SECURITY COUNCIL CONDEMNS VIOLENCE AGAINST UN, HUMANITARIAN PERSONNEL, IN PRESIDENTIAL STATEMENT, FOLLOWING DAY-LONG DEBATE20000209
Thirty-one Speakers Address Council, Including Deputy Secretary-General, World Food Programme's Executive Director
The Security Council this afternoon urged States to act promptly and effectively in bringing to justice all those responsible for violence against United Nations and associated personnel and humanitarian workers.
In a Presidential Statement read by the Foreign Minister of Argentina, Adalberto Rodriguez Giavarini, after a day-long debate on the question of the safety and security of such personnel, the Council condemned the acts of murder and various forms of physical and psychological violence, including abduction, hostage-taking, kidnapping, harassment and illegal arrest and detention to which such personnel had been subjected, as well as acts of destruction and looting of their property.
The Council stated that improving the security of the personnel might require, among other things, the development and strengthening of all aspects of the current safety and security regime in place, as well as the adoption of effective action to address the impunity of those who committed crimes against them. The Council also recognized the importance of clear, appropriate and feasible mandates being issued for peacekeeping operations to ensure their application in a timely, efficient and objective manner. That would ensure that all new and ongoing United Nations field operations included appropriate modalities for the safety and security of United Nations and associated personnel, and humanitarian personnel. It underscored that United Nations personnel had the right to act in self-defence.
The Secretary-General was encouraged to complete his review of security in peacekeeping operations and to elaborate and undertake further specific and practical measures to increase the safety and security of the personnel involved. It was important that such a plan be developed for every peacekeeping and humanitarian operation, the Council said, and that Member States and the Secretariat should cooperate during the early elaboration and implementation of that plan.
One of 31 speakers to address the Council today, Deputy Secretary-General Louise Fréchette told the Council "security is not a luxury". It was owed to
Security Council - 1a - Press Release SC/6803 4100th Meeting (AM & PM) 9 February 2000
the troops and civilians who volunteered to serve in far away places under the most challenging of circumstances and to the local staff who helped to fulfil Council mandates. She recommended strengthening the capacity of the United Nations Security Coordinator's Office, ensuring that field missions were adequately staffed with security professionals and essential equipment, placing greater emphasis on security training, establishing better coordination of security arrangements between the many United Nations offices, as well as with other humanitarian organizations, and more generous contributions to humanitarian agencies.
She added that resources must not only be increased, but be predictable. There should be nothing discretionary about financing staff security, she said. The Council, when formulating mandates, must consider two issues: the size and configuration of the force must be commensurate with the risk it was likely to face; and the mandate should not create unrealistic expectations among the local populations.
The Executive Director of the World Food Programme, Catherine Bertini, said that a growing factor in the security picture was the resurgence of the use of hunger as a weapon of war. People were wilfully starved because of their politics, religion or ethnicity.. The international community must take concrete steps to ensure the safety of aid workers. All humanitarian workers must be equipped for dangerous work through security training, so they could read warning signs in volatile settings, deal with armed marauders, spot hidden landmines, extricate themselves from trouble and deal with forced confinement.
The representative of Singapore observed that Member States that withheld their regular funding to the United Nations should realize that their actions endangered the lives of men and women in the field. The primary responsibility for protection, however, lay with the Council. Before launching any operation, it must factor in the safety and security of the personnel involved.
According to the representative of the United States, the primary responsibility for the safety and security of humanitarian and United Nations personnel rested with the authorities of the host government. Under all circumstances. United Nations personnel had a right to protect themselves, but it was incumbent on host States and other actors to create environments in which the staff could safely carry out their missions.
Statements were also made by the representatives of China, Canada, France, Russian Federation, Bangladesh, Jamaica, United Kingdom, Mali, Malaysia, Namibia, Tunisia, Ukraine, Netherlands, Argentina, Belarus, Japan, Brazil, Republic of Korea, Egypt, Portugal (on behalf of the European Union), South Africa, Uruguay, Australia, Slovenia, New Zealand and Norway. The representative of the International Committee of the Red Cross also spoke.
The meeting which began at 9:50 a.m., was suspended at 1:13 p.m., resumed at 3:42 p.m. and adjourned at 4:55p.m.
Council Work Programme
The Security Council met this morning for an open meeting on the protection of United Nations and associated personnel, and humanitarian personnel. It was scheduled to hear a statement by Deputy Secretary-General Louise Fréchette.
Statement by Deputy Secretary-General
LOUISE FRÉCHETTE, Deputy Secretary-General, said it was not just United Nations personnel, but the international community as a whole which stood to benefit from the protection of United Nations and associated personnel. Whenever a "Blue Helmet", a relief worker or local interpreter fell victim to hatred or violence, they were mourned not only by family friends, but by those who depended on their help. But, the United Nations did not have the option of simply walking away from dangerous situations. If it left, there might be no one to take its place. The Organization must at least make sure that its personnel - military and police staff, and the thousands of civilians who served in peacekeeping, peacemaking and humanitarian mission -- was not exposed to unnecessary danger.
She said the Secretariat was considering a number of concrete steps to better safeguard the security of United Nations personnel, including strengthening the capacity of the United Nations Security Coordinators Office to perform its responsibilities as overall security manager of the United Nations system. The Secretary-General intended to appoint a fulltime security coordinator as soon as possible. A second goal was to ensure that field missions were adequately staffed with security professionals, and adequately provided with essential equipment.
Another objective, she said, was to place greater emphasis on security training. One suggestion was to establish training centres where all international staff would receive intensive security training before being deployed. Member States could consider inviting non-military staff to attend the security segment of their training programmes for peacekeepers. In addition, she added, there must be better coordination of security arrangements among the many United Nations actors often present in one location, as well as with other humanitarian organizations which might be present.
Member States needed to recognize that good security cost money, she said. The financing of security management and training remained piecemeal and inadequate. She hoped that appeals which included requests from humanitarian agencies to cover country specific requirements would be heard. The Trust Fund for the Security of Personnel of the United Nations had only received contributions of $1.2 million, an amount that did not even allow for training those assigned to the most precarious countries. She appealed to all Member States to contribute as generously as they could.
Resources, however, must not only be increased, but be predictable, she said. There should be nothing discretionary about financing staff security. Also, Member States who had not done so could sign and ratify the 1994 Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel. Moreover, Member States should consider extending the scope of the Convention to cover categories of personnel that fell outside the Conventions protective regime. In addition, Member States should speed up the ratification of the Statute of the International Criminal Court.
Further, she said, Member States should assist investigating and bringing to justice those who had harmed or murdered United Nations and associated humanitarian personnel. Since January 1992, 184 staff members had lost their lives in the service of the United Nations. Of those, 98 had been murdered. Yet, to date, only two perpetrators had been convicted. What did that tell the world? The Council had a special responsibility to see that justice was done when its colleagues were the victims of deliberate acts of violence.
Continuing, she said the mandates given to United Nations operations had an enormous impact upon security. Thus, she urged the Council to consider two issues when formulating those mandates. First, the size and configuration of the force must be commensurate with the risk it was likely to face. Moreover, mandates should not create unrealistic expectations among the local populations. Too often, United Nations personnel became targets of desperate people's anger when the expectations were not fulfilled.
Concluding, she said that security is not a luxury. It is not a perk. It is not a favour to be granted. Security was owed to the troops and civilians who volunteered to serve in far away places under the most challenging of circumstances and the local staff who helped to fulfil the mandates.
Statement by Executive Director of World Food Programme
CATHERINE BERTINI, Executive Director of the World Food Programme (WFP), said that in Somalia, Sudan and Afghanistan, United Nations relief convoys had been hijacked and the drivers beaten or killed. In Angola and Afghanistan, their planes had been fired on. Their staff had been held hostage in Sierra Leone, the Balkans, the Great Lakes, the Caucasus and elsewhere. Since 1992, United Nations agencies had lost 184 civilian staff to violence, including air crashes. Since 1994, there had been 59 incidents of kidnapping and hostage-taking, affecting 228 of their colleagues. In 1999 alone, there were 292 violent robberies, assaults, rapes and vehicle hijackings.
The mechanical business of delivering aid in war zones was especially hazardous, she said. The WFP often handled the logistics of moving both people and supplies for all the United Nations agencies and many non-governmental organizations, in trouble spots such as East Timor, Kosovo and Angola. One of the saddest moments for the agency was when a WFP chartered shuttle from Rome to Pristina crashed, killing all 24 people on board.
She said a growing factor in the security picture had been the resurgence of the use of hunger as a weapon of war. People were wilfully starved because of their politics, their religion or ethnicity. Food stocks were stolen or destroyed, fields were burned. Hunger was an integral part of the tactics of violence in Somalia, southern Sudan, Angola and Afghanistan. It was also used in Kosovo in a systematic way, not seen in Europe for half a century. The international community must take concrete steps to ensure the safety of aid workers. She said in 1998, a year in which the WFP lost 12 staff members, seven of them murdered, the agency created a security task force to examine ways to better protect its staff. The WFPs greatest achievement so far had been an agency-wide security training programme for all its employees. In just 11 months, it had trained more than 5,400 WFP staff worldwide. In fact, over a two-year period, the WFP had quadrupled its expenditures for security staff.
She said all humanitarian staff must be equipped for dangerous work through security training, to deal with such things as reading the warning signs in volatile settings, dealing with armed marauders, spotting hidden landmines, extricating themselves from trouble and dealing with forced confinement. Communications systems must be improved, as should field structures and security consciousness. There was a need to increase the awareness of security in the United Nations culture and, more importantly, to embrace security management as an integral part of all United Nations humanitarian operations.
She highlighted a number or recommendations to strengthen the consciousness and competence of the United Nations approach to security, among them: maintaining the humanitarian principles of impartiality in all crises; Security Council examination of the authorization of peacekeepers in crisis situations and defining the peacekeepers' role as explicitly including how future peacekeeping operations would protect humanitarian workers; Council mobilization of the international community to punish those responsible for crimes against humanitarian workers; and security training for all United Nations staff members who worked in insecure environments. The United Nations Security Coordinators Office should be enhanced and a clearing house for security information also enhanced, she added.
SHEN GUOFANG (China) expressed concern that the security of United Nations and associated personnel was not protected. He condemned attacks of any form against United Nations personnel and requested that countries where such incidents had occurred work to bring the perpetrators to justice. He observed that some who had committed those atrocities were still free. He called for active cooperation to protect United Nations personnel. The mandate of each peacekeeping operation should be clear and include extensive plan for security. Such personnel should abide by international law and the principles of the Charter, as well as the laws of the host country.
He said it was necessary for the United Nations to establish effective mechanisms and measures to deal with the problem. Instead of just issuing statements, the Council must show that it would never tolerate such atrocities. The matter should be jointly discussed and handled within the United Nations. He hoped that the Council would strengthen its cooperation with other organs within the United Nations.
ROBERT R.FOWLER (Canada) said it was a testament to their dedication to affected populations that the staff of the United Nations and other intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations continued to operate in insecure environments. He paid tribute to their courage and sacrifices, knowing how much more vulnerable populations would suffer without their commitment.
He said the international community must find ways to ensure respect for implementation of applicable international law by all the parties concerned. He noted the vital role of the Security Council in seeking to put an end to impunity. It should also find creative ways to ensure respect and freedom of movement for such staff in the field, including by encouraging the negotiation of ground rules and codes of conduct with and among combatants and host governments. The Council must also ensure that the work of the United Nations and associated personnel or humanitarian personnel was not used as a substitute by Member States for addressing the root causes of conflicts.
He observed that the responsibility for the safety of United Nations and associated personnel and humanitarian workers lay with the parties to a conflict and with host governments. They should be called on to guarantee the security of those individuals, including through negotiation of special arrangements, and to ensure civilian populations unimpeded access to humanitarian assistance, in accordance with the principles of neutrality and impartiality. Where no such guarantees were offered, international censure should be swift. The inclusion of attacks on United Nations and relief personnel as a war crime in the Statute of the International Criminal Court was an important contribution to the body of international legal protection, as was the entry into force of the 1994 convention on the safety of United Nations and associated personnel. It was essential, he added, that governments adopted the appropriate domestic legislative, judicial and administrative measures to ensure that those who committed such crimes were brought to justice.
He said the Council should be prepared to use all measures at its disposal to reinforce its concerns, including the adoption of targeted sanctions in instances where parties to a conflict had failed to render the proper guarantees. Indeed, he said the international community must raise the political and economic costs of attacks against such personnel. Troop-contributing countries had a role to play as well. Relief workers could also take measures to reduce their vulnerability. Neutrality and impartiality in the delivery of assistance must be maintained and coordination and collaboration among different agencies entrenched, he said.
ALAIN DEJAMMET (France) said France fully associated itself with the statement to be made by the representative of Portugal on behalf of the European Union. United Nations personnel participated in humanitarian and peacekeeping operations whether or not it was dangerous. It was the Councils responsibility to see that they and all those who contributed to operations decided upon by the Council were safe. The Council could affect the situation through the mandates it adopted and the provision of adequate means.
He said the Council was increasingly attentive to the elements of mission mandates and rules of engagements that made it possible to provide security. The provisions of the mandates of the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA) and the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) illustrated that positive trend. The suggestion of the Deputy Secretary-General and the Executive Secretary of the World Food Programme should be borne in mind when drafting mandates. Their comments would guide Council deliberations.
He said the Council must secure a good fit between the mandates and their means. Guaranteeing the security of personnel implied that the Council could not skimp on staffing levels. It must, in each case, look at the practical needs of the forces, including financing. France was completing the process of ratifying the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel.
SERGEY V. LAVROV (Russian Federation) said the security of United Nations and associate personnel had always been integral part of United Nations resolutions. He noted with great alarm that those personnel had become more and more the victims of kidnapping and hostage-taking, in such hot spots as Kosovo, East Timor and Sierra Leone. He said the degree of danger they were exposed to was borne out by a recent incident in Kosovo. It, among others, attested to the need for action to protect international staff. Russia, from its own experience, had come to grips with such incidents. It had borne the brunt of in such areas where the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) was involved. The OSCE collective peacekeeping forces in Tajikistan were fully made up of Russian troops. They had helped to achieve a ceasefire, at a high price.
The Security Council had pointed to the responsibility of States hosting peacekeeping missions about the safety of staff. It was appropriate for the Council to reaffirm that position. The legal basis for that must enter into force. His Government was taking steps to ratify the new convention on the safety and security of United Nations and associated personnel. Many practical proposals had been made today on improving the safety and protection of United Nations and associated humanitarian personnel. One other practical way would be to include anti-terrorism experts among those staff. Such experts could assume a coordinating role in United Nations missions.
KARIM CHOWDHURY (Bangladesh) said his country was concerned most about the increasing tendency by parties to a conflict to target non-combatants - civilians, including United Nations and associated personnel and humanitarian personnel. Those individuals put their lives at risk pursuing a noble mission and his delegation wished to pay rich tribute to many of them who had sacrificed their life and security in the service of humanity in distant parts of the world.
The existing international legal framework set standards for parties to an armed conflict on the treatment of those protected persons, he continued. In spite of those standards, there was increasing violence against them, which called for action by the international community towards promoting a culture of compliance and strengthening security arrangements. The Security Council had a clear responsibility to ensure the safety and security of United Nations personnel, associated personnel and humanitarian personnel in accordance with the provisions of international law and respective national laws, as appropriate. While the primary responsibility to do so rested with the States hosting a United Nations or humanitarian mission, his Government urged that every care be taken by such personnel to preserve the impartial and international nature of those missions.
He was convinced that those personnel played an irreplaceable role in conflict situations. It was important for them to have access to the affected population, in accordance with the relevant principles and rules of international humanitarian law. The inclusion of attacks intentionally directed against such personnel as a war crime in the Rome Statute was an important step towards addressing the impunity of the perpetrators of such violence. He fully supported the call for bringing to justice those responsible for the violence against the protected personnel.
Continuing, he said the mandates for peacekeeping operations needed to incorporate a strengthened safety and security regime, to ensure that measures were in support of their main mission. He looked forward to a general and comprehensive review of security in peacekeeping operations and elaboration of specific measures towards increasing the safety and security of humanitarian personnel. He strongly supported the proposal to develop a comprehensive security plan for the personnel of every peacekeeping and humanitarian mission. Specific and practical measures based on the provisions of the 1994 Convention should be built into each status-of-forces agreement and status-of-mission agreement.
M. PATRICIA DURRANT (Jamaica) said her Government condemned all acts of violence directed against United Nations and other humanitarian personnel. The international community must move with urgency to curb such acts and spare no effort to adopt comprehensive approaches to resolve those violations of international law. It must continue to urge full compliance with international humanitarian law and to address the gaps in the legal coverage of humanitarian personnel. The Council should ensure that the mandates of United Nations field operations include appropriate measures for their safety and protection. The Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations should seek to determine the most appropriate cases in which that approach might be applied.
She said coordination and cooperation among the military, civilian, political and humanitarian components of a multifunctional operation were essential to the security of peacekeeping personnel. Proper training and sensitization of humanitarian personnel to the relevant domestic laws and conditions should become an integral part of their process of preparation. An effective and comprehensive security plan for the humanitarian components of peacekeeping operations was essential for their success and for ensuring the safety of the personnel involved. Also, adequate financial resources were integral to such a plan.
She said the United Nations must devise appropriate legal instruments to address the concerns of humanitarian organizations not associated with it. It must also address the legal coverage of locally recruited United Nations staff. It must also take special note of the entry into force of the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel. The protection of humanitarian workers could not be achieved without effective deterrence. The Council should put its full weight behind efforts to strengthen international legal enforcement mechanisms; continue to support the international criminal tribunals; and continue to emphasize the responsibility of both States and non-State actors to guarantee the safety of humanitarian personnel and to ensure the unimpeded access of such personnel to civilians in situations of conflict.
STEWART ELDON (United Kingdom) said the safety and security of United Nations and associated personnel, and of humanitarian personnel was an issue of vital importance to his country. The United Kingdom was a significant contributor of troops, military observers and civilian police to United Nations peacekeeping operations. And more of its nationals served as humanitarian staff in the field. Like other Council members, the United Kingdom owed a duty of care to those it deployed to do vitally important jobs in conditions all too often dangerous and unpleasant.
He said the Council should continue to analyse all proposals for United Nations operations to ensure that those risks were kept to a minimum and, where they could not be avoided, that United Nations personnel were given the means to ensure their own security. He drew attention to the statement the representative of Portugal would make on behalf of the European Union, which the United Kingdom fully supported.
JAMES CUNNINGHAM (United States) said that in a community of nations, all shared a moral obligation to act to prevent the onset of violence and, when that failed, to mitigate conflict. The international community also shared a responsibility for protecting United Nations and associated personnel, humanitarian workers and members of multinational forces working for peace and stability in areas of conflict.
Under all circumstances, he said, United Nations personnel had a right to protect themselves. Nevertheless, it was incumbent on host States and other actors to create environments in which the staff could safely carry out their missions. The primary responsibility for the safety and security of humanitarian and United Nations personnel rested with the authorities of the host government. The Secretariat should develop comprehensive security plans for all missions. It was imperative that all parties cooperate fully with the United Nations to facilitate the timely and effective deployment of humanitarian and peacekeeping missions.
He welcomed the Councils decision to avail itself of the appropriate tools for protecting United Nations and associated personnel. He supported sanctions targeted to deter and contain those who violated international humanitarian and human rights law, as well as those parties to conflicts who continually defied Council resolutions.
MOCTAR OUANE (Mali) observed that United Nations and associated personnel, as well as humanitarian personnel, had become victims of hostage-taking and ransom demands. Such intolerable situations must be ended as soon as possible. He recalled that the Security Council in a presidential statement in the past had condemned such practices. It was important that the Councils commitment on the matter was strengthened. He said it was incumbent upon States on whose territory such acts occurred to apprehend perpetrators and bring them to justice. The international community must end such impunity.
Mali had signed the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and was in the process of ratifying it, and appealed to others to sign and ratify it, too. He announced that his country would soon complete formalities for ratifying the 1994 Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel.
HASMY AGAM (Malaysia) said a major concern was that the response of host governments to various incidents affecting United Nations and associated personnel and humanitarian personnel had often been tardy and inadequate. The Organization must insist that concerned governments conduct thorough investigations into all incidents affecting the security of its personnel. He welcomed the timely entry into force of the 1994 Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel.
He said the Council had an obligation to ensure that United Nations and associated personnel and humanitarian personnel were able to carry out their missions. While proper training about the real situation and the risks on the ground would better equip humanitarian personnel in handling risky situations, that did not absolve the combatants of their own obligations and responsibilities to humanitarian workers. He reiterated his delegations suggestion to give tribute to the courage and sacrifices of humanitarian workers in the same way it was given to peacekeepers.
Most of the deaths and injuries of United Nations and associated personnel and humanitarian workers in conflict zones were due to gunshot wounds, the effects of indiscriminate shelling and landmines. Accordingly, the Council must redouble its efforts to curb illicit trafficking in small arms and light weapons and support the global effort to implement the Ottowa Convention on anti-personnel landmines. He supported the imposition of arms embargoes in situations where civilians and protected persons were deliberately targeted by the parties to the conflict.
MARTIN ANDJABA (Namibia) said rebel movements and other armed groups were targeting United Nations personnel persistently. In the Angola situation, for example, the National Union for the Total Independence of Namibia (UNITA), under specific and strict instructions from Jonas Savimbi, had shot down two United Nations chartered aircraft on 26 December 1998 and 2 January 1999. In addition, a Russian plane had been shot down by UNITA and the fate of the crew remained unknown. It was, therefore, important that a clear message was sent to rebel movements in Africa, and elsewhere, that lawlessness would no longer be tolerated.
He said the international community should not only condemn those barbaric acts, but should also ensure that those responsible were brought to justice. He welcomed the entry into force of the 1994 Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel. He encouraged Member States to become parties to the Convention to end the culture of impunity, in which flagrant violations of human rights and humanitarian law continued to go unpunished.
It was also important that United Nations observers were provided with an adequate protection force, under an appropriate mandate, he continued. In addition, he said there was a need to explore meaningful ways of effectively disarming rebels and other armed groups. That aspect needed to be further examined, as it was linked to the continuous illegal flow of arms into conflict situations. The other important confidence-building measure, which had been used in his country in the past, was a code of conduct to which all parties should adhere. On the question of the responsibility of host governments for the security and protection of United Nations personnel, he said that for those countries to be able to fulfil their obligations, it was fitting that the United Nations personnel and associated ones, as well as humanitarian workers, observed and respected the national laws and avoided all acts incompatible with the nature of their duties.
SAID BEN MUSTAPHA (Tunisia) said there were two questions: why the situation of inadequate protection for United Nations and associated personnel and humanitarian personnel existed; and how it could be remedied. The dubious conduct of several groups in peacekeeping operations could be explained as a failure to understand their mandate. But, there was less respect for the United Nations flag and the symbols of the ICRC and Red Crescent. They were becoming more vulnerable.
He said the United Nations had responded to the situation with the Convention of 1994, which identified the personnel subject to protection and the obligation of the host countries. So far, the implementation of the Convention had been limited. Careful consideration should be given to broadening the scope of the Convention to include other personnel.
He welcomed the efforts of the Secretary-General to improve the protection of United Nations and associated personnel and humanitarian workers. Preparations should include sensitivity training, along with the recommendations made by Ms. Fréchette and Ms. Bertini. The problems connected with the deployment of missions should be seriously considered, including taking into account the specifics of each operation to determine the dangers involved. Cooperation between the various bodies in the field should be improved. At the same time, the personnel should respect the sovereignty of the host country.
VOLODYMYR YELCHENKO (Ukraine) said that over the past seven years of his countrys participation in 15 United Nations operations and missions, 18 Ukrainian peacekeepers had laid down their lives for the cause of peace. Over 50 servicemen had suffered wounds and disabilities. Todays meeting of the Council is, therefore, of practical significance to his country.
The expansion of United Nations peacekeeping activities, as well as recurring acts of violence against United Nations and associated personnel, rendered the issue of the extension of the scope of legal protection to all categories of such personnel timely and acute. The entry into force of the 1994 Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel represented significant progress in strengthening the regime of protection for those personnel.
He said the Convention, however, was inadequate to ensure the same level of protection to other categories of United Nations and associated personnel engaged in operations other than those specifically authorized by the Security Council or the General Assembly, including locally recruited staff. He shared the view of the Deputy Secretary-General on the need for extending the scope of the 1994 Convention. He expressed support for the elaboration and adoption of an additional protocol to the Convention. The General Assembly should be involved in that task. Further, he stressed the need for effective implement and enforcement mechanisms, which would provide solid guarantees against the impunity of those responsible for attacks and other acts of violence against United Nations and associated personnel.
PETER VAN WALSUM (Netherlands) said his Government endorsed the statement that would be made by the representative of Portugal on behalf of the European Union. The protection of United Nations and associated personnel and humanitarian personnel was a subject of high priority for the Netherlands.
Referring to Saskia van Meijenfeldt, a young Dutch woman who worked for the World Food Programme and who was killed execution style, along with a colleague from the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) in Burundi, he said such atrocities would continue to occur as long as the perpetrators were treated with impunity. He was struck by the description of the dilemma in which humanitarian workers found themselves, when the situation was unacceptable, but calling off their work would mean abandoning those who needed their help. The threshold of what was tolerable had tended to creep upwards and that had been a factor in the death of Ms. Meijenfeldt.
ADALBERTO RODRIGUEZ GIAVARINI, Foreign Minister of Argentina and President of the Security Council, said his Government considered United Nations missions as essential tools to maintaining international peace and security and for the peace- building process after a conflict. That was why his country had actively participated in peacekeeping operations. At present, it was the eighth contributor in order of importance as far as troops were concerned, with a presence in 10 out of the 19 missions currently deployed. He expressed his countrys willingness to contribute in the operations that the Council might authorize.
In the humanitarian field, Argentina had also led the creation of the White Helmets, an initiative aimed at putting at the disposal of the Secretary-General reserve teams made out of pre-trained national volunteers, able to immediately support the United Nations activities in the fields of emergency assistance, rehabilitation, reconstruction and development. He said that between 1996 and 1999, 629 White Helmets had been deployed in 58 missions in 26 countries. It was the intention of his Government to keep on contributing to the humanitarian efforts of the Organization.
The activities of the United Nations and associated personnel were becoming riskier, he said. They were working under increasingly more dangerous conditions, shown in the frequency of attacks and the use of force. To increase their safety, a set of practical and legal measures was required. Peacekeeping operations should have sufficiently financed, adequate and realistic mandates, and they should be implemented in a timely, effective and impartial manner, ensuring that the protection and safety of the personnel was an integral part of the planning and implementation of the operations.
If incidents still happened, investigations should be carried out and action taken to punish those responsible. Argentina was a party to the 1994 Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel and was satisfied about its entry into force. He said those who tirelessly worked to mitigate the suffering of other human beings deserved the international community's deepest appreciation. Those individuals set an example for all. It was imperative that practical and legal measures be taken to enhance their protection. By calling for the debate, he said his country wanted to draw attention to the dangers they faced. The meeting should be a profound tribute to those personnel. He announced that, despite its economic difficulties, Argentina would contribute $50,000 to the Trust Fund for peacekeeping operations.
ALYAKSANDR SYCHOV (Belarus) said his country had become the thirty-fourth State to sign the 1994 Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel. He underlined the role national parliaments must play in creating additional mechanisms to supplement the provisions of the Convention. He said the condemnation of acts against humanitarian workers was not enough; action was needed to protect them. The year 1994 was an important one for the United Nations peacekeeping activities. He said attacks against United Nations personnel were becoming more frequent and highlighted the importance of the adoption of measures to protect such personnel.
He also stressed the need for the training of personnel, underscoring the direct connection between protection of United Nations and associated personnel and terrorism. He commended the Russian Federation for organizing a meeting of the Security Council on terrorism.
KINSHORE MAHBUBANI (Singapore) said that, despite the entry into force of the 1994 Convention, attacks on United Nations and associated personnel had continued unabated, resulting in the loss of many more lives. In addition, the whereabouts of some 50 United Nations staffers around the world were unknown. That was totally unacceptable. The international community was obligated to ensure that those people were adequately protected and the Council bore the main burden of that obligation.
He said the Council should insist on the full and effective implementation and the strengthening of international humanitarian law related to the security of United Nations and associated personnel and humanitarian personnel. All responsible for harming those personnel should be fully punished.
Continuing, he said the primary responsibility for protection lay within the Council. Before launching any operations, it must factor in the safety and security of the personnel involved. It must also ensure that there was a match between the mandate and the resources approved for each mission. Moreover, the Council must be accountable if any operation went wrong. It should analyse what went wrong and why. Accountability was an essential aspect of leadership. A comprehensive security plan should also cover contingencies.
Member States that withheld their regular funding to the United Nations should realize that their actions had real consequences -- they endangered the lives of men and women in the field. To prove their commitment to ensuring safety, all Member States should accede to the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel. He hoped today's discussion would trigger more action.
YUKIO TAKASU (Japan) said that, while the number of those killed in the line of duty continued to increase, there was no clear sign of improvement in the security situation surrounding United Nations personnel. Therefore, it was imperative to mobilize collective political will and start taking concrete and practical steps to prevent further casualties. The Council should attach higher priority in its work to the safety of personnel in the field. It should continue to monitor the situation in the field and adopt specific measures to protect personnel in conflict zones, as well as take a public stand against those who endangered the lives of personnel. The strong and consistent interest of the Security Council to the matter would demonstrate that the international community would not tolerate a culture of impunity and would hold responsible those who violated the safety of personnel.
Turning to the international legal framework, he said that, so far, only 29 countries had ratified the 1994 Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel. Moreover, those 29 States did not include any countries where United Nations peacekeeping forces were deployed. He called upon those States that had not yet done so to become parties to the Convention as soon as possible. It was especially important that all members of the Council did so, thereby setting an example to the rest of the membership. In that regard, he hoped that the Council would urge Member States receiving United Nations operations in their territories to ratify the Convention. His Government also supported the recommendation to pursue the development of a protocol to the 1994 Convention, which would expand the scope of legal protection to all United Nations and associated personnel. At the same time, it should be recalled that, under the 1994 Convention, the Council could extend the scope of legal protection on a case-by- case basis.
Training in safety and security was particularly important, he continued. The need for security training was growing, and the Trust Fund required continued support. It was deeply distressing that, to date, only five Member States, including Japan, had contributed to the Fund. He invited the entire membership to support the Trust Fund in its efforts to enhance the safety of personnel on the ground. To encourage a more positive response from Member States, it might be worthwhile if the Secretariat organized regular briefings to apprise them of concrete measures taken and discuss with them possible additional measures of support. He hoped that the general and comprehensive review of security requirements for peacekeepers, which had been planned by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, would be completed as soon as possible. Japan was also ready to extend its support for a working group or a seminar on the safety and security of personnel, which the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations had proposed last year.
GELSON FONSECA (Brazil) said the international community must find an appropriate remedy for the protection of humanitarian personnel. Belligerents often saw humanitarian workers as enemies, as favouring one of the parties to a conflict. The Council must urgently make every effort to improve the safety of United Nations and associated personnel. Concrete suggestions had been put forward and he emphasized the importance of those made by Ms. Fréchette and Ms. Bertini.
He stressed the importance of ensuring that missions included a significant security component, strengthening the Office of the United Nations Security Coordinator, maintaining a clear distinction between troops and humanitarian workers and providing secure and unimpeded access to humanitarian workers. He went on to say that humanitarian workers were often victims, losing their lives in volatile regions, while bringing hope to those who had lost it. They deserved recognition and respect. They were the true heroes of our times.
LEE SEE-YOUNG (Republic of Korea) said the Security Council should continue to forge ahead with international efforts to break the culture of impunity, by bringing to justice those who attacked United Nations and associated personnel, as well as humanitarian workers in situations of conflict. His country fully agreed that national governments and the parties to conflict should bear primary responsibility for guaranteeing the safety and security of United Nations and associated personnel in conflict zones. Specific measures should be taken to hold transgressing parties and their leaders both physically and financially liable to their victims under international law. His country also welcomed the adoption by the General assembly last December of a resolution on the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and protection of United Nations personnel.
He shared the view that when the Security Council took a decision on peacekeeping operations in support of humanitarian activities, it should provide a clear mandate to protect the personnel involved. Provision should also be made for sufficient resources to implement the mandate. Clear rules of engagement were also required. He hoped that more concrete and action-oriented recommendations would emerge from the debate.
AHMED ABOUL GHEIT (Egypt) saluted the United Nations and associated personnel, as well as those humanitarian personnel working in the field. His delegation had followed closely the discussion of the issue of the protection and safety of such personnel in the General Assembly. The discussion of the subject in the Council underlined its importance. He supported the call for decisive action to deal with acts of terrorism against, and the killing of, those personnel.
He noted that the Statute of the International Criminal Court considered such crimes as war crimes. That should deter persons intending to commit them. He called upon the parties to conflicts to respect the rights of United Nations personnel and associated humanitarian workers. At the same time, United Nations staff and associated personnel must respect the laws and customs of host countries. He called for full access to civilian populations, including children in need of humanitarian assistance. Humanitarian workers should approach host governments in coordinating such assistance. His Government had always underscored that any international operation should not endanger the territorial integrity of host countries. In cases where there was no central government, the General Assembly and the Security Council must fashion ways for dealing with the problem. He underlined the importance of adequate financial resources for peacekeeping operations.
ANTONIO MONTEIRO (Portugal) spoke on behalf of the European Union. He said the Central and Eastern European countries associated with the Union -- Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia -- and the associated countries of Cyprus and Malta, as well as Iceland and Liechtenstein, aligned themselves with the statement.
He said the protection of United Nations and associated and humanitarian personnel was a fundamental responsibility for United Nations missions in situations of conflict. The safety and security of those personnel had always been of paramount importance. The increase in attacks against such personnel made it an issue of utmost concern, requiring a firm response from the international community. Violence against them was unacceptable and could not be tolerated under any circumstances. Their efforts must be recognized. They must have their impartiality honoured and safety guaranteed. The blue flag of the United Nations must be respected. Without their safety and security, missions and operations could not function, let alone succeed.
`He said the responsibility for the safety of personnel on the ground fell, in the first instance, on the governments hosting peacekeeping and humanitarian operations. The Union urged all parties to conflict to take all steps necessary to ensure the safety and security of United Nations and associated, as well as humanitarian personnel, including locally recruited personnel.
Perpetrators of crimes against such personnel must be brought to justice, he said. Governments must act forcefully to prevent violence against them and to punish those responsible. In that context, he said the Statute of the International Criminal Court was also essential. He urged all Member States to sign and ratify the Convention as a matter of priority. The Union remained committed to early entry into force of the International Criminal Court Statute, he said. The inclusion in the Statute of the war crime of intentionally attacking personnel involved in humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping missions would help to bring perpetrators to justice. Further, the United Nations Secretariat must ensure that United Nations and associated personnel were adequately protected. The Union supported the Secretary-Generals continued strengthening of the Office of the United Nations Security Coordinator with personnel dedicated to security in peacekeeping operations.
The meeting, which began at 9:50 a.m., was suspended at 1:09 p.m.
When the meeting resumed at 3:42 p.m., SYLVIE JUNOD, of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), said the deterioration of security conditions for humanitarian personnel raised a significant challenge to humanitarian organizations. There was a need for legal protection, the implementation of international law and established modalities for humanitarian action.
Regarding legal protection, she said international law set out basic rules for the protection of humanitarian personnel. There were specific rules devoted to those involved in humanitarian action. The ICRC and the Red Crescent were accorded specific protection. The 1994 Convention had bridged certain gaps and attempts were being made to strengthen it further. The law existed, but it must be implemented. The impunity given to perpetrators must end. She recalled that the Statute of the International Criminal Court made it a war crime to attack a humanitarian worker.
She said effective humanitarian action must be conducted in a neutral and impartial fashion. She attached great importance to a regular dialogue between all actors in the field. That approach must be based on acceptance by all parties involved. Humanitarian action must be clearly distinguished from the use of force. Red Cross security had been greatly jeopardized, because another humanitarian group had chosen to use armed escorts. Daily consultation between the members of the humanitarian communities was important. There should be an excellent knowledge of local culture and customs of the region.
DUMISANI KUMALO (South Africa) said his country saluted United Nations staff and humanitarian personnel who had paid the ultimate price while bringing relief in conflict situations. It was deplorable and totally unacceptable that caregivers should lose their lives with impunity. Frequent attacks on and killings of humanitarian personnel in Somalia was preventing food assistance from reaching an estimated 65,000 people in dire need. The criminal actions of armed groups in that country were also disrupting a vaccination campaign against polio. In Angola, he said that at least 700,000 internally displaced persons went without food and shelter.
He said killings, attacks and harassment of United Nations and humanitarian personnel were tantamount to waging war on unarmed personnel. Protection of such personnel, therefore, required urgent attention. He recalled that the primary responsibility for the protection of United Nations and humanitarian personnel lay with host governments. Non-state parties should similarly protect such personnel, in line with international humanitarian law, he said.
His Government welcomed the classification of intentional attacks against humanitarian personnel as a war crime under the Statute of the International Criminal Court. His country was actively participating in the establishment of the Court which, it believed, would further promote the protection of United Nations and humanitarian personnel. His delegation strongly believed that a distinction should be maintained between humanitarian actions and efforts to secure political settlements.
JORGE PEREZ-OTERMIN (Uruguay) said that in this century, the human factor would determine the success of undertakings. Technology was also an important aspect. He expressed concern for the security of international personnel. While more civilians had lost their lives in recent conflicts, military observers on the ground had had to run risks on how to deal with those situations. There had been a considerable loss of life. Uruguay, in particular, had lost many compatriots in defending the cause of peace.
He said his country had ratified the 1994 Convention. The Convention was an important contribution, but there must be stronger support for that kind of initiative. Other actions must also be taken. The Office of the Security Coordinator must be given a larger number of staff. The Secretariat, when recording the safety of United Nations personnel, had established a method for regular reporting on the safety of troops on the ground. That should be encouraged, rather than seen as micro-managing.
The meetings that the Council held with troop-contributing countries was very useful, he said, but much remained to be done to implement the security conditions of peacekeeping operations. Prior consultations were essential. Training was crucial, today more than ever before. Uruguay had established training sessions for peacekeepers and had extended invitations for other countries to join them.
PENNY WENSLEY (Australia) said last year had seen an alarming number of incidents of attacks on United Nations and humanitarian personnel. Australian personnel had been among those who had suffered and in two cases had lost their lives. In one case, three Australians spent a combined total of 19 months in prison on charges of espionage, which were false. That was their reward for working in extraordinarily trying conditions to assist the suffering of ordinary people all over Yugoslavia. They represented hundreds of thousands of individuals around the world committed to helping others.
The challenge of protecting United Nations and humanitarian personnel must be tackled through a combination of measures, she said. The primary responsibility rested with governments within whose jurisdiction activities were taking place. Governments should recognize and respect the independence and impartiality of United Nations personnel and humanitarian workers and allow them to operate without threat or hindrance. States must guarantee immunity and protection according to the law and provide whatever physical protection and assistance was possible.
Governments must also denounce attacks against United Nations personnel and humanitarian workers, she continued. Impunity could not be allowed. To minimize risks, the Council should ensure appropriate plans were in place as part of peacekeeping operations to properly protect humanitarian personnel. She supported the use of Chapter VII of the Charter to ensure protection of United Nations personnel. The authority of the United Nations and the Council must be brought fully to bear to end violence that was committed or threatened against United Nations staff or humanitarian personnel. The protections already provided for must be strengthened.
Enforcement of international humanitarian law must also be strengthened, she said. She supported the International Criminal Court as a powerful instrument for bringing to justice perpetrators of crimes against humanitarian personnel. Most important would be the interlocking of national and international jurisdictions. She urged States to ensure the early entry into force of the International Criminal Court.
SAMUEL ZBOGAR (Slovenia) said his delegation paid tribute to the courage and dedication of all United Nations and associated personnel, as well as humanitarian workers, and particularly to all those who had lost their lives or suffered while serving with the United Nations on behalf of the noble ideals of humanitarianism. The issue of protecting protectors rightly deserved a prominent place on the Security Councils agenda
The responsibility of the Council remained a key element in the response of the international community to humanitarian crises. A lesson relearned in the past few years was that prevention was better than cure. The Council should, as a rule, engage itself at an early stage of an emerging conflict. His delegation was encouraged by the presidential statement adopted last November, showing the Councils resolve to give more attention to preventive action. His delegation looked forward to the first periodic report of the Secretary-General on prevention.
He observed that preventive action, while preferable, was not always possible and the challenges of protecting humanitarian action in conditions of active conflict needed to be dealt with. In such cases, timeliness and adequacy of response to emerging conflicts were crucial criteria for the judgement of the effectiveness of the Council. His delegation was encouraged by the Councils reiteration that it was prepared to take further measures at its disposal.
He said the mandates and objectives of peacekeeping missions had to be clearly defined and supported. The mandates should also include provisions regarding the security and safety of United Nations and associated personnel and humanitarian workers. It welcomed the inclusion of attacks against humanitarian personnel as a crime falling within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court. It also welcomed the entry into force of the 1994 Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel. His delegation recommended that the Council engage in direct dialogue with humanitarian agencies and organizations, including non-governmental organizations, on the issue of protection of their personnel.
MICHAEL POWLES (New Zealand) said that in recent months Member States had endured the murders of UNICEF and WFP staff in Burundi and the savage death of a United Nations official in a public place in Pristina, Kosovo. The Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel, which New Zealand and the Ukraine had a lead role in developing in 1994, offered a framework for dealing with some of those crimes. But, the protections offered by that instrument would remained fragmented in their application, until many more States became parties to it.
Furthermore, he said its scope did not go far enough. The categories of United Nations operations that the Convention covered were somewhat narrow. Recent examples of brutal violence against UNAMET personnel in East Timor illustrated the scope for possible broadening of the United Nations operations covered.
Additionally, he said the Convention failed to accommodate in any way humanitarian workers not specifically tied to a United Nations operation. That currently poorly protected group was in need of strengthened protection under international law. New Zealand was sympathetic to the elaboration of a protocol to extend the range of protection afforded by the Convention.
OLE PETER KOLBY (Norway) said the safety of United Nations and associated personnel, as well as humanitarian personnel, was a critical issue. His Government worked actively for the adoption of the 1994 Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel and was party to it. To make the Convention an effective tool, more States needed to commit themselves to it. Norway had also contributed to the Trust Fund for the security of United Nations personnel, to support training and enhanced security management.
The Norwegian Government was pleased that attacks against United Nations and associated personnel and other humanitarian personnel was included in the list of war crimes in the Statute of the International Criminal Court. He said the Court, when established, would play an important role in bringing to justice those responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law. His Government supported the general idea of guidelines for peacekeepers. However, it was of the opinion that the guidelines published by the Secretariat needed further study and consultations before their implementation in peacekeeping operations.
Ms. FRÉCHETTE, Deputy Secretary-General, reviewing statements made in the debate, expressed appreciation for the initiative in calling the debate. She noted that all of the speakers shared a deep sense of concern for the growing number of incidents and attacks. She welcomed the reaffirmation of a number of important principles, including that it was the primary responsibility of the governments of the host country to ensure security, as well as to deny impunity and bring perpetrators of attacks to justice. As it would be spelled out in the Presidential Statement, security factors should be part of Council decisions.
She had also noted that many States had supported the strengthening of the legal framework for the protection of United Nations and associated personnel. In addition, many speakers had supported the need for strengthening the legal framework for the protection of humanitarian workers. She appreciated that several of the speakers had or were in the process of ratifying the 1994 Convention and she hoped that those who had not already done so, would soon ratify it. There had been many references to the important role the International Criminal Court would play when it came into force.
She welcomed the support for her recommendations, particularly those regarding training. However, she said, to implement those recommendations, resources would have to be provided. The next step would be a comprehensive Secretariat report on the issue of United Nations and associated personnel and humanitarian personnel.
The Council must move beyond words to concrete action, she said. She expressed appreciation for the moving tributes to fallen colleagues. She hoped that todays heroes did not become tomorrows victims.
The Council President, Argentinas Foreign Minister, ADALBERTO RODRIGUEZ GIAVARINI, then read out the following statement on behalf of the Council, which will be issued as S/.PRST/2000/4:
The Security Council is gravely concerned at continued attacks against United Nations and associated personnel*, and humanitarian personnel, which are in violation of international law including international humanitarian law.
The Security Council recalls its resolution 1265/99 of 17 September 1999, and reaffirms the statements of its President of 31 March 1993, on the safety of United Nations forces and personnel deployed in conditions of strife (S/25493/93), of 12 March 1997, on condemnation of attacks on United Nations personnel (S/PRST/1997/13), of 19 June 1997, on the use of force against refugees and civilians in conflict situations (S/PRST/1997/34), and of 29 September 1998, on protection for humanitarian assistance to refugees and others in conflict situations (S/PRST/1998/30). The Council also recalls General Assembly resolution 54/192, on the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and protection of United Nations personnel.
The Security Council also recalls the report of the Secretary-General on the strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations, and its Addendum on the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and protection of United Nations personnel (A/54/154 and Add.1), and looks forward to the report of the Secretary-General pursuant to resolution 54/192 of 17 December 1999, to be submitted to the General Assembly in May 2000, which should contain a detailed analysis and recommendations addressing the scope of legal protection under the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel of 1994.
The Security Council notes with satisfaction the entry into force of the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel of 1994, recognizes its importance for addressing the security of such personnel and recalls the relevant principles contained therein. The Council encourages all States to become party to and respect fully their obligations under the relevant instruments, including the 1994 Convention above referred.
The Security Council recalls that, on a number of occasions, it has condemned attacks and the use of force against United Nations and associated personnel, and humanitarian personnel. It strongly deplores the fact that incidents of violence have continued, leading to a rising toll of casualties among United Nations, associated and humanitarian personnel. The Council strongly condemns the acts of murder and various forms of physical and psychological violence, including abduction, hostage-taking, kidnapping, harassment and illegal arrest and detention to which such personnel have been subjected, as well as acts of destruction and looting of their property, all of which are unacceptable.
The Security Council also recalls that the primary responsibility for the security and protection of United Nations and associated personnel, and humanitarian personnel, lies with the host State. The Council urges States and non-State parties to respect fully the status of United Nations and associated personnel, and to take all appropriate steps, in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and the rules of international law, to ensure the safety and security of United Nations and associated personnel, and humanitarian personnel, and underlines the importance of unhindered access to populations in need.
"The Security Council urges States to fulfil their responsibility to act promptly and effectively in their domestic legal systems to bring to justice all those responsible for attacks and other acts of violence against such personnel, and to enact effective national legislation as required for that purpose.
The Security Council will continue to stress in its resolutions the imperative for humanitarian assistance missions and personnel to have safe and unimpeded access to civilian populations and, in this context, is prepared to consider taking all appropriate measures at its disposal to ensure the safety and security of such personnel.
The Security Council welcomes the inclusion as a war crime in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, of attacks intentionally directed against personnel involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission as long as they are entitled to the protection given to civilians under the international law of armed conflict, and notes the role that the Court could play in bringing to justice those responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law.
The Security Council expresses the view that improving the security of United Nations and associated personnel, and humanitarian personnel, may require, inter alia, the development and strengthening of all aspects of the current safety and security regime in place, as well as the adoption of effective action to address the impunity of those who commit crimes against such personnel.
The Security Council recognizes the importance of issuing clear, appropriate and feasible mandates for peacekeeping operations, to ensure that they are applied in a timely, efficient and objective manner, and of ensuring that all new and ongoing United Nations field operations, include appropriate modalities for the safety and security of United Nations and associated personnel, and humanitarian personnel. The Council underscores that United Nations personnel have the right to act in self-defence.
The Security Council encourages the Secretary-General to complete the process of conducting a general and comprehensive review of security in peacekeeping operations, with a view to elaborating and undertaking further specific and practical measures to increase the safety and security of United Nations and associated personnel, and humanitarian personnel.
The Security Council considers it important that a comprehensive security plan be developed for every peacekeeping and humanitarian operation and that, during early elaboration and implementation of that plan, Member States and the Secretariat cooperate fully in order to ensure, inter alia, an open and immediate exchange of information on security issues.
The Security Council, bearing in mind the need to reinforce the responsibility of the host State for the physical security of United Nations and associated personnel, also underlines the importance of including in each status- of-forces agreement and status-of-missions agreement specific and practical measures based on the provisions of the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel of 1994. The Security Council recalls the obligations of all United Nations personnel and associated personnel, and humanitarian personnel, to observe and respect the national laws of the host State in accordance with international law and the Charter of the United Nations.
The Security Council believes it is essential to continue to strengthen security arrangements, to improve their management, and to allocate adequate resources to the safety and security of United Nations and associated personnel, and humanitarian personnel.
* *** *
* As defined in the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel of 9 December 1994.