STRENGTHENED LEGAL REGIME TO PREVENT OUTER SPACE ARMS RACE CALLED FOR IN DRAFT RESOLUTION APPROVED BY FIRST COMMITTEE

22 October 2002
GA/DIS/3238

STRENGTHENED LEGAL REGIME TO PREVENT OUTER SPACE ARMS RACE CALLED FOR IN DRAFT RESOLUTION APPROVED BY FIRST COMMITTEE

22/10/2002
Press ReleaseGA/DIS/3238

Fifty-seventh General Assembly

First Committee

18th Meeting (AM)

STRENGTHENED LEGAL REGIME TO PREVENT OUTER SPACE ARMS RACE

CALLED FOR IN DRAFT RESOLUTION APPROVED BY FIRST COMMITTEE

One of Nine Texts Recommended for General Assembly Adoption;

Chemical and Biological Weapons, Small Arms Trade among Other Issues Addressed

Recognizing that prevention of an arms race in outer space would avert a grave danger for international peace and security, the General Assembly would reaffirm that the legal regime applicable to outer space had not, in and of itself, guaranteed the prevention of such an arms race, according to one of nine draft texts approved this morning by the First Committee (Disarmament and International Security).

The Committee took that action by a recorded vote of 151 in favour to none against, with 2 abstentions (Israel, United States).  A further term of the text would have the Assembly emphasize the need for further measures with effective provisions for verification to prevent an outer space arms race.  (For details of the vote, please see Annex II).

Speaking before approval of that text, the representative of the Russian Federation highlighted the importance of space technology for development, but worried that there were already plans to place weapons in orbit, threatening to turn space into a new sphere of military rivalry and conflict.  He drew attention to a proposal made in the Conference on Disarmament by his country and China, which could form the basis of a legal agreement.  Pending that, he said a moratorium should be introduced to ban emplacement of weapons in outer space.

Action was also taken today on a number of texts on weapons of mass destruction, including a draft resolution banning the development and manufacture of new types of mass destruction weapons and new systems.  That text, approved without a vote, would call on States to give favourable consideration to recommendations made by the Conference on Disarmament on undertaking specific negotiations dealing with preventing the emergence of new mass destruction weapons.

Two texts were approved today on biological weapons.  The first, a draft resolution on measures to uphold the authority of the 1925 Geneva Protocol prohibiting the use of poisonous gases and bacteriological methods of warfare, was approved by a recorded vote of 140 in favour to none against, with 2 abstentions

18th Meeting (AM)

(Israel, United States) (Annex I).

The second, a draft decision on the Biological Weapons Convention, requests the Secretary-General to render the necessary assistance to depositary Governments and provide services for implementing the decisions of the Convention's Review Conferences.  It was approved without a vote.

Also without a vote, the Committee approved a draft resolution on the Chemical Weapons Convention, by which the Assembly would emphasize the necessity of universal adherence and call upon all States that had not yet done so to become parties to it without delay. 

Speaking after approval of that text, the representative of Israel said that, by signing the Chemical Weapons Convention in 1993, his country had reflected its moral vision of a world free from chemical weapons.  Meanwhile, others in the region, including countries that had used those weapons in the past or were believed to be working to improve their chemical weapons capabilities, had failed to follow suit. Its decision to ratify the treaty would be subjected to regional considerations, including the security climate in the Middle East.

In the conventional weapons category, the Committee approved a draft resolution on conventional arms control at the regional and subregional level, by a vote of 149 in favour to 1 against (India), with 1 abstention (Bhutan).  It would have the Assembly decide to give urgent consideration to the issues involved and would request the Conference on Disarmament to consider formulating principles that could serve as the framework for related regional agreements (Annex III).

Acting without a vote, the Committee approved texts on assistance to States for curbing the illicit traffic in small arms, the illicit small arms trade, and regional disarmament.

The First Committee (Disarmament and International Security) will meet again at 10 a.m. Wednesday, 23 October, to continue taking action on all draft resolutions and decisions.

Background

The First Committee (Disarmament and International Security) met this morning to continue taking action on draft resolutions and decisions in its clusters on weapons of mass destruction, outer space, conventional weapons, and regional disarmament and security.

It had before it a text to ban new types of weapons of mass destruction and new systems of such weapons.  Also before it were drafts on:  measures to uphold the authority of the 1925 Geneva Protocol; the Biological Weapons Convention; and the Chemical Weapons Convention.  Action was also expected on a draft on the prevention of an arms race in outer space.

The Committee was also expected to act on texts on assistance to States for curbing illicit small arms, the illicit small arms trade, regional disarmament, and conventional arms control at the regional and subregional levels.

According to a draft resolution sponsored by Belarus entitled “Prohibition of the development and manufacture of new types of weapons of mass destruction and new systems of such weapons” (document A/C.1/57/L.5), the General Assembly would call upon all States to give favourable consideration to recommendations made by the Conference on Disarmament on undertaking specific negotiations dealing with preventing the emergence of new types of weapons of mass destruction.

A draft resolution sponsored by South Africa on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) on measures to uphold the authority of the 1925 Geneva Protocol (document A/C.1/57/L.9), would have the Assembly renew its call to all States to strictly observe the principles and objectives of the 1925 Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare.

Under a further term, the Assembly would reaffirm the vital necessity of upholding the Protocol’s provisions and call upon those States that continued to maintain reservations to the Protocol to withdraw them.

By the terms of a draft decision sponsored by Hungary on the Biological Weapons Convention (document A/C.1/57/L.22), the Assembly would request the Secretary-General to continue to render the necessary assistance to depository Governments of the Convention to provide services as required for implementing the decisions and recommendations of the Review Conferences, as well as the decisions contained in the final report of the Special Conference of the States parties to the Convention, held from 19 to 30 September 1994.  It would also ask him to render the necessary assistance for the Fifth Review Conference, to be held in Geneva from 11 to 22 November. 

Under a draft resolution sponsored by Canada and Poland on implementation of the Convention on Chemical Weapons (document A/C.1/57/L.48), the Assembly would emphasize the necessity of universal adherence and call upon all States that had not yet done so to become parties to it without delay.

The Assembly would stress the importance to the Convention that all possessors of chemical weapons and production or development facilities, including previously declared possessor States, should be among the States parties to the Convention.

It would also stress the importance of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in verifying compliance with the Convention, as well as in promoting the timely and efficient accomplishment of all its objectives, and would urge all States parties to meet in full and on time their obligations under the Convention and to support the OPCW in its implementation activities.

According to a draft resolution on the prevention of an arms race in outer space (document A/C.1/57/L.30), the Assembly would reaffirm the importance and urgency of preventing an arms race in outer space and the readiness of all States to contribute to that common objective.

The Assembly would also reaffirm its recognition that the legal regime applicable to outer space did not, in and of itself, guarantee the prevention of an outer space arms race, and that there was a need to consolidate and reinforce that regime and enhance its effectiveness.

Under a related term, it would emphasize the necessity for further measures with appropriate and effective provisions for verification to prevent an arms race in outer space. 

It would call on all States, in particular those with major space capabilities, to contribute actively to the objective of the peaceful use of outer space and the prevention of an arms race in outer space and to refrain from actions contrary to that objective and to the relevant existing treaties, in the interest of maintaining international peace and security and promoting international cooperation.

The draft resolution on assistance to States for curbing the illicit traffic in small arms and collecting them (document A/C.1/57/ L.25) would have the Assembly encourage the establishment in the countries of the Sahelo-Saharan subregion of national commissions to combat the illicit proliferation of illicit small arms, and invite the international community to lend its support whenever possible to ensure the smooth functioning of those commissions.

The Assembly would welcome the Declaration of a Moratorium of the Importation, Exportation and Manufacture of Small Arms and Light Weapons in West Africa, which was adopted in 1998, and encourage the international community to support its implementation.  It would call on the international community to provide technical and financial support to strengthen the capacity of civil organizations to take action to combat the illicit small arms trade.

A draft resolution on the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons in all its aspects (document A/C.1/57/L.33/Rev.1) would have the Assembly decide to convene the first of the biennial meetings of States as stipulated in the 2001 Programme of Action, adopted at the United Nations Conference on the issue, to consider national, regional and global implementation of the Programme.

It would encourage all initiatives to mobilize resources and expertise to promote implementation, and it would decide to consider further steps to enhance international cooperation at its next session, taking into consideration the views of States on such further steps, provided to the Secretary-General, that could be undertaken.

Entitled "Regional disarmament" (document A/C.1/57/L.39), a further text would have the Assembly stress that sustained efforts were needed, within the framework of the Conference on Disarmament and under the umbrella of the United Nations, to make progress on the entire range of disarmament issues.

The Assembly would affirm that global and regional approaches to disarmament complemented each other and should, therefore, be pursued simultaneously to promote regional and international peace and security.  It would call upon States to conclude agreements, wherever possible, for nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament and confidence-building measures at the regional and subregional levels.

The draft resolution on conventional arms control at regional and subregional levels (document A/C.1/57/L.41) would have the Assembly decide to give urgent consideration to the issues involved.  It would request the Conference on Disarmament to consider the formulation of principles that could serve as the framework for regional agreements on conventional arms control, and look forward to a report of the Conference on the subject.

Action on Texts

The Committee turned to the text on the prohibition of new types of weapons of mass destruction (document A/C.1/57/L.5), which had been introduced by Belarus.  It was approved without a vote.

The Committee then took up the draft on measures to uphold the Geneva Protocol (document A/C.1/57/L.9), which had been introduced by South Africa, on behalf on the Non-Aligned Movement.  It was approved by a recorded vote of 140 in favour to 0 against, with 2 abstentions (Israel, United States).  (For further details, see Annex I).

      The representative of the Republic of Korea, speaking after the vote, explained that he had voted in favour.  That was a departure from his vote on previous versions of the draft.  He explained that he had withdrawn his reservations related to biological weapons.  Because of security concerns on the Korean Peninsula, however, he still had reservations about chemical weapons.

The Committee then took up the draft decision on the Biological Weapons Convention (document A/C.1/57/L.22), which had been introduced by Hungary.  The draft was approved without a vote.

The representative of Cuba, speaking after the vote, explained that for two consecutive years the First Committee had only adopted procedural decisions on the topic.  What was needed, however, was a substantive decision.  Such a substantive decision would be a fundamental prerequisite to achieve real progress.   

The Committee then turned to the draft concerning the Chemical Weapons Convention (document A/C.1/57/L.48), introduced by Poland.  It was approved without a vote.

Speaking after approval of the text on the Chemical Weapons Convention, the representative of Israel said his country had signed that Convention in January 1993 and had participated actively in the preparatory process in order to shape the Convention into a workable mechanism.  By signing it, Israel had reflected its moral vision of a world free from chemical weapons.  Others in the region, including countries that had used those weapons in the past or were believed to be working to improve their chemical weapons capabilities, had failed to follow suit and had indicated that their position would be unchanged, even if Israel ratified that Convention. 

He said his country's decision in that regard would be subjected to regional considerations, including the security climate in the Middle East.  Since the entry into force of the Chemical Weapons Convention, the threat of chemical warfare against Israel's population had not diminished.  In fact, the overall security concerns had actually increased.  Positive changes in the security climate in the Middle East would be the major issue behind Israel's ratification.

Turning to the draft resolution on the prevention of an arms race in outer space (document A/C.1/57/L.30), the representative of the Russian Federation said that the conquest of outer space had been one of the most important historical achievements of mankind.  The importance of space technology for development was truly limitless, yet already there were plans in existence to place weapons in orbit.  That might become a reality without the necessary political will to stop the weaponization of outer space and refrain from turning that sphere into a new area of military rivalry and conflict.  Existing norms of international space law had not fully covered its weaponization. 

He recalled that in Geneva, Russia and China had submitted a joint proposal that could form the basis for an international legal agreement.  Russia had previously proposed that, even before agreement was reached, a moratorium should be introduced on not emplacing weapons or related systems in outer space.  Earlier this month, his Minister for Foreign Affairs had stated that the country was ready to embark on new measures of openness and confidence in outer space.  Today, he called on all interested countries to join in that broad measure of confidence.  Hopefully, adoption of the present text would give new impetus to substantive discussions on military and space themes at the Disarmament Conference.

The Committee then approved the draft resolution on the prevention of an arms race in outer space (document A/C.1/57/L.30) by a recorded vote of 151 in favour to none against, with 2 abstentions (Israel, United States) (Annex II).

Speaking after the vote on behalf of the European Union and associated countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the representative of Denmark said they had voted in favour of the draft, but in order to avoid any misunderstanding they wished to clarify the rationale behind their vote.  The Conference on Disarmament was the only international multilateral negotiating forum for disarmament.  It was within the Conference, therefore, that any decision should be taken regarding work on the prevention of an outer space arms race.  The Union stood ready to support the establishment of a subsidiary body of the Conference on the basis of a mandate subjected to agreement by all.  The negotiation of a non-discriminatory and universal treaty banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons was another priority.

The Committee then turned to cluster on conventional weapons. 

The representative of Israel, in a general statement on that category of weapons, said that the poisonous combination of extensive armaments and hostile intentions posed a genuine strategic threat.  The best antidote was the creation of an environment of confidence and trust.  States must bear in mind that need for armaments was a direct response to a given situation.  When nations lived together in a spirit of peace and good neighbourliness, it would be possible to reduce armaments and increase transparency.  At the same time, it was important to control and restrain arms flows in a way that balanced legitimate security needs and unnecessary loss of human life. 

Turning to terrorism, he said that everyone was threatened by terrorism and everyone had a responsibility to stop it.  The use and transfer of arms seriously threatened global security and stability, and their acquisition by terrorists or criminal elements presented a humanitarian challenge that must remain foremost on everyone's minds and guide deliberations.  The best way to curb the illicit global arms proliferation was through strong national commitment.  States bore the primary responsibility to ensure that no weapons transferred from their territory occurred without proper oversight, including stringent export controls and marking.

In considering such steps, however, the specific nature of conflicts, circumstances, and threats in different regions should be taken into account, he said.  In the Middle East, Israel decided to take action to build confidence and reduce the humanitarian impact of conventional arms.  Although successful transparency was contingent on the normalization of political and military relations among States of a region, Israel had participated in the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms and was the only country in the region to have regularly reported to it.  Israel had also taken steps to curb the illicit small arms trade and called on all States to implement the 2001 programme of action on that question.

Emphasizing the urgency of the anti-personnel landmines issue, he said that cooperation in the areas of mine clearance, awareness and victim rehabilitation was crucial.  Israel had taken several unilateral steps, including ceasing production of all mines, declaring a moratorium on their export and ratifying Protocol II of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons.  Hopefully, other nations in the region would join that Protocol.  South Lebanon was responsible for the challenges Israel faced with respect to anti-personnel mines.  The area along the Blue Line continued to be of great danger and instability due to persistent violations.  Despite that clear and present security threat, Israel had taken steps to protect civilians from landmines.

The Committee turned to the draft on assistance to States for curbing the illicit traffic in small arms (document A/C.1/57/L.25).  It was approved without a vote.

The representative of Lebanon, speaking after the vote, said his delegation had joined the consensus out of its conviction that the need to curb the illicit traffic in small arms was an important one.  However, he regretted that he had just had to listen to the representative of Israel.  The representative of Israel had tried to politicize the issue and delve into matters that were not directly related to it.  In that context, the representative of Israel had referred to the mines planted in southern Lebanon.  The Secretary-General, however, had recognized that those mines had been planted by none other than Israel.

The Committee then took up the draft on the illicit small arms trade (document A/C.1/57/L.33).  Mongolia had recently become a co-sponsor to the draft, which had been introduced by Japan.  It was approved without a vote.

The representative of Djibouti, speaking after the vote, said that, although his delegation had been a co-sponsor of the draft, its name did not appear in the text.  He, thus, requested that Djibouti be added to the list of co-sponsors.

The Committee then moved on to cluster five, namely regional disarmament and security.

The Committee took up the draft on regional disarmament (document A/C.1/57/L.39), which had been introduced by the representative of Pakistan and to which Saudi Arabia had recently joined as a co-sponsor.  The draft was approved without a vote.

Next, the Committee turned to the draft on conventional arms control at regional and subregional levels (document A/C.1/57/L.41), introduced by Pakistan.  It was approved by a recorded vote of 149 in favour to 1 against (India), with 1 abstention (Bhutan) (Annex III).

The representative of India, speaking after the vote, said she had not voted in favour of the draft because, in 1993, guidelines on regional approaches to disarmament had already been adopted by the United Nations Disarmament Commission by consensus.  She did not feel that the First Committee needed to consider new ones.  Additionally, she considered the draft too restrictive when it specifically referred to the “context of South Asia”.  India’s security concerns were not confined to just South Asia.

The representative of El Salvador said had he been present he would have voted in favour of the text on the Geneva Protocol (document A/C.1/57/L.9).  Also, he expressed a desire to be added to the list of co-sponsors of the drafts concerning the Chemical Weapons Convention, the prevention of an arms race in outer space and the illicit small arms trade.

(annexes follow)

ANNEX I

Vote On 1925 Geneva Protocol

The draft resolution on measures to uphold the 1925 Geneva Protocol (Document A/C.1/57/L.9) was approved by a recorded vote of 140 in favour to

0 against, with 2 abstentions, as follows:

In favour:  Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Yugoslavia.

Against:  None.

Abstaining:  Israel, United States.

Absent:  Afghanistan, Albania, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominica, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Iraq, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Niger, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Somalia, Suriname, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

(END OF ANNEX 1)

ANNEX II

Vote on Outer Space Arms Race

The draft resolution on the prevention of an arms race in Outer Space (Document A/C.1/57/L.30) was approved by a recorded vote of 151 in favour to

0 against, with 2 abstention, as follows:

In favour:  Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe.

Against:  None.

Abstaining:  Israel, United States.

Absent:  Afghanistan, Benin, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominica, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Iraq, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niger, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Somalia, Suriname, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Zambia.

(END OF ANNEX II)

ANNEX III

Vote on Regional Conventional Arms Control

The draft resolution on Conventional Arms Control at the Regional and Subregional Level (Document A/C.1/57/L.41) was approved by a recorded vote of

149 in favour to 1 against, with 1 abstention, as follows:

In favour:  Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia.

Against:  India.

Abstaining:  Bhutan.

Absent:  Benin, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cuba, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominica, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Iraq, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niger, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Somalia, Suriname, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Viet Nam, Zimbabwe.

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For information media. Not an official record.