ASSEMBLY CONDEMNS MISUSE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CRIMINAL PURPOSES

4 December 2000
GA/9842

ASSEMBLY CONDEMNS MISUSE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CRIMINAL PURPOSES

4 December 2000

Press ReleaseGA/9842

ASSEMBLY CONDEMNS MISUSE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CRIMINAL PURPOSES

20001204

Also Condemns All Doctrines Based on Assumption of Racial Superiority

Declaring the entire year of 2001 as the International Year for Mobilizing against Racism, the Assembly adopted a range of resolutions to build momentum for the 2001 World Conference against racial or ethnic intolerance, a phenomenon it described as among the worst violations of human rights. The Assembly affirmed that position this morning on the recommendation of its Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural) while adopting a total of 63 resolutions, 48 without recorded vote. The Assembly also adopted seven decisions on the Third Committee’s reports.

On racism itself, the Assembly adopted a total of four resolutions and one decision, all without vote. The four-part draft on the Third Decade to Combat Racism and the World Conference urges governments to declare illegal any dissemination of ideas or forming of organizations based on racial superiority. Urging States to implement the Convention on eliminating racial discrimination within the context of the Conference, and with special attention to indigenous people, the Assembly welcomed the slogan adopted by the Preparatory Committee -- "United to combat racism: equality, justice, dignity".

Also by that draft, the Assembly asked the Secretary-General to ensure financing for the preparatory process, asking him and the High Commissioner for Human Rights to build momentum and mobilize funds for activities directly at the World Conference. Finally, the Assembly welcomed regional preparatory conferences by the Council of Europe, Senegal and Iran, appealing for generous contributions to the voluntary fund for the Conference in Durban, South Africa, to be held from 31 August to 7 September 2001.

By a three-part draft on the Convention against racism itself, the Assembly encouraged States to fulfil financial obligations and to use the advisory and technical assistance of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in implementing the Convention and fulfilling reporting obligations. It also encouraged participation by States and the Committee on eliminating racial discrimination in preparing for the Conference through the International Year.

Acts of racist violence were offences rather than expressions of opinion, the Assembly affirmed by adopting a draft on contemporary forms of racism. Expressing profound concern about all forms of racism and about the increase in racial and xenophobic violence all over the world despite all efforts, the

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Assembly encouraged States to include tolerance in educational agendas and to take all measures to eradicate racism. It also condemned misuse of the media and new information technologies to incite violence motivated by racial hatred. The Assembly urged States to cooperate with the Special Rapporteur in examining incidents of contemporary racism against Blacks, Arabs, Muslims and Semites.

By a related draft, the Assembly also resolutely condemned neo-Nazi and similar activities and called for measures to be taken against ideologies and practices based on racial or ethnic superiority. The Assembly affirmed the responsibility of all States to combat such activities and to promote awareness of the need to fight hateful ideologies. States were also urged to institute measures and report on results for inclusion of such experience in the Secretary- General's report to the Conference.

The Assembly emphasized the importance of indigenous people participating in the Conference by adopting a draft on the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People (1994-2004). By it, the Assembly also welcomed the decision to establish a Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues and encouraged contributions to both the Trust Fund for the Decade and the Voluntary Fund to assist indigenous participation in working groups. The United Nations system was invited to designate focal points for coordinating activities.

By one of two drafts and a decision adopted without vote on the rights of children, the Assembly stressed the importance of integrating child-related issues into the work of the World Conference against Racism. The two resolutions on the rights of the child also called for activities to be aimed at the September 2001 World Summit for Children.

By a seven-part draft on the rights of the child, the Assembly urged States to take action on the child's rights Convention, and on International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions to end child labour, especially its worst forms. It urged governments to guarantee respect for all human rights and freedoms of children, particularly those of migrant children and of those with disabilities. The Assembly urged governments to take urgent measures to prevent the killing of children working or living on the street. By a resolution on the girl child, the Assembly urged States to institute legal reforms to ensure full and equal enjoyment by the girl child of all human rights and fundamental freedoms. It also urged them to take action against violations of those rights.

A draft on the Convention to protect migrants was one of three resolutions on human rights instruments adopted without a vote. By that, the Assembly expressed deep concern at the growing manifestations of racism, discrimination and degrading treatment directed against migrant workers in parts of the world. By another draft on torture, the Assembly condemned all forms of that inhuman treatment, especially of children, calling for contributions to the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture and for observing 26 June as the International Day in support of them. By a third draft, the Assembly called for administrative support and better access to technical expertise for treaty bodies implementing the human rights instruments, including in fulfilment of reporting obligations.

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A draft on protecting migrants was one of seven resolutions adopted by vote out of a total of 21 on alternative approaches to human rights. Approving the draft by a recorded vote of 165 in favour to none against, with 8 abstentions (India, Israel, Malaysia, Micronesia, Myanmar, Singapore, Palau, United States), the Assembly strongly condemned all forms of racial discrimination and xenophobia with regard to employment, vocational training, housing and other services (Annex V). Further, reaffirming States' obligations to safeguard the rights of migrants, the Assembly welcomed close cooperation between the Special Rapporteur on migrants' rights and the Preparatory Committee for the 2001 World Conference against racism. Without a vote, the Assembly also adopted a draft proclaiming 18 December as International Migrant's Day.

By a recorded vote of 106 in favour to 1 against (United States), with 67 abstentions, the Assembly adopted a related resolution on respect for the right to freedom of travel and family reunification (Annex VII). By its terms, the Assembly called on States to guarantee the right to travel for all foreign nationals residing in their territory and to refrain from discriminatory legislation.

Further, a draft on respect for the Charter in promoting human rights was approved by a recorded vote of 104 in favour to 52 against, with 15 abstentions. It stressed the vital role of the United Nations and regional arrangements in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights (Annex VIII). A draft on consolidating democracy was adopted by a recorded vote of 157 in to none against, with 16 abstentions (Annex VI). By a vote of 112 in favour to 46 against, with 15 abstentions, a draft was adopted whereby the Assembly called for the monitoring of globalization's impact on human rights (Annex IX). Finally, a draft promoting a democratic and equitable international order was approved by a recorded vote of 109 in favour to 52 against, with 7 abstentions (Costa Rica, Guatemala, Morocco, Paraguay, Peru, Senegal, Argentina), affirming principles regarding the equality of opportunity for all in that pursuit (Annex X). Finally, a draft on human rights and unilateral coercive measures was adopted by a vote of 117 in to 49 against, with 6 abstentions (Georgia, Republic of Korea, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan) (Annex XI).

Other resolutions on alternative approaches to human rights that were adopted without a vote included one on human rights and cultural diversity, one on human rights and extreme poverty, and another on the right to development. Also adopted were drafts on international cooperation for human rights, regional arrangements for promoting rights, strengthening action in the field of rights through non-selectivity, strengthening the rule of law, and promoting the Declaration on rights and responsibilities for protecting rights and fundamental freedoms.

In addition, the Assembly adopted drafts on the Human Rights Education Decade (1995-2004) and public information activities, on enforced or involuntary disappearances, on extrajudicial executions, and on elimination of religious intolerance. It also adopted a draft on the situation of human rights in Cambodia, which was related to concerns about the rule of law and the judiciary.

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On other country-specific human rights situations, the Assembly adopted eight resolutions, four by recorded vote. One on the situation of human rights in Iran was adopted by a recorded vote of 67 in favour to 54 against, with 46 abstentions (Annex XII). By its terms, the Assembly called on the Government to invite the Special Representative to visit the country and cooperate with him, and to give effect to its invitation to the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances to visit. It also called for assurances about the application of capital punishment, an acceleration of investigations into suspicious deaths, an elimination of discrimination and measures to promote the enjoyment of human rights by women.

A draft on human rights in Iraq was approved by a recorded vote of 102 in favour to 3 against (Sudan, Libya, Mauritania), with 60 abstentions (Annex XIII). By it, the Assembly strongly condemned the systematic violations of human rights resulting in an all-pervasive repression sustained by terror. The Assembly called on the Government to abide by its freely assumed international obligations and to cooperate with the United Nations, including by allowing human rights monitors into Iraq.

By a recorded vote of 83 in favour to 32 against, with 49 abstentions, the Assembly adopted a resolution on human rights in the Sudan (Annex XIV). According to its terms, the Assembly welcomed the Sudan’s efforts to improve freedoms, as well as its efforts on education, release of prisoners, shelter of refugees and commitments to desist from recruiting child soldiers. Expressing deep concern over the breakdown of the ceasefire in June, and the upsurge of armed confrontations and acts of intimidation against civilians, the Assembly urged all parties to take actions for peace and create an environment of respect for human rights.

Finally, by a recorded vote of 102 in favour to 2 against (Rwanda, Uganda), with 63 abstentions, a draft on human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was adopted (Annex XV). By it, the Assembly welcomed improvements in preparation for the Lusaka Agreement but expressed concern over violations of it. It urged all parties to implement the Agreement's provisions and to facilitate re-establishment of the Government's authority, as agreed in the Inter-Congolese political negotiations of the Agreement.

Adopted without a vote were drafts on the situations of human rights in Myanmar, south-eastern Europe, Haiti and Afghanistan.

A draft on the Palestinian people's right to self-determination was adopted by a recorded vote of 170 in favour to 2 against (Israel, United States), with 5 abstentions (Canada, Marshall Islands, Tonga, Palau, Micronesia) (Annex IV). A resolution on the use of mercenaries to impede self-determination was adopted by a recorded vote of 119 in favour to 19 against, with 35 abstentions (Annex III). A third resolution on the universality of the right to self-determination was adopted without a vote.

Six draft resolutions and a draft decision were adopted on the report of the High Commissioner for Refugees, all without vote, as a whole. By one, the membership of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Office will be

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enlarged from 57 to 58 States. By another, on the Office of the High Commissioner, the Assembly condemned acts threatening the security and well-being of refugees and asylum-seekers, urging States to uphold the civilian and humanitarian character of refugee camps and settlements. It urged States and organizations to support the High Commissioner's search for durable solutions and to explore capacity-building initiatives as part of a comprehensive approach to addressing refugee issues. Paragraph 20, relating to internally displaced persons, was approved by a recorded vote of 139 in favour to none against, with 31 abstentions (Annex II).

Further, by a draft on the new international humanitarian order, the Assembly urged governments, organizations and non-State actors to support the Secretary-General's initiatives for promoting compliance with international humanitarian laws in situations of armed conflict and complex emergencies. The Assembly paid tribute to humanitarian workers by a draft on the fiftieth anniversary of the Office. It also agreed by that draft to commemorate 29 June as World Refugee Day, coinciding with Africa Refugee Day. The Assembly noted with concern the increased numbers of refugees in Africa, by a resolution on assistance to those persons. Citing the causes and their impact on the security and conditions of asylum countries, the Assembly urged the international community to generously fund programmes with an eye for turning an equitable portion of resources to refugees in Africa. Finally, by a draft on the High Commissioner's pledging conference, the Assembly noted its endorsement of a unified annual programme budget for the Office.

On crime prevention and criminal justice, the Assembly adopted six drafts without a vote. One strongly endorsed the Vienna Declaration on Crime and Justice, adopted at the high-level segment of the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders. By another, on the follow-up to that Congress, the Assembly urged governments to follow its guidelines in managing criminal justice systems and fighting crime, especially transnational crime. A related text began the process of elaborating an international legal instrument against corruption.

In addition, by a draft on the United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, the Assembly reiterated the need to strengthen the Institute's capacity to support national mechanisms for crime prevention and criminal justice in African countries. By another draft, the Assembly invited States to take into account certain measures in their efforts to combat the criminal misuse of information technologies. And by another text, the Assembly urged States and funding agencies to review their funding policies for development assistance and to include a crime prevention and criminal justice component in such assistance.

By a related four-part draft on international cooperation against the world drug problem, the Assembly emphasized the need to consider various actions to conquer that problem through full and balanced application of national, regional and international strategies to reduce demand, production and trafficking of illicit drugs. The Assembly also encouraged cooperation within the United Nations

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system in all efforts. It invited multilateral financial institutions to include action against the world drug problem in their programming and planning processes.

Without a vote, the Assembly adopted a resolution on social development through a draft on the 2001 International Year of Volunteers. By that, it called on States to promote an environment conducive to discussion of trends and challenges to volunteer action in the new century at international, national and local levels. Also adopted without a vote was a resolution on the 2002 Second World Assembly on Ageing as a follow-up to the International Year of Older Persons. By it, the Assembly decided that the Second World Assembly would be held in Madrid from 8 to 12 April 2002. Member States and regional commissions were invited to participate in preparations, including by consulting an Internet- accessible database on ageing by the United Nations Programme on Ageing.

Finally, as a follow-up to the 2000 special session on Women and the Fourth World Conference on Women, the Assembly adopted a resolution on implementing the outcome and the special session. By that, the Assembly called on governments to disseminate the special session's outcome and reaffirmed the central role of the Commission on the Status of Women in monitoring, assessing and accelerating implementation. It also recognized the importance of regional and subregional monitoring of global and regional platforms.

The Assembly also adopted six resolutions on the advancement of women, one by recorded vote. That resolution, on working towards eliminating crimes against women committed in the name of honour was adopted by a vote of 146 in favour to 1 against, with 26 abstentions (Annex I. By it, the Assembly expressed profound concern that women continued to be victims of violence, including in the many forms of crimes committed in the name of honour, and that some perpetrators assumed justification for such crimes. The Assembly called on States to take actions against those crimes and to provide support services and institutional mechanisms for the relief and recourse of victims.

Expressing deep concern at the persistence of violence and crimes against women in all parts of the world, especially in the form of sexual and economic exploitation, the Assembly adopted a related resolution on eliminating all forms of violence against women. By that, the Assembly stressed the need to treat all forms of violence against women as a criminal offence punishable by law. It urged States to strengthen awareness and preventive measures through, among other ways, media and educational campaigns.

By a resolution on traffic in women and girls, the Assembly urged governments to address the root factors, including external ones, that encouraged the practice for prostitution and other forms of commercialized sex, or for forced marriage or labour. It urged elimination of the practice by strengthening legislation to protect victims and punish perpetrators through comprehensive anti- trafficking strategies at the bilateral, regional and international levels.

Other resolutions adopted on the advancement of women included one on the Convention for eliminating discrimination against women, and another on improving the status of women in the United Nations system. Action was deferred on a

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resolution concerning the critical situation of the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, by which the Assembly is expected to decide that the Institute's core activities would be funded from the regular budget as of 1 January 2001.

The draft decision took note of the Secretary-General's report on activities of the United Nations Development Fund for Women.

The Assembly also took note of 57 human rights documents by adopting a decision on human rights in general. Finally, it took note of the report of the Economic and Social Council containing two decisions. One contained the Committee's work programme and its biennial programme for 2001-2002. The other took note of relevant chapters of the Council's report.

Speaking during the session were the representatives of the Dominican Republic, United States, Qatar, Jordan, Sudan, Mauritania, Norway, Cuba, Japan, Kuwait, Jamaica, Chile, Colombia, Yemen, Bolivia and Algeria.

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Assembly Work Programme

The General Assembly met this morning to take action on 18 reports of its Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural). The first concerns social development and contains one resolution on the 2001 Year of Volunteers. Another, on follow-up to the 1999 Year of Older Persons, also contains one resolution. The report on crime prevention and criminal justice contains six draft resolutions, while that on drug control contains one. The report on advancement of women contains seven resolutions. The one on implementing the outcome of the 1994 Fourth World Conference on Women contains one.

Further, the report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees contains six resolutions, the one on children contains two, that on indigenous people contains one, on racism six and on self-determination, three. Finally, four reports on aspects of human rights contain 32 resolutions on human rights instruments, alternative approaches, and human rights situations.

Report on Social Development

The Committee's report on social development (document A/55/591) contains a resolution on the 2001 International Year of Volunteers which was approved without vote on 10 October. By that resolution, the Assembly would decide to devote two plenary meetings of its fifty-sixth session to the question of volunteering at a time that would coincide with the close of the International Year of Volunteers on 5 December 2001.

Report on Follow-up to 1999 Year of Older Persons

A resolution on the 2002 Second World Assembly on Ageing as a follow-up to the 1999 International Year of Older Persons is contained in the Committee's report on follow-up to the Year of Older Persons (document A/55/592). Approved without vote on 10 October, the resolution would have the General Assembly decide that the Second World Assembly on Ageing will be held from 8 to 12 April 2002, in Madrid. Further by the draft, Member States would be invited to participate in preparations, regional commissions would be invited to hold activities, and the Department of Public Information would be invited to launch an information campaign in cooperation with both the Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the host country. The establishment and continued development of an Internet- accessible database on ageing by the United Nations programme on ageing would also be welcomed.

Report on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

Contained in the report on crime prevention and criminal justice are six resolutions (document A/55/593), all approved without vote. One of those, resolution I, concerns the Vienna Declaration on Crime and Justice: Meeting the Challenges of the Twenty-first Century. Approved on 12 October, the draft would have the General Assembly endorse the Declaration adopted at the high-level segment of the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, held in Vienna from 10 to 17 April. The Declaration, contained in an annex, called for more concerted action to combat world crime. By it, the Congress stressed the importance of a fair criminal justice system in promoting economic and social development and in human security. They also accorded high priority to completing the Convention against organized crime and its protocols. Finally, they recognized the importance of incorporating measures against racial discrimination and intolerance into crime prevention strategies.

Resolution II, on follow-up to the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (Vienna, 2000), was approved on 12 October. By it, the Assembly would urge governments to follow guidelines of the Tenth Congress in managing criminal justice systems and fighting crime, especially transnational crime. It would also request the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice to continue considering the recommendations of the Vienna Declaration issued from the Congress, requesting the Secretary-General to prepare draft plans of actions on specific measures for implementing commitments to the Declaration.

Also approved on 12 October, resolution III on an international legal instrument against corruption would have the Assembly decide to begin elaborating the instrument at the Vienna headquarters of the United Nations Centre for International Crime Prevention of the United Nation Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention. The Assembly would also request the Secretary-General to prepare and submit a report on the matter to the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice at an inter-sessional session. He would also be asked to convene an intergovernmental open-ended working group to prepare draft terms of reference in negotiating the instrument, for adoption by the Assembly at its fifty-sixth session, whereon, an ad hoc negotiating committee would elaborate the instrument in Vienna. Throughout, donor countries would be invited to assist with travel and expenses for participation of developing countries. An annex contains an indicative list of instruments, documents and recommendations against corruption.

Approved on 10 October, draft IV on the United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (UNAFRI) would have the Assembly reiterate the need to strengthen UNAFRI's capacity to support national mechanisms for crime prevention and criminal justice in African countries. It would urge UNAFRI members to meet their obligations and would call on them for concrete practical measures to support UNAFRI in developing its capacity and implementing programmes. It would call upon the United Nations International Drug Control programme to work with UNAFRI, requesting the Secretary-General to mobilize resources and promote regional cooperation in fighting crime, especially in the transnational dimension against which national action alone was inadequate.

Combating the criminal misuse of information technology, draft V, was approved on 26 October. It would have the Assembly invite States to take account of certain measures in combating the criminal misuse of information technologies, including by taking steps to ensure that laws and practices eliminate safe havens for offenders. States would be invited to train and secure cooperation in the areas of law enforcement and information exchange. They would be invited to ensure that legal systems protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of data and computer systems from unauthorized impairment, and would permit quick access to data pertaining to particular criminal investigations. Mutual assistance regimes would ensure timely investigation and the public would be made aware of the need to combat criminal misuse of the technologies. The Assembly would also decide to maintain the question on its agenda as part of the item on crime prevention and criminal justice.

Finally, a draft on strengthening the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme, in particular its technical cooperation capacity was approved on 12 October. That text would have the General Assembly urge States and agencies to review their funding policies and to include a crime prevention and criminal justice component in development assistance. The Assembly would also invite States to support the Programme's operational activities through voluntary contributions to the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Fund. It would ask them to make contributions enabling the Fund to strengthen the Centre for International Crime Prevention's ability to provide technical assistance to States in implementing programmes to combat trafficking in human beings, smuggling of migrants, and practising of corruption. The Assembly would ask States to study and bring about action to combat and prevent transnational organized crime, asking the Secretary-General to take measures during 2002-2003 for the Centre to promote the speedy entry into force of the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols.

Report on International Drug Control

The single resolution in the Committee's report on international drug control (document A/55/594) was approved without vote on 12 October. That draft on international cooperation against the world drug problem would have the Assembly call for national, regional and international strategies to reduce demand, production and trafficking of illicit drugs. By Part I, the Assembly would call for cooperation at the international and regional levels, urging States to ratify and implement the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and its 1972 Protocol, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.

Further, by Part II of the draft, the Assembly would urge authorities at the international, regional and national levels to implement the outcome of the special session on the world drug problem within specified time frames, in particular, the high priority measures indicated in the political declaration. The Assembly would further urge States to implement the Plan of Action with regard to the Declaration on the Guiding Principles of Drug Demand Reduction through national, regional and international actions, also urging States to strengthen national efforts to counter abuse of illicit drugs, particularly among children and youth. Part III would have the Assembly urge specialized agencies, programmes and funds, including humanitarian organizations, to include actions against the world drug problem in their programming and planning processes. It would invite multilateral financial institutions to do the same.

Part IV of the draft would have the Assembly ask the United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) to strengthen cooperation with States and with United Nations programmes and agencies. The Assembly would ask the UNDCP to allocate resources for its role in implementing the Plan of Action on reducing drug demand, asking it also to strengthen dialogue and cooperation with multilateral development banks and with international financial institutions.

Report on Advancement of Women

The Committee's report on advancement of women contains seven resolutions, one adopted by recorded vote (document A/55/595 and Corr.1 and 2). The report also contains one decision, by which the Assembly would take note of the Secretary-General's note regarding activities of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM).

Resolution I, on working towards eliminating crimes against women committed in the name of honour, was approved on 3 November by a vote of 120 in favour to none against, with 25 abstentions. It would have the Assembly express profound concern that women continue to be victims of violence, including in the many forms of crimes committed in the name of honour. The Assembly would also express concern that some perpetrators assumed justification for such crimes.

Further by the draft, the Assembly would call on States to take actions against those crimes. It would ask them to implement obligations under human rights law, intensify preventive efforts, and promote knowledge about the causes and consequences of such crimes. It would also have States provide support services and institutional mechanisms for the relief and recourse of victims, inviting the international community, including the United Nations system, to assist States in those efforts through such means as technical assistance. It would encourage human rights treaty bodies to address the issue and would request the Secretary-General to report on progress.

Resolution II, on traffic in women and girls, was approved without a vote on 19 October. By it, the Assembly would urge governments to address the root factors, including external ones, that encouraged trafficking in women and girls for prostitution and other forms of commercialized sex, or for forced marriage or labour. Governments would be urged to eliminate the practice, including by strengthening legislation to protect victims and punish perpetrators. They would be urged to work up comprehensive anti-trafficking strategies that included legislative measures, prevention campaigns, information exchange, assistance, and protection as well as prosecution provisions. Governments would be urged to allocate resources for programmes, to strengthen preventive actions and to strengthen national programmes through bilateral, regional and international cooperation.

Approved on 3 November, draft resolution III concerns the elimination of all forms of violence against women, including crimes identified in the outcome document of the special session. It would have the Assembly express deep concern at the persistence of violence and crimes against women in all parts of the world, especially economic and commercial sexual exploitation. It would stress that all forms of violence, including crimes against women, were obstacles to the advancement and empowerment of women, and would stress the need to treat all forms of violence against women as a criminal offence punishable by law. It would reaffirm increased awareness and commitment to preventing and combating such crimes, urging States to strengthen awareness and preventive measures through, among other ways, media and educational campaigns. States would also be asked to fulfil obligations under human rights instruments and to implement the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome document of the special session. The United Nations system would be asked to assist countries in efforts to prevent and eliminate violence against women.

Draft IV on improving the status of women in the United Nations system was approved on 20 November. By it, the Assembly would strongly request the Secretary-General to appoint more women as envoys of his good offices, especially in areas of peacekeeping, peace-building, preventive diplomacy and economic and social development. He would also be asked to appoint more women to other high- level positions and to develop innovative recruitment strategies. Those would be aimed at attracting qualified women candidates, particularly from developing countries, countries with economies in transition, and States that are under- represented in the Secretariat. Further selection would aim to fill positions where women are under-represented. The Assembly would also request the Secretary- General to intensify efforts to create a gender-sensitive work environment supportive of both men's and women's needs, to strengthen the policy against harassment and to monitor progress in meeting the 50/50 gender distribution goal.

Further by the draft, the Assembly would strongly encourage Member States to support efforts towards achieving the 50/50 gender distribution, especially at the D-1 level and above. They would do so by identifying women candidates for appointment to intergovernmental, judicial and expert bodies, by encouraging women to apply for positions within the United Nations system, by identifying women candidates for peace-building missions and by improving the representation of women in military and civilian police contingents. Finally, States would be encouraged to appoint women permanent representatives to United Nations missions and to heads of delegations dealing with major economic, social, security, human rights and humanitarian issues.

Regarding the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, draft V was approved on 19 October. By it, the General Assembly would express disappointment that universal ratification of the Convention had not been met by the year 2000 and would urge ratification of both the Convention and its Optional Protocol. It would urge States to submit their reports on implementation and to cooperate fully with the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women in presenting those reports. The Assembly would request the Secretary-General to provide resources, including staff and facilities, for effective functioning of the Committee, in particular with regard to the Optional Protocol's entry into force. The Secretary-General would be asked to report on the status and implementation of the Convention at the Assembly's fifty-sixth session, with governments, the United Nations system and non- governmental organizations being asked to disseminate the Convention and the Optional Protocol and to assist States in implementing the Convention.

Approved on 6 November, draft VI on the critical situation of the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) would have the Assembly express grave concern that revitalization and fund-raising had not raised enough contributions to keep INSTRAW operating beyond 31 December. The Council would also express grave concern over the lack of resources to ensure the future of the only research and training institute for the advancement of women in the United Nations system. It would decide that the Institute's core activities would be funded from the regular budget as of 1 January 2001. Requesting the Secretary-General to ensure continuity of the Director's role, the Assembly would urge all States and organizations to contribute to the INSTRAW Trust Fund. Programme budget implications are outlined in draft VII, which recalls that the INSTRAW resolution would have the Assembly decide to provide financial assistance to INSTRAW on a non-recurrent basis. That assistance would be provided from the regular budget in a manner to be decided by the Fifth Committee (Administrative and Budgetary).

Report on Fourth World Conference and Special Session

A single draft resolution on follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and the 2000 special session of the General Assembly on Women (document A/55/596) was approved without a vote on 26 October. By it, the Assembly would call on governments and the United Nations system to implement the 1995 Beijing Platform of Action and to disseminate the special session's outcome document. The Assembly would strongly encourage governments to support civil society in those actions, reaffirming the central role of the Commission on the Status of Women in monitoring, assessing and accelerating implementation, recognizing at the same time the importance of regional and subregional monitoring of global and regional platforms. Finally, the Assembly would reaffirm the Platform and the special session's outcome as the basis for further actions, inviting States to report on measures taken and requesting the Secretary-General to report on progress.

Report on Refugees

The Committee's report on issues related to refugees, including the High Commissioner's report and humanitarian questions, contains six resolutions (document A/55/597) and one decision. Each resolution as a whole was approved without a vote, while a paragraph in the draft on the High Commissioner's Office was approved by a recorded vote.

Resolution I on enlarging the Executive Committee of the Programme of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees would have the Assembly decide to enlarge the Committee's membership from 57 to 58 States. The Assembly would request the Economic and Social Council to elect the additional member at its resumed organizational session for 2001. The draft was approved on 8 November.

Approved on 10 November, a draft on the new international humanitarian order would have the Assembly urge governments, organizations and non-State actors to support the Secretary-General's initiatives for promoting compliance with international humanitarian laws in situations of armed conflict and complex emergencies. It would invite the Independent Bureau for Humanitarian Issues to strengthen its activities, including cooperation with the United Nations system, and would ask the Secretary-General to report on progress at the Assembly's fifty- seventh session.

The Assembly would stress the importance of international solidarity, burden-sharing and cooperation in reinforcing protection of refugees by draft III on the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees, approved on 10 November. The Assembly would also condemn acts threatening the security and well-being of refugees and asylum-seekers, urging States to uphold the civilian and humanitarian character of refugee camps and settlements. States as well as organizations would also be urged to support the High Commissioner's search for durable solutions and to explore capacity-building initiatives as part of a comprehensive approach to addressing refugee issues. In addition, States and other parties would be urged to observe principles of human rights and refugee law of particular relevance to children and adolescents, even as the Assembly underscored the particular role of elderly refugees within the refugee family. Paragraph 20, relating to internally displaced persons, was approved by a recorded vote of 118 in favour to none against, with 30 abstentions.

Resolution IV on the High Commissioner's pledging conference was approved on 10 November. It would have the Assembly note its endorsement of a unified annual programme budget for the Office. It would further note that financial requirements for the Office were presented in the Global Appeal issued each November/December in Geneva. The Assembly would then decide to improve and rationalize the funding mechanism beyond adoption of the annual programme.

The Assembly would pay tribute to the dedication of humanitarian workers by draft V on the fiftieth Anniversary of the UNHCR Office and World Refugee Day, approved on 10 November. The Assembly would also note that the Organization of African Unity (OAU) had agreed to have International Refugee Day coincide with Africa Refugee Day on 20 June. It would therefore decide that the date of 20 June would be commemorated as World Refugee Day.

Resolution VI on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa was also approved on 10 November. By it, the Assembly would note with concern that the declining socio-economic situation, compounded by political instability, internal strife, human rights violations and natural disasters, had led to increased numbers of refugees and displaced persons in some African countries. The Assembly would express particular concern about the impact of large-scale refugee populations on the security and conditions of asylum countries, and by instances jeopardizing the fundamental principle of asylum, such as unlawful expulsions. The Assembly would deplore injuries, death and other forms of violence sustained by the High Commissioner's staff and would urge States and other actors to protect activities related to humanitarian assistance. Expressing grave concern about the plight of internally displaced persons in Africa and calling on States to preempt internal displacement, the Assembly would urge the international community to generously fund UNHCR's programmes, with an eye towards turning a fair and equitable portion of resources to refugees in Africa.

By decision I, the Assembly would take note of the report of the High Commissioner for Refugees. It would also take note of the Secretary-General's report on follow-up to the regional conference on the displaced in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and neighbouring States.

Report on the Rights of Children

The Committee's report on protecting and promoting the rights of children contains one decision and two resolutions approved without vote (document A/55/598). Draft I on the girl child was approved on 26 October. By that draft, the Assembly would urge States to sign and ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention on Eliminating Discrimination against Women. It would urge the strengthening of efforts to achieve the commitment contained in the Millennium Declaration, among others, for eliminating gender disparities in education. Further, it would urge States to undertake measures and institute legal reforms to ensure full and equal enjoyment by the girl child of all human rights and fundamental freedoms, as well as to take action against violations.

Further by the draft, the Assembly would urge States to enact and enforce laws to ensure that marriage was entered into freely and to protect girls from all forms of violence, including female infanticide, genital mutilation and prenatal sex selection. It would urge establishment of programmes for those who had been abused and the taking of special measures to protect war-affected girls. Finally, it would urge States to formulate comprehensive national plans to eliminate violence against women and girls. Among numerous other actions encouraged by the resolution, the Assembly would request the Secretary-General to ensure integration of issues concerning the girl child in the preparatory work for the special session of the General Assembly on follow-up to the World Summit for Children in 2001. It would also call for including the gender perspective, along with an address of the needs and rights of the girl child, in preparatory work for the September 2001 special session on children.

The seven-part draft II on the rights of the child, approved on 9 November, calls for bearing in mind the special session when seeking actions on the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its optional protocols. By that draft, the Assembly would also stress the importance of integrating child-related issues into the work of the World Conference against racism, the United Nations Conference on Illicit Trade in Small Arms, and the special session on HIV/AIDS. By Part I, on implementing the Convention, the Assembly would urge States to sign or accede to the Convention and to implement it with due weight to the views of children, involving them in activities, and emphasizing the prevention of substance abuse by children.

By Part II, on protecting and promoting the rights of children, the Assembly would call for registration of children, respect for their right to preserve identity and to nurture by parents. The Assembly would call on States to address illegal adoptions and those in armed conflict situations, calling also for specific actions to protect the child's welfare regarding health, education and freedom from violence. By Part III, on protecting the rights of children in vulnerable situations, the Assembly would call on governments to address the problems causing children to work and/or live on the streets. It would call for policies and programmes to protect and rehabilitate such children, also calling for the provision of basic social services to counteract the economic imperatives for children's involvement in harmful, exploitative or abusive activity. The Assembly would emphasize the need to combat torture, abuse, violence and killing of street children, as well as special protection for migrant children and children with disabilities.

Part IV calls for actions to prevent and eradicate sale of children and their sexual exploitation. The Assembly would call on States to cooperate with the Special Rapporteur on the matter. States would be called on to criminalize and penalize all forms of sexual exploitation and abuse of children, including within the family or for commercial purposes. The need to combat the existence of a market encouraging such criminal practices against children would be stressed. Part V calls for protecting children in armed conflict. It would have the Assembly call on the United Nations system to intensify cooperation for a concerted approach to the rights and welfare of children in armed conflict. The Assembly would urge States and parties to conflict to respect international humanitarian law and to end any form of targeting children, including by recruiting them as soldiers. Further, the Assembly would call for demobilizing and disarming Noting the impact of small arms on children in situations of armed conflict, the Assembly would recommend monitoring their effect.

Part VI, on eliminating child labour, would have the Assembly call on States to ratify the conventions of the International Labour Organization (ILO) and to translate them into concrete, time-bound actions, urging elimination of the worst forms of child labour. Part VII would request the Secretary-General and his Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict to submit reports both to the Commission on Human Rights and to the Assembly.

By decision I, the Assembly would take note of the Secretary-General's report on the status of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Report on Indigenous People

The Committee's report on the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People (1994-2004) contains a single draft resolution approved without vote on 26 October (document A/55/599). By that draft, the Assembly would welcome the Economic and Social Council's July decision to establish a Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues as a subsidiary organ of the Council. It would encourage governments to support the Decade by preparing programmes, establishing national committees and contributing to the Trust Fund for the Decade. The Assembly would also encourage contributions to the Voluntary Fund, which enables indigenous representatives to participate in the Working Group on Indigenous Populations, and in the working group developing a draft declaration on the rights of indigenous people. The Assembly would invite the United Nations system to give priority and resources to improving the conditions of indigenous people, launching projects and designating focal points for coordination of activities. Finally, the Assembly would emphasize the importance of indigenous people participating in world conferences, in particular the 2001 World Conference against racism to be held in South Africa.

Report on Eliminating Racism

Four resolutions and a decision are contained in the Committee's report on the elimination of racism and racial discrimination (document A/55/600). All were approved without vote.

Draft I is a three-part resolution concerning the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. Approved on 26 October, it would have the Assembly note reports of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and would commend its efforts to implement the Convention. It would express concern at the great number of overdue reports and would encourage States to use the advisory services and technical assistance provided by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Finally, the Committee and States would be encouraged to participate in preparing for the World Conference against racism in 2001, the International Year of Mobilization against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance.

By Part II, the Assembly would express profound concern that States had not fulfilled obligations to the Convention. It would strongly appeal for fulfilling financial obligations and would urge acceleration of domestic ratification procedures to amend financing of the Committee as set out in the Convention. The Secretary-General would be asked to invite States to pay arrears. Part III would have the Assembly urge States to ratify or accede to the Convention and to limit reservations.

Approved on 8 November, draft II on measures to be taken against neo-Nazi activities and related ideologies and practices based on racial or ethnic discrimination or superiority would have the Assembly again resolutely condemn such activities and express its determination to resist them. The Assembly would affirm that all States were responsible for combating those activities and would call on governments to promote and encourage respect for human rights, and to promote awareness of needing to fight hateful ideologies. States would be urged to institute measures for eradicating such activities and the Secretary-General would be asked to include a listing of such measures in his report to the 2001 World Conference against racism.

Resolution III, on measures to combat contemporary forms of racism and other forms of intolerance, was approved on 8 November. By it, the Assembly would express full support for the work of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary racism, commending the Committee on eliminating racial discrimination for its role in implementing the Convention on that issue. Reaffirming that acts of racist violence were offences rather than expressions of opinion, the Assembly would declare racism to be among the most serious violations of human rights, meriting combat by all means. States would be urged to not condone or ignore any dissemination of ideas and materials based on racial superiority or hatred.

The Assembly would express profound concern about all forms of racism and would unequivocally condemn them, expressing equal concern about manifestations of racism. It would express great concern about the increase in racial and xenophobic violence all over the world despite all efforts. It would encourage States to include tolerance in their educational agendas and to take all measures to eradicate racism. It would condemn the misuse of the media and new information technologies to incite violence motivated by racial hatred, urging States to cooperate with the Special Rapporteur in fulfilling his mandate, including in examining incidents of contemporary racism against Blacks, Arabs, Muslims and Semites.

Resolution III is a four-part draft on the Third Decade to Combat Racism and the 2001 World Conference against Racism, approved on 10 November. Part I would have the Assembly urge governments not to ignore dissemination of ideas based on racial superiority or hatred. It would urge them to take all necessary measures to combat new forms of racism, in particular by constantly adapting legislative, judicial, administrative, educational and informational means already available. It would urge them to become parties to the Convention against racism, to limit reservations to it and to intensify efforts to meet obligations by declaring punishable any dissemination of ideas or forming of organizations based on racial superiority. Finally, the Assembly would urge a special focus on the situation of indigenous people.

By Part II, the Assembly would welcome the slogan adopted by the Preparatory Committee for the World Conference, "united to combat racism: equality, justice, dignity". The Secretary-General would be asked to ensure financing for the preparatory process while he and the High Commissioner for Human Rights would be asked to mobilize resources for conference activities. The High Commissioner would also be asked to promote the Conference, with segments of the world community being asked to build momentum for it. The Assembly would welcome regional preparatory conferences by the Council of Europe, Senegal, Iran and Chile and would welcome the themes adopted by the Preparatory Committee. It would appeal to States for generous contributions to the World Conference voluntary fund, and would decide to hold the Conference in Durban, South Africa, from 31 August to 7 September 2001.

By Part III, the Assembly would strongly reaffirm 2001 as the International Year of Mobilization against Racism and would call for observation of the Year, including through programmes of action that would emphasize implementation of the activities within the framework of the World Conference. By Part IV, the Assembly would decide to keep the item on its agenda.

By draft decision I on the Committee to eliminate racial discrimination, the Assembly would take note of a decision in the Committee's report and refer the issue back to the Committee for further consideration and consultations with States parties to the Convention.

Report on Self-Determination

Three draft resolutions are contained in the Committee's report on self- determination (document A/55/601). Two were approved without a vote, including draft I on the universal realization of the right of peoples to self- determination, approved on 26 October. It would have the Assembly declare its firm opposition to acts of foreign military intervention, aggression and occupation. The Assembly would also deplore the plight of millions of refugees and displaced persons uprooted as a result of those actions. It would request the Commission on Human Rights to give special attention to the violations of human rights that result from foreign military aggression, especially the right to self- determination.

Draft II, on the use of mercenaries to violate human rights and impede self- determination, was also approved without a vote on 26 November. By it, the Assembly would urge utmost vigilance against the menace posed by mercenary activities. States would be urged to take legislative measures to ensure their territories and nationals were not used for recruitment or involvement in mercenary activities, whether for overthrowing a government, promoting secession, fighting for national liberation or any form of alien domination or occupation. It would urge full cooperation with the Special Rapporteur on mercenary activity and would request the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to give high priority to combating mercenary activity. It would request the Secretary-General to invite governments to make proposals for a clearer legal definition of mercenaries.

On the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination, draft III was approved on 6 November by a recorded vote of 147 in favour to 2 against (Israel and United States), with 3 abstentions (Canada, Marshall Islands and Tonga). By that, the Assembly would reaffirm the Palestinian people's rights, including the right to a State. It would express the hope that the Palestinian people would soon be exercising that right in the peace process, and would urge all States and the United Nations system to continue assisting the Palestinian people in their quest for self-determination.

Report on Human Rights

The Committee's overall report on human rights issues (document A/55/602) contains a single draft decision I, by which the Assembly would take note of documents related to its reports on other aspects of human rights. Pertaining to human rights questions, including instruments, the Assembly would take note of five documents. Those include the Secretary-General's reports on the Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture (document A/55/178); the status of the Voluntary Fund for Contemporary Forms of Slavery (document A/55/204); the status of the Convention on Genocide (document A/55/207); and the status of the Convention on torture and related treatment (document A/55/208). In addition, the Assembly would take note of the Secretary-General's note on enhancing the human rights treaty monitoring system.

On alternative approaches towards human rights, the Assembly would take note of four documents. Included are the Secretary-General's reports on the protection of minors (document A/55/275 and Add.1) and on the right to development (document A/55/283). Also noted would be the Human Rights Commissioner's report on the right to development as transmitted by the Secretary-General's note (document A/55/302) and the Secretariat's note on human rights and unilateral coercive measures (document A/55/214 and Add.1).

The Assembly would take note of four documents concerning human rights situations. Those include human rights in Rwanda, presented by the Special Representative and transmitted by the Secretary-General (document A/55/269); human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Croatia and Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a periodic report by the Special Rapporteur and transmitted by the Secretary-General (A/55/282); and in Burundi, an interim report by the Special Rapporteur as transmitted by the Secretary-General (document A/55/358). A note by the Secretary-General reports on human rights in southern Lebanon and western Bekaa (document A/44/400), while a note by the Secretariat reports on the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (document A/55/318).

Report on Human Rights Instruments

The report on human rights questions, including instruments, contains three resolutions approved without a vote (document A/55/602/Add.1). Draft I on the Convention to protect the rights of migrant workers and their families was approved on 6 November. It would have the Assembly express deep concern at the growing manifestations of racism and other forms of discrimination and degrading treatment directed against migrant workers in different parts of the world. In view of the tenth anniversary of the Convention's adoption, it would call on States to act upon the instrument. It would welcome the Special Rapporteur's work relative to the Convention and would ask the Secretary-General to continue reporting on the situation.

Also approved on 6 November, draft II on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment would have the Assembly condemn all forms of torture, including through intimidation, as described in the Convention against torture. It would stress that national authorities should examine all allegations of torture, that perpetrators should be severely punished and that legal systems should ensure fair compensation and rehabilitation for victims. It would urge the inter-sessional open-ended Working Group of the Commission on Human Rights to complete a final text of a draft optional protocol on monitoring and implementing the Convention, asking the Special Rapporteur to examine questions of torture, particularly of children. Stressing the need for a regular exchange of views between the Committee, the Special Rapporteur and others of the United Nations system, the Assembly would stress the need to improve effectiveness through cooperation, in particular with the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme.

The Assembly would express appreciation for contributions to the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture, stressing the importance of the Fund's Board of Trustees in view of the ever-increasing demands made on the Fund. Inviting States to include provisions for preventing torture in bilateral agreements, the Assembly would call for observing the International Day in Support of Victims of Torture on 26 June. An annex contains the principles on investigating and documenting torture and related inhuman punishments.

By draft III on implementing the human rights instruments, including reporting obligations, the Assembly would encourage each treaty body to consider the recommendations of the joint chairpersons' meetings, also encouraging cooperation between the bodies. It would call for the Secretary-General to arrange administrative support and better access to technical expertise for the treaty bodies from the regular budget, and would encourage efforts to identify measures to more effectively implement the instruments, urging States to contribute to the effort. Further urging States to follow up on the bodies' observations, the Assembly would also urge them to translate, publish and make widely available the full texts of their reports to the treaty bodies. The Committee approved that draft on 9 November.

Report on Alternative Approaches to Human Rights

The report on alternative approaches to human rights contains 21 resolutions, six approved by recorded vote (document A/55/602/Add.2). Resolution I on human rights and cultural diversity was approved on 9 November without a vote. By that, the Assembly would affirm the importance for all people and nations to hold, develop and preserve their cultural heritage and traditions in a national and international atmosphere of peace, tolerance and mutual respect. It would affirm the need for the international community to ensure that globalization promoted respect for cultural diversity. It would further affirm that inter- cultural dialogue enriched the universality of human rights and that manifestations of cultural prejudice and intolerance generated hatred. Emphasizing that promotion of cultural pluralism and tolerance was important for enhancing respect for cultural rights, the Assembly would call on the international community to recognize and promote respect for cultural diversity. It would ask the Secretary-General to report on the phenomenon at the Assembly's next session.

Resolution II, on protection of migrants, was approved on 9 November by a recorded vote of 151 in favour to none against, with 9 abstentions (India, Israel, Jamaica, Kenya, Malaysia, Micronesia, Myanmar, Singapore and United States). It would have the Assembly strongly condemn all forms of racial discrimination and xenophobia with regard to employment, vocational training, housing and other services. Reaffirming States' obligations to safeguard and protect the rights of migrants, the Assembly would call on States to review and revise immigration policies to eliminate discriminatory practices, also urging States to adopt measures to end arbitrary arrest and detention of migrants. Finally, the Assembly would welcome close cooperation between the Special Rapporteur on migrants' human rights and the Preparatory Committee for the 2001 World Conference against racism.

Approved on 8 November without a vote, the Assembly would proclaim 18 December as International Migrants' Day by draft resolution III. The Assembly would further ask the Secretary-General to bring the resolution to the attention of all governments and to that of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations.

Draft IV on the Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) and public information activities in the field of human rights would have the Assembly take note of the Human Rights High Commissioner's report on the Decade's midterm evaluation. The Assembly would urge implementation of the Programme of Action, urging governments to encourage, support and involve national and local non- governmental and community-based organizations. The Assembly would encourage the Office of the High Commissioner to support national capacity for human rights activities. It would urge the Department of Public Information (DPI) to utilize information centres for the purpose, and would stress the importance of coordinating and collaborating between the United Nations system and all actors. The draft was approved on 8 November.

By draft V, approved without a vote on 8 November, the Assembly would note with concern the continuing problems with the rule of law and the judiciary for the situation of human rights in Cambodia. The Assembly would urge the government to develop an effective judicial system, including by adopting the draft statute on magistrates, a penal code and a code on criminal procedures. The Assembly would urge reform of administering justice, appealing for international assistance to achieve it. Further, the Assembly would express concern about the prevalence of impunity, child labour in its worst forms, the condition of prisons, the violations of human rights and the effect of anti-personnel landmines. Expressing concern about the preponderance of small arms, the Assembly would commend efforts to curb them and would urge an end to racial violence and vilification of ethnic minorities.

Approved on 9 November, by a recorded vote of 145 in favour to none against with 14 abstentions, draft VI on promoting and consolidating democracy would have the Assembly call on States to take specific measures and initiatives to promote pluralism and respect for human rights, strengthen the rule of law, implement free and fair electoral systems and legal frameworks, advance good governance, encourage sustainable development, enhance social cohesion and solidarity, and strengthen capabilities.

By draft VII, on eliminating all forms of religious intolerance, as approved on 10 November without a vote, the Assembly would urge States to ensure that their constitutional and legal systems provided guarantees of freedom of thought, conscience, religion and belief, including by providing for effective remedies in instances of violation. The Assembly would urge that no one within a State's jurisdiction be deprived of those rights, and that States take actions to prevent such deprivations. All States would be urged to combat intolerance and acts of violence, as well as to educate public officials against discrimination based on religion or belief. The Assembly would emphasize that restrictions on the right to manifest beliefs should be proscribed only to protect the public welfare, and would express grave concern at any attack upon religious places, sites and shrines. Finally, the Assembly would call for coordination by the United Nations system to achieve those ends.

The Assembly would call on States to promote the Declaration on the right and responsibility to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms by draft VIII, approved without a vote on 9 November. The Assembly would invite governments to cooperate with the special representative on human rights defenders and would request the United Nations system to cooperate in implementing the Declaration programme.

Draft IX on strengthening the rule of law was also approved without a vote on 9 November. It would have the Assembly express its deep concern at the scarce means by which the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights fulfilled its tasks. It would note with concern that the Programme of Advisory Services and Technical Assistance in Human Rights had insufficient funds for national projects. The Assembly would welcome cooperation within the United Nations system on behalf of the rule of law, affirming the High Commissioner as the focal point for coordinating system-wide attention. The Assembly would also encourage initiatives for further efforts.

Approved on 8 November by a recorded vote of 96 in favour to 2 against (United States and Albania) with 63 abstentions, draft X on respect for the right to freedom of travel and family reunification would have the Assembly call on States to guarantee the right for all foreign nationals residing in their territory. The Assembly would call on States to allow the free flow of financial remittances and to refrain from legislation discriminating against migrants.

Draft XI, on respect for the Charter with regard to promoting human rights, was approved on 10 November by a recorded vote of 78 in favour to 51 against, with 21 abstentions. By it, the Assembly would stress the vital role of the United Nations and regional arrangements in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and in solving international problems of humanitarian character. It would reaffirm that no State(s) had the right to intervene in another's affairs and that armed interference violated international law. The Assembly would call on States to cooperate in searching for peaceful solutions to international humanitarian problems and to comply with principles and norms of international law.

By a vote of 99 in favour to 44 against, with 15 abstentions, draft XII on globalization and its impact on human rights was approved on 10 November. The Assembly would express concern that globalization brought severe challenges for the developing world while holding the promise of prosperity. It would stress the need to monitor globalization, as a complex historical process of structural transformations with numerous interdisciplinary aspects impacting on human rights.

Also approved on 10 November but without a vote, resolution XIII on enforced or involuntary disappearances would have the Assembly urge governments to take legislative or other steps to prevent and suppress the practice of enforced disappearances, in keeping with the Declaration on protecting persons from enforced disappearances. The Assembly would urge States to work with the United Nations on national and regional actions, including through technical assistance. It would urge States to protect the families of the disappeared, recalling that the Working Group was a channel of communications between families and governments. The Group would be invited to identify obstacles and consider the question of impunity, with the Commission on Human Rights called on to follow up. The Secretary-General would be asked to report on implementing the resolution at the Assembly's fifty-seventh session.

Resolution XIV on strengthening action for human rights by promoting cooperation and the value of non-selectivity, impartiality and objectivity was approved on 8 November without a vote. By that, the Assembly would express the conviction that an unbiased approach to human rights contributed to promoting both cooperation and the securing of the rights. In that context, the Assembly would stress the need for impartial and objective information on the political, economic and social situations and events of countries. It would invite States to adopt measures that would promote cooperation in the encouragement of respect for human rights, requesting the Commission on Human Rights to consider proposals for strengthening action in the field.

The Assembly would stress the importance of the technical cooperation programme in the field of human rights by resolution XV on regional arrangements for promoting and protecting human rights. Approved on 8 November without a vote, the draft would have the Assembly appeal for governments to use the programme in organizing national information or training courses for government personnel on how to apply the human rights standards and experience. The Assembly would recall regional mechanisms already in place for promoting human rights, and would invite States in areas without such mechanisms to enter into agreements securing them. The Secretary-General would be asked to strengthen exchanges between the United Nations and regional intergovernmental human rights organizations. He would also be asked to make available resources from the technical cooperation portion of the regular budget to fund activities of the Office of the High Commissioner intended to promote regional arrangements. Finally, it would ask the Commission on Human Rights to assist countries and offer recommendations, asking the Secretary-General to report on regional arrangements at the Assembly's fifty-seventh session.

The Assembly would reaffirm that extreme poverty and exclusion from society constituted a violation of human dignity by resolution XVI on human rights and extreme poverty. It would further reaffirm the need for national and international action to eliminate the ills, with States fostering participation of the poorest in the decision-making processes, particularly in planning and implementing policies enabling them to become partners in development. The Assembly would emphasize that extreme poverty was a major issue to be addressed by all elements of the international community, and would reaffirm that since widespread absolute poverty rendered democracy fragile, the commitments on development and poverty eradication contained in the Millennium Declaration were also reaffirmed. Inviting the High Commissioner for Human Rights to give attention to the question within the framework of implementing the Decade for eradicating poverty (1997-2006), the Assembly would call upon States and the United Nations system to consider the links between human rights and extreme poverty. The draft was approved on 8 November.

Draft XVII on promoting a democratic and equitable international order was approved on 10 November by a recorded vote of 91 in favour to 50 against, with 13 abstentions. By the draft, the Assembly would affirm principles about the equality of opportunity for all in pursuing a democratic and equitable international order. Those include the right to development, peace, representation and participation in an international information and communication order based on freer flow to and from developing countries. The Assembly would stress the importance of preserving the diversity of the international community and the universality of rights. It would reaffirm that all States should promote international peace and security and that the international community should devise ways and means to remove obstacles and meet challenges to realizing human rights. Finally, the Assembly would urge States to cooperatively promote a democratic and equitable international order.

On the right to development, draft XVIII would have the Assembly reiterate that the essence of the right was the principle that the human person was the central subject of development, and that the right to life included the minimum necessities of life. It would also reiterate that widespread absolute poverty inhibited the enjoyment of human rights and that for peace and stability to endure, national and international action and cooperation were required to eradicate poverty. The Assembly would reaffirm tenets about democracy, development and respect for human rights, welcoming the holding of the first session of the Working Group on the Right to Development and encouraging the second session scheduled for January 2001. The Assembly would take note of coordination mechanisms and initiatives within the United Nations system for promoting implementation of the right to development, also urging support for implementing the resolution of the Commission on Human Rights regarding the right to development. The draft was approved without a vote on 8 November.

Resolution XIX on enhancing international cooperation in the field of human rights was approved without a vote on 8 November. It would have the Assembly reaffirm that advancement of human rights was a purpose of the United Nations and a responsibility of all States. It would further reaffirm that such advancement of rights should be guided by the principles of universality, non-selectivity, objectivity and transparency, as set out in the Charter. Dialogue and consultations to enhance understanding of rights would be called for.

Draft XX, on human rights and unilateral coercive measures, would have the Assembly reject unilateral coercive measures, with all their extraterritorial effects, as tools for political or economic pressure against any country because of the negative effect on realizing human rights. The Assembly would reaffirm the right of all peoples to self-determination, urging the Commission on Human Rights to take fully into account the negative impact of such measures in implementing the right to development. The Assembly would ask the High Commissioner to give priority to the resolution in her annual report to the Assembly, asking the Secretary-General to bring the resolution to States' attention.

Also approved without a vote on 9 November, draft XXI on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions would have the Assembly demand that all governments take action to combat and eliminate the phenomenon in all its forms. The Assembly would strongly condemn such executions throughout the world and would call on States still applying the death penalty to comply with their obligations under international human rights instruments. Governments would be called on to promptly and thoroughly investigate all killings committed in the name of passion or honour, those of people involved in peaceful activities, such as human rights defenders or journalists, and those of all whose right to life was violated extrajudicially. The investigations would aim to bring to justice those responsible and ensure such killings were neither condoned nor sanctioned by government officials.

Report on Human Rights Situations

Four of the eight resolutions contained in the report on human rights situations were approved by a recorded vote (document A/55/602/Add.3). Resolution I, on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, was approved without a vote on 8 November. By it, the Assembly would deplore human rights violations in Myanmar, urging the Government to cooperate with the Special Rapporteur, cease activities preventing the free exercise of human rights, release all detained leaders and take into account its own assurances to restore democracy. Noting with grave concern the failure to cease the practice of forced labour or to implement recommendations of the ILO, the Assembly would strongly urge enactment of legislation against such practices. Further deploring violations of human rights and recruitment of child soldiers, the Assembly would express grave concern at the high rates of malnutrition among children and the growing incidence of HIV/AIDS infection. It would urge the Government to end the systematic displacement of people, to implement recommendations of the Committee on eliminating discrimination against women, and to ensure full respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

The situation of human rights in parts of south-eastern Europe is addressed by resolution II, approved on 10 November without a vote. By that draft, the Assembly would reiterate its call for implementing the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the annexes thereto. It would stress the crucial role of human rights and the need for enhanced international efforts to effect the voluntary return of displaced persons and refugees in safety and dignity. It would condemn the growing problem of trafficking in women and would urge all parties to the Peace Agreement to cooperate with the International Tribunal.

Further, the Assembly would condemn harassment of returning refugees and internally displaced persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Also condemning religious discrimination and manipulation of the press there, the Assembly would welcome the admission of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to membership in the United Nations but would call on authorities to take other concrete steps about conditions. In Kosovo, the Assembly would stress the importance of ethnic minorities returning, of suppressing harassment, and of cooperating with the Interim Administration Mission and the Kosovo Force. Expressing concern about the forced ethnic division of any part of Kosovo, the Assembly would urge all parties to strengthen a multi-ethnic society with the Special Rapporteur in the region monitoring the situation.

By a recorded vote of 58 in favour to 53 against, with 48 abstentions, draft III on the situation of human rights in Iran was approved on 9 November. By it, the Assembly would call on the Government to invite the Special Representative to visit the country and cooperate with him, and to give effect to its invitation to the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances to visit Iran. The Assembly would also call on the Government to ensure that capital punishment will be imposed for only the most serious crimes and will not be pronounced in disregard of international safeguards, and to provide the Special Representative with relevant statistics on the matter. The Government would also be called on to accelerate investigating suspicious deaths and killings of intellectuals and political activists, and to bring alleged perpetrators to justice. Also, it would be called on to eliminate all forms of discrimination based on religious grounds or against minorities, and to take measures promoting the enjoyment of human rights by women.

Again, by a recorded vote on 9 November, draft IV on the human rights situation in Iraq was approved by a count of 89 in favour to 2 against (Libya and Sudan), with 56 abstentions. The draft would have the Assembly strongly condemn the systematic, widespread and extremely grave violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, which resulted in an all-pervasive repression and oppression sustained by broad-based discrimination and terror. The Assembly would call on the Government to abide by its freely assumed international obligations and to ensure the rights of all individuals within its jurisdiction, irrespective of origin, ethnicity, gender or religion. The Assembly would call on the Government to cooperate with the United Nations human rights mechanisms, in particular by inviting the Special Rapporteur to visit the country and by allowing human rights monitors into Iraq.

Draft V on the situation of human rights in the Sudan was approved on 10 November by a recorded vote of 75 in favour to 30 against, with 45 abstentions. By that, the Assembly would welcome the Sudan’s efforts to improve freedoms of expression, association and assembly, including by adopting the Political Organization Act of 2000 and creating high commission to review the Law on Public Order. It would also welcome efforts on education, release of prisoners, shelter of refugees and commitments to desist from recruiting child soldiers. The Assembly would, however, express deep concern over the breakdown of the ceasefire in June, the upsurge of armed confrontations and acts of intimidation against the civilian population.

Therefore, by the draft, the Assembly would urge all parties to take actions for peace and an environment of respect for human rights by immediately stopping the use of weapons against civilians, by cooperating with the Intergovernmental Authority on Development and by allowing independent investigation into outstanding cases of human rights abuses. The Government would also be called on for intiatives to strengthen the rule of law through legislation and to avoid severe, inhuman punishments. The Government would also be urged to dialogue with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, with the Office encouraged to consider assisting the Sudan and the international community called upon to expand support for activities in the Sudan.

Draft VI, on human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, was approved on 10 November by a recorded vote of 94 in favour to 4 against (Rwanda, Sudan, Syria and Uganda), with 55 abstentions. It would have the Assembly welcome the general amnesty for the Lusaka Agreement, the commitment by the Government to cooperate with the United Nations and the steps leading to repatriation of refugees and release of prisoners. However, the Assembly would express concern at the adverse impact of conflict, the continued violations of the Lusaka Agreement and the preoccupying situation of human rights in the country.

Therefore, by the draft, all parties would be urged to implement provisions of the Lusaka Agreement and to facilitate re-establishment of the Government's authority as agreed in the Inter-Congolese political negotiations of the Agreement. Stressing the need for an all-inclusive political dialogue to achieve national reconciliation and hold democratic elections, the Assembly would call on the Government to comply with international obligations, including by reforming its judicial system, ensuring freedoms and ending impunity.

On the situation of human rights in Haiti, draft VII was approved on 10 November without a vote. By that, the Assembly would stress the need for the Haitian National Police to undertake more effective efforts to improve its performance and efficiency within a framework of respect for human rights to curb the alarming increase in insecurity in the country. Those efforts would include the use of technical assistance, training and education. Further, governments would be asked to provide Haiti's Government with information and documentation enabling the prosecution of perpetrators of human rights violations to reinforce efforts already made by Haitian authorities to combat impunity and facilitate the reconciliation process. The Assembly would also invite the international community, including the Bretton Woods institutions, to consider continued involvement in Haiti's reconstruction and development.

Resolution VIII on the question of human rights in Afghanistan was approved without a vote on 9 November. By it, the Assembly would strongly condemn the mass killing and systematic human rights violations in areas of Afghanistan, noting with alarm the resumption of wider conflict over the summer by the Taliban. The Assembly would note with deep concern the sharp deterioration of the humanitarian situation in many areas and would urge States to refrain from interfering in Afghanistan's internal affairs. Stressing the need for national reconciliation and establishing the rule of law, the Assembly would urge legislative and other measures to end violations of girls' and women's rights. In view of the Assembly's grave concern over recent reports of summary executions in Taliban-held areas, and at reports of attacks on cultural artefacts, parties would be urged to respect all human rights instruments and to cooperate with the Human Rights Commission and with special rapporteurs.

Report on Implementing Vienna Declaration

The Committee's report on implementing the Vienna Declaration outlines consideration of the item (document A/55/602/Add.4). The report states that no proposals were submitted and no actions were taken with regard to it.

Report on High Commissioner's Report

The Committee's report on that of the High Commissioner for Human Rights summarizes consideration of the item (document A/55/602/Add.5). No proposals were submitted and no actions taken with regard to the item, according to the report.

Economic and Social Council Report

Two draft decisions are contained in the Committee's report on that of the Council (document A/55/603). By decision I, the Assembly would approve the Committee's organization of work and biennial programme of work for 2001-2002, as contained in annexes I and II, respectively. By decision II, the Assembly would note sections of the Council's report relevant to the Committee's work.

Action on Third Committee Reports

When the Assembly met this afternoon, Anzhela Korneliouk (Belarus), the Rapporteur of the Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural) introduced the Committee’s 18 reports. She brought to the Assembly’s attention a number of technical changes that had been made earlier.

Social Development

The Assembly then took up the Committee’s report on social development (document A/55/591), which contained a draft resolution on the 2001 International Year of Volunteers. It was adopted without a vote.

International Year of Older Persons

The Assembly next took up the Committee’s report on follow-up to the International Year of Older Persons (document A/55/592) containing a draft resolution on the 2002 second World Assembly on Ageing as a follow-up to the 1999 International Year of Older Persons. It was adopted without a vote.

Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

Next, the Assembly took up the six resolutions in the Committee’s report on crime prevention and criminal justice (document A/55/593). Those drafts included resolution I on the Vienna Declaration on Crime and Justice: Meeting the Challenges of the Twenty-first Century; resolution II on follow-up to the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (Vienna, 2000); resolution III on an effective international legal instrument against corruption; resolution IV on the United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders; resolution V on combating the criminal misuse of information technologies; and resolution VI on strengthening of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme, in particular its technical cooperation capacity. All were adopted without a vote.

Drug Control

The Assembly then took up the Committee's report on International Drug Control (document A/55/594), containing one resolution on international cooperation against the world drug problem. It was adopted without a vote.

Advancement of Women

Next, the Assembly took up the Committee's report on the Advancement of Women (document A/55/595/Corr.1 and 2), which contained six draft resolutions and one draft decision.

Resolution I, on working towards the elimination of crimes against women committed in the name of honour, was adopted by a recorded vote of 146 in favor to 1 against (Lesotho), with 26 abstentions. (For details of vote, see Annex I.)

Four of the remaining resolutions -- resolution II on traffic in women and girls; resolution III on the elimination of all forms of violence, including crimes against women; resolution IV on the improvement of the status of women in the United Nations system; and resolution V on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women –- were all adopted without vote.

The representative of the United States, speaking in explanation of vote on resolution V on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, said that while his delegation joined in the consensus, he would like to draw the Assembly’s attention to the fact that there was only one criterion for judging whether a reservation to a treaty was acceptable. That criterion was that the reservation must be compatible with the object and purpose of the treaty. There was no other international treaty law that bore on reservations.

Action on the remaining text, draft resolution VI, on the critical situation of the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, was postponed for further consideration of its financial implications.

The Assembly also adopted a draft decision recommending that it take note of the report of the Secretary-General on the activities of the United Nations Development Fund for Women.

The representative of the Dominican Republic said that her delegation regretted having to postpone taking a decision on the resolution on the critical situation of the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women. Her delegation felt that on the basis of operative paragraph 6, the institution would be provided with resources so that it could continue activities through 2001. It was also regrettable that the resolution had been presented without taking into account rule 163 of General Assembly procedure. [Rule 163 states that the Assembly’s rules of procedure may be amended by a decision of the Assembly, taken by a majority of Members present and voting, after a committee has reported on the proposed amendment.] She hoped that an omission of that kind would not be repeated in the future.

The representative of Qatar, in explaining his vote on “Crimes of honour”, said that his country tried to protect women’s rights and had always recognized full equality between men and women. He stressed that all crimes were equally reprehensible. However, he rejected the constant attacks against the Muslim religion, a religion that had more than one and a half billion adherents. The delegation of Qatar therefore had a reservation to the resolution, as all crimes of honour were all crimes against people.

The representative of France made a technical correction to the French text of resolution III, on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.

The representative of Jordan said that his delegation had abstained in the vote on the resolution on crimes of honour. That resolution should have included an address of “crimes of passion”. Failure to include that important element left the issue unresolved. His delegation fervently believed that there should be no half measures. If passion was intended, it should be mentioned. The resolution’s scope should have been broadened to reflect that. How else could States exercise the required due diligence to prosecute crimes of honour committed in the heat of passion?

The Sudan joined as a co-sponsor of draft resolution IV, on the improvement of the status of women in the United Nations system.

Mauritania said that her delegation had abstained in the vote on resolution I, on the elimination of crimes of honour.

Follow-up to Fourth World Conference on Women

The Assembly then took up the Committee's report on the Implementation of the Fourth World Conference on Women and of the special session of the General Assembly "Women 2000" (document A/55/596), containing one resolution on follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and full implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the outcome of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly. It was adopted without a vote.

Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

Next, the Assembly took up the six resolutions and one draft decision contained in the Committee's report on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (document A/55/597).

Resolution I, on enlarging the Executive Committee of the Programme of the UNHCR, and resolution II on the new international humanitarian order, were both adopted without vote.

As the Committee took up resolution III on the UNHCR, a recorded vote was held on operative paragraph 20. That paragraph was adopted by a recorded vote of 139 in favour to none against, with 31 abstentions (Annex II). The resolution as a whole was adopted without a vote.

Further, resolution IV on the Ad hoc Committee of the General Assembly for the announcement of voluntary contributions to the Programme of the UNHCR, resolution V on the Fiftieth Anniversary of the UNHCR Office and World Refugee Day, and resolution VI on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, were all adopted without vote.

The Assembly also adopted a draft decision on documents related to the report of the UNHCR, questions relating to refugees, returnees and displaced persons and humanitarian questions

The representative of Norway, explaining the vote on the Office of the UNHCR, said that the resolution had always been adopted by consensus. He added that it was important to support the work of the High Commissioner for Refugees. The delegation of Norway had hoped that this year, the resolution would also have been adopted by consensus. The separate vote on operative paragraph 20 was particularly regrettable since this year marked the fiftieth anniversary of the UNHCR. He said he hoped that voting on that resolution would not set a precedent.

The representative of the Dominican Republic abstained on the resolution on the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees because operative paragraph 10 concerned those seeking asylum. However, she explicitly said that this did not mean that the Dominican Republic had renounced its sovereign right to exercise its own immigration policies in accordance with international law.

Children

The Assembly also took up the two resolutions and one draft decision contained in the Committee's report on the promotion and protection of the rights of children (document A/55/598). Both resolutions -– draft I on the girl-child and draft II on the rights of the child –- were adopted without a vote.

The representative of the United States, in explaining his vote on resolution I on the rights of the child, disagreed with the co-sponsors on certain paragraphs, most notably paragraph 8 ter of section V, and was deeply disappointed that no compromise had been reached on the language to be used in that paragraph. The language did not take into account the fact that the question of age of military recruitment and participation in armed conflict was resolved in International Labour Organization convention 182 and the Optional Protocol. Any language in United Nations resolutions referring to the above-mentioned issues must accurately reflect not only the most recent but also arguably the most significant progress in the development of legal instruments to protect children. While the language in paragraph 8 ter did not alter in any way the legal obligations of those two singular treaties, the United States maintained that, in the interest of accuracy, any language which referred to those issues must be in line with the language that had been negotiated over a long period of time.

The Assembly then adopted the draft decision, which recommended that it take note of the Secretary-General's report on the status of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Indigenous People

The Committee's report on Indigenous People (document A/55/599) was next taken up by the Assembly. That report contained one resolution on the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People (1994-2004). It was adopted without a vote.

Racism and Xenophobia

The Assembly next took up the Committee's report on the elimination of racism and racial discrimination (document A/55/600) and the four draft resolutions and one draft decision contained therein. Those drafts, including resolution I on the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; resolution II on measures to be taken against neo-Nazi activities based on doctrines of superiority which were based on racial discrimination or ethnic exclusiveness and xenophobia, including, in particular, neo-Nazism; resolution III on measures to combat contemporary forms of racism and other forms of intolerance; and resolution IV on the Third Decade to Combat Racism and the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, were all adopted without a vote.

The Assembly next adopted a draft decision submitted by the Chairperson on the Committee to Eliminate Racial Discrimination.

The representative of the United States, in explaining the vote on the World Conference against Racism, said that the United States knew the tragedy of racism first hand and was committed to combating it in all its manifestations at home and abroad. However, unfortunately, there were some elements in these resolutions which troubled him and kept the United States from co-sponsoring them. Specifically, the United States was concerned about references inconsistent with the First Amendment rights in the United States Constitution concerning freedom of speech.

Thus, while the United States might denounce certain opinions, the right to express them was guaranteed by the Constitution. The United States had taken a limited reservation under the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination to that effect. Second, the United States did not believe the United Nations General Assembly had the power to direct States to ratify treaties or conventions. He would prefer urging States to “consider” ratification or accession.

Right to Self-Determination

Then the Assembly took up the Committee's report on the Right of peoples to self-determination (document A/55/601), which contained three resolutions. Resolution I on the universal realization of the right of peoples to self- determination was adopted without a vote.

Resolution II on the use of mercenaries to violate human rights and impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to self-determination was adopted by a recorded vote of 119 in favour to 19 against, with 35 abstentions (Annex III).

Resolution III, on the right of the Palestinian people to self- determination, was adopted by a recorded vote of 170 in favour to two against (Israel, United States), with five abstentions (Canada, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau and Togo) (Annex IV).

Human Rights Questions

The Assembly took up the Committees' report on human rights questions (document A/55/602). It adopted the decision contained in that report, by which it took note of reports related to the other human rights reports.

Human Rights Instruments

Next to be taken up was the Committee's Report on human rights instruments (document A/55/602/Add.1), which also contained three resolutions. Resolution I, on the Convention to protect the rights of all migrant workers and members of their families; resolution II on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; and resolution III on the effective implementation of the international instruments on human rights, including reporting obligations under international instruments on human rights. All were adopted without vote.

Human Rights Alternative Approaches

The Assembly then took up the Committee's report on alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms (document A/55/602/Add.2 and Corr.1), containing 21 resolutions.

Explanation of Vote before Vote

The representative of Qatar, explaining the vote on the promotion of democracy, said the State of Qatar had taken great strides to establish a democratic State with an independent judiciary that was manifested in the right of expression and the freedom of the press, equality of women and the commitment to democracy. The State of Qatar was not against the resolution, but was concerned about some paragraphs contained therein and would therefore abstain.

Cuba’s representative made a technical correction on draft X, the universal right to travel.

The representative of Japan made a technical correction to the language of the draft resolution on the human rights situation in Cambodia.

The Assembly took up resolution I on human rights and cultural diversity. It was adopted without a vote.

Resolution II, on protection of migrants, was adopted by a recorded vote of 165 in favour to none against, with eight abstentions (Federated States of Micronesia, India, Israel, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Palau and United States) (Annex V).

Resolution III to proclaim 18 December as International Migrants’ Day was adopted without a vote, as were resolution IV on the Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) and public information activities in the field of human rights, and resolution V on the situation of human rights in Cambodia.

Resolution VI, whereby the Assembly called on States to promote and consolidate democracy, was adopted by a recorded vote of 157 in favour to none against, with 16 abstentions (Annex VI).

Resolution VII on eliminating all forms of religious intolerance, resolution VIII on the declaration concerning the right and responsibility of individuals, organs and groups of society to promote and protect universally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms, and resolution IX on strengthening the rule of law, were all adopted without vote.

Resolution X on respect for the right to universal freedom of travel and the importance of family reunification was adopted by a recorded vote of 106 in favour to 1 against (United States), with 67 abstentions (Annex VII).

Resolution XI, on respect for the purposes and principles of the Charter to achieve international cooperation in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms and in solving international problems of humanitarian character was then taken up.

The representative of Cuba requested a point of order clarification on which resolution was under vote.

Resolution XI was adopted by a recorded vote of 104 in favour to 52 against, with 15 abstentions (Annex VIII).

Resolution XII on globalization and its impact on the full enjoyment of all human rights was adopted by a recorded vote of 112 in favour to 46 against, with 15 abstentions (Annex IX).

Adopted without a vote were resolution XIII on the question of enforced or involuntary disappearances; resolution XIV on strengthening United Nations action in the field of human rights through promotion of cooperation and the importance of non-selectivity, impartiality and objectivity; resolution XV on regional arrangements for promoting and protecting human rights; and resolution XVI on human rights and extreme poverty.

Resolution XVII, on promoting a democratic and equitable international order, was adopted by a recorded vote of 109 in favour to 52 against, with 7 abstentions (Argentina, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Morocco, Paraguay, Peru and Senegal) (Annex X).

Resolution XVIII on the right to development and resolution XIX on enhancing international cooperation in the field of human rights were adopted without a vote.

Resolution XX on human rights and unilateral coercive measures was adopted by a recorded vote of 117 in favour to 49 against, with 6 abstentions (Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) (Annex XI).

Resolution XXI on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions was adopted without a vote.

Explanation of Vote after Vote

The representative of Kuwait said he had voted in favour of the resolution on human rights and unilateral coercive action, even though the board had not recorded it.

The representative of Jamaica said her delegation had voted in favour of the resolution on the protection of migrants. However, she expressed concern over operative paragraph 4 as it had several implications for national immigration policies, which must be dealt with within the domestic jurisdiction.

The representative of Chile said his delegation had serious reservations on including the theme of cultural diversity within the concept of human rights. Cultural diversity belonged elsewhere in the scope of the work of the United Nations and not within human rights. For Chile, universality of human rights meant the intrinsic dignity of all, independent of culture, gender, religion or traditions. If a debate started on human rights and cultural diversity, it would mean taking a step backwards in the universality and implementation of those rights.

The representative of Chile also clarified the voting on resolution XII on globalization. Chile had abstained on that vote even though its vote on the board had been recorded as a vote against the resolution.

The representative of Colombia made a correction concerning the resolution on the universal freedom of travel. Colombia had voted in favour even though the board had indicated an abstention.

Reports of Human Rights Rapporteurs

The Assembly next turned to the eight resolutions contained in the Committee's report on human rights situations and reports of Special Rapporteurs and Representatives (document A/55/602/Add.3).

The representative of Yemen said his delegation took a strong position on strengthening human rights at national and international levels. Human rights were indivisible, and any violation of those rights should be condemned. He noted that human rights issues were often used as an excuse to interfere in the internal relations of specific countries. For that reason, his delegation would not vote on any of the resolutions contained in the current report.

The representative of Papua New Guinea considered that the rule of law was fundamental to the protection and promotion of human rights. In that regard, democratic institutions could not flourish where political expediency might appear to legitimize arbitrary administrative actions contrary to the principle of the rule of law. Papua New Guinea welcomed the report of the Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Iran, and would vote in favour of the relevant draft.

Resolution I, on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, and resolution II, on the situation of human rights in parts of South-eastern Europe, were adopted without a vote.

Resolution III, on the situation of human rights in Iran, was adopted by a recorded vote of 67 in favour to 54 against, with 46 abstentions (Annex XII).

Resolution IV, on the human rights situation in Iraq, was adopted by a recorded vote of 102 in favour to 3 against (Sudan, Libya, Mauritania), with 60 abstentions (Annex XIII).

Resolution V on the human rights in the Sudan was adopted by a recorded vote of 85 in favour to 32 against, with 49 abstentions (Annex XIV).

Resolution VI, on the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, was adopted by a recorded vote of 102 in favour to 2 against (Rwanda, Uganda), with 63 abstentions (Annex XV).

Resolution VII, on the situation of human rights in Haiti and resolution VIII, on the question of human rights in Afghanistan, were both adopted without a vote.

The representative of Bolivia said he had voted in favour of the draft on the situation of human rights in Iran. His delegation took note of progress that had been made in that country. But there was concern that Iran had as yet made no formal invitation to the Special Rapporteur to visit that country.

The Assembly then took note of the Committee's report on comprehensive implementation and follow-up to the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (document A/55/602/Add.4).

The Assembly also took note of the report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (document A/55/602/Add.5).

The Assembly then took note of the report of the Economic and Social Council (document A/55/603) which contained two draft decisions, one on the Committee's organization of work and biennial programme of work for 2001-2002 and a second on the chapters of the Council's report relevant to the Committee's work.

The representative of Algeria drew the Assembly’s attention to an error in the title of one of the Committee’s resolutions on the advancement of women, included in the report of the Economic and Social Council.

(annexes follow)

General Assembly Plenary Press Release GA/9842 81st Meeting (PM) 4 December 2000

ANNEX I

Vote on Crimes against Women Committed in Name of Honour

The draft resolution on working towards eliminating crimes against women committed in the name of honour (document A/55/595 and Corr.1, 2) by a recorded vote of 146 in favour to 1 against, with 26 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Albania, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Canada, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Tajikistan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: Lesotho.

Abstain: Algeria, Bahrain, Brunei Darussalam, Cameroon, China, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Syria, United Arab Emirates.

Absent: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kiribati, Lebanon, Mauritania, Morocco, Tonga, Tuvalu.

(END OF ANNEX I)

ANNEX II

Vote on Operative Paragraph 20, Draft Text on Office of High Commissioner for Refugees

Operative paragraph 20 of the draft resolution on the Office of the High Commission for Refugees (document A/55/597) was adopted by a recorded vote of 139 in favour to none against, with 31 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Albania, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Tajikistan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, United States, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: None.

Abstain: Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Comoros, Cuba, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritania, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Viet Nam.

Absent: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Iran, Kiribati, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Yemen.

(END OF ANNEX II)

ANNEX III

Vote on Use of Mercenaries

The draft resolution on the use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights and impeding their enjoyment (document A/55/601) was adopted by a recorded vote of 119 in favour to 19 against, with 35 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: Albania, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Palau, Poland, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States.

Abstain: Andorra, Australia, Austria, Croatia, Cyprus, Estonia, France, Georgia, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Malta, Marshall Islands, Monaco, New Zealand, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Rwanda, San Marino, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan.

Absent: Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Equatorial Guinea, Kiribati, Tajikistan, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Yugoslavia.

(END OF ANNEX III)

ANNEX IV

Vote on Right of Palestinian People to Self-Determination

The draft resolution on the right of the Palestinian people to self- determination (document A/55/601) was adopted by a recorded vote of 170 in favour to 2 against, with 5 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: Israel, United States.

Abstain: Canada, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Palau, Tonga.

Absent: Equatorial Guinea, Kiribati, Madagascar, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu.

(END OF ANNEX IV)

ANNEX V

Vote on Protection of Migrants

The draft resolution on protection of migrants (document A/55/602/Add.2) was adopted by a recorded vote of 165 in favour to none against, with 8 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: None.

Abstain: Federated States of Micronesia, India, Israel, Malaysia, Myanmar, Palau, Singapore, United States.

Absent: Bahrain, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Equatorial Guinea, Kiribati, Pakistan, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan.

(END OF ANNEX V)

ANNEX VI

Vote on Promoting and Consolidating Democracy

The draft resolution on promoting and consolidating new or restored democracies (document A/55/602/Add.2) was adopted by a recorded vote of 157 in favour to none against, with 16 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Tajikistan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, United States, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: None.

Abstain: Bahrain, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, China, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Honduras, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Libya, Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Viet Nam.

Absent: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Equatorial Guinea, Kiribati, Pakistan, Syria, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan.

(END OF ANNEX VI)

ANNEX VII

Vote on Right to Freedom of Travel, Family Reunification

The draft resolution on respect for the right to universal freedom of travel and family reunification (document A/55/602/Add.2) was adopted by a recorded vote of 106 in favour to 1 against, with 67 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Comoros, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kuwait, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: United States.

Abstain: Albania, Andorra, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belgium, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Mongolia, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Palau, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Samoa, San Marino, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan.

Absent: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Equatorial Guinea, Kiribati, Tajikistan, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Yugoslavia.

(END OF ANNEX VII)

ANNEX VIII

Vote on Respect for Charter with Regard to Promoting Human Rights

The draft resolution on respect for purposes and principles contained in the Charter with regard to promoting human rights (document A/55/602/Add.2) was adopted by a recorded vote of 104 in favour to 52 against, with 15 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Palau, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Samoa, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States.

Abstain: Argentina, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Guatemala, Nauru, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Sao Tome and Principe, Singapore, South Africa, Thailand, Uruguay.

Absent: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Equatorial Guinea, Kiribati, Mongolia, Morocco, Tajikistan, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia.

(END OF ANNEX VIII)

ANNEX IX

Vote on Impact of Globalization on Human Rights

The draft resolution on globalization and its impact on the full enjoyment of all human rights (document A/55/602/Add.2) was adopted by a recorded vote of 112 in favour to 46 against, with 15 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, China, Comoros, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Qatar, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: Albania, Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Palau, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States.

Abstain: Argentina, Armenia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Federated States of Micronesia, Guatemala, Paraguay, Peru, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Singapore, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Uzbekistan.

Absent: Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Equatorial Guinea, Kiribati, Liberia, Niger, Tajikistan, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Yugoslavia.

(END OF ANNEX IX)

ANNEX X

Vote on Democratic and Equitable International Order

The draft resolution on promoting a democratic and equitable international order (document A/55/602/Add.2) was adopted by a recorded vote of 109 in favour to 52 against, with 7 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, China, Colombia, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Qatar, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: Albania, Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Palau, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Samoa, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States.

Abstain: Argentina, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Morocco, Paraguay, Peru, Senegal.

Absent: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Kiribati, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, Tajikistan, Tonga, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia.

(END OF ANNEX X)

ANNEX XI

Vote on Human Rights and Unilateral Coercive Measures

The draft resolution on human rights and unilateral coercive measures (document A/55/602/Add.2) was adopted by a recorded vote of 117 in favour to 49 against, with 6 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Against: Albania, Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Palau, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Moldova, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States

Abstain: Azerbaijan, Fiji, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Ukraine, Uzbekistan

Absent: Afghanistan, Equatorial Guinea, Kiribati, Kuwait, Maldives, Tajikistan, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Yugoslavia

(END OF ANNEX XI)

ANNEX XII

Vote on Human Rights in Iran

The draft resolution on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran (document A/55/602/Add.3) was adopted by a recorded vote of 67 in favour to 54 against, with 46 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Albania, Andorra, Australia, Austria, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Canada, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Monaco, Mongolia, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, United States, Vanuatu, Yugoslavia.

Against: Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Chad, China, Comoros, Congo, Cuba, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Gambia, Ghana, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Morocco, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Togo, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Zimbabwe.

Abstain: Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Georgia, Guinea, Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Republic of Korea, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Singapore, South Africa, Swaziland, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay.

Absent: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kiribati, Madagascar, Mauritania, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Sierra Leone, Tonga, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Yemen, Zambia.

(END OF ANNEX XII)

ANNEX XIII

Vote on Human Rights in Iraq

The draft resolution on the human rights situation in Iraq (document A/55/602/Add.3) was adopted by a recorded vote of 102 in favour to 3 against, with 60 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Albania, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Tajikistan, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu.

Against: Libya, Mauritania, Sudan.

Abstain: Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, China, Congo, Cuba, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Eritrea, Fiji, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela, Viet Nam.

Absent: Afghanistan, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Iran, Kiribati, Mali, Morocco, Oman, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

(END OF ANNEX XIII)

ANNEX XIV

Vote on Human Rights in Sudan

The draft resolution on the situation of human rights in the Sudan (document A/55/602/Add.3) was adopted by a recorded vote of 85 in favour to 32 against, with 49 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Albania, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Namibia, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Tajikistan, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe.

Against: Algeria, Bahrain, Chad, China, Comoros, Cuba, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Gambia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Togo, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Viet Nam.

Abstain: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Georgia, Ghana, Guinea, Honduras, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mozambique, Nepal, Nigeria, Palau, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Thailand, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, United States.

Absent: Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Gabon, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Tonga, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Yemen, Zambia.

(END OF ANNEX XIV)

ANNEX XV

Vote on Human Rights in Democratic Republic of the Congo

The draft resolution on human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (document A/55/602/Add.3) was adopted by a recorded vote of 102 in favour to 2 against, with 63 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Samoa, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Tajikistan, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Yugoslavia.

Against: Rwanda, Uganda.

Abstain: Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Botswana, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, China, Comoros, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Kenya, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Zimbabwe.

Absent: Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kiribati, Lebanon, Oman, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia.

* *** *

For information media. Not an official record.