SECURITY COUNCIL, RESPONDING TO BRAHIMI REPORT, ADOPTS WIDE-RANGING RESOLUTION ON PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS20001113
Resolution 1327 (2000) Adopted Unanimously; Council Resolves to Give Missions Clear, Credible, Achievable Mandates
Welcoming the report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations - the Brahimi report -- and the report of the Secretary-General on its implementation, the Security Council this morning resolved to give peacekeeping operations clear, credible and achievable mandates. The Panel, chaired by Lakhdar Brahimi of Algeria, issued its report on 21 August, and the Council established a Working Group to review the reports recommendations on 3 October.
Unanimously adopting resolution 1327 (2000), a wide-ranging, seven-part resolution containing recommendations and decisions on peacekeeping operations proposed by its Working Group, the Council recognized the critical importance of such operations having, where appropriate and within their mandates, a credible deterrent capability. Further, it urged prospective parties to peace agreements, including regional and subregional organizations, to cooperate fully with the United Nations from an early stage in negotiations.
By other terms of the text, the Council requested the Secretariat to continue to provide comprehensive political briefings on relevant issues before the Council. It also requested regular military briefings from the Secretariat, including by the Military Adviser, the Force Commander or designate, prior to the establishment of a peacekeeping operation.
It also requested that those briefings report on key military factors, such as: the chain of command; force structure; unity and cohesion of the force; training and equipment; and risk assessment and rules of engagement. It further requested the Secretariat to provide the Council with regular comprehensive humanitarian briefings for countries in which peacekeeping operations were ongoing.
Further by the text, the Council underlined the importance of an improved system of consultations among the troop-contributing countries, the Secretary- General and the Security Council, in order to foster common understanding of the situation on the ground, of the mission's mandate and its implementation.
By part II of the text, the Council asked the Secretary-General, following full consultations with Member States, particularly troop-contributors, to prepare a comprehensive operational doctrine for the military component of theSecurity Council - 1a - Press Release SC/6948 4220th Meeting (AM) 13 November 2000
United Nations peacekeeping operations and submit it to the Council and General Assembly.
By the terms of part III, the Council stressed the need to improve the information gathering and analysis capacity of the Secretariat, in order to improve the quality of advice to both the Secretary-General and the Council. By the terms of part IV, the Council called on all relevant parties to work towards the deployment of a traditional peacekeeping operation within 30 days of the Council's establishment of a mandate and within 90 days for a complex operation. It also undertook to consider the possibility of using the Military Staff Committee as one of the means of enhancing the Organization's peacekeeping capacity.
By the terms of part V, the Council called for the full implementation of resolution 1325 (2000) on women and peace and security. In part VI, the Council emphasized the need for more effective coordination of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes and reaffirmed that adequate and timely funding for those programmes was critical to the success of peace processes.
Statements after the adoption of the text were made by the representatives of Jamaica, United States, Bangladesh, France, Canada, Russian Federation, Argentina, United Kingdom, China, Tunisia, Malaysia, Ukraine, Namibia, Mali and the Netherlands.
The meeting, which began at 12:19 p.m., adjourned at 1:50 p.m.
Security Council - 3 - Press Release SC/6948 4220th Meeting (AM) 13 November 2000
The Security Council met this morning to consider the report of its Working Group on the Brahimi report - the report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations. The report was issued on 21 August 2000, and the Working Group was established on 3 October.
The report of the Working Group (document S/2000/184) describes the subjects discussed during the Group's ten meetings. The Group recommends that its decisions and recommendations be adopted by the Council as an annex to a resolution.
The full text of the draft resolution before the Council, with annex (document S/2000/1085), reads as follows:
The Security Council,
Recalling its resolution 1318 (2000) of 7 September 2000, adopted at its meeting at the level of heads of State and government in the course of the Millennium Summit,
Reaffirming its determination to strengthen United Nations peacekeeping operations,
Stressing that peacekeeping operations should strictly observe the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations,
Having welcomed the report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (S/2000/809) and welcoming the report of the Secretary-General on its implementation (S/2000/1081),
Having considered the recommendations in the report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations which fall within its area of responsibility,
1. Agrees to adopt the decisions and recommendations contained in the annex to the resolution;
2. Decides to review periodically the implementation of the provisions contained in the annex;
3. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
The Security Council,
Resolves to give peacekeeping operations clear, credible and achievable mandates;
Recognizes the critical importance of peacekeeping operations having, where appropriate and within their mandates, a credible deterrent capability;
Urges the parties to prospective peace agreements, including regional and subregional organizations and arrangements, to coordinate and cooperate fully with the United Nations from an early stage in negotiations, bearing in mind the need for any provisions for a peacekeeping operation to meet minimum conditions, including the need for a clear political objective, the practicability of the designated tasks and timelines, and compliance with the rules and principles of international law, in particular international humanitarian, human rights and refugee law;
Requests the Secretary-General, in this regard, to make necessary arrangements for the appropriate involvement of the United Nations in peace negotiations that are likely to provide for the deployment of United Nations peacekeepers;
Further requests the Secretary-General to keep it regularly and fully informed of the progress in such negotiations with his analysis, assessment and recommendations, and to report to the Council on the conclusion of any such peace agreement, on whether it meets the minimum conditions for United Nations peacekeeping operations;
Requests the Secretariat to continue to provide comprehensive political briefings on relevant issues before the Council;
Requests regular military briefings from the Secretariat, including by the Military Adviser, the Force Commander or the Force Commander-designate, both prior to the establishment of a peacekeeping operation and in the implementation phase, and requests that these briefings report on key military factors such as, where appropriate, the chain of command, force structure, unity and cohesion of the force, training and equipment, risk assessment and rules of engagement;
Requests regular civilian police briefings from the Secretariat in a similar vein, both prior to the establishment and in the implementation phase of peacekeeping operations with significant civilian police components;
Requests the Secretariat to provide the Council with regular, comprehensive humanitarian briefings for countries where there are United Nations peacekeeping operations;
Encourages the Secretary-General, during the planning and preparation of a peacekeeping operation, to take all possible measures at his disposal to facilitate rapid deployment, and agrees to assist the Secretary-General, wherever appropriate, with specific planning mandates requesting him to take the necessary administrative steps to prepare the rapid deployment of a mission;
Undertakes, when establishing or enlarging a peacekeeping operation, to request formally that the Secretary-General proceed to the implementation phase of the mandate upon receipt of firm commitments to provide sufficient numbers of adequately trained and equipped troops and other critical mission support elements;
Encourages the Secretary-General to begin his consultations with potential troop contributors well in advance of the establishment of peacekeeping operations, and requests him to report on his consultations during the consideration of new mandates;
Recognizes that the problem of the commitment gap with regard to personnel and equipment for peacekeeping operations requires the assumption by all Member States of the shared responsibility to support United Nations peacekeeping;
Emphasizes the importance of Member States taking the necessary and appropriate steps to ensure the capability of their peacekeepers to fulfil the mandates assigned to them, underlines the importance of international cooperation in this regard, including the training of peacekeepers, and invites Member States to incorporate HIV/AIDS awareness-training into their national programmes in preparation for deployment;
Underlines the importance of an improved system of consultations among the troop-contributing countries, the Secretary-General and the Security Council, in order to foster a common understanding of the situation on the ground, of the missions mandate and of its implementation;
Agrees, in this regard, to strengthen significantly the existing system of consultations through the holding of private meetings with troop-contributing countries, including at their request, and without prejudice to the provisional rules of procedure of the Security Council, in particular when the Secretary- General has identified potential troop-contributing countries for a new or ongoing peacekeeping operation, during the implementation phase of an operation, when considering a change in, or renewal or completion of a peacekeeping mandate, or when a rapid deterioration in the situation on the ground threatens the safety and security of United Nations peacekeepers;
Undertakes to ensure that the mandated tasks of peacekeeping operations are appropriate to the situation on the ground, including such factors as the prospects for success, the potential need to protect civilians and the possibility that some parties may seek to undermine peace through violence;
Emphasizes that the rules of engagement for United Nations peacekeeping forces should be fully consistent with the legal basis of the operation and any relevant Security Council resolutions and clearly set out the circumstances in which force may be used to protect all mission components and personnel, military or civilian, and that the rules of engagement should support the accomplishment of the missions mandate;
Requests the Secretary-General, following full consultations with the United Nations membership, in particular, troop-contributing countries, to prepare a comprehensive operational doctrine for the military component of United Nations peacekeeping operations and submit it to the Security Council and the General Assembly;
Stresses the need to improve the information gathering and analysis capacity of the Secretariat, with a view to improving the quality of advice to both the Secretary-General and the Security Council, and welcomes, in this regard, the clarifications provided by the Secretary-General in his implementation report on his plans for the establishment of the Executive Committee on Peace and Security Information and Strategic Analysis Secretariat (S/2000/1081);
Stresses the importance of the United Nations being able to respond and deploy a peacekeeping operation rapidly upon the adoption by the Security Council of a resolution establishing its mandate, and notes that rapid deployment is a comprehensive concept that will require improvements in a number of areas;
Calls on all relevant parties to work towards the objective of meeting the timelines for United Nations peacekeeping operations of deployment of a traditional peacekeeping operation within 30 days and of a complex operation within 90 days of the adoption of a Security Council resolution establishing its mandate;
Welcomes the Secretary-Generals intention to use these timelines as the basis for evaluating the capacity of existing systems to provide field missions with the human, material, financial and information assets that they require;
Welcomes the proposal of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations to create integrated mission task forces, and urges the Secretary-General to pursue this or any other related capabilities that would improve United Nations planning and support capacities;
Emphasizes the need for the Secretariat to provide the leadership of a peacekeeping operation with strategic guidance and plans for anticipating and overcoming any challenges to the implementation of a mandate, and stresses that such guidance should be formulated in cooperation with the mission leadership;
Welcomes the proposals of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations on improving the capacity of the United Nations to deploy military, civilian police and other personnel rapidly, including through the United Nations standby arrangements system, and urges the Secretary-General to consult current and potential troop-contributing countries on how best to achieve this important objective;
Undertakes to consider the possibility of using the Military Staff Committee as one of the means of enhancing the United Nations peacekeeping capacity. V
Emphasizes that the biggest deterrent to violent conflict is addressing the root causes of conflict, including through the promotion of sustainable development and a democratic society based on a strong rule of law and civic institutions, including adherence to all human rights - civil, political, economic, social and cultural;
Concurs with the Secretary-General that every step taken towards reducing poverty and achieving broad-based economic growth is a step towards conflict prevention;
Stresses the important role of the Secretary-General in the prevention of armed conflicts, and looks forward to his report on this issue, which is to be submitted to Member States by May 2001;
Expresses its continued willingness to consider the use of Council missions, with the consent of host countries, in order to determine whether any dispute, or situation which might lead to international tension or give rise to a dispute, is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, and to make recommendations for action by the Council, where appropriate;
Recalls the statements of its President of 20 July 2000 (PRST/2000/25) and 30 November 1999 (PRST/1999/34) on the prevention of armed conflict and welcomes, in this context, the Secretary-Generals intention to send fact- finding missions to areas of tension more frequently;
Recalls resolution 1296 (2000) of 19 April 2000 on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, and looks forward to receiving the Secretary- Generals follow-up report in this context;
Reaffirms the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and in post-conflict peace-building, and fully endorses the urgent need to mainstream a gender perspective into peacekeeping operations;
Calls for the full implementation of its resolution 1325 (2000) of 31 October 2000;
Welcomes the decision by the Secretary-General to instruct the Executive Committee on Peace and Security to formulate a plan on the strengthening of the United Nations capacity to develop peace-building strategies and to implement programmes in support of them, and requests the Secretary-General to submit recommendations to the Security Council and the General Assembly on the basis of this plan;
Recognizes that stronger measures to reduce poverty and promote economic growth are important for the success of peace-building;
Emphasizes, in this regard, the need for more effective coordination of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes, and reaffirms that adequate and timely funding for these programmes is critical to the success of peace processes;
Welcomes the Secretary-Generals intention to spell out more clearly, when presenting future concepts of operations, what the United Nations system can do to help strengthen local rule of law and human rights institutions, drawing on existing civilian police, human rights, gender and judicial expertise;
Welcomes the Secretary-Generals intention to conduct a needs assessment of the areas in which it would be feasible and useful to draft a simple, common set of interim rules of criminal procedure.
Report of Panel
The report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (document A/55/305-S/2000/809) was chaired by Lakhdar Brahimi, Under-Secretary-General for Special Assignments in Support of the Secretary-Generals Preventive and Peacemaking Efforts.
The recommendations of the Panel, established by the Secretary-General in March 2000, include: the extensive restructuring of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations; a new information and strategic analysis unit to service all United Nations departments concerned with peace and security; an integrated task force at Headquarters to plan and support each peacekeeping mission from its inception; and more systematic use of information technology.
Many of the proposed changes require political, financial or operational decisions from the United Nations Member States, the report states. For instance, the Panel urges the Security Council not to finalize resolutions authorizing large peacekeeping missions until Member States have pledged the necessary troops and resources; and recommends an increase in funding to strengthen the peacekeeping support staff at United Nations Headquarters.
In the area of doctrine and strategy, the Panel calls for more effective conflict-prevention strategies, pointing out that prevention is far preferable for those who would otherwise suffer the consequences of war, and a less costly option for the international community than military action, emergency humanitarian relief, or reconstruction after a war has run its course. It says peacekeepers must be able to defend themselves and their mandate, with robust rules of engagement. And, it urges the Secretariat to draw up a plan for developing better peace-building strategies. Peacekeepers and peace-builders, it says, are inseparable partners, since only a self-sustaining peace offers a ready exit to peacekeeping forces.
The Panel further recommends that the Secretariat tell the Security Council what it needs to know, not what it wants to hear, when formulating or changing mission mandates. Concerning transitional civil administration, the Panel states that a panel of international legal experts should explore the idea of an interim criminal code, for use in places where the United Nations is given temporary executive powers (as currently in Kosovo and East Timor), pending the re- establishment of local rule of law and law enforcement capacity.
In the matter of time lines, "traditional" United Nations peacekeeping operations (sent to monitor ceasefires and separations of forces after inter- State wars) should be fully deployed within 30 days; more complex peace operations, sent to help end intra-State conflicts, within 90 days.
Concerning personnel, Member States should work together to form coherent, multinational, brigade-sized forces, ready for effective deployment within those time lines; and should each establish a national pool of civilian police officers. The Panel does not call for a standing United Nations army, but says the Secretariat should establish "on-call" lists of about 100 military and 100 police officers and experts, from national armies and police forces, who would be available on seven days' notice to establish a new mission headquarters. Conditions of service for civilian specialists should also be revised, so that the United Nations can attract more qualified personnel, and reward good performance with better career prospects.
Regarding speed and efficiency, the Secretary-General should be allowed funds to start planning a mission before the Security Council approves it, so that, when approved, it can be deployed quickly. Field missions should be given greater freedom to manage their own budgets. Additional ready-made mission "start-up kits" should be maintained at the United Nations Logistics Base in Brindisi, Italy.
In matters of funding for peacekeeping support, the Panel remarks that, after 52 years, it is time to treat peacekeeping as a core activity of the United Nations, rather than a temporary responsibility. Headquarters support for it should, therefore, be funded mainly through the regular United Nations budget, instead of the current Support Account, which has to be justified year by year and post by post.
The Secretary-Generals report on the implementation of the report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (document A/55/502) covers actions taken since the issuance of the Panels report; proposed action for implementing the Panels recommendations; enhancing the effectiveness of key peace and security instruments; and new mechanisms for improving system-wide integration. Other issues covered are enhancing rapid and effective deployment capacities; funding of Headquarters support to peacekeeping operations; proposed restructuring of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations; strengthening other parts of the United Nations system; and information technology and knowledge management.
Regarding the Panels recommendation for the strengthening of permanent United Nations capacity to develop peace-building strategies and implement supporting programmes, the Secretary-General notes that a clear division of labour has not yet emerged in the formulation of comprehensive peace-building strategies and their implementation. As a result of that lack of clarity, the Panel implied that there was a need to address the risks of competing demands on limited donor resources, potential duplication of efforts and/or gaps in key areas.
On peacekeeping operations, the Secretary-General notes that, while it is within the Secretariats responsibility to draft rules of engagement for each operation, these are individually tailored to the mandates adopted by the Security Council. As such, the Council will have a leading role in implementing the Panels recommendations. In addition, as pointed out by the Panel, only 32 posts are authorized for military officers in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, in comparison with more than 30,000 military personnel in the field. An increase has been requested in resources for the Military Division (including for the Training Unit).
With respect to new mechanisms to improve system-wide integration, the Secretary-General proposes to create the Executive Committee on Peace and Security Information and Strategic Analysis Secretariat, effective January 2001. That will be done primarily by consolidating existing resources in the Department of Political Affairs, the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, the Department of Public Information, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, the Department for Disarmament Affairs, the Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Human Rights, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
The report says that the Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues/Division for the Advancement of Women will maintain close contacts with the Information and Strategic Analysis Secretariat, which should be headed by a Director reporting to the Under-Secretaries-General for Political Affairs and Peacekeeping Operations, as recommended by the Panel.
Agreeing with the Panel on enhancing rapid deployment capacities, the Secretary-General says that a first step would be to define the meaning of rapid and effective, recalling that the Secretariat was asked to deploy the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA) in less than three weeks. Similar time constraints applied to the United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET). Peace processes were often most fragile in the initial phases, and operations must be deployed when they could make the greatest contribution. The relevant parts of the Secretariat had been asked to use the time lines proposed by the Panel as the basis for evaluating the capacity of existing systems to provide field missions with the required human, material, financial and information assets.
Regarding the restructuring of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, the Secretary-General requests the addition of one Assistant Secretary-General, as proposed by the Panel. The additional post is a necessary investment to ensure high-level availability, effective management of the Department, shared responsibility and mutual back-up. It will also enable greater and more frequent interaction with field missions, including extended visits and deployment as heads of mission start-up teams. Another request is that the rank of the Civilian Police Adviser be upgraded to the D-2 level and that the Adviser no longer report to the Military Adviser, but rather to the Assistant Secretary- General for Military and Civilian Police Affairs.
The Secretary-General agrees that the Panels proposal of a distinct unit responsible for operational planning and support of public information components is warranted. While he does not favour creating new capacities in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations that might otherwise already exist in the United Nations system, there might be certain instances where proximity to the daily decision-making processes overrides the benefits of central support structures providing assistance to the Department through the integrated mission task force mechanism.
Action on resolution
The Council unanimously adopted the text containing recommendations and decisions on peacekeeping operations as Security Council resolution 1327 (2000).
M. PATRICIA DURRANT (Jamaica) said the effectiveness of United Nations peacekeeping had been the object of much scrutiny over the years. Four recent related reports of the Secretary-General attested to that. All those reports spoke eloquently about the successes and failures of the Organizations peacekeeping. If the vital reforms highlighted in those reports were not put in place, the real scourges of war would not be addressed. It was also imperative to implement the recommendations of the Brahimi report. The text just adopted covered many of the key issues with which the Council had grappled in recent years, and highlighted the fact that the traditional concept of peacekeeping was no longer applicable to current realities.
She said her delegation supported the consensus for clear, credible and consistent mandates. Peacekeeping mandates should ensure that peacekeepers could defend themselves, while carrying out their functions professionally. Regular consultations between troop contributors and the Council were essential as well. Briefings by the Secretariat should also play a constructive role prior to the establishment of a mission. Lack of consultations could lead to misunderstandings about the mandate of a mission. She supported cooperation and coordination between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations. Conflict prevention was another important aspect. As indicated in the July open debate on armed conflict, the United Nations must establish comprehensive and coordinated strategies to manage the causes of conflict.
She said gender perspectives should also be mainstreamed into peacekeeping operations. In that respect, she expected the Department of Peacekeeping Operations to work with the Secretary-Generals Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women. Effective public information strategies were also essential operational necessities for virtually all United Nations peace operations. The Department of Public Information and the Department of Peacekeeping Operations should, therefore, collaborate in that respect. Peacekeepers also needed to be adequately trained and equipped, while cultural sensitivity needed to be promoted.
CUNNINGHAM (United States) said that today, the Council took a substantial step forward with the adoption of the resolution on the implementation of the Brahimi report. Since 1948, there had been 53 peacekeeping operations, and 15 of those were currently underway. This year, more than ever, the Council had reiterated its commitment to peacekeeping in Africa. Whether peacekeeping ultimately succeeded or failed would be the standard by which the world would judge the United Nations.
Last September, at the Millennium Summit, world leaders reiterated the critical importance of United Nations peacekeeping operations, he continued. The Council demanded a great deal from its peacekeeping missions. They were required to conduct dangerous operations, the cost of which totaled more than $3 billion this year. He knew that the United Nations most challenging operations had serious shortfalls in terms of personnel and equipment. Unless the United Nations moved decisively, it could be perceived to lack the will to keep the peace, and its missions could fail.
He said there were two issues to address -- the operations of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, and the way peacekeeping missions were financed. On financing, work was being done to make the peacekeeping scale more equitable, and he was confident that a way to do that would be found this year. The Brahimi report showed how to effectively address the functioning of the Department. Everyone must work together, as peacekeeping was a shared responsibility. Todays resolution, which provided a roadmap on how to move forward, sent a strong message that the Council was ready to do its part. The Council had already pledged to strengthen consultations with troop contributors. Also, rapid deployment of peacekeeping operations was essential. There was still more to be done. At a minimum, the provision of the necessary resources must be ensured by the end of the year. The task ahead was as difficult as it was important. The longer the United Nations failed to live up to its potential, the longer the innocent suffered.
ANWARUL KARIM CHOWDHURY (Bangladesh) said that he was happy that the Council recognized the seriousness of the question of the commitment gap. The Brahimi Panel recommended keeping Council resolutions in the draft form until a firm commitment of troops was available. In line with that recommendation, it had been agreed to give a planning mandate to the Secretary-General prior to authorizing any peacekeeping operation. Such an approach did not solve the problem of troop availability. The commitment gap was a substantive problem and could not be solved by procedural adaptability and innovation.
He had proposed inclusion of a paragraph addressing the commitment gap in the text the Council had just adopted, he said. It would have had the Council recognize that the contribution of troops by Member States possessing the greatest capacity and means, particularly the Councils permanent members, was critical for bridging the commitment gap, facilitating rapid deployment and further increasing the operational effectiveness of United Nations peacekeeping operations. In that context, he proposed that each of the permanent members agree to provide at least five per cent or an agreed percentage of troops to each United Nations peacekeeping operation. That symbolic contribution would, besides enhancing operational capacity, demonstrate the united strength of the entire international community behind each United Nations peacekeeping operation.
Unfortunately, he continued, the proposal could not be included in the face of opposition from the permanent members. The need for assumption of shared responsibility by all Member States, particularly those with the greatest capacity and means, was also recognized in the implementation report of the Secretary-General. While he had yielded for the sake of consensus, allowing for adoption of the resolution within a reasonable time, the question remained an outstanding one for him and many others.
YVES DOUTRIAUX (France) said that the Council had taken a number of decisions this morning with the adoption of the resolution, to allow it to play its full role in implementing the Brahimi report. The work done under Ambassador Curtis Ward of Jamaica provided specific and new responses to the Brahimi report. France would continue to contribute to peacekeeping missions with personnel, equipment and financial support. As of today, the European Union had contributed some 65,000 soldiers and 100,000 civilian police to peacekeeping missions. Today, the Council had responded to the call made by the heads of State and government at the Millennium Summit, with regard to the reform of peacekeeping operations.
MICHEL DUVAL (Canada) said the annex of the text gave substance to the high hopes that had been expressed at the Millennium Summit. The resolve to work towards a common action-oriented goal enabled the discussion and development of a pragmatic and practical framework to improve the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations. Highlighting his countrys concerns, he underscored the need for clear viable mandates, which were matched by appropriate resources and rapid deployment.
He also attached importance to the Council consulting with countries contributing troops and civilian police at every stage of a peacekeeping mission. That was essential to ensuring continued engagement by those nations at both the military and political levels. It was also vitally important that the Council received timely military advice from those who were directly involved in the military dimension of a peacekeeping mission when considering the creation of a peacekeeping force.
GENNADI M. GATILOV (Russian Federation) said it was important that the Security Council had now given itself the task of formulating clear and precise mandates as it prepared and deployed peacekeeping operations. His delegation believed that the provisions on the need for consultations with troop- contributing countries was clear evidence that the Council was now ready to take into account the views of those States that provided personnel for peacekeeping operations.
He said the Security Council should use the Military Staff Committee to improve United Nations peacekeeping operations. That would enhance the balance of responsibility between Member States and the United Nations Secretariat. The Russian Federation also supported using the military and political analytic capability of Member States. His country was ready to participate fully in and implement the recommendations contained in the Brahimi report.
ANA MARIA MOGLIA (Argentina) said the Organization had learned from past experiences. The Brahimi report had presented specific solutions to tangible problems, and the Council had responded. The text today was the outcome of in- depth and extensive deliberations. A few months ago, Argentina had stressed moving forward with improvements to peacekeeping. Today was the surprise result of a common political will, which must lead to decisions that would provide the organization with the necessary human and financial resources to perform its peacekeeping functions. Without those, the United Nations would not be able to move forward.
She said peacekeeping was the responsibility of all. The lack of significant participation by the Member States with the greatest resources might discourage other, moderate-sized countries that currently contributed to peacekeeping operations. Greater participation would lead to tangible improvements. The need to establish the rules of engagement was one of the most delicate issues discussed when the text had been prepared. Once a mandate had been defined, the rules of engagement should be worked out by the objectives established in the mandate.
She said there was also a need to endow United Nations forces with the deterrent capability to enable them to do their jobs. Yet, that capability came with doubts, since peacekeeping meant maintaining peace, not waging war. There was, however, a fine line between peacekeeping based on credible deterrent capability, and making war. Operations must, therefore, have credible capability, while remaining faithful to peacekeeping principles.
JEREMY GREENSTOCK (United Kingdom) said the resolution contained a commitment to get peacekeeping mandates right. Those mandates should be clear, viable and achievable. The text would also lead to more effective peacekeeping operations once they were on the ground. A rapidly deployed and effectively configured mission could make an enormous difference in securing a fragile peace. Coherent doctrine would also help to ensure that training standards were understood and met by troop contributors, and that lessons were learned and acted upon in real time. The annex also emphasized the need for proper strategic guidance to be given to leaders of peacekeeping operations, and for an integrated support structure in New York.
He said the document made it clear that the Councils role in the maintenance of international peace and security could not be narrowly defined. The United Nations must have recourse to a more effective set of tools in preventing conflicts. It must also be able to put in place coordinated strategies to build peace, once a conflict was over. The Council was only one of the partners that needed to take clear and decisive action if the Brahimi report was to be properly implemented. Other organs of the United Nations, including the General Assembly, were already engaged and needed to move quickly to the implementation stage. Also, Member States must look at their own internal procedures to ensure that troops and civilian police could be rapidly deployed, and that they were well-trained and equipped.
He said that the representative of Bangladesh had inferred that all the permanent members of the Council had not shouldered their responsibilities in peacekeeping operations. The United Kingdom rejected that inference. It had devoted huge resources to peacekeeping, especially in Africa, most recently in Sierra Leone.
WANG YINGFAN (China) commended Ambassador Ward for presiding over the Councils Working Group. Today, based on the Groups work, the Council had reached consensus on strengthening peacekeeping operations. That was a good first step and set the stage for further action. Currently, there was a universal call to strengthen United Nations peacekeeping operations. Translating that call into action required commitment and action. The success of peacekeeping operations depended on the political will of Member States to provide the necessary resources. His Government had always supported improving the capacity of United Nations peacekeeping, and thereby enabling the Council to fulfil its responsibility to maintain international peace and security. He hoped the recommendations in the Brahimi report that were more realistic and feasible would be implemented as soon as possible. Strengthening peacekeeping was an ongoing process, and there were more questions that must be tackled.
SAID BEN MUSTAPHA (Tunisia) commended Mr. Brahimi and the Panel for the document they had crafted. The Council had set up a Working Group to examine the recommendations falling within its mandate. He appreciated Ambassador Wards competence in leading the Councils Working Group. He emphasized the importance of having peacekeeping operations conform to the principles enshrined in the United Nations Charter. The principles of national sovereignty, territorial integrity and non-interference in internal affairs must be respected. The reform of peacekeeping required changes in structure and management, as well as in the provision of resources. With regard to rapid deployment, the United Nations had sometimes been slow, and that had been perceived as incapability and selectivity. To avoid such situations, peacekeeping must be given equal consideration in all regions of the world.
Resolving the problems associated with insufficient troops and personnel was a collective responsibility, he said. The Brahimi Panel had underlined the usefulness of institutionalizing consultations between the Council and troop- contributing countries. Past experience called for enhancing the quality and quantity of those consultations from the onset of the planning stage of an operation. Close and meaningful consultations would ensure the success of a mission. Unremitting attention must be paid to the deep causes of conflicts. The Panel had underlined the importance of better peace-building strategies, since peace and development were intrinsically linked. The work accomplished by the Council on the Brahimi report would be an important contribution to the efforts of the United Nations to strengthen peacekeeping.
SHAHRIL EFFENDI (Malaysia) said he hoped the adoption of the text today would spur other organs and bodies of the United Nations to complete their deliberations on the recommendations of the Panel. He stressed that the Organizations peacekeeping missions must be equipped with the necessary tools to carry out their mandates effectively. The current crisis with the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone was a glaring example of the need for more Member States to contribute to that Mission. His delegation hoped for the early implementation of decisions contained in the various annexes to the resolution adopted today.
VOLODYMYR G. KROKHMAL (Ukraine) said the history of United Nations peacekeeping had reached a turning point, and now it was important to have the recommendations and conclusions outlined in the Brahimi report properly implemented. He believed that recognition of the need for an improved system of consultation between the Council, the Secretariat and troop-contributors was an important element of the resolution. It would strengthen mandates and coordination. The Council should also consult with troop contributors and the Secretariat throughout all stages of peacekeeping operations, particularly when the situation on the ground was deteriorating and endangering peacekeepers.
GEORGE KAXUXWENA (Namibia) commended Ambassador Ward of Jamaica for his leadership over the Working Group. The recommendations contained in the Report of the Working Group gave the Council an opportunity to take into account lessons learned in past and ongoing peacekeeping operations. In keeping with the Charter, peacekeeping operations were a collective and shared responsibility. While regional organizations had a role in peace and security, the primary responsibility of maintaining international peace and security rested with the Council. In that regard, the provision included in the Report of the Working Group to strengthen the system of consultations with troop- contributing countries at all levels during the consideration of mandates was imperative.
He stressed the need for rapid deployment and looked forward to the findings by the Secretary-General on the modalities for achieving those objectives. Indeed, the best guarantee in maintaining international peace and security was to tackle the root cause of conflict. Investing in the promotion of sustainable development was indispensable to peace and security. The Report before the Council further reaffirmed the indispensable role women played in conflict prevention and resolution, and fully endorsed mainstreaming a gender perspective into peacekeeping operations. The full implementation of Resolution 1325 was, therefore, crucial.
CHEICKNA KEITA (Mali) commended the Councils decision to give peacekeeping operations clear and credible mandates. He commended the approach taken in the Brahimi report, which would make peacekeeping operations a credible force for peace. He also commended the Working Group, chaired by Ambassador Ward, and welcomed the consensus leading to the adoption of the resolution. He encouraged the elaboration of a global strategy to tackle the root causes of conflict. Conflict prevention measures should be taken while respecting the principle of noninterference in the internal matters of States. He welcomed the strengthening of the existing system of consultations of the Council with troop contributing countries. He also welcomed the partnership established between the Council and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).
Finally, he welcomed the role of conflict prevention in conflict resolution and called for the complete implementation of resolution 1327.
PETER VAN WALSUM (Netherlands), speaking in his national capacity, commended Ambassador Ward on his leadership in conducting the work of the Working Group. By adopting the resolution submitted by the Group, the Council sent a clear message that it was determined to do better in the area of peacekeeping. There were two areas of qualitative improvement. The first was the resolve of the Council to give peacekeeping operations clear, credible and achievable mandates. The second was to involve troop-contributing countries in a more serious and constructive way. Specific mention had been made of holding more private meetings with troop-contributing countries. They would now be consulted on the implementation phase, when a change in mandate was being considered, or when conditions on the ground posed a threat to personnel.
He added that the Council had made all the right decisions it could at the present time. He now looked forward to the support of the General Assembly, whose early decisions would underline the common responsibility of the Member States of the United Nations in improving peacekeeping operations.
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