Security Council Debates Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, Including Women’s Role in Process, Encouraging Early, Predictable Funding, Greater Impact on Ground
Security Council Debates Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, Including Women’s Role in Process, Encouraging Early, Predictable Funding, Greater Impact on Ground
|Department of Public Information • News and Media Division • New York|
9396th Meeting (AM)
Security Council Debates Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, Including Women’s Role
in Process, Encouraging Early, Predictable Funding, Greater Impact on Ground
Secretary-General Says Peacebuilding Has Improved, but for People
Who Have Suffered Through Conflict, ‘Progress Can’t Come Fast Enough’
The Security Council today encouraged a more coordinated, coherent and integrated approach to peacebuilding, including stronger partnerships among the Peacebuilding Commission, regional organizations, the World Bank, civil society and other partners with a focus on greater impact on the ground.
Through a statement read out by Ruhakana Rugunda of Uganda, Council President for October, following a debate on the issue opened by Secretary-General Ban Ki‑moon, the Council called for all relevant actors to intensify work in translating the Secretary-General’s latest report on progress in peacebuilding (see background) into improved effectiveness of all peacebuilding efforts.
In that light, the Council, in its statement, reiterated its request to the Secretary-General to move forward with efforts to further clarify roles and responsibilities, in core peacebuilding areas, to strengthen capacities and ensure greater accountability in the delivery of assistance. It also reiterated the importance of national ownership and early and predictable funding for those efforts.
Taking note of the Secretary-General’s report on Women’s participation in Peacebuilding (see background), the Council looked forward to its consideration by all parts of the United Nations system, including the new Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, known as UN Women.
In his statement, Secretary-General Ban said that, in recent years, peacebuilding efforts had become more integrated, coherent and flexible, but still needed to show more significant results, more quickly, on the ground.
“We are making progress — in Burundi, Haiti, Nepal, Sierra Leone and elsewhere,” he said as he opened the debate on post-conflict peacebuilding. “But let us remember that for people who have suffered through conflict, progress can’t come fast enough.”
He said that United Nations leaders were now deployed quickly to crisis situations, but those personnel needed to be supported by properly trained and equipped teams that would enable them to perform the full range of their responsibilities from the very beginning. He noted that in-depth consideration of how to do that was now under way.
Introducing his new report on women’s participation in peacebuilding, he said that overcoming the hurdles to women’s greater engagement would not happen without integrating that effort into all activities and providing dedicated funding for women’s needs.
Overall, a pragmatic approach was needed, he said. “There is no set sequence of peacemaking followed by peacekeeping followed by peacebuilding, but rather a need for us to be flexible and to bring our tools into play at the appropriate moments,” he said.
Peter Wittig of Germany, Chairperson of the Peacebuilding Commission, reviewed the Commission’s reactions to the Secretary-General’s reports and emphasized the need for flexible financial instruments, particularly the strengthening of the Immediate Response Facility of the Peacebuilding Fund. “We cannot overemphasize the need for coordinated and more predictable financial support for peacebuilding,” he said.
He also underscored the importance of a more gender-responsive peacebuilding agenda, in which women were recognized both as victims of conflict and agents for change. For that and other purposes, a comprehensive and integrated agenda should be supported by closer cooperation between the Security Council and the Commission, he said.
Following those presentations, Council members and representatives of other interested Member States welcomed continuing efforts to improve post-conflict peacebuilding. Most speakers emphasized the primacy of national ownership and the building of national capacity in order for States to take responsibility of their sustainable emergence from conflict, and the need for a holistic, complementary and integrated relationship between peacekeeping, peacebuilding and development.
Speakers also stressed the need for closer coordination among all relevant actors and the Peacebuilding Commission, including with the international financial institutions and the Security Council, as well as coordination among all those actors, regional institutions, all United Nations entities, civil society and other stakeholders.
Most speakers welcomed proposals to create teams of civilian expertise, with some representatives calling for specific efforts to ensure that both local expertise and experts from developing countries be utilized, and many representatives called for a renewed focus on effective security sector reform and the building of rule of law capabilities.
On the relationship between the Peacebuilding Commission and the Security Council, Ireland’s representative noted that the co-facilitators of the peacebuilding review process underlined the dual requirement of “making space and earning space”, but they nevertheless were concerned about what they perceived had been limited interaction and missed opportunities. Like many speakers, she endorsed the Secretary-General’s seven-point action plan for women and peacebuilding, saying that each of the commitments was individually important and that their collective impact promised to be truly significant.
While agreeing with the importance of women’s engagement in peacebuilding, the representative of the Russian Federation, however, said that the proposals of the Secretary-General should not be rushed into implementation, as those involved significant structural changes. Similarly, the representative of Bangladesh, speaking on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement, said that the plan, before being acted upon, must be reviewed and evaluated in an open manner in the General Assembly, Economic and Social Council, Peacebuilding Commission and UN Women.
Also speaking today were the Acting Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lebanon and the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Portugal.
Statements were also made by representatives of the United Kingdom, Austria, United States, France, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Turkey, Japan, Brazil, China, Nigeria, Mexico, Gabon, Uganda, Peru, Canada, Morocco, Czech Republic, South Africa, Pakistan, Egypt, Australia, Finland (on behalf of the Nordic countries), Nepal, Chile, Thailand and Croatia.
A representative of the delegation of the European Union also made a statement.
The meeting was opened at 10:17 a.m., suspended at 10:34 a.m., reconvened at 11:10 a.m. and adjourned at 3 p.m.
The full text of the presidential statement contained in document S/PRST/2010/20 reads as follows:
“The Security Council recalls the statements of its President on post-conflict peacebuilding, in particular PRST/2009/23 and PRST/2010/7, and reaffirms the critical importance of peacebuilding as the foundation for sustainable peace and development in the aftermath of conflict.
“The Security Council welcomes the Secretary-General’s report (S/2010/386) on progress being made towards implementing the agenda for action to improve the United Nations peacebuilding efforts set out in his report (S/2009/304) as an important contribution towards a more effective and coherent international response to peacebuilding, and urges the Secretary-General and all relevant actors to intensify work in translating this into improved effectiveness of operations on the ground.
“The Security Council reiterates the importance of national ownership of peacebuilding efforts and priorities. The Council stresses the need for mainstreaming support to national capacity development in all United Nations peacebuilding activities as a system-wide priority, and looks forward to the recommendations of the review of civilian capacity in early 2011.
“The Security Council emphasizes the need for early and predictable support in priority areas of peacebuilding, including reform of the security sector; restoration of the rule of law; respect for human rights; ending impunity; combating illicit arms trade, drug trafficking and transnational organized crime; voluntary return of refugees and internally displaced persons; supporting peace processes; provision of basic services; restoration of core Government functions; management of natural resources; tackling youth unemployment; and revitalization of the economy. The Council underscores the vital role of the United Nations in supporting national authorities to develop an early strategy, in close consultation with international partners, to address such priorities, as appropriate.
“The Security Council reiterates its request to the Secretary-General to move forward with efforts to further clarify roles and responsibilities, within the United Nations system, in core peacebuilding areas, strengthen capacities and ensure greater accountability in the delivery of assistance.
“The Security Council welcomes and encourages more coordinated, coherent and integrated peacebuilding efforts, which includes forging stronger partnerships amongst Member States, regional and subregional organizations, the World Bank and other international financial institutions, other multilateral partners, civil society and the private sector, with a focus on delivering greater impact and results on the ground.
“The Security Council reaffirms the critical importance of timely, flexible and predictable funding for peacebuilding, and urges Member States and other partners to increase efforts towards achieving this goal, including through the replenishment of the Peacebuilding Fund and through multidonor trust funds.
“The Security Council stresses the importance of women’s equal participation and full involvement in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security, including peacebuilding. The Council reiterates the importance of addressing women’s peacebuilding needs and their involvement in the development and implementation of post-conflict strategies. The Security Council, in this regard, underlines the importance of enhancing the mobilization of resources for initiatives that address women’s peacebuilding needs, advance gender equality and empower women in peacebuilding contexts, and encourages Member States and other partners to render their support.
“The Security Council takes note of, with appreciation, the report of the Secretary-General on women’s participation in peacebuilding (S/2010/466) and looks forward to its consideration, including with participation of relevant parts of the United Nations system, including the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women (UN Women).
“The Security Council welcomes the important role of the Peacebuilding Commission in promoting and supporting an integrated and coherent approach to peacebuilding, including women’s participation. The Council reiterates its support for the work of the Commission, and expresses its willingness to make greater use of the Peacebuilding Commission’s advisory role.
“The Security Council requests the Secretary-General to brief the Security Council and the General Assembly by 13 October 2011 and submit a report no later than 13 October 2012 on further progress made in implementing his agenda for action, giving particular emphasis on the impact this has made on the ground, including progress towards increasing the participation of women in peacebuilding, taking into consideration the views of the Peacebuilding Commission.”
When the Security Council met today to consider post-conflict peacebuilding, it had before it the progress report of the Secretary-General on peacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict (document A/64/866-S/2010/386) as well as the report of the Secretary-General on women’s participation in peacebuilding (document A/65/354-S/2010/466).
The progress report on peacebuilding follows on the Secretary-General’s first report on the issue (document A/63/881-S/2009/304) and states that challenges in peacebuilding had not diminished since then. Although peacebuilding is primarily a national responsibility, the international community has a critical role to play in supporting the national agenda. The response must be collective, with the four pillars of the United Nations — peace and security, human rights, development and humanitarian — fully engaged.
The ambitious agenda in the last report called for stronger leadership, more effective strategies and planning, strengthening coordination within the United Nations system, predictable deployment of civilian capacities, more productive United Nations-World Bank engagement, furthering national ownership, strengthening national capacity development and improving peacebuilding financing. Progress had been made in leadership, civilian capacity, financing and increasing system-wide coherence.
Strategic and management changes at Headquarters would take longer than one year to translate into real impact on the ground, however. In some areas, such as predictability of response and national capacity development, much greater efforts were required from international partners, including international financial institutions, regional organization and civil society, the Secretary-General states in his report.
The Secretary-General observes that efforts undertaken still fall short of an effective and predictable response, including in areas fundamental to sustainable peacebuilding, like close collaboration with the World Bank, predictable and norms-based delivery in core areas such as rule of law and security sector reform, and supporting national capacity development through significantly improved operational approaches. Apart from partnerships with Member States, regional organizations, civil society, the private sector and multilateral partners, in particular the world Bank, partnerships with national actors are also needed to further authentic national ownership of peacebuilding, without which sustainability is unlikely to be achieved.
Noting that the global economic downturn has put pressure on donor resources and increased the economic challenges facing post-conflict countries, the Secretary-General stresses the need for timely, coherent and sustainable funding for peacebuilding. Access to such funding must be quick and the funding should be available for as long as it takes to consolidate peace, even when this is a long and difficult process. He, therefore, urges Member States to make the necessary commitments to achieve this, including through the replenishment of the Peacebuilding Fund starting in 2011.
The Secretary-General further underlines that the various elements of his agenda for action are interdependent. “If we fail to implement change in one area, progress in others will suffer. Equally, success in one area will bolster the chance of reaching our goals across the board,” he writes, and urges Member States to adopt consistent positions on peacebuilding issues across the various peacebuilding forums.
“For example, anything less than full support for my proposals for human resources reform will undercut the ability of the United Nations to deploy our staff to post-conflict and crisis situations with the necessary speed and flexibility. Likewise, if Member States do not send a clear, consistent message about clarity of roles and responsibilities — whether in the World Bank Governing Board, United Nations subsidiary bodies or elsewhere — then our goals become unclear and our direction weaker. The United Nations is strongest when its membership is united,” the Secretary-General writes in conclusion.
The report on women’s participation in peacebuilding contains a seven-point action plan for gender-responsive peacebuilding.
The “action plan for gender-responsive peacebuilding” focuses on measures the United Nations system will take, even though the Secretary-General urges coordinated action by Member States, regional organizations, international financial institutions, civil society organizations and, most importantly, the Governments and peoples of countries emerging from conflict. The plan contains seven commitments on: conflict resolution; gender-responsive post-conflict planning processes; financing for gender equality and women’s empowerment; deployable gender-responsive civilian expertise; increasing the proportion of women decision makers in post-conflict governance institutions; support for the rule of law; and women’s contribution to economic recovery.
As progress in promoting women’s greater engagement in peace processes — a central feature of Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) — has been too slow, the Secretary-General has asked relevant United Nations entities to take more systemic action to ensure women’s participation in, and the availability of gender expertise to, peace processes, through four main actions: appointing more women as chief mediators in United Nations-led peace processes; inclusion of gender expertise at senior levels in mediation support activities; investing in strategies for the inclusion of more women in negotiations between parties to conflict; and development of mechanisms to ensure that mediation teams and negotiating parties engage in consultation with women’s civil society organizations.
In order to better include women’s priorities and support for gender equality in post-conflict peace processes, the Secretary-General’s commits the United Nations system to more systematically institutionalize women’s participation in, and applying gender analysis to, all post-conflict planning processes. That would require improved methods for sex-disaggregated tracking of resource allocations, beneficiaries and impacts within results frameworks and budgets. Better accountability mechanisms are also needed to ensure that new approaches are systematically applied and yield improvements in terms of the inclusiveness and quality of planning.
Regarding financing of gender equality and women’s empowerment, the report notes that several United Nations entities has experimented with a “gender marker” to assist in tracking the proportion of funds devoted to advancing gender equality. Results have been sobering. In 394 project budgets in six post-conflict countries, just 5.7 per cent of total resources were allocated to activities directly relating to advancing gender equality. The Secretary-General, therefore, is committed to promoting a partnership between the United Nations and Member States to ensure that at least 15 per cent of United Nations-managed funds in support of peacebuilding are dedicated to projects whose principal objective is to address women’s specific needs, advance gender equality or empower women.
Regarding the plan’s commitment to deployable gender-responsive civilian expertise, the report notes that deploying more women, although essential, is just one method of ensuring a gender-responsive approach. It is equally important to identify the skills and expertise required to address gender inequalities and formulate strategies to address them in post-conflict environments. The Secretary-General, therefore, commits the United Nations system to ensuring that the capacity of deployed civilians include specialized skills so as to meet women’s urgent needs, and expertise in rebuilding State institutions to make them more accessible to women and girls, and less prone to gender-based discrimination.
The action plan’s fifth commitment to methods of increasing the proportion of women decision makers in post-conflict governance institutions is a key element in the Council’s agenda for promoting women’s engagement in peacebuilding, the report says. Neither States nor non-State parties could be permitted to impose restrictions on the free exercise of women’s rights to vote, join association, run for office or express their convictions. The Secretary-General, therefore, commits the United Nations to ensuring that technical assistance to conflict-resolution processes and countries emerging from conflict promotes women’s participation as decision-makers in public institutions, appointed and elected, including through the use of temporary special measures such as positive action, preferential treatment and quote-based systems.
As for the promotion of the rule of law, the Organization will prioritize women’s and girls’ security through the creation of a protective environment for women and by increasing the proportion of female police officers in peacekeeping operations to 20 per cent by 2014. Regular and immediate support must be provided with respect to access by women and girls to justice and law-enforcement institutions. The Secretary-General also calls on all actors to ensure the minimum standards of gender responsiveness are established for truth commissions, reparations programmes and related bodies in the design of transitional justice institutions.
As for the plan’s commitments concerning economic recovery, the report states that, not only can women’s economic activity contribute significantly to durable peace, but that greater participation in the workforce often provides women with the resources needed to enter the political sphere. For reasons of both efficiency and equity, therefore, the Secretary-General is committing the United Nations to ensuring women’s equal involvement as participants and beneficiaries in local development, employment creation, front-line service delivery and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes in post-conflict situations.
The Secretary-General concludes by saying that the United Nations system must ensure coherent action. The Peacebuilding Commission, whose founding resolutions include a mandate to address gender issues, has an important role to play, including through its country-specific configurations. Tracking progress made in fulfilling the plan’s seven commitments is crucial and monitoring and reporting on its implementation will be part of his overall agenda for action to improve peacebuilding efforts of the Organization.
Statement by Secretary-General
BAN KI-MOON, Secretary-General of the United Nations, said that success in peacebuilding required long-term commitments, the involvement of a wide range of actors working together and the constant determination to do better.
“We are making progress — in Burundi, Haiti, Nepal, Sierra Leone and elsewhere,” he said. “But let us remember that for people who have suffered through conflict, progress can’t come fast enough.”
He said that United Nations leaders were now deployed quickly to crisis situations, but those personnel needed to be supported by properly trained and equipped teams that would enable them to perform the full range of their responsibility from the very beginning.
A review of civilian capacities currently under way, he said, was anchored in the need to assure that assistance in the aftermath of conflict was driven by national priorities, better use was made of the capacities of the developing South and women — who, he said, should be at the heart of peacebuilding — and that responses became faster and more flexible.
He said he looked forward to recommendations of the Senior Advisory Group, led by Jean-Marie Guéhenno, former Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, early next year. Meanwhile, he encouraged all Member States to contribute to the outcome of the review.
For those purposes as well, reliable funding needed to be assured and deeper strategic partnerships needed to be built, particularly with such primary partners as the World Bank. Institutional arrangements should be frankly re-examined between the various United Nations actors, and closer cooperation between the Security Council and the Peacebuilding Commission had to be effected.
Introducing his new report on women’s participation in peacebuilding, he said that overcoming the hurdles to women’s greater engagement would not happen without integrating that effort into all activities and providing dedicated funding for women’s needs.
Overall, a pragmatic approach was needed, he said. “There is no set sequence of peacemaking followed by peacekeeping followed by peacebuilding, but rather a need for us to be flexible and to bring our tools into play at the appropriate moments.”
PETER WITTIG (Germany), Chairperson of the Peacebuilding Commission, said the Secretary-General’s report of last year was an important contribution to post-conflict peacebuilding, in which the need for the continued engagement by the Peacebuilding Commission was highlighted. While several recommendations addressed the internal United Nations system, the general sense was that the Peacebuilding Commission was the best platform for generating support for the peacebuilding agenda. Last week, the Commission had convened a meeting to consider the two reports.
Reporting on that meeting, he said the Commission had stressed the importance of strengthening national ownership and national capacity, which was the overarching principle of effective peacebuilding. Clarifying roles and responsibilities had progressed in the areas of mine action and mediation. Other key areas such as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, security sector reform and the rule of law had also been emphasized. More coherent and effective peacebuilding would benefit from clarity and from establishing accountability frameworks for action.
Another area where improvement was needed was the relationship between the United Nations and the World Bank, he said, and the Commission had explored means to strengthen that partnership. In that regard, he underlined the need for more progress in the field.
“We cannot overemphasize the need for coordinated and more predictable financial support for peacebuilding,” he said, including a need for flexible instruments and the strengthening of the Immediate Response Facility of the Peacebuilding Fund. He also underscored the importance of a more gender-responsive peacebuilding agenda, in which women were recognized both as victims of conflict and agents for change. The Peacebuilding Commission would continue to work with all relevant actors to ensure that its advice was gender-responsive and it would engage the newly established “UN Women”. He added that progress noted in the report had helped to highlight opportunities and challenges. A more responsive, comprehensive and integrated agenda should be supported by closer cooperation between the Council and the Commission.
PHILIP PARHAM (United Kingdom) said many of the issues in the recent reports presented to the Council were not new, which meant that reform of peacebuilding must go beyond discussion — rollout and implementation on the ground was needed. To do that, reform strategies must be finalized, lessons learned must be systematically fed into future efforts and persistent bottlenecks in peacebuilding must be addressed, particularly in restoring the rule of law and security, and building national institutions.
In those efforts, he said, reform of the security and justice sectors were primary. In addition, women must be integrally engaged in post-conflict peacebuilding for it to be effective. In that light, the recommendations of the Secretary-General in his report on women and peacebuilding, and the new entity, UN Women, should have crucial roles.
THOMAS MAYR-HARTING (Austria), associating his remarks with the statement of the European Union, looked forward to the implementation of the recommendations contained in the reports. Despite progress, the main challenges to peacebuilding remained. Intensified cooperation with all actors, including regional organizations, was crucial, as was national ownership of peacebuilding processes, for which efforts must draw on national capacity as much as possible, including the use of local civilian expertise.
Sustainable peace must be pursued as early as possible in any peacekeeping mission, including institutional reform, reintegration of former combatants and reconciliation mechanisms. It was also essential to engage women much more strongly in all stages of peacemaking, and reforms in that area must be ensured and effective. He underlined the need for the Council to make use of the Peacebuilding Commission’s advice as soon as possible in its work on conflict situations, in order to ensure a coherent and long-term approach.
SUSAN RICE ( United States) recalled that former Secretary-General Kofi Annan had spoken about the missing middle between peacebuilding and development, saying that the Peacebuilding Commission had been created to fill that gap by lining up many actors together. The Commission was indeed delivering on commitments. The addition of Liberia on its agenda demonstrated growing faith in the institution. Much of the Commission’s success would be judged in country-specific situations. The Commission was generating greater coherence between donors and encouraging dialogue. To truly serve as a leading actor on peacebuilding, however, the Commission must do more to link activities in New York and in the field, and to cooperate with a range of actors, including the Bretton Woods institutions, civil society and academia, to support coherence in the field.
She said that the success of efforts wad dependent on capabilities of its field personnel. Often, key civilian personnel were hard to find. Peacebuilding must also incorporate women throughout the whole process in order to prevent its failure. In that regard, she welcomed the Secretary-General’s seven-point agenda for action and recognized the need for adequate funding. An action plan meant little, however, until it was implemented. Each organ of the Organization should embrace the cross-cutting nature of peacekeeping and peacebuilding. The success of peacebuilding ultimately depended on leadership from the country emerging from conflict. With the right mandate, leadership and resources, the United Nations could contribute to the development of post-conflict societies.
GÉRARD ARAUD (France) said there was a broadly shared view regarding the need to improve actions to prevent a post-conflict country from slipping back into conflict. That was a complex and long-term process. Institutions with different practices had to be dovetailed, and different tasks such as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, and institution-building should be carried out simultaneously, as a sequential approach was not possible. There was also a need to undertake more effective risk assessment related to future threats such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, international organized crime and corruption. Referring to the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo as an example of the complexity of the task, he said that United Nations forces could only be withdrawn if there were sufficiently sound State institutions. It was essential that a responsible relationship be established between the authorities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the international actors.
He said a blanket solution to peacebuilding was not possible; every situation should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Bold recommendations had been made to meet the needs of post-conflict countries. Consolidating peace also meant paying pay due attention to the contribution women could make. He asked how one could conceive of sidelining half the population, and stressed that women must have access on an equal basis in decision-making processes. He invited the United Nations system and UN Women to implement the Secretary-General’s action plan.
IVAN BARBALIĆ (Bosnia and Herzegovina) said that the process of peacebuilding must be supported by international, national and regional actors at every level, with the role of each actor well defined. Building national capacity was crucial, in order to make peace self-sustaining. Priority must also be given to the restoration of State authority. Partnership with international financial institutions, civil society and other actors was also critical. In that light, the role of the Peacebuilding Commission was also very important.
He said that women’s engagement at all levels and stages of peacemaking was critical, and funds directed to that end were needed. He urged Member States and other partners to increase their support for the effort of women’s empowerment in peacebuilding, and encouraged close work with UN Women for that purpose. In all areas of peacebuilding, maintaining improved momentum and taking a long-term approach were critical. Finally, he offered to share his country’s experience of emerging from conflict in all relevant areas.
FAZLI ÇORMAN (Turkey), welcoming the appreciation of the interlinkages between peacemaking, peacekeeping and peacebuilding, said there were numerous short-term challenges in the immediate aftermath of conflicts. If addressed properly, those challenges could be turned into opportunities to sustain peace. Short-term peacebuilding efforts should be integrated into longer-term strategies. He welcomed steps taken towards providing improved guidance and support to field missions and he endorsed the initiative to deploy integrated and effective leadership teams. Emphasis should be put on nationally owned planning processes and national capacity-building, which would prevent a culture of dependency and provide credible transition and exit strategies.
He said that every country was unique, with different local conditions, needs, opportunities and limitations. Strategic planning of peacebuilding activities, therefore, should be sufficiently flexible. Support and contribution for a myriad of actors, including the international financial institutions, regional and subregional organizations, civil society and the private sector, was needed in peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts, and the United Nations should be able to support and make use of the capabilities of those organizations. He underlined the importance of mainstreaming women’s participation in peacebuilding efforts, as well as increasing opportunities for them to engage in decision-making and economic recovery.
TSUNEO NISHIDA (Japan), welcoming the observations in the Secretary-General’s reports as relevant, said he looked forward to further progress in filling the gaps in the transition process of peacekeeping to peacebuilding. He stressed the importance of national capacity-building and of more effort to integrate short-term actions into longer-term strategies. He also underlined the need for the United Nations system to clarify the division of roles for engaging in post-conflict peacebuilding and called on the Secretary-General to fill in gaps in areas such as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, and security sector reform. Better coordination systems should be established for United Nations support on the ground.
He said that the Peacebuilding Commission should further develop its functions, including through timely identification of peacebuilding priorities and facilitating support from the international community. He stressed the importance of strengthening the Commission’s relationship with the Security Council. The Council should thoroughly review the Secretary-General’s seven-point action plan for women’s participation in peacebuilding. The newly established UN Women should play an important role in the plan’s implementation. The United Nations activities in that regard should be coordinated effectively. Japan would contribute to the economic empowerment of women in post-conflict situations through the perspective of human security.
MARIA LUIZA RIBEIRO VIOTTI (Brazil) said that among the initiatives now under way, as outlined in the Secretary-General’s progress report on peacebuilding, two were particularly important: integrated planning, which was critical to ensure that a truly holistic approach to peacebuilding prevailed, and the establishment of unified teams of civilian experts to assist the heads of missions. Such units needed to be comprehensive in scope and had to include experts, not only in rule of law, human rights and security sector reform, but also in public administration and socio-economic development.
Agreeing with the Secretary-General’s emphasis on national capacity development, she said that several of the protracted crises facing the United Nations today, to a large extent, were fuelled, if not caused, by weak governance and lack of institutional capacity. She also concurred that support to capacity development had to be a system-wide priority. The ultimate goal of several parts of the United Nations system should be to “work themselves out of business”. She stressed the importance of Member States in that process, declaring: “We must — once and for all — move away from supply-driven cooperation and focus on finding the right way to support partners without stifling ownership.” In that regard, Brazil reiterated its support for ongoing efforts to establish pools of civilian capacity to be expeditiously deployed to the ground.
Continuing, she said that another key issue was the interaction of peacekeeping and peacebuilding, pointing out that in those cases where peacekeepers could be early peacebuilders, it was illogical not to use some of their existing capacities to start laying the ground for peacebuilding. That was especially true of civil affairs components of peacekeeping operations, in particular with respect to the consolidation of State authority. Similarly, job creation, which was key to stability, was also potentially relevant for the interaction between peacekeeping and peacebuilding. On women’s participation in peacebuilding, there were significant long-term social and economic benefits in steering social reform programmes towards women. Peacebuilding efforts were a key element to the strategy, both of the United Nations and individual Governments, and she urged them to move from a simplistic and fragmented approach to peace to a more complex and integrated way of consolidating peace.
WILLIAM HABIB, Acting Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lebanon, said that the continuing proliferation of conflict around the world showed the need to improve strategies to bring about lasting peace along with development. He backed the plan of action drawn up by the Secretary-General to bolster United Nations strategies, saying that a more rapid response should take priority. Systematic communications, exchange of experience and national ownership were critical, as well as the creation of rapid-response capabilities.
He encouraged bridges between short-term responses and the long-term perspectives, stressing that dialogue must be ongoing among all stakeholders. Local capacity must be utilized where possible. National ownership was critical and, therefore, local authorities must take full responsibility for all efforts, with the support of the international community. Finance must be provided in a timely manner. Unfortunately, several critical local projects had not been sufficiently financed, which impeded peacebuilding.
The roles of all actors must be clearly defined according to the expertise of each, he said, adding that women should be afforded a greater opportunity in peacemaking and peacebuilding. He hoped that reviews of the Peacebuilding Commission would lead to stronger coordination between it and the Security Council. “Building lasting peace after conflict is an arduous path to take, but it is one that is worth taking,” he said.
VITALY CHURKIN (Russian Federation) said a holistic approach was needed to peacebuilding, taking into account regional capabilities and using them to the maximum extent possible. National ownership and responsibility were central. Due to the many existing weaknesses in coordination and execution of peacebuilding activities, the United Nations coordinating role in key areas was crucial.
In addition, he said it was expected that United Nations peacekeepers should establish the basis for sustainable peace, since peacekeeping itself was a multifaceted project, but he stressed that transitions must be done within a coherent strategy. He further affirmed the importance of women’s full engagement in post-conflict peacebuilding, but stressed that excessive haste in implementing the Secretary-General’s proposals was unwarranted, as those involved significant structural changes.
WANG MIN (China) said the United Nations had scored remarkable achievements in the areas of peacebuilding. As the political will of the international community was a strong guarantee for helping post-conflict countries, it should demonstrate a firm resolve in peacebuilding actions. Peacebuilding and peacekeeping reinforced each other and should proceed in parallel and harmony. Full national ownership was a prerequisite for success. The international community should give priority to supporting national capacity-building, and donors should respect a country’s development priorities.
He said that peacebuilding should focus on ensuring security, providing basic support and revitalizing economic development, among other things. National reconciliation was also a prerequisite for peacebuilding. Addressing the issue of youth employment and reintegration of former combatants was of critical importance to preventing a relapse into conflict. Welcoming the five-year review of the Peacebuilding Commission, he said that body should profit from expertise from the African Union and other regional and subregional organizations, while the United Nations should deepen its cooperation with the World Bank. He called on the international community to continue to provide resources to peacebuilding efforts.
RAFF BUKUN-OLU WOLE ONEMOLA (Nigeria) said the Secretary-General’s report on peacebuilding marked a critical turning point in the United Nations strategy for peace and security, and dovetailed with proposals regarding women’s participation in peacebuilding. Women could make an invaluable contribution to the establishment of peace. The Secretary-General’ proposals regarding women addressed the needs and capabilities of women in the peacebuilding context. Peacebuilding efforts must include peace and security, human rights, development and the humanitarian pillar of the United Nations. Respect for the rule of law, combating illicit arms trade, drug trafficking and transnational organized crime and the restoration of core Government functions must also be incorporated. Missions should be funded from the pre-mandate stage on. There was also a need to enhance mobilization of resources for initiatives to mainstream women’s participation.
He said that national ownership of peacebuilding processes was also vital. In crisis situations, most States in conflict lacked national capacities. National ownership and national capacity development, therefore, should be strengthened. There was also an imperative for coordinating the response, with a clear division of labour. The Secretary-General’s proposal for establishing focal points for each thematic area was a solid approach to addressing that issue. Collaboration with regional and subregional organizations within the geographical zones of countries on the Peacebuilding Commission’s agenda was also critical.
CLAUDE HELLER (Mexico) shared the view that peacebuilding that must be at the hub of the work of the United Nations and embrace all its pillars, including peace, human rights, development, respect for international law and development of national capacity. In the reports, particularly welcomed were new guidelines for the integrated planning processes of peacekeeping missions and proposals for deploying civilian expertise in a timely manner, especially utilizing the capacity of developing countries and the United Nations Volunteer Programme.
He welcomed the plan of action to implement Council resolution 1325 (2000) through concrete peacebuilding measures. A solid framework had been created, but concrete measures were still needed, with the full backing of all stakeholders. He was aware of the ambitiousness of the plan, but said it could be achieved and could ensure inclusion of women’s contributions and that their needs were met at all levels of peace consolidation. Noting Mexico’s position as co-facilitator of the peacebuilding review process, he discussed the inclusive process used and drew attention to its relevance to both the Security Council and the General Assembly.
EMANUEL ISSOZE-NGONDET (Gabon) welcomed efforts to increase the coherence of peacebuilding strategies, as well as national ownership, which met the need to tailor activity to the situation on the ground and to utilize the best principles of peacebuilding. For stability, the foundation for development had to be laid, for which the Peacebuilding Commission must strengthen its partnership with international financial institutions, regional organizations and all relevant actors. He called for greater cooperation with the African Union and the regional economic communities in Africa.
He said it was critical to involve women in all aspects of peacebuilding. He welcomed the growing prominence of women in various United Nations efforts and supported the Secretary-General’s plan to further empower women. He expressed hope that UN Women would back that plan and pledged his country’s full support for the approach.
Council President RUHAKANA RUGUNDA (Uganda), speaking in his national capacity, welcomed recent efforts to make peacebuilding more nationally owned, more effective and more coordinated. In that context, he welcomed greater engagement with national authorities. There was still much to be done to enhance impact on the ground, particularly in the areas of security and improved living conditions. He stressed the need for the coordination of all actors in that effort, including the international financial institutions and regional organizations.
He reiterated the importance of women’s equal participation in all areas of peacebuilding. The engagement of UN Women and other actors in the implementation of the Secretary-General’s action plan in that regard was critical.
JOÃO GOMES CRAVINHO, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs of Portugal, said peacebuilding was at the core of United Nations efforts. The system’s efficiency should improve, as, due to the many ingredients of peacebuilding, there was a danger of fragmentation within the international community’s response. Thus, integration of efforts should be ensured between different levels of engagement. The relationship between the Council and the Peacebuilding Commission should also be improved, as interaction was still too limited, in particular at the stage of authorization of mandates. Transparency and inclusiveness should also be enhanced, in order to build support from Member States and other partners, such as regional and subregional organizations.
He said that peacebuilding should be carried out simultaneously with peacekeeping after open conflict was over. In a preventive capacity, the Peacebuilding Commission should stand ready to respond to worsening situations on the ground. He welcomed the recent creation of the Liberia country-specific configuration. Since that addition had come after the co-facilitators’ report on the Commission’s review, it would be an excellent opportunity to implement their recommendations. As women played an important role in economic recovery and national cohesion, it was imperative to fully integrate the gender perspective in peacebuilding from the outset. Underlining the important connection between peace and development, he urged for a stronger partnership between the World Bank and other international financial institutions.
GONZALO GUTIÉRREZ (Peru) said peacebuilding activities could be improved if efforts were stepped up to use the available resources more efficiently and better planning was applied. There was a need to act in parallel on the fronts of the five priority areas identified by the Secretary-General. He emphasized the importance of direct and early involvement of national actors and the Peacebuilding Commission in the peacebuilding process. The international community’s response, therefore, should be channelled through a coordinated approach based on national priorities. It was essential to strengthen national capacity from the outset of a United Nations mission, following the “need-driven approach”.
He said women’s empowerment was a key element in capacity-building and in the peacebuilding process. National capacity-building was not only important to ensure transition to peace, but also in preventing a relapse into conflict. Priority should also be given to youth employment. Pointing to the links between the Millennium Development Goals and peacebuilding, he said that progress achieved towards the Goals would contribute to a sustainable and inclusive peace.
JOHN MCNEE (Canada) said that the seven-point action plan regarding women’s participation in peacebuilding provided concrete targets for enhancing women’s participation in all aspects of the peacebuilding continuum and making use of relevant expertise. Monitoring the plan could be facilitated by the global indicators on resolution 1325 (2000). Welcoming progress made in peacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict, he said capacity-building remained a critical issue. Roles and responsibilities in critical sectors, such as the rule of law, security sector reform and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, sill required clarification. The relationship between the United Nations and the World Bank should be deepened and Member States should consider modalities for delivering rapid, responsive and risk-permissive post-conflict financing.
Welcoming the co-facilitators’ report on the 2010 Review of the United Nations Peacebuilding Architecture, he said that review had generated renewed commitment to the Peacebuilding Commission and highlighted the need to have a more tangible impact on the countries on its agenda. While implementing the full range of recommendations was a longer-term task, the Peacebuilding Commission should maintain a flexible approach, align closely with national priorities and limit administrative burdens. A closer relationship between the Council and the Commission would better define what the Council expected and would clarify what the Commission could contribute on specific peacebuilding issues.
ABULKALAM ABDUL MOMEN (Bangladesh), speaking on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement, said peacebuilding initiatives and planning should be based on the principles of national ownership and predictable financing, and should include as priorities the realization of gender equality and empowerment of women. Economic reconstruction should be at the forefront of all efforts aimed at sustaining peace, through adequate methods of ensuring accountability. The Peacebuilding Commission should have the central role in policy guidance in those efforts, and the broader membership of the United Nations should play their roles through the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly.
He said that peacebuilding activities, however, must not be considered a substitute for peacekeeping. Rather, the two efforts should be seen as complementary and be conducted in a coordinated manner. In addition, the importance of partnerships and early investments in economic recovery could not be overemphasized, and a coherent strategy was needed for national capacity-building. He also urged the transparent exploration of how the wider United Nations membership could contribute to multidisciplinary teams, with due consideration to expertise within troop-contributing countries.
He reiterated the Non-Aligned Movement’s views that, as women and girls suffered most in conflict, their challenges in post-conflict situations must be addressed and their effective empowerment must be assured, throughout the political, economic and social spheres. The Secretary-General’s action plan should be evaluated in an open and inclusive manner in the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council, as well as within the Peacebuilding Commission and UN Women.
ANNE ANDERSON (Ireland) underlined her country’s strong endorsement of the Secretary-General’s report on women’s participation in peacebuilding, particularly the seven-point action plan at its core. Each of the seven commitments was individually important and their collective impact promised to be truly significant. The analysis on which the commitments were grounded was of impressive quality, and the report as a whole was clear and compelling. The process followed in preparing the report had been a very open and consultative one, with a real sense of common purpose among all who had contributed. That common purpose would help the United Nations peacebuilding machinery fulfil its potential so as to better carry out the role envisaged by world leaders when they had come together at the 2005 World Summit.
As a co-facilitator, she said, Ireland had tried throughout to keep faith with the spirit of that process, to analyse the issues with honesty and to propose implementable recommendations. Where perspectives differed, approaches that could keep the membership together had been sought, while meeting the basic test of strengthening the peacebuilding structure.
On the relationship between the Peacebuilding Commission and the Security Council, she said that the co-facilitators underlined the dual requirement of “making space and earning space”. They had set out recent positive steps, but, nevertheless, had expressed concern about limited interaction and missed opportunities. They believed that the benefits of an enhanced and more organic relationship between the Security Council and the Commission were being increasingly recognized and that the potential now existed to create a new dynamic between a more forthcoming Security Council and a better performing Peacebuilding Commission.
The task before the co-facilitators had been to produce an honest, balanced and implementable report on the basis of consultations. It was for the membership to decide on the implementation of the recommendations and for the General Assembly and the Security Council, acting simultaneously, to adopt resolutions in terms they deemed most appropriate.
MOHAMMED LOULICHKI (Morocco) said that in helping countries with the transition from conflict to peacebuilding, the United Nations should continuously revise and adjust its methods. The role of the Peacebuilding Commission should be enhanced in order to enable it to better ensure the structural effectiveness of peacebuilding operations. The Peacebuilding Fund should also be strengthened. Interaction between the Council and the Peacebuilding Commission should be improved. Peacebuilding activities could only be successful if they involved socio-economic aspects such as delivery of basic services and youth employment.
He said peacebuilding required partnerships among the country in conflict, the United Nations, troop-contributing countries and donors, as well as an effective partnership between the Peacebuilding Commission and the World Bank. As peacebuilding was more of a civilian exercise than a military one, it was essential to ensure the creation of the necessary specialized civilian capacity in such areas as mediation and security sector reform. Women’s active involvement was also required. Neighbouring States of a country in conflict also had a duty to support peacebuilding and show good neighbourliness. He emphasized that the challenges of peacebuilding were insignificant compared to the costs of conflict.
PETER SCHWAIGER, Deputy Head of the Delegation of the European Union, said that the questions concerned whether the United Nations and the wider international community were better equipped today to support more effectively the efforts of post-conflict countries to achieve enduring peace and, if that was the case, how those improvements could be translated at Headquarters into concrete results on the ground.
He said that while the European Union fully acknowledged the steps that had been taken in certain areas, including leadership, civilian capacity and financing, there was still a long way to go. Predictable and timely funding, aligned with peacebuilding priorities, swift deployment of high-quality civilian experts to help build national capacity and strong partnerships with international financial institutions and regional players were some areas where much more remained to be done. The United Nations could not achieve those goals in isolation. The European Union was more than ready to work hand in hand with the United Nations system. The deployment of international civilian expertise was one of the areas where the European Union was already strongly involved. Over the last 10 years, civilian aspects of the European Security and Defence Policy crisis management had seen exponential growth. The Union now had nine such civilian missions with around 2,000 seconded personnel concurrently deployed in eight different theatres of operation. The Union looked forward to the outcome of the civilian-capacity review early next year and, in particular, how the pool of experts involving the global South could be broadened and deepened.
He welcomed the report of the Secretary-General on women’s participation in peacebuilding, saying that, as the current month marked the tenth anniversary of Security Council resolution 1325 (2000), there was a need to redouble efforts to increase women’s participation at all stages and levels of peace processes and peacebuilding. The European Union agreed that the three pillars of lasting peace, namely economic recovery, social cohesion and political legitimacy, could not be achieved without women’s active engagement. The Union had a comprehensive strategy to implement resolution 1325 (2000). In July, the Council of the European Union had adopted indicators to measure progress in achieving gender equality in development cooperation, which committed the Union to promote capacity-building in fragile States for the implementation of Council resolutions 1325 (2000) and 1820 (2008).
DAVID ČERVENKA (Czech Republic) said his country shared the appreciation of the importance of early post-conflict peacebuilding. Experience from the last decade showed clearly, however, that United Nations peacekeeping operations alone were not sufficient for breaking the vicious circle of post-conflict countries relapsing into new conflicts. Peacekeeping, therefore, must be accompanied by peacebuilding efforts from the early stages of deployment of United Nations peacekeepers. The character of recent conflicts had changed and the United Nations should adapt accordingly. The report of the Secretary-General on the immediate aftermath of conflict, and his July progress report, clearly demonstrated the general acknowledgement of that fact.
He welcomed the establishment by the Peacebuilding Commission, over its four-year existence, of very fruitful working relations with the Security Council and the Economic and Social Council. There was still room for improvement in terms of fully developing that cooperation. For one thing, the Commission had not yet started to formulate exit criteria for its disengagements. The Commission, according to its mandate, should advise the Security Council, not only on the countries on its agenda, but also on those in the process of becoming the subject of a future peacekeeping operation, as well as on those experiencing the disengagement phase of operations in their countries. In that regard, the Czech Republic welcomed the decision to include Liberia on the Commission’s agenda. For the first time, a country where a robust peacekeeping operation was still deployed had been placed on the agenda. That would create new challenges for the Commission, but new experiences would also be gained.
In order to help a country that was emerging from conflict in its vast peacebuilding effort, the availability of a broad scope of experts from different fields was required, he said. In such circumstances, it was impossible to provide the requested expertise without civilian capacity. It was necessary, therefore, to improve the process of identification, employment and deployment of civilian experts, for which close cooperation with non-governmental organizations would be indispensable.
BASO SANGQU (South Africa) said that despite much progress, there was still much need for improvement in peacebuilding. National ownership should be the foundation of peacebuilding efforts. Emphasizing the importance of the transition from development to peacebuilding, he said he also strongly supported the call for greater coordination among all actors and support to local governance. Utilization of local expertise in all activities was also important. Assessed contributions and other innovative approaches to financing should be considered to help provide timely and predictable support for peacebuilding.
He welcomed stronger coordination between the Peacebuilding Commission, financial institutions and regional organizations. Regarding women, he affirmed that they were important agents of positive change and should play a pivotal role in all peacebuilding activities. Necessary support for that purpose was needed. In conclusion, he pledged his country’s continued work in unison with the international community in the quest to prevent and find lasting solutions to conflict, and to consolidate peace where open conflict had ceased.
TAHIR ANDRABI (Pakistan), recalling that the report cited progress in implementing an agenda for coherent and predictable responses to the peacebuilding in countries emerging from conflict, noted the positive role of the Integration Steering Group, which included peace and security, humanitarian and development actors across the United Nations. Parallel improved cooperation between Headquarters and the country team, as well as a strengthened Office of the Resident Coordinator, was vital. Linkages must be clarified between peacebuilding and socioeconomic development strategies implied by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and other multilateral donors. Agreeing with the Secretary-General about the core peacebuilding priorities, he said that national capacity development would remain the cornerstone of all peacebuilding efforts.
He said that while security sector reform, together with enhanced national capacity to manage intercommunity conflicts, filled the gap in a country’s ability to build peace. To succeed, all peacebuilding efforts must be people-centric. Lasting peace would remain elusive without improving the conditions of women and other vulnerable groups. Women’s access to health, education and entrepreneurship was essential for long-term economic recovery. Their participation in mediation and policy formulation of peacebuilding efforts could be a “force multiplier”. Adherence to merit and strict professionalism should not be compromised. The risk of relapse into conflict could be tackled by a more coordinated assessment and planning for peacebuilding and peacekeeping activities, where both processes must be explicitly defined in a complementary relationship. The work of the Peacebuilding Commission would improve as the collective response became more resource-rich. He cautioned against tampering with its composition, as that would only weaken the institutional linkages between peacekeeping and peacebuilding.
SOHA GENDI (Egypt) said the maintenance of international peace and security required, in tandem, emphasis on the military and social dimensions of security sector reform and ensuring the success of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration through a framework that delivered the essential basic social and economic requirements for former combatants’ full reintegration into their communities. It also required the establishment of key pillars to ensure sustainable peace, including a comprehensive dialogue, social justice, impartiality and independence of the judiciary, and the rule of law, as well as comprehensive and sustainable economic and social development. Simultaneously starting peacekeeping and peacebuilding processes required the needed resources for both, in order to strengthen, within a nationally owned framework, national capacities.
He said due consideration must be given to the overlap between peacebuilding and sustainable development. It was important to launch a peacebuilding process at the right time to ensure the successful establishment of central political, economic and social pillars. That required timely, predictable and sustainable financial resources. The success of any peacebuilding process also rested on its ability to ensure gender equality and women’s empowerment. The capacity of the Peacebuilding Commission as the central pillar for peacebuilding should be strengthened. That could be achieved through the topic’s consideration by the Assembly, the Security Council and the Economic and Social Council. Successful peacebuilding also required the establishment of monitoring and follow-up mechanisms to ensure the fulfilment of national and international financial commitments and to ensure consistency of the priorities of international funding mechanisms, including the Peacebuilding Fund. He recommended in that regard an annual donors conference for the Fund.
ANDREW ROSE (Australia) urged the continuation of the current momentum to improve peacebuilding activities, especially in relation to clarifying the roles and responsibilities of relevant actors in the areas of security sector reform and the rule of law. He also favoured strengthening the relationship with the World Bank. He endorsed the message that he read as central to the report, namely that peacebuilding was a collective effort that required a coherent, consistent and integrated approach from the broader international community.
He said women’s rights must not only be protected in conflict-related situations, but women must be able to fully and effectively participate in all aspects of conflict prevention, resolution and peacebuilding if a durable peace was to be built. In that regard, he welcomed the detailed action plan set out in the Secretary-General’s report. Regarding the peacebuilding architecture, it was important to stress the need for a closer and more organic relationship between the Security Council and the Peacebuilding Commission throughout the Council’s consideration of a situation.
JARMO VIINANEN (Finland), speaking on behalf of the Nordic countries, said that the recommendations of the Secretary-General deserving particular attention was inclusive participation as a key to legitimate and sustainable peace; adequate and timely financing of post-conflict needs of both men and women; and improving the response of the United Nations system as a whole in the immediate aftermath of a conflict. Post-conflict rebuilding was an opportunity to create a virtuous cycle, starting from more inclusive peace processes. National ownership and capacity-building were key to women’s participation. Strategies that were developed for women’s inclusion should also address the wider institutional challenges of gender inequality found in many countries crippled by crisis and conflict. Women should be included in all phases and at all levels of peace processes and in planning of post-conflict governance institutions.
He said that timely, flexible and predictable funding was a necessity for a successful post-conflict State-building process. Steps had been taken during the past 12 months to shape the Peacebuilding Fund, based on new terms of reference. Considerable work had also been undertaken in the context of the International Network on Conflict and Fragility of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The success of that challenging work largely depended on the cooperation of donors, partner countries, the United Nations and other international organizations. The Nordic countries congratulated the Secretary-General for committing the United Nations system to ensuring that at least 15 per cent of United Nations-managed funds in support of peacebuilding was dedicated to projects whose principal objective was to address women’s specific needs, advance gender equality and empower women. The countries were happy that the Peacebuilding Fund was already employing a gender marker.
The ongoing review of civilian capacities was a key component for reforming United Nations support to countries emerging from conflict, he went on. The Nordic countries were encouraged by the breadth and depth of that review and looked forward to the upcoming report, since it promised tangible recommendations. That review would ensure that the international community deployed the right type of support and expertise at the right time.
SHANKER DAS BAIRAGI (Nepal) stressed that peacebuilding was a multifaceted and long-term venture requiring national ownership as well as coordinated international support. There was a need for stronger and more effective United Nations leadership teams on the ground, with the requisite knowledge and experience of post-conflict or post-crisis settings. Ongoing review of civilian capacities would bring about measures for deploying civilians with corresponding capacities. He hoped that new United Nations guidelines for the integrated missions planning process would help ensure better coordination and improve the collective peacebuilding effort. “The one size fits all does not work,” he said, pushing the global community to look into peacebuilding’s socio-cultural and political aspects before making conclusions. Prioritization was essential in dealing with post-conflict situations, which must be done with the full participation of national stakeholders.
He said that while disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, security sector reform and institution-building were part of the transformation process, the implementation of quick-impact projects was necessary “to deliver something concrete”. Youth employment and agro-based job creation were vital to preventing people from being recruited by armed outfits, and the Peacebuilding Commission and the Peacebuilding Fund could be fully utilized towards that goal. It was also important to ensure sufficient financing to deal with such complex issues as economic development in post-conflict situations. All actors should work in a synchronized manner to implement the integrated peacebuilding strategy developed by the national authority. Women were an inherent part of the reconstruction of a country, and Nepal supported the Secretary-General’s commitments for realizing their role in peacebuilding. The time had come to redouble efforts for making the United Nations peacebuilding architecture more efficient.
OCTAVIO ERRÁZURIZ (Chile) said that, as stated by the Secretary-General, the peacebuilding process was an opportunity to “build back better” a country in all its aspects, and one of the most important parts of that process was boosting the status of women, their legal position and their access to jobs and justice, among others. Women’s access to justice had great importance since they were among the main victims of conflicts. That access would enhance their confidence in the State and in the country’s political process. Thus, the re-establishment of the judiciary and implementation of non-discriminatory access to justice were essential for the success of peacebuilding. Chile supported the proposed seven-point peacebuilding plan, which embodied a gender approach. In order for the plan to succeed, there must be proper coordination among the various United Nations agencies and between them and participating external partners. The call for women to be appointed or elected to leadership positions was especially important.
He said his country welcomed the Secretary-General’s proposal for specific measures to ensure that the recommendations contained in his report were implemented in the field in programmes for development, infrastructure and employment, as well as in programmes of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration. The country further agreed with the Secretary-General that although peacebuilding was primarily a national challenge and responsibility, the international community, including the United Nations, had a critical role to play in supporting that national agenda. That would be a proof, not only of solidarity, but also of the need for mutual support in the “global village”.
Turning to the emphasis placed on national capacity-building in post-conflict situations, he said that was crucial in order to create national leadership and strengthen democratic institutions and socio-economic development. Chile looked forward to the report of the international review of civilian capacity now under way, which was founded on the premise that international experts could be deployed. He emphasised that the review had been an important aspect of Chile’s participation as a member of the Peacebuilding Commission. It expected wider participation by Member States on such teams. He also stressed the importance of regional cooperation and South-South cooperation, noting that difficulty had been encountered in financing such cooperation. It was essential that developed countries participated; Chile was in favour of triangular cooperation.
SIRIPORN CHAIMONGKOL (Thailand) said fostering national ownership of the peacebuilding process was of paramount importance to its success. Institutions of governance and operational mechanisms must be developed, not only to conform to international standards, but also to reflect local needs and conditions. Moreover, national capacity must be developed at the early stages of the process. It was also necessary to address the root causes of a conflict. Creating a new sense of shared purpose and common values for post-conflict societies was a task best left to national leadership, but should be encouraged by the international community. Predictable, timely and sufficient national and international support was also essential to the success of the process.
She said that the international review of civilian capacities should contribute considerably to narrowing the gap in national and international civilian capacities and to ensuring a smooth transition from conflict to peacemaking, peacekeeping, peacebuilding and development. Women’s participation in all aspects of those processes would contribute significantly to long-term and sustainable peace and security. Since it was mostly men who participated in conflict, it was important to encourage women’s participation in helping to stabilize post-conflict environments and restore the fabric of society. She welcomed the Secretary-General’s action plan for gender-responsive peacebuilding as a concrete step to women’s empowerment in post-conflict societies.
RANKO VILOVIĆ (Croatia), aligning himself with the statement of the European Union, wholeheartedly supported more active women’s engagement in peacebuilding and the further strengthening of all peacebuilding operations through thorough implementation of what he called the Secretary-General’s ambitious agenda and the recommendations contained in his current report. Calling also for careful consideration of the facilitators’ report, he said that the time for a new balance within the United Nations peace architecture had definitely arrived.
He said the most important elements in that effort were national ownership and predictable and sustainable multidimensional action by the international community, encompassing regional considerations. Peacebuilding should arise from clearly established national priorities, and it should also lead to full reconstruction and improvement of national institutions and capabilities. Integrating all actors and undertaking efforts in the areas security, human rights and development was also crucial.
In addition, he strongly supported the establishment of the senior advisory group tasked to undertake a review of international civilian capacity, and the deepening of cooperation between the Peacebuilding Commission, regional organizations and United Nations entities. Saying that Croatia’s transition from donor-recipient country to a donor country had been fairly short and effective, he pledged his country’s continued support to sharing its experience through assisting in the development of civil society, reconciliation and post-conflict reconstruction, as well as in building functioning administrative capacities in the social realm.
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