking today were representatives of South Africa, China, Nigeria, United States, Russian Federation, Lebanon, United Kingdom, France, Japan, Pakistan, Honduras, Australia, Belgium (on behalf of the Chairs of the Peacebuilding Commission’s country-specific configurations), Canada, Turkey, Mexico, Uganda, Luxembourg, Guatemala, Egypt (on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement), Kazakhstan, Peru, Fiji (on behalf of the Pacific Small Island Developing States), Switzerland, Morocco, Chile, Botswana, Solomon Islands, United Republic of Tanzania, Armenia, Argentina, Dominican Republic, Senegal, Kenya, Philippines, Finland (on behalf of the Nordic countries), Burkina Faso, Venezuela, Malaysia, Uruguay, Iran, Georgia, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Sudan, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka and Azerbaijan.
Other speakers were the acting Head of the European Union Delegation and the Chargé d’Affaires at the Office of the Permanent Observer of the African Union.
Taking the floor a second time were the representatives of the Russian Federation and Georgia, who delivered responses to each other’s interventions.
The meeting began at 10:15 a.m. and suspended at 1:10 p.m. Reconvening at 3:15 p.m., it ended at 8:10 p.m.
The full text of presidential statement S/PRST/2011/4 reads as follows:
“The Security Council reaffirms its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security and its readiness to strive for sustainable peace in all situations under its consideration.
“The Security Council underlines that security and development are closely interlinked and mutually reinforcing, and key to attaining sustainable peace. The Council recognizes that their relationship is complex, multifaceted and case specific.
“The Security Council reiterates that, in order to support a country to emerge sustainably from conflict, there is a need for a comprehensive and integrated approach that incorporates and strengthens coherence between political, security, development, human rights and rule of law activities, and addresses the underlying causes of each conflict. In this regard, the Council affirms the necessity to consider relevant economic, political and social dimensions of conflict.
“The Security Council affirms that national ownership and national responsibility are key to establishing sustainable peace. The Council reaffirms the primary responsibility of national authorities in identifying their priorities and strategies for post-conflict peacebuilding, with a view to ensuring national ownership.
“The Security Council re-emphasises the importance of considering and initiating peacebuilding activities from the earliest stages of planning and implementation of peacekeeping operations, including through clear and achievable mandates. The Council stresses the importance of clarity of roles and responsibilities of the United Nations peacekeeping operation and the United Nations country team and other relevant actors for the delivery of prioritized support to a country consistent with its specific peacebuilding needs and priorities, as outlined by national authorities, in order to ensure effective integration of effort. The Council recommends that particular focus be given to improved integration of United Nations effort where peacekeeping missions are operating together with peacebuilding activities of other United Nations actors, such as in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan.
“The Security Council notes that successful implementation of the many tasks that peacekeeping operations could be mandated to undertake in the areas of security sector reform; disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration; rule of law; and human rights requires an understanding of and acting with a perspective which takes into account the close interlinkage between security and development. In this context, the Council notes with appreciation the contribution that peacekeepers and peacekeeping missions make to early peacebuilding, including through creating a conducive environment which enables economic recovery and the provision of basic services. The Council acknowledges that this contribution can help to establish and build confidence in the mission.
“The Security Council undertakes to consider how peacekeeping operations can best support national authorities, as appropriate, to articulate peacebuilding priorities, and acting in accordance with these priorities, can both support other national and international actors to implement peacebuilding activities and undertake certain early peacebuilding tasks themselves. The Council underlines that reconstruction, economic revitalization and capacity-building constitute crucial elements for the long-term development of post-conflict societies and in generating sustainable peace, and in this regard, attaches special importance to national ownership and stresses the significance of international assistance.
“The Security Council notes that in matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and security under its consideration, conflict analysis and contextual information on, inter alia, social and economic issues is important, when such issues are drivers of conflict, represent a challenge to the implementation of Council mandates or endanger the process of consolidation of peace. In this regard, the Council requests the Secretary-General to ensure that his reporting to the Council contains such contextual information.
“The Security Council stresses the importance it attaches to the sustainability of peace in post-conflict situations. In this regard, it reaffirms that the overarching objective of peacekeeping missions should be to achieve success through creating the conditions for security and sustainable peace on the ground, thereby allowing for reconfiguration or withdrawal of the mission.
“The Security Council recalls the role played by the illegal exploitation of natural resources in fuelling some past and current conflicts. In this regard, it recognizes that the United Nations can play a role in helping the States concerned, as appropriate, upon their request and with full respect for their sovereignty over natural resources and under national ownership, to prevent illegal access to those resources and to lay the basis for their legal exploitation with a view to promoting development, in particular through the empowerment of Governments in post-conflict situations to better manage their resources.
“The Security Council encourages close cooperation within the United Nations system and with regional, subregional and other organizations on the ground and at Headquarters in order to properly engage in conflict and post-conflict situations, in accordance with its responsibilities under the Charter of the United Nations, and expresses its willingness to consider ways to improve such cooperation.
“The Security Council underlines that integrated action on the ground by security and development actors needs to be coordinated with the national authorities and can significantly contribute to stabilizing and improving the security situation and ensuring the protection of civilians. The Council also notes the importance of cooperation with civil society in this context. The Council affirms that sustainable peace and development cannot be achieved without the inclusion of all relevant stakeholders, and underlines that women must be included as active participants in all stages of peacebuilding, peace agreements and development programmes. The Council expresses its willingness to engage in dialogue, where necessary, on specific situations on its agenda with other actors, including United Nations agencies, funds and programmes, and international financial institutions.
“The Security Council encourages Member States, particularly those represented on the governance structures of the United Nations agencies, funds and programmes, to promote coherence in the United Nations work in conflict and post-conflict situations.
“The Security Council reiterates its support for the work of the Peacebuilding Commission and its readiness to make greater use of the Commission’s advisory role. The Council further recognizes the need for coordination and dialogue with the Commission. The Council calls upon the Commission to continue to promote an integrated and coherent approach to peacebuilding and to seek to ensure that development and security-related activities supported by the Commission are mutually reinforcing.
“The Security Council highlights the contribution that the Economic and Social Council can make in addressing economic, social, cultural and humanitarian issues and underlines the importance of close cooperation in accordance with Article 65 of the Charter of the United Nations.”
Council members had before them a concept paper on “The maintenance of international peace and security — the interdependence between security and development” (document S/2011/50). Prepared by the Brazilian presidency, it notes that since the late 1990s, the Council has displayed a growing awareness of that interdependence and repeatedly recognized the need to take both elements — security and development — into account when exercising its Charter-mandated responsibilities.
The note says that far too often, history has shown that purely military engagement in conflict situations — particularly in intra-State conflicts with international implications — is unlikely to bring about the quality of peace that can be sustained in the medium and long term. Therefore, if the Council’s efforts to maintain international peace and security are to be effective, sustainable peace must be achieved through a comprehensive approach to security, involving a consideration of the root causes of violence and of the social and economic situation on the ground.
What remains subject to discussion among Council members is how much of this consideration lies within the 15-nation body’s purview and the extent to which peacekeeping operations should be involved in such efforts, the paper states, adding that the debate proposed for today offers an opportunity to advance “the already intense international dialogue on this issue”. It goes on to spotlight the complex relationship between security and development, stressing that while not all people suffering from poverty resort to violence, social, political and economic exclusion can contribute to the eruption or protraction of, or relapse into, violence and conflict. Moreover, while a professional and accountable security sector may foster stability and the rule of law, for instance, that should not be considered an end in itself. Stability must be sought as a means to enhance socio-economic development.
The note suggests that the Council could seek to answer some of the following questions during the debate: How can Council-mandated missions best contribute to sustainable peace? What capacity must peacekeeping missions possess in order to better coordinate with all actors involved? How can peacekeeping missions assist development actors in creating an environment conducive to the protection of civilians in the short and long terms? How can the enhanced integration of the security and development dimensions of post-conflict situations — such as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes, and peacebuilding activities — result in the greater inclusion of women and the promotion of their rights?
BAN KI-MOON, Secretary-General of the United Nations, said recent events around the world were a sharp reminder of “the need for political stability to be anchored in peace, opportunity, decent standards of living and the consent of the governed”. Noting that 9 of 10 countries with the lowest human development indicators had experienced conflict within the last 20 years, he said inequality, week institutions, youth unemployment and drug trafficking could all contribute to instability.
Just as lack of development could feed the flames of conflict, economic and social progress could help prevent it and secure peace, he pointed out. Addressing the roots of conflict, the equitable sharing of wealth, better access to agricultural lands and the strengthening of governance and justice could all contribute to stability. “In short, conclusive development on the basis of consensus and consultation is perhaps the most effective route to diminishing the risks of conflict and enabling long-term stability.”
He went on to say that those insights had been incorporated into the work of the United Nations in recent years through the partnership activities of the Peacebuilding Commission, cooperation between United Nations country teams and peacekeeping missions, and frameworks that included the international financial institutions. It was increasingly realized that such frameworks must be developed under the ownership of the respective national Governments.
Doing more to ensure truly integrated, mutually reinforcing approaches to security and development required the “whole of Government approach”, with coherence across different multilateral institutions, better management of the drawdown and transition of peacekeeping missions, innovative ways to strengthen national institutions, managing the climate change-energy nexus, reducing criminal violence and addressing the proliferation of small arms, he said.
EUGÈNE-RICHARD GASANA (Rwanda), Chairperson of the Peacebuilding Commission, said there was a growing conviction in the Council that sustaining peace was a multidimensional and complex undertaking requiring broad partnership among security, political and development actors. The Peacebuilding Commission was the unique organ of the United Nations that brought together security and development actors to promote common, integrated and mutually reinforcing approaches. Such approaches should be put in place early on following the cessation of hostilities, he said, noting that the Council played an important role in that effort, most prominently by mandating multidimensional peacekeeping missions and encouraging coherence among all actors. The integration of all factors on the ground must be consistently monitored through the kind of holistic analysis that the Peacebuilding Commission was best placed to pursue, he emphasized.
SARAH CLIFFE, Special Representative and Director for the 2011 World Development Report of the World Bank, said the new survey’s main message was that solid, forward-looking programmes that strengthened national institutions and governance while providing security, justice and jobs were crucial to ensuring that fragile countries did not relapse into violence and instability. The Report highlighted many successes in reducing global violence, noting that the number of civil wars had decreased although they still exacted a devastating toll. Much of that success could be attributed to changes in the international peacekeeping architecture and to the relevant peacebuilding and development organs created by the United Nations over the past three decades, she said.
Nevertheless, millions of people still lived under the threat of violence in many areas, she pointed out. In the past few years, it had become clear that places not plagued by outright conflict where affected by much more fluid cycles of social protest, criminal activity or political violence. Citing a few examples, she said organized criminal movements could undermine development gains, as seen in Central America, while weak institutions and lack of confidence in the Government could lead to widespread unrest following elections, such as in Kenya. More broadly, she continued, food insecurity and commodity-price fluctuations could also spark wider unrest, while drug trafficking, large refugee flows and pent-up political grievances could also lead to violence and insecurity, even in stable countries.
She said the Report also showed that the risk of violence was highest when institutional weakness combined with high levels of internal and external stress, such as when Governments were unable to provide access to judicial remedies for injustice, when high unemployment went unaddressed, when inequalities deepened, or in the wake of economic shocks or infiltration by outside forces. The risk of violence had also proved to be consistently linked to underlying institutional deficits and the failure of Governments to provide social security and jobs.
Pointing the way forward, the survey drew together lessons learned from national transformations that had ended violence and secured lasting peace, she said. The overriding feature was that such transformations were based on phased efforts and initiatives — as seen in Ghana, Chile, Indonesia and the Republic of Korea — rather than “one-off” events. Success was often lasting where Governments were able to build coalitions that were inclusive enough to provide a platform for working with local community leaders. In addition, the Report noted the importance of making tough decisions on priorities for institutional change, stressing job creation and an end to corruption.
The World Bank’s experience revealed that the holding of elections did not guarantee that fragile societies would not slip back into instability, she said. They must be part of wider initiatives to establish peace and security. Such initiatives must be innovative in their approaches rather than copying from abroad. Also, successful efforts had integrated women more evenly into all areas of reform, she pointed out, adding that the Report also made clear the need to boost investment in structures that provided security and employment. To that end, she recalled that President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf of Liberia had often noted that following a civil war, the international community was eager to “provide everything we need”, but provided very little help when a country was trying to prevent one.
While the survey cited the need for a clear leading role for the United Nations, it also noted the need to move from talking about coordination to “combined organizational support”, since broad coherence among multilateral agencies and organizations was essential. There was a need to correct the trend whereby agencies and organizations were too slow to enter, too quick to exit, and too insufficient to support national institutional capacities. It was necessary to support the political convening capacities of regional organizations and to link them with United Nations bodies and the Bretton Woods institutions, she said, underlining also the need for tougher action to stem illicit financial flows derived from trafficking, corruption and money laundering.
Finally, she stressed the urgent need to ensure long-term stability for all nations, warning that the impact of failing to prevent cycles of violence was immense. Once countries spiralled into violence, it was hard to pull them out. Indeed, the socio-economic impacts were crippling, as no conflict-affected country had achieved a single Millennium Development Goal, she pointed out. As recent events showed, failing to provide security, justice and jobs could spark instability, not only in fragile States, but also in nations that had long been strong and stable.
GUIDO WESTERWELLE, Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs and Deputy Chancellor of Germany, aligned himself with the statement to be delivered on behalf of the European Union. “Peace and security, development and human rights together shape a world worth living in,” he said, pointing out that almost all conflicts showed the extent to which those elements were interlinked. In Afghanistan, for example, it had never been enough to look at the conflict with only one eye on security because decades of war had made urgent the need for development. Some of the most abhorrent crimes of modern times were being witnessed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where the abundance of natural resources should be providing income for local people and reliable taxes for public tasks. Sanctions and peacekeeping alone could not solve such problems, he emphasized, adding that the reconstruction of the Goma airport would benefit the economy of the entire region.
Commending authorities in Sudan for publicly accepting the outcome of the recent referendum in the South, he stressed the importance of carrying out the post-referendum process and preparing for Southern Sudan’s independence. Germany stood ready to assist and counsel both North and South Sudan, and more broadly encouraged the Council to address the issue of peacebuilding as soon as possible. Development always related to institutional frameworks, he said, explaining that it presupposed a fair tax system, respect for the rule of law and a corruption-free public sector. Private actors must be empowered to create opportunities on the one hand, and businesses should align their operations with the principles of the Global Compact on the other, he said, adding that in building peace, signing agreements and introducing development programmes, “we need a stronger role for women and greater protection of children”.
MARÍA ÁNGELA HOLGUÍN CUÉLLAR, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Colombia, said recent United Nations reports provided accounts of the transformation that peacekeeping operations were undergoing as police forces and civilian experts participated in their activities more frequently and in greater numbers. That trend demonstrated that strict military activities were not sufficient to handle the task of achieving sustainable peace. Once the Peacebuilding Commission was up and running, the Security Council had recognized that development, peace and security were interrelated and mutually reinforcing, she said. Likewise, it had agreed on the need to apply a coordinated, coherent and integrated focus on peacebuilding. She cautioned against losing sight of the fact that peacebuilding, as a long-term objective, cut across many fields and must start in the early phases of peacekeeping.
She said that objective should be supported by efforts to provide long-term solutions, achieve the sustainability and strengthen the functioning of democratic institutions, work towards prosperity for the population and avoid creating the dependency that actually discouraged development. In that regard, when formulating mandates, the Security Council could place greater emphasis on strengthening coordination initiatives and structures that had a greater impact on developing national capacities, she suggested. Some of those activities should include the strengthening of judicial systems, promoting the rule of law and establishing civilian-protection mechanisms, she continued. While it was clear that the Council was not the organ to make decisions on development, its decisions most certainly had an impact on long-term national development. It could therefore benefit from the efforts and practices of the Economic and Social Council, the General Assembly and the Peacebuilding Commission, she stressed.
SVEN ALKALAJ, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Bosnia and Herzegovina, said the peacebuilding process entailed overlapping agendas for peace and development aimed at preventing and managing conflicts while encouraging post-conflict reconstruction. The United Nations had a central role in promoting such agendas. In order to address the deep-rooted causes of violent conflicts, new and innovative approaches were needed to generate resources for conflict prevention and peacebuilding. In addition, the various actors within the United Nations system needed to seek out the best possible ways to contribute to their common purpose of development and security. To that end, it was crucial to extend assistance in a wide range of sectors, including governance, human rights, justice, reconciliation, demilitarization and reintegration, as well as security-sector reform, he said.
Pointing out that aid programmes in those areas must be sensitive to the connection between the development and security agendas, he stressed the importance of implementing integrated security and development strategies alongside other priorities in a coherent peacebuilding framework. Security-sector reform and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, as parts of comprehensive peacebuilding strategies, could be successfully implemented only in an environment that offered economic opportunity and favoured development, he said. On the other hand, weak national institutions, whether in the political, security or development spheres, increased the risk of relapse into conflict. One way to address the security-development link was to focus on building and strengthening institutions that were indispensable to security and development, he added.
LUÍS FILIPE MARQUES AMADO, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Portugal, said that addressing situations of conflict and social instability around the world required a “re-adaptation of our current response structures”, adding that the integrated peacekeeping operations of the United Nations were the “visible face” of that effort — including such success stories as the United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT) — while the European Union and other international partners were also coordinating with each other to achieve results.
Over the last decade, there had been notable efforts on the part of the African Union and subregional organizations to seek durable solutions to peace and development, he noted. That collaborative approach was one of the fundamental pillars of the new paradigm of European Union-African relations launched in Cairo in 2000 and renewed in Lisbon in 2007 with the creation of the current Strategic Partnership. The “convergence of political will and resources” was crucial to meeting the needs of fragile States worldwide.
He said Portugal’s National Strategy on Security and Development contained directives on how to act with partner countries in regions where the country worked in the service of international organizations, such as the United Nations. The Strategy therefore allowed Portugal to fulfil its obligations and responsibilities as a member of the international community, most notably in the promotion of the role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts — in particular as agents of development — and by providing incentives for youth employment.
S. M. KRISHNA, Minister for External Affairs of India, quoted Mahatma Gandhi’s words “poverty is the worst form of violence”, noting that collective experience in addressing conflict had shown that without peace, development suffered. At the same time, a lack of prospects for economic progress created fertile ground for violence, which in turn, eroded development. Efforts should therefore focus on encouraging economic activity and enhancing “livelihood security”, he said. India’s work to speed the range and depth of welfare programmes aimed, above all, to include every member of society, he said, adding that such lessons of inclusion could also be applied to international efforts to maintain peace and security. The implementation of a peace agreement, for example, must align with the provision of humanitarian and emergency assistance, the resumption of economic activity, the creation of institutions to improve governance and the inclusion of all stakeholders.
He went on to point out that the $8 billion United Nations peacekeeping budget was more than the combined budgets of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), making clear the need to greatly enhance development spending if it was to “make a dent” in security problems. Collective security mechanisms must intersect with efforts to make economic progress, and mitigate the causes of persistent insecurity at the global level. Solutions could not be imposed, he emphasized, adding that the temptation to create a new orthodoxy must be avoided. The international structures for maintaining peace and security, as well as for peacebuilding, must be reformed, with a view to enhancing effective coordination between the Council’s permanent and elected members, he stressed.
PAUL BUNDUKU-LATHA, Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs of Gabon, noted that the number of conflicts featuring internal crises had increased following the cold war, as had such threats as terrorism, drugs, transnational organized crime and the proliferation of small arms. In that light, Gabon had dedicated itself to the resolution and prevention of conflicts in Central Africa. The current President had committed himself to the motto “peace, development and sharing” as a perfect illustration of the inseparable link between security and development, he said, adding that the world’s people aspired to both peace and prosperity, and that the absence of economic prospects and services could become destabilizing factors. Conversely, violence and instability hampered development. He stressed the need for national ownership of the peacebuilding process and national control over national resources in addition to underlining the importance of coordination among all peacebuilding actors.
BASO SANGQU (South Africa) said “peace and stability in the world will remain elusive if we do not address the nexus between security and development”. To a large extent, contemporary conflicts were precipitated by inequality, nepotism, lack of participation in democratic processes, corruption and, especially in Africa, access to mineral resources. It was therefore important to help countries manage and redistribute revenues for the people’s benefit. Taking social and developmental issues into account did not mean that the Council must usurp the functions of other bodies, but it was important that development bodies better focus their work on development that would aid conflict prevention and that the Council share information and cooperate more closely with them. Noting the African Union’s commitment to both maintaining peace and accelerating development, he said regional organizations were crucial in the holistic approach.
LI BAODONG (China) said security was the prerequisite for development while development was necessary for long-term stability. For that reason, international input to development must be increased, he said, adding that debt relief, access to markets and assistance to help developing countries realize the Millennium Development Goals was necessary to increase stability. Political, security and development efforts must be integrated into peacebuilding to ensure that people in conflict situations enjoyed “peace dividends” as soon as possible. The Council, the Peacebuilding Commission, the Economic and Social Council, United Nations agencies and all other partners should all coordinate their work in their respective areas, he stressed.
U. JOY OGWU (Nigeria) said that while development was not necessarily within the Council’s purview, the 15-nation body did not — and should not — carry out its activities in a vacuum, especially with regard to peacekeeping, peacebuilding and preventive diplomacy. “In championing development efforts in tandem with activities relating directly to peace and security, we in fact further our conflict-prevention activities, which go to the heart of our Charter obligations,” she said, adding: “It is our duty to remember that in securing any society, we are but one actor among many committed to the long-term stability of that nation.”
Indeed, a long-term perspective was crucial, as guarding against a relapse into conflict preserved development gains, which were frequently among the first casualties of war, she said. Bolstering the links between security and development could also lead to more efficient deployment of efforts and resources. By standing on points of principle, such as ensuring women’s full participation in peace and governance processes, providing youth employment and promoting human rights, “we can assist a society emerging form conflict in achieving lasting peace”. The Council had the challenge and opportunity to promote security policies that integrated development in order progressively to rid humanity of the scourge of war, she said. “However, if we fail to recognize the impact our policies have on a society’s path to development, to larger freedom […], we leave our task half done,” she cautioned.
ROSMARY DICARLO (United States) said the links between security and development were “complex but compelling”, as stalled development and violent conflict continued to deal a double blow to many people in many countries. While worldwide poverty rates had dropped, that had not been the case for conflict-affected nations, and not one such nation had achieved any of the Millennium Development Goals. Poverty and lack of economic activity also fed despair that often fuelled violence and extremism. The United States agreed with calls for the strengthening of judicial sectors, confidence-building measures and the inclusion of women in peacebuilding activities, among others, she said, adding that her country had consistently urged attention to building national capacities that could help remove obstacles to progress.
She said that, 10 years ago, the Council had systematically begun integrating peacebuilding elements into peacekeeping mandates. Five years ago, the Peacebuilding Commission had been created and in the past five years, the Council had held numerous debates on development and security-related themes. Yet, 90 per cent of conflicts arose in countries where the international community had failed to help consolidate peace after war, she pointed out. That fact made starkly clear the need to rectify deep-seated problems that festered for decades in some countries. Some issues were ripe for fresh thinking, she continued, noting that while national actors were responsible for ensuring long-term peace, it was becoming clear that peacekeeping operations could use their spare resources and capacities to help rebuild societies. It might also be helpful to ensure more robust cooperation and coordination with the Bretton Woods institutions to support or underwrite crucial peacebuilding activities.
VITALY CHURKIN (Russian Federation) said development issues were closely linked to security issues, and collective security and sustainable development should be the aim of all. Poverty, limited access to water, food and other commodities, pandemics and natural disasters were all factors that could have negative consequences for national stability and even set in motion events that took on international implications. The Charter set forth options for other United Nations organs to present relevant reports to the Council, he noted, adding that, in its efforts to maintain international peace and security, the Council must use the tools at its disposal.
That being the case, it might prove helpful if the Council received timely information from the Economic and Social Council or other organs charged with monitoring international socio-economic development issues, he said, adding that safety nets must be created to ensure that conflict did not recur. It was therefore necessary to bolster national institutional capacities, as well as to enhance the attendant coordination among the Secretariat, United Nations bodies and other actors in the field, he said, adding that there was also a need to ensure that the full potential of the Peacebuilding Commission was realized.
NAWAF SALAM (Lebanon) said there was a broad consensus that there could be “no security without development and no development without security”, but what remained controversial was the nature of the security-development nexus and the best policies and means the Council could deploy to prevent the eruption of, or relapse into, conflict. Efforts had been made to improve the coordination of peacekeeping and peacebuilding, and it was clear that there was a need for the adequate allocation of resources and a leadership that could “unlock” job creation, the equitable ownership of assets and education. Lebanon’s 1989 Taif Accord illustrated how development could play an important role in peacebuilding following a civil war, with key reforms ensuring a balanced development plan and greater participation by various socio-economic actors. Internationally, it was of the utmost importance that the Council address such issues in cooperation with other United Nations actors and organs, the international financial institutions as well as regional and subregional organizations, he stressed.
MARK LYALL GRANT (United Kingdom) said the links between security and development were clear-cut, since no conflict-plagued country had realized the Millennium Development Goals. The Peacebuilding Commission had begun to bring together the critical elements of both development and peacebuilding, and needed support to go further. In addition, the United Nations must be geared up to provide support on governance, justice and jobs for countries emerging from conflict. States must be able to meet expectations and be accountable, he emphasized, noting that for that to happen, better coordination between all peacebuilding actors was extremely important. A clear delineation of roles was also vital, he said, emphasizing that peacekeepers should not be drifting into development work. The World Development Report should be used as a basis for much of that work, and the United Nations should cooperate more closely with international financial institutions.
GÉRARD ARAUD (France) cited examples of how development factors, including climate change and food security, fed into conflict, saying that was a priority for his country’s chairmanship of the Group of 20 (G-20). Development actors must take into account that the rule of law and security ensured that women could carry out agricultural work without getting attacked, for example. All actors on the security and development sides must therefore coordinate their actions, he said, noting the important role that the European Union played in both areas and underlining also the responsibilities of national Governments. The links between security and development must be determined as early as possible in the Council’s handling of conflict situations. It was also important to take into greater account the development aspects of security when designing mandates for peacekeeping operations without confusing their primary security mission. Country ownership of peacebuilding strategies, as encouraged by the Peacebuilding Commission, was also crucial, he said.
ANTONIO DE AGUIAR PATRIOTA, Council President and Minister for External Relations of Brazil, spoke in his national capacity in welcoming the positive response to the debate proposed by his country’s delegation. Recalling the importance of the Marshall Plan in keeping the peace after the Second World War, he said that had been accompanied by economic and social progress. Addressing peace and development in an integrated fashion had become increasingly acceptable, particularly as the East-West rivalry was superseded and many challenges placed before the Council involved parts of the developing world that had emerged from colonialism in a vulnerable condition.
However, that did not imply that the most serious threats to peace were to be found in poorer places, he clarified. It was clear in any case that purely military or security strategies would not by themselves deal adequately with the overwhelming majority of today’s conflict situations, and the Council had already recognized that by incorporating reconstruction tasks into some peacekeeping mandates. The intention of today’s debate was not to obscure the proper roles of various bodies or to turn the Council into a development organ, but to raise awareness of the importance of associating development with the security strategies conceived for sustainable peace, he said.
From the early stages of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), he said, Brazil and its Latin American and other partners had argued for mandates that incorporated reconstruction and peacebuilding activities in parallel with peacekeeping actions. The same perception guided Brazil’s leadership of the Peacebuilding Commission’s configuration on Guinea-Bissau, where the linkage between security and development was plain to see. He called for increased cooperation between the Security Council, Economic and Social Council and the Peacebuilding Commission in order to make the integration of efforts more effective.
RENÉ CASTRO SALAZAR, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Worship of Costa Rica, supporting the statement to be made on behalf of the Human Security Network, said the debate was “a testament to the will of the Council and its presidency to promote a holistic approach to the three pillars of the United Nations, without implying a departure from the Security Council’s fundamental mandates to maintain international peace and security”. A more balanced and civilian-oriented approach to security would have the effect of generating development, he said, listing problems relating to oppressive governance, the lack of economic options for young people, struggles over basic resources such as water, as well as others that generated easy riches, such as oil. He also pointed to problems caused by small arms, human trafficking, illicit drugs and money laundering.
Noting that worldwide military expenditures had increased by 45 per cent during the last 10 years, to exceed $1.5 trillion in 2009, he said that if a mere 10 per cent of those resources had been dedicated to the realization of the Millennium Development Goals, the world would be close to reaching them. He recalled that his country’s abolition of its armed forces 62 years ago had freed resources for the welfare of its citizens. The Government had put into practice a security paradigm linked to development, he said, adding that in the face of current challenges, such as the occupation of a portion of its territory, Costa Rica had maintained its good sense as well as its faith in international law and the multilateral system.
SAMUEL ŽBOGAR, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Slovenia, aligning himself with the European Union, urged a focus on the root causes of conflicts, achieving sustainable development and good governance, and promoting respect for human rights. More than 1 billion people lived in conflict-affected States requiring the building of effective, resilient national institutions to prevent them from slipping back into conflict. He also called for more investment in prevention. “Economic development reduces the risk of the onset of the conflict, while deprivation from economic and political participation can catalyse one,” he stressed. Instability threatened not only the rule of law, but also gains towards realization of the Millennium Development Goals.
Calling for a well-coordinated combination of political, development, security and humanitarian measures to provide an efficient response to such situations, he said his country supported the strengthening of institutional arrangements among United Nations actors, as well as ongoing efforts to boost coordination between the Organization and the World Bank. For its part, Slovenia had participated in peacebuilding and institution-building work in the Western Balkans and beyond, notably projects carried out by the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance. Such work demanded an understanding of national and local contexts in order effectively to resolve conflict and build peace, he said, noting that “blueprint solutions” might not be universally applicable. There was a need to reduce dependence on international aid and promote self-reliance in order for successful human, economic and social development to take place, he said.
NORACHIT SINHASENI (Thailand), speaking on behalf of the Human Security Network, said the group was united by a belief in a people-centred approach to addressing interrelated challenges, the aim being to guarantee every individual freedom from fear and freedom from want, as well as an equal opportunity to develop their human potential. No attempt to establish security could ignore the essential role of human rights and development, he stressed, adding that post-conflict peacebuilding must be closely linked to peacekeeping and other primary responsibilities of the Council. Early consideration of development priorities must be explored further for that purpose, and system-wide coherence of all United Nations bodies assured. National ownership must also be a core element of peacebuilding activities.
SHIGEKI SUMI (Japan) called for the establishment, without delay, of a system to ensure a seamless transition from peacekeeping to peacebuilding. As Chair of the Peacebuilding Commission’s Working Group on Lessons Learned, Japan intended to address the strengthening of the relationship between the Council and the Commission, as well as coherence among diverse actors. More work was required to ensure a clear division of labour, and strong leadership was needed on the ground for that purpose. Integration of efforts should be the object of extensive analysis in reports of the Secretary-General in order better to determine priorities, he said, emphasizing that peacekeepers could not undertake all peacebuilding tasks, and should be complemented by civilian capacities.
ABDULLAH HUSSAIN HAROON (Pakistan) said something was missing from today’s discussion: more emphasis should have been placed on making available the finances to ensure lasting peace and sustainable development for all. Nevertheless, the topic of debate was an important one, he said, stressing the need to ensure a comprehensive approach in addressing the root causes of conflict, creating conditions conducive to socio-political stability, with innovative peacebuilding strategies, which would ensure overall coordination among stakeholders to forge synergies. Peacekeeping, peacebuilding, preventive diplomacy and systematic coordination within and outside the United Nations, therefore, formed the four pillars of such a comprehensive approach. Peacekeeping and peacebuilding were “specialized disciplines with cross-cutting themes”, he said, noting that they shared the common objective of preventing relapse into conflict. It was necessary to ensure that the intricacies of the two disciplines were adequately defined and resourced in their respective mandates, he said, cautioning, however, that compartmentalizing rather than harmonizing the two might create the impression that they were competing for resources and attention.
MARY ELIZABETH FLORES (Honduras) said one country’s lagging development could readily be compared with the lives enjoyed by more fortunate nations, making injustices, limitations and cruelties starkly clear. Such a reality could deepen dissatisfaction and trigger rebellion in those that felt that they lacked what others seemed to have in abundance. Honduras was one of those marginalized corners of the world where conditions of vulnerability and powerlessness were conspicuous and painful, she said. Nevertheless, the country had overcome difficulties and trying situations through diligence, faith and the helping hands of good friends. All the resources invested in development, and in providing opportunities to those who believed the possibility of success in a deeply inequitable world had been all but erased, had contributed to international peace and security, she said, calling for an overhaul of the international system to ensure that “all those resources that are wasted, funds that are squandered and money that is spent on superfluous things” were made available for development, with an emphasis on meeting the needs of the most vulnerable societies.
GARY QUINLAN (Australia) said today’s debate went to the heart of the responsibility of the United Nations to foster peace, development, stability and security for all nations. Lack of development opportunities was one of the major underlying causes of conflict, and when the Council sought to shoulder its responsibilities under the Charter, it must be fully appraised of the root causes of the conflict before it. Such a comprehensive “whole of Government” approach should include socio-economic elements as well as initiatives to promote development, he stressed. The entire international community had a role to play, but the Council, in order to carry out its role, must have better access to social and contextual information on the situations before it. In that regard, Australia welcomed calls for increased cooperation between the Security Council, the Peacebuilding Commission and the latter’s country-specific configurations.
JAN GRAULS (Belgium) spoke in his capacity as Chair of the Peacebuilding Commission’s country-specific configuration on the Central African Republic, and also on behalf of the four other country-specific configuration Chairs — Brazil, Canada, Jordan and Switzerland. He said an integrated combination of peacekeeping and peacebuilding activities was essential to attaining security as well as development goals, adding that closer interaction between peacekeepers and development actors — while maintaining respect for their respective roles and responsibilities — could contribute to those goals. Greater efforts must therefore be made to enhance cooperation between peacekeepers and development actors, allowing for joint approaches in the interest of post-conflict countries. The Peacebuilding Commission had a unique role to play in that regard, he said, explaining that the nexus between security and development lay at the heart of its mandate.
Among the Commission’s many partnerships, he said, one of the most crucial was building a “privileged working relationship” with the World Bank in order to design a coherent approach to the peacebuilding and development needs of the countries on its agenda. That could be achieved through the organization of joint events, such as donors’ conferences, and by stimulating convergence between peacebuilding and development frameworks. Its unique role also made the Peacebuilding Commission, and its country-specific configurations, a valuable partner for a deepened strategic dialogue with the Security Council when designing a comprehensive approach to security. While some steps had been taken in that regard, much more could be done, he said. Additionally, the Council could benefit from information on development-related issues that might hinder the implementation of its mandates.
JOHN MCNEE (Canada) said restoring social and economic well-being in the aftermath of conflict could take decades, which posed an organizational challenge for the United Nations. He called for addressing the duplication of roles among various departments, agencies and programmes. The interdependence of security and development also pointed to the need for rapid access to tailored, deployable civilian expertise, he said, emphasizing that the international community must be ready to respond quickly to an affected country by first reinforcing existing national capacity. Governance and the rule of law consistently emerged as areas of weakness, which was especially dangerous given that the creation of a capable State was a precondition for lasting security and sustainable development. He urged the Council to draw on the comparative advantages of United Nations departments, agencies and programmes, while enhancing cooperation with the Peacebuilding Commission.
ERTUĞRUL APAKAN (Turkey) said conflict and underdevelopment were linked by a vicious cycle that must be broken through coherent, inclusive and holistic strategies. The complex web of issues involved was unique to each country, he said, cautioning that it was important not to adopt simplistic approaches and generalizations. It was particularly important to strengthen existing institutions and give due consideration to production capacity and job creation. A regional approach was also necessary and close coordination among the various United Nations entities and international financial institutions was of particular importance. There was a need for ongoing assessments of all linkages because situations were constantly changing. The effectiveness of peacebuilding programmes must be improved and special emphasis must be placed on the role of women in all phases of peacekeeping, peacebuilding and development, he emphasized, pledging his country’s active involvement in those issues in all international forums, including the upcoming United Nations Conference on Least Developed Countries, which Turkey would host in Istanbul in May.
PEDRO NÚÑEZ MOSQUERA (Cuba) said it was important to highlight economic and social difficulties as root causes of conflicts, which regrettably seemed to be ignored or disregarded. While peacekeeping had expanded greatly, the word “underdevelopment” had virtually disappeared from the United Nations lexicon, with the Security Council encroaching on many functions of the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly, with disastrous results for development. Listing statistics on extreme poverty in the world, he said it was an offence to human sensitivity to learn that the infant mortality rate in the poorest countries was 12 times that of rich countries. The unjust neoliberal economic order must urgently be replaced by a new and more just international economic order, he stressed, noting that the emphasis on political routes to peace often meant interference in the internal affairs of States. In addition, the “astronomical” amount being spent on arms should be directed towards development, he said, underlining that it was for that reason that the link between disarmament, particularly nuclear disarmament, and development must not be ignored.
YANERIT CRISTINA MORGAN SOTOMAYOR (Mexico) said the changing nature of conflict, coupled with lagging development, had compelled the United Nations to adapt to new challenges that transcended national borders and threatened the stability of States. It was important to continue to strengthen the Organization’s capacity in such areas as preventive diplomacy and peacebuilding, she said, adding that the Security Council should make every effort to promote security with development objectives rather than focusing solely on military aims. It should also continue to promote measures to tackle the root causes of conflict and to ensure the rule of law, the protection of human rights and the provision of social benefits. Lagging development had serious impacts on security and stability at the regional and global levels, she said, stressing that the Council could no longer ignore that fact in going about its work.
BENEDICT LAWRENCE LUKWIYA (Uganda) said lasting peace, security and development were only achievable through a comprehensive approach integrating the security, economic, social and humanitarian dimensions. It was essential to take a people-centred view of security into account as a necessity for national, regional and global stability. He called on the United Nations and the wider international community to intensify efforts towards a more effective and coherent approach to peacekeeping, peacemaking and peacebuilding, and praised the Peacebuilding Commission in that regard for playing an important role in supporting countries emerging from conflict. However, more emphasis must be placed on delivering tangible dividends, including basic services, employment opportunities and better standards of living, he stressed.
SYLVIE LUCAS (Luxembourg), supporting fully the statement to be made on behalf of the European Union, said the link between security, development and human rights was the cornerstone of her country’s engagement in a multilateral system with the United Nations at its heart. It was also the reason for Luxembourg’s support of the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, and security-sector reform processes, as well as early recovery, socio-economic development and the rule of law. The country’s official development assistance (ODA) had exceeded 1 per cent since 2009, she pointed out, adding that its cooperation policy was strongly committed to the eradication of poverty and the realization of the Millennium Development Goals. Underscoring that the Security Council should not take on the responsibilities of other United Nations organs, she said it was vital nevertheless that it take the analyses of development actors into account. She concluded by saying climate change should be considered as a “threat multiplier”.
GERT ROSENTHAL (Guatemala), recalling his own country’s three-decade-long internal armed conflict, laid out three interlinked points in connection with the maintenance of international peace and security. First, poverty and injustice per se did not necessarily lead to violence and conflict, otherwise conflict would have erupted much earlier in Guatemala, since both those elements had been the rule, rather than the exception, over decades and even centuries. What had been present during much of that period was a history of poverty and exclusion that had generated high levels of frustration and resentment. When intersecting with other factors, it had had at least the potential to explode. The second point was that the same arguments could be made, at least in Guatemala’s case, for promoting the rule of law and strengthening democratic institutions. Finally, he said it was quite clear that one of the pillars of the United Nations — maintaining peace in countries emerging from conflict — could only be assured if solid foundations were laid for sustainable peace and development.
MAGED ABDELFATTAH ABDELAZIZ (Egypt), speaking on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement, said that while he welcomed the debate as a contribution to understanding the linkages between development and security, it was important to stress that “the issue went far beyond the core competencies of the Security Council”. All Member States must respect the distinctions between the bodies, he stressed. That being said, a comprehensive approach must be put in place, in close coordination with the Organization’s principal organs, the rest of the United Nations system, international financial institutions, regional organizations, national authorities and civil society, in order to combine and make use of the expertise of the relevant actors within their areas of competence and in accordance with their mandates. The lag in reaching the Millennium Development Goals was a particular concern to the Non-Aligned Movement’s member countries in that context.
To increase the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations, it was important to reach consensus among Member States, provide operations with all the resources they needed and to pay more attention to exit strategies, he stressed. In addition, peacebuilding activities should be conducted through intense consultations among the principal United Nations organs, with a view to strengthening national capacities, within a nationally owned framework, so they could rise to their responsibilities. The General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council must give due consideration to the overlap between peacebuilding and the launch of a sustainable development framework, he said, adding that the Peacebuilding Commission should also share its views and expertise widely in those efforts.
BYRGANYM AITIMOVA (Kazakhstan) said the central challenge before the international community was to fashion a broader understanding of security — with its attendant responsibilities, strategies, institutions and systems — that would not only establish stability and the rule of law, but also foster social and economic development. In that regard, the principles of freedom from want, freedom from fear and freedom to live in dignity were fundamental to guiding preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, peacekeeping, humanitarian action, peacebuilding, post-conflict recovery and development. It was therefore obvious that the Security Council needed to pay attention to the resolutions of the General Assembly and its Main Committees on relevant security matters. She urged the Council to take particular note that among the key contributors to peace and prosperity were strong leadership, popular legitimacy and policies that integrated security, justice and opportunities for economic advancement.
ROBERTO RODRÍGUEZ ARNILLAS (Peru) said his delegation had long argued in favour of promoting the links between security and development. Indeed, if the goal was maintaining international peace and security, then the Security Council must consider such issues as long-term socio-economic development. It was necessary to avoid a piecemeal approach and to implement initiatives that would bolster institutional capacity-building, preventive diplomacy and national ownership. The Council must give the links between security and development due consideration when elaborating peacekeeping mandates, he said. As such, the United Nations organs dealing with socio-economic issues, as well as the Peacebuilding Commission, must be allowed to contribute to such an exercise.
PETER THOMSON (Fiji), speaking on behalf of the Pacific Small Island Developing States, said that accelerated sustainable economic development activities, such as targeted job-creation initiatives, infrastructure enhancement and environmental protection, were among the most critical ways by which to guarantee long-term peace, particularly for conflict-affected countries in the Pacific region. More generally, development provided countries with increased resilience and greater capacity to cope with political, economic or environmental shocks.
Small Pacific islands, with their unique vulnerabilities as well as their specialized economies and lack of technical capacity, were heavily impacted by unsustainable practices such as overfishing and rampant pollution, which undermined food security and wrecked the region’s fragile ecosystems. The Pacific Island Developing States looked forward to discussing such issues at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, to be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2012, he said. Climate change also posed a great risk to Pacific small islands, not only because it caused food shortages and depleted freshwater sources, but because it forced Governments in the region to expend an ever increasing share of their meagre resources on adapting to its negative effects. More should be done to help affected countries build and sustain resilience to the impacts of climate change while simultaneously working for the rapid reduction of global carbon dioxide emissions, he said.
PAUL SEGER (Switzerland), noting that lasting peace and development could not be achieved without human rights and justice, said the Council would function more efficiently if it benefited from a more comprehensive analysis of the situations it monitored, notably of the root causes of conflict. Strategic cooperation between the United Nations and the World Bank was essential and should feature more intense, systematized exchanges with development players, as well as those involved in peacebuilding, he said. Pointing out that the Council played a crucial role in formulating mandates for peace operations and deploying resources for countries in crisis, he said it was essential that its mandates, and allocated resources, strengthen those of development players. A different approach to peace operations was required in order to ensure that they helped to strengthen national capacities, he emphasized.
MOHAMMED LOULICHKI (Morocco) emphasized the importance of strategies for moving from peacekeeping to peacebuilding in such a way as to consolidate stability. It was vital that United Nations efforts, in both peacekeeping and peacebuilding, mesh well through the coordination of all actors and structures, national and international. International economic assistance must be based on economically and socio-culturally viable projects, he stressed, pointing out that Morocco’s support for the consolidation of peace in Africa targeted many sectors critical to human development, such as education, food, clean water and electrification. It was imperative that the international community reinforce State capacities in poverty reduction, economic recovery and delivery of basic services. Other priorities for stability included addressing youth unemployment and empowering women to become effective actors for peace in post-conflict societies, he said.
PEDRO SERRANO, Acting Head of the Delegation of the European Union, said that in the short run, security was a precondition for development, especially since experience had shown that in most cases, conflict flared up again five years after the signing of a peace agreement. If that happened, development gains were virtually wiped out, he said, adding: “You can’t rebuild your house while it’s on fire.” With that in mind, the European Union maintained its support for the Peacebuilding Commission, which could provide relevant guidance to the Council towards, among others, identifying ways to tie the activities of peacekeeping missions into wider peacebuilding efforts on the ground.
He went on to point out that in the long run, development was a precondition for security, noting that many of the poorest countries were also the most fragile. The international community must therefore work towards sustainable development and food security, while tackling the root causes of conflict, he emphasized, adding that the European Union was undertaking many initiatives to that end and had placed poverty eradication at the heart of the Lisbon Treaty. More than 50 per cent of the money spent on helping developing countries came from the regional bloc and the Millennium Development Goals were a beacon of its aid policy, he said, adding that national ownership was another. Of course, national actors could only take charge if they had the capacity to do so, and that was why the European Union had set out to help the Peacebuilding Support Office put together a database that could help national entities better manage information, he said.
OCTAVIO ERRÁZURIZ (Chile) said that throughout the history of the United Nations, experience had shown that lack of development was at the root of many of the situations that wound up on the Security Council’s agenda. As such, the Council must duly consider the socio-economic conditions in a specific country when deciding peacekeeping activities. Indeed, the Council could not set aside such issues as employment generation and social advancement when carrying out its work, he said, stressing that it must enhance partnership, coordination and dialogue with the Peacebuilding Commission to that end. He went on to note that the African continent presented many cases where the links between peace, security and development were clearly evident. The situation in Haiti also called for continued vigilance in that regard.
CHARLES THEMBANI NTWAAGAE (Botswana) said his delegation was pleased to note that an increasing number of Member States were shifting their foreign policy principles and objectives with a view to strengthening their contributions to development assistance. The gradual demilitarization of foreign policy doctrines among a good number of nations had yielded positive results for both security and development, including by contributing to the establishment of strong governance and the rule of law, and to the promotion and protection of human rights. At the same time, he warned that all the international community’s bold efforts in areas such as conflict management would be in vain unless similar bold steps were taken to eradicate poverty and hunger. More emphasis should therefore be devoted to ensuring that the benefits of globalization — including liberalized markets, new technologies and other innovations — were used to promote partnerships that could secure a better future for all humankind.
COLLIN BECK (Solomon Islands) said that while the international financial crisis had eased somewhat, the global economic situation remained fragile. In countries operating on the fringes of the international system, fallout from the financial downturn and other crises had been brutal. Such States, especially some small islands and least developed countries, would need to be put on a “special watch list” and assisted with a dedicated development strategy. They also faced threats from climate change, he said, requesting that the Council remain seized of such issues. The upcoming Fourth United Nations Conference on Least Developed Countries must deliver, he emphasized. “We must break with business as usual; three multi-year programmes over the past three decades have not yielded the positive results we have been seeking,” he said, adding that the next action plan must lead to the graduation of at least half of the United Nations-identified least developed countries in the coming decade.
OMBENI SEFUE (United Republic of Tanzania) said the time had come for the interdependence of security and development to be on the Council’s regular agenda since a disproportionate amount of its time and a huge United Nations budget was devoted to peace and security in Africa, the foundation of which must be development, good governance, participation and opportunity, both political and economic. He added that “deprivation, destitution and desperation, especially among youth”, were major threats to peace, stressing that providing young people with hope was the best way to prevent relapse into conflict. People need to have a stake in peace, he said. The Council needed to develop a strategy to embed development in the peace and security architecture, not by overstepping its mandate, but by enabling the development work done by others. In that light, peacekeeping must create space for sustainable development and be part of the continuum of interventions needed to guarantee peace and security, he said.
GAREN NAZARIAN (Armenia), observing that security and development were broad concepts encompassing a number of elements, said the range of factors influencing the interplay between them was vast. As such, context was important and narrowing the focus was therefore critical to enabling the international community to come up with effective and practical policies and solutions. The experience of international organizations dealing with conflict situations demonstrated that lasting and sustainable peace required a comprehensive approach to security as well as a package of solutions that took into account both the root causes of the conflict and the economic situation on the ground. The experience of the South Caucasus showed that the rejection of regional economic cooperation and the imposition of closed borders and blockades did not bring about political solutions, he stressed. On the contrary, they alienated the region’s peoples and ruined their trust in and hope for a lasting peace. In that respect, Armenia stood behind its responsibility to support the Council as the centre-stage of dialogue and collective action to address the multiple challenges of security and development.
JORGE ARGÜELLO (Argentina) said the idea of “sensitive interdependence” between security and development was not new, and it was therefore evident that the goal was not for the Security Council to take over the responsibility of United Nations bodies dealing with development. Instead, the key was to consider ways in which the Council could contemplate the issue of development when making decisions relating to international peace and security, in order to make those decisions more effective, he explained. To that end, it was necessary to improve the Council’s working methods and its relationship with the General Assembly.
He said the integrated planning of peacekeeping missions could reduce the time during which troops were on the ground and mitigate the risk of recurring conflict due to factors related to the lack of development. In that light, Argentina and Peru were implementing a joint project to establish a combined military engineering company for deployment with the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) with the aim of broadening the Haitian people’s access to clean water and implementing road projects, he said. Peacebuilding was a “mediator between the maintenance of peace and sustainable development in the aftermath of a conflict”, he said, adding that sustainable peacebuilding therefore required an integrated approach that strengthened coherence among political, security, development, human rights and rule-of-law activities.
FEDERICO ALBERTO CUELLO CAMILO ( Dominican Republic) said development was clearly beyond the Security Council’s mandate, but equitable, sustainable development provided the foundation for sustainable peace, as did harmony with the natural environment, decent employment and an equitable political order. The situation of Haiti was a clear example showing that inequality of opportunity led to instability, which in turn led to the flight of investment and development resources. Deforestation and other forms of environmental degradation further exacerbated the problem and resulted in vulnerability to natural hazards. Sustainable development in that and many other cases could lead to sustainable peace, he said.
ABDOU SALAM DIALLO (Senegal), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said that in the face of the great complexity of conflict situations, there was a need for global and integrated responses that took lessons learned into account. Certainly, the experience gained in Africa proved that security and development were two mutually reinforcing objectives, as were instability and underdevelopment. Synergy of action and close relationships among the Security Council, the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council as well as the other United Nations organs, funds and programmes were therefore needed so that prevention, maintenance and consolidation activities could help produce lasting peace.
MACHARIA KAMAU ( Kenya) said that in his country, security was indeed the precursor of peace and development, but it did not necessarily follow that any price must be paid for it, because it could not on its own guarantee either peace or development. In fact, many African countries were still in the “natural process” of effecting national identities and extending rights to their populations, which had resulted in “highly sensitive and potentially explosive” national environments — a fact that Kenya felt was sometimes lost on the Security Council and other global bodies. That was particularly true when the apparent “rush to enforce security” overran the need for a considered and deep appreciation of the situational and historical conditions that characterized fractured societies and fledgling democracies of transitional economies. At times, reversals and disappointments were inherent in the nature of free democracies and the rush to suppress or contain them by external means or coercive force might instead lead to the abortion of the democratic process and a lapse into insecurity, he cautioned. Those involved in managing global peace and security should do so by focusing on the direction of progress, prosperity, peace and human development, rather than on the character of that progress, he said.
LIBRAN CABACTULAN (Philippines), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said security could not be achieved without sustained development — a fact the Council itself had recognized in a presidential statement resulting form the Secretary-General’s 1998 landmark report on the causes of conflict and the promotion of durable peace. The importance of a “soft power” approach to the collective prevention of violence could not be overemphasized. Pursuing development without security was almost impossible and, in some cases, a recipe for disaster, he said, citing an assertion supported by the World Bank Report before the Council today, which itself analysed transnational crime, among other factors, as a source of violence that gravely affected development. In Somalia, the breakdown of peace and the Government’s inability to foster development was an example of the impacts of transnational crime. The failure to address that country’s security and development needs would negatively affect East Africa and the world, he warned.
JARMO VIINANEN (Finland), speaking on behalf of the Nordic countries, said there was a need for an approach that placed people’s security ahead of institutions and mandates. Human rights was at the core of peace and security, he stressed. In strengthening the linkages between security and development, it was important to ensure that all actors integrated human rights into their efforts to consolidate peace and secure development. In addition, national ownership of all activities must be prioritized, and engaging women in such efforts was essential. Since optimum coordination among institutions was still lacking on the ground, consideration should be given to how the United Nations could work better with the tools at its disposal. The Nordic countries looked forward to the recommendations of the review of civilian capacities and to their swift implementation. Coordination among international entities could be improved, but coherence could only be achieved if donors practised what they preached and ensured that mandated tasks were adequately funded, he emphasized.
MICHEL KAFANDO (Burkina Faso) said today’s debate had revealed the importance of establishing a solid and lasting bridge between security and development. The complexity of conflicts and threats to peace compromised and, in some cases, totally undermined development, he said, stressing that the international community must place human security at the centre of its activities. The Council, for its part, must work with the Secretariat and other relevant organs to head off conflicts before they broke out. The international community must work to ensure youth employment, the protection and promotion of human rights and women’s empowerment. Burkina Faso welcomed the Council’s intention to begin considering peacebuilding initiatives in the earliest stages of crafting peacekeeping mandates, he said, urging it also to enhance its cooperation with the Peacebuilding Commission and the Bretton Woods institutions in order to help create conditions conducive to lasting peace and development in post-conflict and fragile countries.
JORGE VALERO BRICEÑO (Venezuela) cited specific passages from the concept paper before the Council (document S/2011/50), including that, “in some conflict and post-conflict situations, the Security Council may determine that certain socio-economic issues were themselves threats to international peace and security”. While Venezuela agreed that overcoming poverty, inequality and oppression were essential to achieving peace, it was nevertheless concerned about the possibility that the note’s language could lead “professional interventionists” to draw the conclusion that countries with poor, socially or politically excluded populations posed a threat to international peace and security that could be dealt with through outside intervention. He emphasized that such interpretations must be “firmly questioned” by all those who defended dignity, rich cultural and religious diversity, self-determination, sovereignty, territorial integrity and non-intervention, as set out in the Charter.
Security and development must remain separate spheres, he stressed, adding that the Organization’s development agenda rested with the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and relevant United Nations agencies. Noting that the Security Council had debated such issues as climate change, maritime transport and access to potable water in order to introduce a “discourse of fear and security”, he called on it to adhere to its mandate, as set out in the Charter. The Security Council must respect the will of Member States, and Venezuela regretted that it attempted to “securitize” every issue on the international agenda through a policy of “selective multilateralism”, he said. If the Council’s aim was to tackle the root causes of poverty by eliminating unequal power relations between developed and developing countries, it would have Venezuela’s full support, he said.
SAIFUL AZAM MARTINUS ABDULLAH (Malaysia) said security and development in the context of nation-building and the maintenance of international security were “two sides of the same coin”. Peacekeeping missions mandated by the Security Council, in tandem with development-related agencies of the United Nations system, should be equipped with development components. Additionally, no effort should be spared in enabling the Peacebuilding Commission — as “the bridge that links security and development” — to fulfil its mandated tasks, he said. Thus, the Security Council, the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council must work together in a coherent way to help the Peacebuilding Commission, not impede it.
The world today was witness to internal strife often caused by the rising prices of food, poverty and high rates of unemployment among youth, he said, pointing out that the developing world again faced the brunt of the burden. The Security Council could play a role through its “horizon-scanning” consultations. In tandem with other relevant organs and agencies of the United Nations system, it could examine and analyse prevailing scenarios and come up with suggestions as to how affected Member States could tackle the sources of their instability. In that vein, recent events in the Middle East showed that sudden increases in food prices, combined with widespread unemployment, could destabilize nations, he said.
JOSÉ LUIS CANCELA (Uruguay) said the prioritization of security over development had hampered efforts to maintain lasting peace. Citing Uruguay’s experience in the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) and the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), he noted that that development, particularly strengthening governance and the rule of law, as well as generating employment, were crucial if peacekeeping operations were to prevent a relapse into conflict. Developing countries had great potential to assist each other in such areas, particularly through South-South cooperation and so-called triangular cooperation, he noted.
ESHAGH AL HABIB (Iran) described security and development as two sides of the same coin and inextricably interlinked. For that reason, it was disappointing that development had yet to become the top priority of the United Nations. Many promises consisted of mere hot air, while 1 billion people lived in hunger and poverty, he said, noting that, as a consequence, the world was not safer. Unfortunately, the Security Council had failed to address extreme poverty, exclusion and marginalization, foreign interventions and occupation because of some powerful members, he said. Their influence had caused Council decisions to contribute to the prolongation of conflicts, if not exacerbating them. The imposition of sanctions in the interest of those members had always hindered the economic opportunities of ordinary people in the affected countries and put development in peril, he said, emphasizing that a new and constructive approach depended on reform of the Council in order to ensure a counter-balance to the rights and responsibilities of its permanent members.
SHALVA TSISKARASHVILI (Georgia), associating himself with the European Union, shared the view that security and development, along with human rights, were inseparable and mutually reinforcing. Georgia was a vivid example of the harmful effects of instability on all aspects of national development, he said. Lack of security, a general atmosphere of chaos and lawlessness, ethnic-based and other gross human rights violations, as well as organized crime in occupied territories had done much harm in the socio-economic sphere. Georgia had not, however, used those dire conditions as an excuse for not moving forward, he stressed. It had undertaken unilateral obligations not to use force and had thus facilitated the establishment of security in the occupied territories, as well as an action plan on engagement through cooperation with them. Obviously, those efforts should advance in concert with the international community’s strong engagement, he added.
CARLOS ENRIQUE GARCÍA GONZÁLEZ (El Salvador) said that his country, which had undergone a peacebuilding process with the assistance of the international community, considered today’s debate highly important, especially because it considered poverty and other social ills often to be at the root of conflict. El Salvador agreed on the need to adopt a broad and comprehensive approach to peace and security, and to identify ways to enhance cooperation among the Council, the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council, he said, adding that his delegation appreciated efforts to include the Peacebuilding Commission and its country-specific configurations in the Council’s work.
MARÍA RUBIALES DE CHAMORRO (Nicaragua) urged all delegations to consider the tasks, characteristics and responsibilities of every United Nations body so as to ensure their compliance with the Charter. As such, issues related to development rested with the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council, while matters of peace and security were for the Security Council to consider. Links between the two were “not a given”, she said, adding that they remained a matter for discussion among Member States. At the same time, all Member States must work to strengthen the Peacebuilding Commission in order to ensure that it carried out its mandate fully and enhanced its cooperation with other United Nations bodies. She went on to say that Nicaragua’s Government had guaranteed security and safety against transnational organized crime throughout its territory. It was also undertaking initiatives to rehabilitate its waterways in the service of its people. Development programmes, not military weapons, “must be the first weapons” used when seeking peace and security, she declared.
DAFFA-ALLA ELHAG ALI OSMAN (Sudan) said security hinged on the standardized fulfilment of several key factors, including development to meet basic human needs. The relationship between security and development had been receiving increasing amounts of attention in recent decades, particularly because the experience of United Nations peacekeeping missions showed that purely military initiatives would not address the complex challenges of the day. He went on to note that climate change was having a serious impact on the livelihoods of many people and had led to tensions and conflict between Bedouins and farmers, among others, thus affecting sustainable development.
That had been the case in Darfur, he continued. The Government had adopted a comprehensive strategy to address the situation there, targeting social as well as security concerns. Recalling that the civil war which had ended with the 2005 signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement had devastated the economy and halted growth, he said that experience had proved the importance of tackling the root causes of conflict in an effort to ensure durable and lasting peace. He called on the Security Council not to focus solely on the symptoms of conflict, which would be “a waste of time”. It could better use its time and energy by coordinating with other United Nations bodies to consider the situation of development in conflict-affected and beleaguered countries, he said.
SHIN BOONAM ( Republic of Korea) said that finding ways to address the interdependence between security and development should be faithfully pursued in a more comprehensive and synergistic manner. Underdevelopment must continue to be engaged by a variety of stakeholders, including the Security Council, the General Assembly, UNDP, international financial institutions and civil society. A particularly relevant focus was employment opportunities for youth, he said. The Republic of Korea looked forward to concrete follow-up to the Seoul Consensus for Shared Growth, an outcome of the recent G-20 Summit, he said. Recalling that his country had been able to build stability, democracy and a vibrant market-based economy within one generation after its devastating war, he pledged in light of that experience to work with other nations to turn the ideas proposed today into concrete actions.
ALICE AGHENEBIT MUNGWA, Office of the Permanent Observer of the African Union, said the Council was well aware that several countries in Africa had been theatres of conflict linked to such factors as illegal exploitation of resources, poverty, lack of economic empowerment opportunities and unconstitutional changes of Government, often backed by criminal networks. Such experiences clearly indicated the importance of the nexus between security and development. Yet, “a new dawn and vision” had emerged in Africa, following the continent’s intense efforts to assume its share of responsibility for its own security and development. That vision was set out in the Constitutive Act and other African Union mechanisms, which clearly asserted the interdependence between security and development, she said.
Indeed, right from its launch, the African Union had explicitly recognized that the persistence of conflict would undermine its broad agenda of democracy and development, she said, adding that it had therefore adopted a proactive approach to resolving conflicts. Though much remained to be done, the African Union, with the international community’s support, had made significant progress in the ardent pursuit of its vision of security and development, through integrated programmes and projects, she said, citing the African Union Peace and Security Council, the Panel of the Wise and the African Standby Force. The Continental Early Warning System had been designed to ensure the detection of development trends that could undermine security — or trigger insecurity — so they could be addressed in a timely manner, she said, highlighting also the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) as a key tool for promoting sustainable development.
PALITHA KOHONA (Sri Lanka) said development had been a key element in countering the security threat posed to his country by the terrorist group known as the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). Accordingly, significant attention had been given to a complex range of economic development initiatives, including support for health facilities and schools in areas then dominated by the group, despite the consistent threat of children being recruited as combatants. After the end of the conflict, thousands of miles of paved roads linking villages to towns had been constructed, the national electricity grid extended and foreign direct investors encouraged to locate their businesses away from the capital. Special attention was being paid to the revival of agriculture, fisheries and tourism in the affected areas, he said, adding that since those efforts were key to addressing the root causes of violence, the multilateral system must enhance coordination, cooperation and effective action in those areas.
TOFIG MUSAYEV (Azerbaijan), acknowledging the interdependence between security and development, said his country was determined to contribute to the realization of development goals agreed within the United Nations, in addition to fostering global cooperation in all spheres, with particular attention to the special needs and vulnerabilities of those suffering protracted conflicts and recovering from disasters. For those reasons, he said, despite the devastating consequences of military aggression, Azerbaijan was implementing a number of important regional development and infrastructure projects which aimed to lay the foundation for long-term peace, stability and prosperity. Since conflict was the major aggravating factor in the South Caucasus, Azerbaijan had also worked for political solutions and remained ready to assist with infrastructure-rebuilding and attracting local investment in all possible ways.
Taking the floor a second time, the representative of the Russian Federation said many interesting statements had been made during the debate, including a statement by the representative of Georgia. Stressing that he was forced to provide legal clarity about that statement, he said there had been talk about “occupied territories” in reference to Abkhazia and South Ossetia. There could be no talk of any occupation, he affirmed, explaining that his country, recognizing the sovereignty of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, had undertaken a series of mutual agreements, including security arrangements with the authorities. There was no occupying regime there.
He went on to state that while the representative of Georgia had referred to that country’s obligation not to use force against Abkhazia and South Ossetia, what was most important was a letter on the matter from their authorities, addressed to Secretary-General. He said he hoped all Council members had had the opportunity to read it. Furthermore, the Russian Federation doubted the intentions of President Mikheil Saakashvili of Georgia following his recent statements on the matter, he said, adding that his country would work in the interest of the people who, because of Georgia’s actions, were suffering in terms of development.
In response, the representative of Georgia said the Russian Federation had attempted to downplay President Saakashvili’s pledge of non-use of force, made in November 2010. The pledge not to use force against “Russian occupying forces” and “puppet authorities” in Abkhazia and South Ossetia remained a legal obligation, no matter how Russia tried to downplay it, he said, adding that the Russian Federation needed to live up to its obligations. Indeed, in light of its continuing to amass forces in the region, pursuing its aggressive stance against Georgia and refusing all offers of dialogue, Georgia could hardly change its stance that the Russian Federation was “a hostile State”.
The facts were that Russia continued to occupy 20 per cent of Georgian territory and had committed ethnic cleansing in August 2008, he continued. Furthermore, the Russian Federation’s decision to recognize the so-called independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia had been considered a serious breach of international law by an international fact-finding mission. Russia’s illegal presence made it an occupying Power and all responsibility in the matter rested with that country, he said.
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