GENERAL ASSEMBLY REAFFIRMS IMPORTANCE OF RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT AS INTEGRAL PART OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS

9 December 1998
GA/9532

GENERAL ASSEMBLY REAFFIRMS IMPORTANCE OF RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT AS INTEGRAL PART OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS

9 December 1998

Press ReleaseGA/9532

GENERAL ASSEMBLY REAFFIRMS IMPORTANCE OF RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT AS INTEGRAL PART OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS

19981209 Acting on Recommendations of Third Committee, Assembly Adopts 64 Proposals, Nine by Recorded Votes

The General Assembly reaffirmed the importance of the right to development as an integral part of fundamental human rights, by the terms of one of 59 resolutions adopted this afternoon on the recommendation of its Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural).

By further terms of that resolution, the Assembly also reaffirmed that democracy, development and respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, are interdependent and mutually reinforcing. The gap between developed and developing countries, it affirmed, remains unacceptably wide. The text was adopted by a recorded vote of 125 in favour to 1 against (United States), with 42 abstentions. (For details of the vote, see Annex VI.)

The Assembly adopted nine other resolutions by recorded votes, and 49 without a vote, as well as five decisions.

By a resolution, the Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. The Declaration states that everyone has the right, individually and with others, to promote and to strive for the protection and realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms at the national and international levels.

In other action, the Assembly urged all States to sign and ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child, called upon States to adopt effective measures against the sexual exploitation of children, and urged States and other parties to armed conflict to adopt measures to end the use of children as soldiers. By another resolution, the Assembly condemned all acts of exploitation of unaccompanied refugee minors, including their use as soldiers or human shields in armed conflict and their forced recruitment into military forces.

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By a vote of 115 in favour to 18 against, with 35 abstentions, the Assembly urged all States to take the necessary steps and to exercise the utmost vigilance against the menace posed by the activities of mercenaries, and to take legislative measures to ensure that their territories or nationals are not used for the recruitment, training and transit of mercenaries. (See Annex I.)

The Assembly reaffirmed that the fight against the world drug problem was a common and shared responsibility which must be addressed in a multilateral setting, and urged competent authorities at all levels to implement the outcome of the General Assembly special session on the drug problem, by another text.

By other texts adopted, the Assembly:

-- Decided that the special session of the Assembly to review implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action, to be held from 5 to 9 June 2000, should be entitled "Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century".

-- Endorsed the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) on 11 November 1997; and

-- Noted with satisfaction the successful launching of the International Year of Older Persons, 1999, with the theme of "A society for all ages", on 1 October.

In several actions under crime prevention and criminal justice, the Assembly:

-- Accepted the invitation of the Government of Austria to host the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders in Vienna in April 2000;

-- Decided to establish an open-ended intergovernmental ad hoc committee to elaborate a comprehensive international convention against transnational organized crime;

-- Requested the Secretary-General to elaborate model legislation on mutual assistance in criminal matters;

-- Appealed to Member States and non-governmental organizations to adopt practical measures to support the United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders; and

-- Called upon the ad hoc committee of the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice for the purpose of elaborating a comprehensive

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international convention against transnational organized crime to devote attention to the drafting of the main text of the convention.

Concerning the advancement of women, the Assembly:

-- Called on Governments to criminalize trafficking in women and girls in all its forms; and to implement policies prohibiting traditional or customary practices affecting the health of women and girls;

-- Urged all States to accede to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women as soon as possible; and

-- Reaffirmed the goal of 50/50 gender distribution in the United Nations Secretariat by the year 2000.

On the issue of refugees, returnees and displaced persons, the Assembly, decided to increase the number of members of the Executive Committee of the Programme of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) from 53 to 54 States; called upon States and organizations to support the implementation of the Programme of Action of the Regional Conference to Address the Problems of Refugees in the Countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and Relevant Neighbouring States.

In addition, it called on Governments and other actors to ensure strict adherence to accepted humanitarian norms and principles; urged all States and relevant organizations to support the High Commissioner's search for durable solutions to refugee problems; and called upon the international community to strengthen the emergency response capacity of the United Nations system.

On promoting and protecting the rights of children, the Assembly urged States to take all necessary measures and to institute legal reforms to ensure the full and equal enjoyment by the girl child of all human rights and fundamental freedoms.

On the rights of indigenous people, the Assembly urged Governments to participate actively in the open-ended inter-sessional ad hoc working group to elaborate further proposals for the establishment of a permanent forum for indigenous people within the United Nations system. It also decided that the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Indigenous Populations be used to assist representatives of indigenous communities and organizations to participate in the deliberations of the working group.

On issues related to the elimination of racism and racial discrimination, the Assembly called upon States to fulfil their reporting obligations on measures taken to implement the Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination; urged all Governments to take all necessary measures to combat new forms of racism; and categorically deplored the misuse of print,

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audio-visual and electronic media and new communication technologies, including the Internet, to incite violence motivated by racial hatred.

On the right of peoples to self-determination, the Assembly declared its firm opposition to acts of foreign military intervention, aggression and occupation. By a recorded vote of 162 in favour to 2 against (Israel, United States), with 6 abstentions (Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Georgia, Marshall Islands, Uruguay, Uzbekistan), the Assembly affirmed the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination, without excluding the option of a state. (See Annex II.)

In other actions by vote, the Assembly:

-- Urged all States to refrain from adopting or implementing unilateral measures not in accordance with international law -- 110 in favour to 2 against (Albania, Austria), with 10 abstentions (Armenia, Cyprus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malta, Marshall Islands, Nicaragua, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) (see Annex IV); and

-- Called upon all States to allow the free flow of financial remittances by foreign nationals residing in their territory to their relatives in the country of origin -- 103 in favour to 2 against (Angola, United States), with 66 abstentions. (See Annex V.)

Acting on a wide range of human rights questions, the Assembly:

-- Expressed deep concern at the growing manifestations of racism, xenophobia and other forms of discrimination against migrant workers;

-- Urged all States to become parties to the Convention against Torture;

-- Encouraged ongoing efforts to identify measures for more effective implementation of the United Nations human rights instruments;

-- Urged States to ensure that their constitutional and legal systems provide effective guarantees of freedom of thought, conscience, religion and belief;

-- Expressed deep concern at the scarcity of means for the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights;

-- Expressed grave concern about violations of human rights during the recent election campaign in Cambodia;

-- Reaffirmed that extreme poverty and exclusion from society constitute a violation of human dignity;

-- Strongly condemned once again extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions;

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-- Welcomed the translation and dissemination of the Declaration of Principles on Tolerance into many languages; and

-- Stressed the importance of the programme of technical cooperation in the field of human rights.

By the terms of other resolutions, the Assembly reaffirmed that the promotion, protection and full realization of all human rights and fundamental freedoms should be guided by principles of non-selectivity, impartiality and objectivity, and should not be used for political ends; reaffirmed that any act of enforced disappearance is an offence to human dignity and a violation of human rights; urged all Governments to contribute further to the implementation of the Plan of Action for the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education; and called upon Member States, intergovernmental organizations and the specialized agencies to continue to carry out constructive dialogue and consultations for the enhancement of understanding and the promotion and protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms.

Acting on human rights situations, the Assembly strongly condemned the systematic, widespread and extremely grave violations of human rights and of international humanitarian law by the Government of Iraq, resulting in all-pervasive repression and oppression. The resolution was adopted by a vote of 103 in favour to 3 against (Libya, Nigeria, Sudan), with 56 abstentions. (See Annex VIII.)

The Assembly welcomed the commitment made by the Government of Iran to promote respect for the rule of law, but expressed concern at the discrimination against religious minorities. The resolution was adopted by a vote of 64 in favour to 41 against, with 56 abstentions. (See Annex IX.)

Under the provisions of a resolution on the situation of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the Assembly called for the full and consistent implementation of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Basic Agreement by all parties to them. The resolution was adopted by a vote of 141 in favour to none against, with 21 abstentions. (See Annex X.)

The Assembly urged the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and the ethnic Albanian leadership in Kosovo to enter immediately into a meaningful dialogue towards a negotiated political settlement of the crisis. The text was adopted by a vote of 122 in favour to 3 against (Belarus, India, Russian Federation), with 34 abstentions. (See Annex XI.)

Acting without a vote on other human rights situations, the Assembly:

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-- Reiterated its strong condemnation of the crime of genocide and crimes against humanity committed in Rwanda in 1994, and expressed its deep concern at the continued serious violations of human rights in the country;

-- Called upon the Haitian authorities to mobilize the political will for the pursuit of reform and for the strengthening of the judicial system;

-- Expressed deep concern at the deterioration of the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo;

-- Welcomed the announcement by General Abdulsalami Abubakar of a new programme of transition to civilian rule in Nigeria;

-- Deplored the continuing violations of human rights in Myanmar; and

-- Strongly condemned the mass killings and systematic human rights violations in Afghanistan.

In addition, the Assembly adopted a resolution on the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, calling upon all States to take further action with a view to the full realization of all human rights for all. In another text, it requested the Secretary-General to follow up on a Commission on Human Rights resolution and an Economic and Social Council decision on resources for the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the human rights activities of the United Nations.

The reports of the Third Committee were presented by its Rapporteur, Hassan Kassem Najem (Lebanon).

Assembly Work Programme

The General Assembly met this afternoon to take action on the reports of its Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural). It has before it reports on the following agenda items: social development, including questions relating to the world social situation and to youth, ageing, disabled persons and the family; crime prevention and criminal justice; international drug control; advancement of women; implementation of the outcome of the Fourth World Conference on Women; questions relating to refugees and displaced persons and humanitarian questions, including the report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); promotion and protection of the rights of children; International Decade of the World's Indigenous People; elimination of racism and racial discrimination; and the right of peoples to self-determination.

In addition, it has a six-part report on human rights questions, covering: implementation of human rights instruments; alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms; human rights situations and reports of special rapporteurs and representatives; comprehensive implementation of and follow-up to the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action; and the report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. A report on the report of the Economic and Social Council is also before the Assembly.

The report on social development, including questions relating to the world social situation and to youth, ageing, disabled persons and the family (document A/53/615), contains one draft resolution on the International Year of Older Persons, which was approved without a vote on 16 October.

Under its provisions, the Assembly would note with satisfaction the successful launching of the International Year of Older Persons -- 1999, with the theme of "A society for all ages", on 1 October. It would encourage all States, the United Nations system and other actors, to take advantage of the Year to increase awareness of the ageing of societies, the individual and social needs of older persons, the contributions of older persons to society and the need for a change in attitudes towards older persons.

The report on crime prevention and criminal justice (document A/53/616) contains five draft resolutions, all approved without a vote.

By the terms of draft resolution I, on preparations for the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, approved on 16 October, the Assembly would accept with gratitude the invitation of the Government of Austria to host the Tenth Congress in Vienna from 10 to 17 April 2000, and it would decide that the theme of the Congress should be "Crime and Justice: meeting the challenge of the twenty-first century". It would endorse the programme of work, which would include

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workshops on combating corruption, crimes related to the computer network, community involvement in crime prevention, and women in the criminal justice system.

By the terms of draft resolution II, on transnational organized crime, which was approved on 16 October, the Assembly would decide to establish an open-ended intergovernmental ad hoc committee to elaborate a comprehensive international convention against transnational organized crime. It would also urge Member States to continue making every possible effort to fully implement the Naples Political Declaration and Global Action Plan by taking the most appropriate legislative, regulatory and administrative measures.

Also approved on 16 October, draft resolution III, on mutual assistance and international cooperation in criminal matters, would have the Assembly request the Secretary-General to elaborate model legislation on mutual assistance in criminal matters. Member States would be invited to consider a number of measures in the context of the application of treaties on mutual assistance in criminal matters, including establishing national central authorities to process requests for assistance, undertaking regular reviews of treaties on mutual assistance in criminal matters, and conducting asset- sharing arrangements as a means of enabling forfeited proceeds of crime to be used to strengthen the capacity of national criminal justice systems.

By the terms of draft resolution IV, on the United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, which was approved on 22 October, the Assembly would appeal to all Member States and non-governmental organizations to adopt concrete practical measures to support the Institute in implementing its programme and activities. It would urge the States members of the Institute to make every possible effort to meet their obligations to it. The Secretary-General would be requested to intensify efforts to mobilize all relevant entities of the United Nations to provide the necessary support for the Institute to fulfil its mandate.

Also approved on 22 October, draft resolution V, on strengthening the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme, in particular its technical cooperation capacity, would have the Assembly call upon the ad hoc committee of the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice for the purpose of elaborating a comprehensive international convention against transnational organized crime to devote attention to the drafting of the main text of the convention, as well as of international instruments addressing trafficking in women and children, combating the illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in fire arms and illegal trafficking in and transporting of migrants.

The report on international drug control (document A/53/617) contains a four-part draft resolution, which was approved without a vote on 22 October and concerns international cooperation against the world drug problem.

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Part I of that draft, on respect for the principles enshrined in the United Nations Charter and international law in the fight against the world drug problem, would have the Assembly reaffirm that the fight against the world drug problem was a common and shared responsibility that must be addressed in a multilateral setting, requiring an integrated and balanced approach; and that it must be carried out in full conformity with the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter and international law.

Under part II, on international cooperation to counter the world drug problem, competent authorities at all levels would be urged to implement the outcome of the Assembly's special session devoted to countering the world drug problem together, held in New York from 8 to 10 June, within the agreed time- frames, in particular the high priority practical measures at all levels, as indicated in the Political Declaration, the Declaration on the Guiding Principles of Drug Demand Reduction, and the Measures to enhance international cooperation to counter the world drug problem, containing the Action Plan against Illicit Manufacture, Trafficking and Abuse of Amphetamine-type Stimulants and their Precursors, the Measures to prevent the illicit manufacture, import, export, trafficking and distribution of precursors used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, the Measures to promote judicial cooperation, the Measures to counter money laundering, and the Action Plan on International Cooperation on the Eradication of Illicit Drug Crops and Alternative Development.

Part III of the draft resolution concerns action by the United Nations system. Under its provisions, the role of the Executive Director of the United Nations International Drug Control Programme in coordinating and providing effective leadership for all United Nations drug control activities so as to increase cost-effectiveness and ensure coherence of action, would be reaffirmed. The need to increase the efficiency of the United Nations System- wide Action Plan on Drug Abuse Control as a tool to promote the coordination and enhancement of drug abuse control activities within the United Nations system would also be emphasized.

Part IV would have the Assembly request the United Nations International Drug Control Programme to strengthen cooperation with States and organizations, to provide, on request, assistance in implementing the outcome of the special session, which may include adjustment of national laws and policies, development of training programmes and the establishment of mechanisms for data collection and analysis.

The report on advancement of women (document A/53/618) contains four drafts, which were all approved without a vote on 30 October.

Draft resolution I, on traffic in women and girls, would have the Assembly call on Governments to criminalize trafficking in all its forms, to condemn and penalize all offenders, including intermediaries, whether their

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offence was committed in their own or in a foreign country, while ensuring that victims are not penalized. Further, it would call on States to penalize persons in authority found guilty of sexually assaulting victims of trafficking in their custody, and would urge them to intensify their efforts to implement the provisions on trafficking in women and girls contained in the Platform for Action of the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women and the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action.

Draft resolution II, on traditional or customary practices affecting the health of women and girls, would have the Assembly call on States to implement several measures, including the ratification of relevant human rights treaties and the development and implementation of national legislation and policies prohibiting such practices. It would call on States to involve, among others, educators, religious leaders, traditional leaders, and the media in publicity campaigns, to promote a collective and individual awareness of the human rights of women and girls, and of how harmful traditional or customary practices violate those rights.

Draft resolution III, on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, would have the Assembly urge all States that have not yet ratified or acceded to the Convention to do so as soon as possible, so that universal ratification of the Convention can be achieved by the year 2000. States would also be urged to limit the extent of any reservations they lodge to the Convention. States parties to the Convention would also be urged to make all possible efforts to submit their reports on the implementation of the Convention.

Draft resolution IV, on the improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat, would have the Assembly reaffirm the goal of 50/50 gender distribution by the year 2000 in all categories of posts within the United Nations system, especially at the D-1 level and above, with full respect for the principle of equitable geographical distribution. The Secretary-General would be called upon to implement fully and monitor the strategic plan of action for the improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat, and requested to ensure that individual managers are held accountable for implementing the strategic plan within their areas of responsibility.

The report on the implementation of the outcome of the Fourth World Conference on Women (document A/53/619) contains one draft resolution, which was approved without a vote on 30 October.

Under its terms, the General Assembly would stress that Governments have the primary responsibility for implementing the Beijing Platform for Action, and would call upon States, the United Nations system and all other actors to implement the Platform, in particular by promoting an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective at all levels. It would also call upon States to take action to fulfil commitments for the advancement of

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women, and reaffirm that adequate financial resources should be committed for the implementation of the Platform for Action in developing countries, in particular those in Africa and the least developed countries. It would reiterate its request to the Secretary-General to ensure that the Division for the Advancement of Women can carry out effectively all the tasks foreseen for it in the Platform for Action, including serve as the secretariat for the special session of the General Assembly to review implementation of the Platform (to be held from 5 to 9 June 2000) by, among other things, providing sufficient human and financial resources within the regular budget of the United Nations.

In addition, the Assembly would decide that the special session should be entitled "Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century". The Commission on the Status of Women, acting as the preparatory committee for the special session, would be invited to propose the agenda (structure and themes) and documentation for the special session. The Commission would also be invited to recommend to the Assembly appropriate arrangements for the involvement and participation of non-governmental organizations in the special session.

Further by the draft, the Assembly would decide that, in the absence of a recommendation from the Commission at its first meeting as the preparatory committee, in 1998, the non-governmental organizations in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council and those that participated in the Beijing Conference whose applications for consultative status with the Council are still under consideration, may participate in the session of the Commission meeting as the preparatory committee, in 1999 and 2000.

Also before the Assembly is an amendment submitted by Indonesia (document A/53/L.69) which would have the paragraph above read "Recommends to the Economic and Social Council to decide", instead of having the Assembly decide on the participation of non-governmental organizations in meetings of the Commission as preparatory committee.

The report on the report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (document A/53/620) contains six draft resolutions, all of which were approved without a vote.

By the terms of draft resolution I, approved on 16 November, the Assembly, taking note of Economic and Social Council decision 1998/211, would decide to increase the number of members of the Executive Committee of the Programme of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees from 53 to 54 States. It would also request the Council to elect the additional member at its organizational session for 1999.

According to the terms of draft resolution II, on assistance to unaccompanied refugee minors, also approved on 16 November, the Assembly would

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condemn all acts of exploitation of unaccompanied refugee minors, including their use as soldiers or human shields in armed conflict and their forced recruitment into military forces, and any other acts that endanger their safety and personal security. It would also call upon all United Nations and other international organizations to mobilize adequate assistance to unaccompanied refugee minors in the areas of relief, education, health and psychological rehabilitation.

By the terms of draft resolution III, on the follow-up to the Regional Conference to Address the Problems of Refugees, Displaced Persons, Other Forms of Involuntary Displacement and Returnees in the Countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and Relevant Neighbouring States, approved on 18 November, the Assembly would invite countries to accede to and implement fully the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol relating to the status of refugees, and call upon States and interested international organizations to provide appropriate forms and levels of support for the practical implementation of the Programme of Action of the Conference.

According to the terms of draft resolution IV, on the new international humanitarian order, approved on 18 November, the Assembly would call on Governments and other actors to ensure strict adherence to accepted humanitarian norms and principles and to promote national and international legislation responsive to actual and potential humanitarian problems. It would also invite Governments to make available to the Secretary-General, on a voluntary basis, information and expertise on humanitarian problems of special concern to them, in order to identify opportunities for future action.

By the terms of draft resolution V, on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, which was approved on 18 November, the Assembly would condemn all acts that pose a threat to the personal security and well-being of refugees and asylum-seekers, and call upon all States of refuge to take all necessary measures to ensure respect for the principles of refugee protection. It would also urge States to uphold the civilian and humanitarian character of refugee camps and settlements. It would further urge all States and relevant organizations to support the High Commissioner's search for durable solutions to refugee problems, including voluntary repatriation, integration in the country of asylum, and resettlement in a third country.

By the terms of draft resolution VI, on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, also approved on 19 November, the Assembly would call upon Governments, United Nations agencies, non- governmental organizations and the international community as a whole to strengthen the emergency response capacity of the United Nations system and, in the context of burden-sharing, to continue to provide needed resources and operational support to refugees and countries of asylum in Africa until a durable solution can be found. All States and organizations would be called

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upon to ensure that the civilian and humanitarian nature of refugee camps is not compromised by the presence or activities of armed elements.

The report on the promotion and protection of the right of children (document A/53/621) contains two draft resolutions and one draft decision, all three approved without a vote.

Draft resolution I, on the girl child, approved on 5 November, would have the Assembly urge States to take all necessary measures and to institute legal reforms to ensure the full and equal enjoyment by the girl child of all human rights and fundamental freedoms. States would be urged to enact and enforce legislation protecting girls from all forms of violence, including female infanticide, female genital mutilation, rape, domestic violence, incest, sexual exploitation, child prostitution and child pornography. The Assembly would also urge States, educational institutions and the United Nations system to provide gender-sensitive training for school administrators, parents and all members of the school community.

Draft resolution II, on the rights of the child, approved on 13 November, contains eight parts.

Part I, on implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, would have the Assembly urge all States to sign and ratify the Convention as a matter of priority, with a view to reaching the goal of universal adherence by the tenth anniversaries of the World Summit for Children and of entry into force of the Convention. States parties would be called upon to take appropriate measures so that acceptance of the amendment to paragraph 2 of article 43 of the Convention by a two-thirds majority of States parties can be reached as soon as possible in order for the amendment to enter into force, increasing the membership of the Committee on the Rights of the Child from 10 to 18 experts.

Part II, on children with disabilities, would have the Assembly call on States to take all necessary measures to ensure the full enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by children with disabilities, including through legislation. It would also call upon States to make education accessible to children with special needs to enable their full social integration and individual development. States would also be called upon to provide disaggregated data on the needs of children with disabilities and on measures taken to ensure their enjoyment of rights.

By part III, on the prevention and eradication of the sale of children and of their sexual exploitation and abuse, including child prostitution and child pornography, the Assembly would call upon States to adopt effective national, bilateral and multilateral measures against such acts and to criminalize all forms of sexual exploitation of children, including that of commercial sexual exploitation. It would also call on States to condemn and

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penalize all offenders, local or foreign, while ensuring that children victims of the practice were not penalized.

Under part IV, on protection of children affected by armed conflict, the Assembly would urge States and other parties to armed conflict to adopt measures to end the use of children as soldiers and to ensure their demobilization and effective disarmament. It would urge all Governments and parties in complex humanitarian emergencies, in particular armed conflicts and post-conflict situations, to ensure the safe and unhindered access of humanitarian personnel in conformity with the relevant provisions of international law and national laws, so as to allow them to efficiently perform their task of assisting children.

By part V, on refugee and internally displaced children, the Assembly would call upon all States and other parties to armed conflicts to recognize the particular vulnerability of refugee and internally displaced children to the damaging effects of such conflicts, stressing the special vulnerability of child-headed households. Governments and United Nations bodies would be called upon to give such situations urgent attention and to enhance protection and assistance mechanisms and to involve women and youth in the design, delivery and monitoring of measures taken to that effect.

Part VI, on child labour, would have the Assembly call upon States to take actions for the progressive and effective elimination of all forms of exploitative child labour, urging them to eliminate the worst forms of child labour, such as forced labour, bonded labour and other forms of slavery. It would call on States to set specific target dates for eliminating all forms of child labour and ensuring the full enforcement of laws and legislation, as well as fulfilment of obligations under the Convention on the Rights of the Child and International Labour Organization standards.

By Part VII, on street children, the Assembly would strongly urge Governments to take urgent measures to prevent the killing of children living and/or working on the streets, to combat torture and violence against them, to bring perpetrators of such actions to justice and to ensure compliance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child and other instruments. It would call upon the international community to support the efforts of States to improve the situation of such children, and encourage requests for technical advice and assistance on initiatives aimed at improving their situation.

By part VIII, the Assembly would decide to request the Secretary-General to submit a report on the rights of the child to the Assembly's next session. His Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict would be asked to submit a report to the Assembly and to the Commission on Human Rights.

By the draft decision, the Assembly would take of the report of the Secretary-General on the status of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

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The report on the programme of activities of the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People (document A/53/622) contains two draft resolutions and a draft decision, which were approved on 5 November without a vote.

Draft resolution I, on the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People (1994-2004), would have the Assembly urge Governments to participate actively in the open-ended inter-sessional ad hoc working group, which would be established from within existing overall United Nations resources and would meet for five working days prior to the fifty-fifth session of the Commission on Human Rights, to elaborate and consider further proposals for the possible establishment of a permanent forum for indigenous people within the United Nations system.

Draft resolution II, on the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Indigenous Populations, would have the Assembly decide that the Fund also be used to assist representatives of indigenous communities and organizations to participate in the deliberations of the open-ended inter-sessional ad hoc working group of the Commission on Human Rights. It would request the Secretary-General to bring the present resolution to the attention of Member States and to invite them to consider contributing to the Fund.

By the draft decision the Assembly would take note of the Secretary- General's report on the status of that Fund.

The report on the elimination of racism and racial discrimination (document A/53/623) contains three draft resolutions, which were approved without a vote.

Under the terms of the three-part draft resolution I, under part I, on the report of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, the Assembly would call upon States to fulfil their reporting obligations on measures taken to implement the Convention, expressing concern at the great number of overdue reports. It would also invite the Committee to give high priority to preparing for the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance by working with the Commission on Human Rights, acting as the preparatory committee for the Conference.

A report of the Fifth Committee (Administrative and Budgetary) on the above draft (document A/53/727), informs the Assembly that should it adopt the text, an additional provision of $33,200 would be required over and above the resources approved under section 22, Human rights, of the programme budget for the biennium 1998-1999. The additional requirements for the year 2000 would be dealt with in the context of the preparation of the proposed programme budget for the biennium 2000-2001.

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By part II, on the financial situation of the Committee, the Assembly would express profound concern that financial obligations of States parties to the Convention had not been fulfilled and would strongly appeal to those in arrears to fulfil their outstanding financial obligations. It would also strongly urge States to accelerate domestic ratification procedures of the amendment concerning financing of the Committee.

By part III, on the status of the Convention, the Assembly would urge all States to become parties to the Convention and to limit their reservations to it or formulate those reservations as precisely and narrowly as possible to ensure that no reservation is incompatible with the objective and purpose of the Convention or otherwise contrary to international treaty law. The draft was approved on 16 November.

Under the terms of the four-part draft resolution II, approved on 13 November, on the Third Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination and the convening of the World Conference against Racism, part I, on the implementation of the Programme of Action for the Decade, would have the Assembly urge all Governments to take all necessary measures to combat new forms of racism, in particular by constantly adapting the means provided to combat them, especially in the legislative, administrative, educational and information fields. It would also urge the Secretary-General, United Nations bodies, specialized agencies, Governments, intergovernmental organizations and relevant non-governmental organizations to pay particular attention to the situation of indigenous people while implementing the Programme of Action.

Part II, on the World Conference against Racism, would have the Assembly request the Secretary-General to present a comprehensive report to both its fifty-fourth and fifty-fifth sessions on the progress achieved in the preparatory process of the World Conference. It would urge the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to help States, upon request, and regional organizations to convene national and regional meetings or to undertake other initiatives, including at the expert level, to prepare for the World Conference.

By part III, on the proclamation of the year 2001 as the International Year of Mobilization against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, the Assembly would decide to observe the year 2001 as that International Year, aimed at drawing the world's attention to the objectives of the World Conference and giving new momentum to the political commitment to the elimination of all forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.

Under part IV, the Assembly would decide to keep the item entitled "Elimination of racism and racial discrimination" in its agenda and to consider it as a matter of high priority at its fifty-fourth session.

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By the terms of draft resolution III, on measures to combat contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, the Assembly would call upon all States to review and, where necessary, revise their immigration policies with a view to eliminating all discriminatory policies and practices against migrants which are inconsistent with relevant international human rights instruments. It would categorically deplore the misuse of print, audio-visual and electronic media and new communication technologies, including the Internet, to incite violence motivated by racial hatred. It would also urge all Governments to cooperate fully with the Special Rapporteur, with a view to enabling him to fulfil his mandate, including examining incidents of contemporary forms of racism and racial discrimination. The draft was approved on 13 November.

The report on the right of peoples to self-determination (document A/53/624) contains three draft resolutions.

By the terms of draft resolution I, on the universal realization of the right of peoples to self-determination, which was approved without a vote on 5 November, the Assembly would declare its firm opposition to acts of foreign military intervention, aggression and occupation, since those have resulted in the suppression of the right of peoples to self-determination and other human rights in certain parts of the world. It would call upon those States responsible to cease immediately their military intervention in and occupation of foreign countries and territories and all acts of repression, discrimination, exploitation and maltreatment.

Approved on 5 November by a vote of 93 in favour to 17 against, with 28 abstentions, draft resolution II, on use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights and impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to self-determination, would have the Assembly urge all States to take the necessary steps and to exercise the utmost vigilance against the menace posed by the activities of mercenaries. States would be urged to take necessary legislative measures to ensure that their territories and other territories under their control, as well as their nationals, are not used for the recruitment, assembly, financing, training and transit of mercenaries. The Assembly would also call upon all States that have not yet done so to consider taking the necessary action to sign or to ratify the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries.

Under draft resolution III, on the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination, the Assembly would affirm the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination, without excluding the option of a State. It would express the hope that the Palestinian people will soon be exercising their right to self-determination in the current peace process. It would urge all States and all parts of the United Nations system to continue to support and assist the Palestinian people in their quest for self- determination. The draft was approved on 16 November by a vote of 146 in

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favour to two against (Israel, United States), with seven abstentions (Fiji, Georgia, Kenya, Nicaragua, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Uruguay).

The Committee's report on human rights questions (document A/53/625) is being issued in several parts.

A draft decision in the first part of the document, would have the Assembly take note of several reports submitted to the Third Committee under that item, as follows: report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights; report of the Human Rights Committee; report of the Secretary- General on the status of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund for Victims of Torture; report of the Secretary-General on the status of the United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund on Contemporary Forms of Slavery; report of the Secretary-General on respect for the privileges and immunities of officials of the United Nations and the specialized agencies and related organizations: safety and security of humanitarian personnel and protection of United Nations personnel; report of the Secretary-General on the status of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide; note by the Secretary-General on implementation of the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief; note by the Secretary-General on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions; note by the Secretary-General on the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo; note by the Secretary-General on the situation of human rights in Burundi; note by the Secretary-General on the situation of human rights in the Sudan; and note by the Secretary-General on the situation of human rights in southern Lebanon and western Bekaa.

The report on implementation of human rights instruments (document A/53/625/Add.1) contains three draft resolutions, all approved without a vote.

Approved on 13 November, draft resolution I, on the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, would have the Assembly express its deep concern at the growing manifestations of racism, xenophobia and other forms of discrimination and inhuman or degrading treatment directed against migrant workers in different parts of the world. It would call upon all Member States to consider signing and ratifying or acceding to the Convention as a matter of priority, and at an early date; and would call upon the Secretary-General to provide all the facilities and assistance to the Convention as a matter of priority.

By the terms of draft resolution II, on the effective implementation of international human rights instruments, which was approved on 18 November, the Assembly would emphasize the need to ensure financing and adequate staff and information resources for the operations of human rights instruments, and

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would call upon the Secretary-General to make the most efficient use of existing resources and to seek the resources necessary to give those bodies adequate support and access. It would encourage ongoing efforts to identify measures for more effective implementation of the United Nations human rights instruments, and would reiterate that the Secretary-General provide adequate resources in respect of each human rights body.

Operative paragraph 26 of the above draft was approved by a vote of 93 in favour to 7 against (Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Egypt, India, Iran, Libya, Syria), with 38 abstentions. The paragraph reads as follows: "Notes that efforts continue to be made at coordination and cooperation between the human rights treaty bodies and the special procedures, rapporteurs, representatives, experts and working groups of the Commission on Human Rights and the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, all acting within their respective mandates;"

Also approved on 18 November, draft resolution III, on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, would have the Assembly urge all States to become parties to the Convention against Torture as a matter of priority and to comply strictly with their obligations under it, including the submission of reports. It would invite States to make the declarations provided for in articles 21 and 22 of the Convention and to consider the possibility of withdrawing their reservations to article 20. States parties would also be urged to notify the Secretary-General of their acceptance of the amendments to articles 17 and 18 of the Convention as soon as possible.

A report of the Fifth Committee (document A/53/728) concerning the above draft contains a decision informing the Assembly that should it adopt that draft, an additional requirement of $19,000 would be required over and above the resources approved under section 22, Human rights, of the programme budget for the biennium 1998-1999. The additional requirements for the year 2000 would be dealt with in the context of the preparation of the proposed programme budget for the biennium 2000-2001.

The report on alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms (document A/53/625/Add.2) contains 16 draft resolutions.

By the terms of draft resolution I, on the elimination of all forms of religious intolerance, approved without a vote on 17 November, the Assembly would urge States to ensure that their constitutional and legal systems provide effective guarantees of freedom of thought, conscience, religion and belief; to ensure that no one within their jurisdiction is, because of religion or belief deprived of the rights to life or the right to liberty and security of person; and to take all appropriate measures to combat hatred, intolerance and acts of violence, intimidation and coercion motivated by

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religious intolerance; and to encourage, through educational systems and by other means, understanding, tolerance and respect in matters relating to freedom of religion or belief.

Under the terms of draft resolution II, on human rights and unilateral coercive measures, the Assembly would urge all States to refrain from adopting or implementing unilateral measures not in accordance with international law, in particular those of a coercive nature with all their extraterritorial effects, which create obstacles to trade relations among States, thus impeding the realization of the rights set forth in international human rights instruments, in particular the right of individuals and peoples to development. It would reject unilateral coercive measures with all their extraterritorial effects as tools for political or economic pressure against any country, in particular against developing countries, because of their negative effects on the realization of all the human rights of vast sectors of their populations, in particular children, women and the elderly.

The draft was approved on 18 November by a recorded vote of 104 in favour to 44 against, with 10 abstentions, (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cyprus, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malta, Marshall Islands, Ukraine, Uzbekistan).

By the terms of draft resolution III, on strengthening the rule of law, approved without a vote on 19 November, the Assembly would express its deep concern at the scarcity of means at the disposal of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights for the fulfilment of its tasks. It would welcome the deepening cooperation between the High Commissioner and other relevant bodies and programmes of the United Nations system, with a view to enhancing system-wide coordination of assistance in human rights, democracy and the rule of law. It would also encourage the High Commissioner to continue the dialogue with other organs and agencies of the United Nations system with a view to obtaining increased financial assistance for human rights and the rule of law; and encourage her to continue to explore further contacts with and support of financial institutions with a view to obtaining technical and financial means to strengthen the capacity of the Office of the High Commissioner to provide assistance to national projects.

By the terms of draft resolution IV, on respect for the right to universal freedom of travel and the vital importance of family reunification, the Assembly would call upon all States to allow, in conformity with international legislation, the free flow of financial remittances by foreign nationals residing in their territory to their relatives in the country of origin. It would also call upon all States to refrain from enacting, and to repeal if it already exists, legislation intended as a coercive measure that discriminates against individuals or groups of legal migrants by adversely affecting family reunification, and the right to send financial remittances to relatives in the country of origin.

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The draft was approved on 17 November by a vote of 82 in favour to 1 against (United States), with 67 abstentions.

Draft resolution V, on the Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, which was approved without a vote on 17 November, would have the Assembly adopt the Declaration and request the Secretary-General to include its text in the next edition of Human Rights: A Compilation of International Instruments.

The declaration, which is annexed to the draft, states that everyone has the right, individually and with others, to promote and to strive for the protection and realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms at the national and international levels. It also declares, for the purpose of promoting and protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms, individually and with others, at the national and international levels, that everyone has the right to meet to assemble peacefully; to form, join and participate in non-governmental organizations, associations or groups; and to communicate with non-governmental or intergovernmental organizations. Another article states that everyone has the right, individually and in association with others, to develop and discuss new human rights ideas and principles, and to advocate their acceptance.

By the terms of draft resolution VI, on the situation of human rights in Cambodia, which was approved without a vote on 19 November, the Assembly would express grave concern about violations of human rights, including extrajudicial executions, torture, and illegal arrest, during the recent election campaign and its immediate aftermath, and call upon the Government of Cambodia to investigate and prosecute those who perpetrated human rights violations. It would express grave concern at the situation of impunity in Cambodia and stress that addressing the continuing problem of impunity, together with ensuring security of persons and rights of association, assembly and expression, remains a matter of critical and urgent priority. It would request the Secretary-General to assist the Government of Cambodia in ensuring the protection of the human rights of all people in Cambodia, and condemn the use of racist rhetoric and acts of violence against ethnic minorities, especially Cambodians of Vietnamese ethnicity; and would note that the elections demonstrated the clear desire of the Cambodian people for democracy.

The Assembly would reaffirm that extreme poverty and exclusion from society constitute a violation of human dignity and that urgent national and international action is therefore required to eliminate them, by the terms of draft resolution VII, on human rights and extreme poverty. Further terms of the draft would have the Assembly reaffirm that, in accordance with the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, it is essential for States to foster participation by the poorest people in the decision-making process in the communities in which they live, in the promotion of human rights and in

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efforts to combat extreme poverty. It would emphasize that extreme poverty is a major issue to be addressed by Governments, civil society and the United Nations system, including international financial institutions. The draft was approved without a vote on 18 November.

Draft resolution VIII, on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, would have the Assembly strongly condemn once again such executions, and demand that all Governments ensure that such practices be brought to an end and that they take effective action to combat and eliminate the phenomenon. It would reiterate the obligation of all Governments to conduct exhaustive and impartial investigations into all suspended cases of extrajudicial, arbitrary or summary executions, to identify and bring to justice those responsible, to grant adequate compensation to the victims or their families and to adopt all necessary measures to prevent the recurrence of such executions. The Assembly would strongly urge all Governments to respond to the communications of the Special Rapporteur, and to cooperate with her. The draft was approved without a vote on 19 November.

By terms of draft resolution IX, on regional arrangements for the promotion and protection of human rights, the Assembly would stress the importance of the programme of technical cooperation in the field of human rights, and would renew its appeal to Governments to make use of the possibilities offered under the programme to organize information or training courses at the national level for government personnel on applying international human rights standards. It would also reiterate the recommendation of the World Conference on Human Rights that human rights officers be assigned to United Nations regional offices to disseminate information and to offer training and other technical assistance when requested. It would invite States to take steps to establish regional machinery for the promotion and protection of human rights. The draft was approved without a vote on 17 November.

Under the terms of draft resolution X, on the strengthening of United Nations actions in the human rights field through the promotion of international cooperation and the importance of non-selectivity, impartiality and objectivity, the Assembly would reaffirm that the promotion, protection and full realization of all human rights and fundamental freedoms should be guided by the principles of non-selectivity, impartiality and objectivity, and should not be used for political ends; and that it is a purpose of the United Nations and the task of all Member States, in cooperation with the Organization, to promote and encourage respect for such rights and freedoms, and to remain vigilant with regard to violations of human rights. Member States would be called upon to refrain from activities that are inconsistent with the international human rights framework. The draft was approved without a vote on 17 November.

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Draft resolution XI, on the question of enforced or involuntary disappearances, would have the Assembly reaffirm that any act of enforced disappearance is and offence to human dignity and a grave and flagrant violation of human rights and fundamental freedoms. It would call upon Governments to take steps to ensure that, in a state of emergency, the protection of human rights is ensured, in particular regarding the prevention of enforced disappearances, and appeal to the Governments concerned to cooperate fully with the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances. It would once again urge Governments concerned to take steps to protect the families of disappeared persons against intimidation or ill- treatment. States would be encouraged to provide concrete information on measures taken to give effect to the Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, as well as obstacles encountered. The draft was approved without a vote on 18 November.

By terms of draft resolution XII, on the follow-up to the United Nations Year for Tolerance, the Assembly would welcome the translation and dissemination of the Declaration of Principles on Tolerance into many languages; welcome the experience gained during the two celebrations of the International Day for Tolerance; and invite Member States and other governmental and non-governmental bodies to continue contributing to the annual celebration and to continue efforts toward achieving a wider application of the Declaration. It would request the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to continue as lead agency in promoting tolerance and non-violence, and to include information on progress made in implementing the follow-up Plan of Action for the United Nations Year for Tolerance in its report on a culture of peace to be submitted to the Millennium Assembly. The draft was approved without a vote on 17 November.

According to the terms of draft resolution XIII, on the human genome and human rights, the Assembly, aware of the rapid development of the life sciences and of ethical concerns raised by certain of their applications with regard to the dignity of the human race, would endorse the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights adopted by UNESCO on 11 November 1997. The draft was approved without a vote on 19 November.

The terms of draft resolution XIV, on the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education, 1995-2004, and public information activities in the field of human rights, would have the Assembly urge all Governments to contribute further to the implementation of the Decade's Plan of Action, in particular by establishing broadly representative national committees for human rights education, and urge them to encourage, support and involve national and local non-governmental and community-based organizations in the implementation of their national plans of action. It would also call upon them to accord priority to the dissemination in their relevant national and local languages of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the

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International Covenants on Human Rights and other human rights instruments, materials and training manuals, as well as reports of States parties under the human rights treaties, and to provide information and education in those languages on how national and international institutions and procedures may be utilized to ensure the effective implementation of those instruments. It would also urge the Department of Public Information to continue to utilize United Nations information centres for the timely dissemination of basic information, reference and audio-visual materials on human rights and fundamental freedoms. The draft was approved without a vote on 18 November.

By the terms of draft resolution XV, on the enhancement of international cooperation in the field of human rights, the Assembly would call upon Member States, intergovernmental organizations and the specialized agencies to continue to carry out constructive dialogue and consultations for the enhancement of understanding and the promotion and protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms, and encourage non-governmental organizations to contribute actively to that endeavour. It would invite States and all relevant United Nations human rights mechanisms and procedures to pay continued attention to the importance of mutual cooperation, understanding and dialogue in ensuring the promotion and protection of all human rights. The draft was approved without a vote on 20 November.

By the terms of draft resolution XVI, on the right to development, the Assembly would reaffirm the importance of the right to development as an integral part of fundamental human rights, as well as the potential contribution its realization could make to the full enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms; that the human person is the central subject of development; and that democracy, development and respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms would be strengthened by enhanced international cooperation, in particular, for development. It would also reaffirm that democracy, development and respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, are interdependent and mutually reinforcing, and affirm that the gap between developed and developing countries remains unacceptably wide. It would urge all States to eliminate all obstacles to development at all levels by pursuing the promotion and protection of economic, social, cultural, civil and political rights and by implementing comprehensive development programmes at the national level, integrating these rights into development activities, and by promoting effective international cooperation.

The draft was approved on 23 November by a vote of 109 in favour to 1 against (United States), with 40 abstentions.

Also before the Assembly is an amendment to draft resolution XV, presented by South Africa (document A/53/L.70). It would insert a new operative paragraph 1, reading as follows: "Recalls the Commission on Human Rights resolution on the enhancement of international cooperation in the field

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of human rights, and welcomes the decision of the Commission to continue the consideration of this question at its fifty-fifth session;".

The report on human rights situations and reports of special rapporteurs and representatives (document A/53/625/Add.3) contains 10 draft resolutions.

By draft resolution I, on human rights in Rwanda, the Assembly would reiterate its strong condemnation of the crime of genocide and crimes against humanity committed in Rwanda in 1994 and would express its deep concern at the continued serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in the country, in particular those associated with the conflict in the north-west, and in regard to conditions of detention and trial process of those accused of genocide and crimes against humanity. It would deeply regret that no agreement could be reached on a new mandate for the Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda, which led to the withdrawal of the Operation in July. It would welcome the decision of the Government of Rwanda to create a National Human Rights Commission.

The draft resolution was approved without a vote on 20 November.

By draft resolution II, on human rights in Iraq, the Assembly would strongly condemn the systematic, widespread and extremely grave violations of human rights and of international humanitarian law by the Government of Iraq, resulting in all-pervasive repression and oppression, and would call upon the Government to abide by its freely undertaken obligations under international human rights treaties and international humanitarian law. It would also call upon the Government to abrogate all decrees that prescribe cruel and inhuman punishment or treatment, including mutilations, and to ensure that torture and cruel punishment and treatment no longer occur, and also to abrogate all laws and procedures that penalize free expression.

The draft resolution was approved on 16 November by a vote of 92 in favour to 2 against (Libya, Sudan), with 56 abstentions. Operative paragraphs 4, 13, 15 and 17 of the draft were approved as a block by a separate recorded vote of 88 in favour to 1 against (Libya), with 55 abstentions.

By the terms of draft resolution III, on human rights in Iran, the Assembly would welcome the commitment made by the Government of that country to promote respect for the rule of law, including the elimination of arbitrary arrest and detention, and to reform the legal and penitentiary system, including the closure of detention centres outside the national prison system, and to bring it into line with international human rights standards in the field, and call upon the Government to take all necessary steps in that regard. Concern would be expressed at the discrimination against religious minorities and grave concern expressed at the unabated pattern of persecution against the Baha'is, in particular the execution and sentencing to death and arrests of members of the Baha'i community.

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The draft resolution was approved on 18 November by a vote of 63 in favour to 35 against, with 60 abstentions.

Under the terms of draft resolution IV, on human rights in Haiti, the Assembly would call upon the Haitian authorities to mobilize the political will for the pursuit of reform and for the strengthening of the judicial system and the improvement of the country's prisons. It would express its deep concern at the prolonged stalemate in the country which presents considerable risks for democracy, economic and social development and respect for human rights, and urge the authorities and political leaders to continue their efforts to resolve the crisis so that the appointment of a Prime Minister may be ratified by the Parliament without further delay.

The draft resolution was approved without a vote on 18 November.

Draft resolution V, on human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, would have the Assembly express deep concern at the deterioration of the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, aggravated by the ongoing conflict in the country and the continuing violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, in particular cases of summary and arbitrary execution, disappearances, torture, beatings, arbitrary arrest and detention without trial, sexual violence against women and children and the use of child soldiers. It would urge that all parties to the conflict take measures to prevent violations of human rights and of international humanitarian law by forces under their command and to abstain from inciting ethnic hatred or persecuting civilians on the grounds of nationality or ethnicity.

The draft resolution was approved without a vote on 20 November.

Under draft resolution VI, on human rights in Nigeria, the Assembly would welcome the announcement by General Abdulsalami Abubakar of a new programme of transition to civilian rule and note with satisfaction and support the commitment of the Government of Nigeria to fully restore democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights. It would call upon all States and the organizations of the United Nations system to support generously the ongoing transitional process in Nigeria, in particular the electoral process and the strengthening of national capacity in the field of human rights.

The draft resolution was approved without a vote on 18 November.

Under the provisions of draft resolution VII, on human rights in Myanmar, the Assembly would deplore the continuing violations of human rights in Myanmar, including extra judicial and arbitrary executions, rape, torture, inhuman treatment, mass arrests, forced labour, forced relocation and denial of freedom of expression, assembly, association and movement. It would urge

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the Government to cooperate fully with all United Nations authorities and bodies, in particular and without further delay with the Special Rapporteur.

The draft resolution was approved without a vote on 19 November.

By the terms of draft resolution VIII, on the situation of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), the Assembly would call for the full and consistent implementation of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Basic Agreement on the Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium by all parties to them and stress the need for enhanced international human rights efforts to foster and effect the prompt and voluntary return of displaced persons and refugees in safety and dignity.

In part I, the Assembly would urge the authorities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in particular those in the Republika Srpska, to ensure full and free access to all institutions and organizations concerned with the implementation of the present resolution, including non-governmental organizations, and to provide for the protection of the above-mentioned organizations, especially those providing humanitarian assistance. It would urge all parties in Bosnia and Herzegovina immediately to create conditions conducive to the voluntary return, in safety and dignity, of refugees and internally displaced persons to their homes, with equal emphasis on minority returns.

In part II, the Assembly would urge the Republic of Croatia to implement fully its Programme for the Re-establishment of Confidence, Acceleration of Return and Normalization of Living Conditions in the War-affected Areas of the Republic of Croatia and its refugee return programme in cooperation with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. It would demand that the Republic of Croatia take immediate steps to facilitate the early voluntary return of minorities, to their homes in all regions, to use all available means to assure their safety and human rights, to resolve property rights issues within the framework of the rule of law and in conformity with international standards.

The Assembly would, in part III of the draft, strongly urge the Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to institutionalize democratic norms, especially in regard to respect for the principle of free and fair elections, the rule of law, the administration of justice, the promotion and protection of free and independent media, and full respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and call upon the authorities in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia specifically to repeal repressive laws on universities and the media. It would demand that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia take immediate steps to allow for and to create conditions for the return of internally displaced persons and refugees in safety and dignity.

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The draft as a whole was approved on 19 November by a vote of 132 in favour to none against, with 20 abstentions. In a separate vote, Part III was approved by a vote of 127 in favour to 1 against (Belarus), with 17 abstentions.

By the terms of draft resolution IX, on human rights in Kosovo, the Assembly would call upon the Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to respect fully all human rights and fundamental freedoms and to abide by democratic norms, especially in regard to respect for the principle of free and fair elections, the rule of law, the administration of justice, free and fair trials and the promotion and protection of free and independent media. It would urge the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the ethnic Albanian leadership in Kosovo to enter immediately into a meaningful dialogue, without preconditions and with international involvement, and to commit themselves both to a clear timetable, leading to an end of the crisis, and to a negotiated political settlement of the issue of Kosovo. It would welcome the current efforts aimed at facilitating such a dialogue.

The draft resolution was approved on 18 November by a vote of 115 in favour to 3 against (Russian Federation, India, Belarus), with 34 abstentions.

By the terms of draft resolution X, on human rights in Afghanistan, the Assembly would strongly condemn the mass killings and systematic human rights violations against civilians and prisoners of war and note with alarm the escalating cycle of mass killings. It would call upon the Taliban to fulfil their stated commitment to cooperate in urgent investigations of those heinous crimes, with a view to bringing those responsible to justice. It would urge all the Afghan parties to extend their cooperation to the Commission on Human Rights and its Special Rapporteur on Afghanistan and to all those Special Rapporteurs who are seeking invitations.

The draft resolution was approved on 20 November without a vote.

The report on the comprehensive implementation of and follow-up to the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (document A/53/625/Add.4) contains one draft resolution, which was approved without a vote on 20 November.

Under its provisions, the Assembly would express deep concern about the wide gap that continues to exist between the promise of human rights and their promotion and protection worldwide, and also deep concern about denials and violations of human rights -- civil, cultural, economic, political and social -- including the right to development. It would call upon all States to take further action with a view to the full realization of all human rights for all in the light of the recommendations of the World Conference on Human Rights and would decide to continue the consideration of the question at its fifty- fourth session under the sub-item entitled "Comprehensive implementation of and follow-up to the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action".

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The report on the report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (document A/53/625/Add.5) contains one draft resolution, which was approved without a vote on 20 November, on the question of resources for the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the human rights activities of the United Nations.

Under its provisions, the General Assembly would request the Secretary- General to take all necessary steps, without delay, to follow up Commission on Human rights resolution 1998/83 and Economic and Social Council decision 1998/275, in particular in the preparation of the proposed programme budget for the biennium 2000-2001, without diverting resources from the United Nations development programmes and activities. It would decide to continue its consideration of this matter at its fifty-fourth session under the agenda item "Human rights questions".

The report of the Third Committee on the report of the Economic and Social Council (document A/53/614) contains two draft decisions.

Draft decision I concerns the Third Committee's organization of work and the draft biennial programme of work for the 1999-2000 biennium, which was approved without a vote on 23 November.

Draft decision II, would have the Assembly take note of chapters I, III, V, VI, VIII (sections A, C and I) and X of the report of the Economic and Social Council.

Action

HASSAN KASSEM NAJEM (Lebanon), the Rapporteur of the Third Committee, introduced the reports. He drew attention to two corrections to be made to the report on the promotion and protection of the rights of children. In the text of draft resolution II, the eight-part draft on the rights of the child, in section IV, the beginning of operative paragraph 15 should read: "Underlines the importance that relevant measures to ensure respect for the rights of the child...". Also, in section IV, the last phrase of operative paragraph 17 should read: "which will contribute towards making it possible to end impunity for the perpetrators of such crimes."

Regarding the report on human rights situations and reports of special rapporteurs and representatives, he said that the following sentence should be inserted at the end of paragraph 8 of that report: "At the same meeting, it was announced that the text, as orally revised would be tabled as a Chairman's text."

The Assembly first took up the Committee's report on social development (document A/53/615), containing one draft resolution on the International Year of Older Persons, which was adopted without a vote.

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Next, the Assembly took up the report on crime prevention and criminal justice (document A/53/616), containing five draft resolutions.

Draft resolution I, on preparations for the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution II, on transnational organized crime, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution III, on mutual assistance and international cooperation in criminal matters, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution IV, on the United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, was also adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution V, on strengthening the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme, in particular its technical cooperation capacity, was adopted without a vote.

Next, the Assembly took up the report on international drug control (document A/53/617). It adopted the four-part resolution, on international cooperation against the world drug problem without a vote.

The Assembly then took up the report on advancement of women (document A/53/618) containing four draft resolutions.

Draft resolution I, on traffic in women and girls, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution II, on traditional or customary practices affecting the health of women and girls, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution III, on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution IV, on the improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat, was also adopted without a vote.

The Assembly then took up the report on the implementation of the outcome of the Fourth World Conference on Women (document A/53/619) containing one draft resolution, on the Follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and full implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action.

The amendment to that text contained in document A/53/L.69, was adopted without a vote, as was the draft resolution.

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ALEXANDRE ZMEEVSKI (Russian Federation) said, regarding the amendment made to the resolution, that he had no objections to its substance. However, it was necessary, ahead of time, to discuss and to coordinate with all regional groups, any amendments, particularly when changes were being made to a draft that had already been endorsed by the Third Committee. He hoped that the bureau and the Secretariat would take the necessary steps to ensure that in the future such situations would not be repeated.

Next, the Assembly took up the Committee's report on the report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (document A/53/620), containing six draft resolutions.

Draft resolution I, on the enlargement of the Executive Committee of the Programme of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution II, on assistance to unaccompanied refugee minors, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution III, on the follow-up to the Regional Conference to Address the Problems of Refugees, Displaced Persons, Other Forms of Involuntary Displacement and Returnees in the Countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and Relevant Neighbouring States, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution IV, on the new international humanitarian order, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution V, on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution VI, on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, was adopted without a vote.

MOVSES ABELIAN (Armenia), referring to a letter by the Government of Azerbaijan which had been issued as an official document, said that had been a violation of the rules of procedure of the General Assembly. No undelivered statement could be published in six different languages.

Next, the Assembly took up the Committee's report on the promotion and protection of the rights of children (document A/53/621), containing two draft resolutions and one draft decision.

Draft resolution I, on the girl child, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution II, on the rights of the child, was adopted without a vote.

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The draft decision taking note of the report of the Secretary-General relating to promotion and protection of the rights of the child was also adopted without a vote.

Next, the Assembly took up the report on the Programme of activities of the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People (document A/53/622) containing two draft resolutions and a draft decision.

Draft resolution I, on the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution II, on the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Indigenous Populations, was adopted without a vote.

The draft decision on the status of the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Indigenous Populations was also adopted without a vote.

The Assembly then took up the report on the elimination of racism and racial discrimination (document A/53/623), containing three draft resolutions.

The three-part draft resolution I, on the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, which had budget implications contained in document A/53/727, was adopted without a vote.

The four-part draft resolution II, on the Third Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution III, on measures to combat contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, was adopted without a vote.

Next, the Assembly took up the Committee's report on the right of peoples to self-determination (document A/53/624), containing three draft resolutions.

Draft resolution I, on the universal realization of the right of peoples to self-determination, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution II, on the use of mercenaries, was adopted by a recorded vote of 115 in favour to 18 against, with 35 abstentions. (For details of the vote, see Annex I.)

Speaking in explanation of vote, LEE KERR (Australia) said that her country was deeply concerned about the activities of mercenaries and abuse of their use. It had taken measures to prohibit their activities in Australia. International cooperation was necessary, and Australia was taking steps to accede to the International Convention on the Recruitment and Use of

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Mercenaries, and she supported the call in the resolution for others to do so. However, she was unable to support the resolution as a whole because the attention of the text had been diverted to extraneous details.

Draft resolution III, on the right of the Palestinian people to self- determination, was adopted by a vote of 162 in favour to 2 against (Israel, United States), with 6 abstentions (Fiji, Georgia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Uruguay, Uzbekistan). (See Annex II.)

The draft decision on the reports under the items on human rights (document A/53/625) was adopted without a vote.

Next, the Assembly took up the Committee's report on human rights questions: implementation of human rights instruments (document A/53/625/Add.1), containing three draft resolutions.

Draft resolution I, on the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution II, on the effective implementation of international human rights instruments, including reporting obligations under international instruments on human rights, was before the Assembly for action.

Speaking before action, ILHAM IBRAHIM MOHAMED AHMED (Sudan) said human rights bodies had specific obligations to, and direct relations with, the States parties to the human rights treaties, while the Commission on Human Rights and its bodies were political and had their own functions. With a view to maintaining the special nature of both the treaty bodies and their specific functions, her delegation would vote against operative paragraph 26 of the resolution.

A separate recorded vote had been requested on operative paragraph 26 of the resolution, which reads as follows: "Notes that efforts continue to be made at coordination and cooperation between the human rights treaty bodies and the special procedures, rapporteurs, representatives, experts and working groups of the Commission on Human Rights and the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, all acting within their respective mandates".

The Assembly maintained the paragraph by a vote of 104 in favour to 7 against (Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Gabon, India, Iran, Libya, Sudan), with 44 abstentions. (See Annex III.)

The Assembly then adopted draft resolution II as a whole, without a vote.

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Draft resolution III, on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, which had budget implications contained in document A/53/728, was adopted without a vote.

The Assembly then took up the report on alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms (document A/53/625/Add.2), containing 16 draft resolutions.

PERCIVAL MOFOKENG (South Africa), the main sponsor of draft resolution XV in the above mentioned report, concerning the enhancement of international cooperation in the field of human rights, orally revised the amendment contained in document A/53/L.70. The first phrase of the paragraph, from "Recalls" to "and," should be deleted so that the amendment reads: "Welcomes the decision of the Commission to continue the consideration of this question at its fifty-fifth session".

Speaking before action, LAMIA MEKHEMAR (Egypt) drew attention to the joint statement contained in document A/53/679, which reflected the position of 29 countries on draft resolution V of the report, on the Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.

Draft resolution I, on the elimination of all forms of religious intolerance, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution II, on human rights and unilateral coercive measures, was adopted by a recorded vote of 110 in favour to 45 against, with 10 abstentions (Armenia, Cyprus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malta, Marshall Islands, Nicaragua, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan). (See Annex IV.)

Draft resolution III, on strengthening of the rule of law, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution IV, on respect for the right to universal freedom of travel and the vital importance of family reunification, was adopted by a vote of 103 in favour to 2 against (Angola, United States), with 66 abstentions. (See Annex V.)

Draft resolution V, on the Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution VI, on the situation of human rights in Cambodia, was adopted without a vote.

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Draft resolution VII, on human rights and extreme poverty, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution VIII, on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution IX, on regional arrangements for the promotion and protection of human rights, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution X, on the strengthening of United Nations actions in the human rights field through the promotion of international cooperation and the importance of non-selectivity, impartiality and objectivity, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution XI, on the question of enforced or involuntary disappearances, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution XII, on the follow-up to the United Nations Year for Tolerance, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution XIII, on the human genome and human rights, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution XIV, on the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education, 1995-2004, and public information activities in the field of human rights, was adopted without a vote.

The Assembly turned to draft resolution XV, on the enhancement of international cooperation in the field of human rights. The amendment to that resolution, as contained in the orally revised document A/53/L.70, was adopted without a vote. The draft resolution, as amended, was then adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution XVI, on the right to development, was adopted by a recorded vote of 125 in favour to 1 against (United States), with 42 abstentions. (See Annex VI.)

Speaking in explanation of vote on the draft resolution on the right to development, BETTY KING (United States) said her Government had hoped compromises could have been negotiated and that it could have joined a consensus on the resolution, but time had not allowed that. Her Government believed that development was the key to creating a world order that was stable, secure and prosperous. It believed it was the duty of governments to foster an environment in which each member of society could reach his or her full potential. Such an environment had to include not only civil and political rights but also policies and laws that promoted economic, social and cultural well-being. Protecting and advancing economic, social and cultural

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rights required policies and laws that encouraged entrepreneurial risk-taking; that generated jobs; that guaranteed labour rights and non-discrimination in the workplace; that promoted gender equality; that provided access to education and medical care; that protected the environment; that offered a safety net and path to advancement for the poorest segments of the population; and that ensured the rule of law for everyone.

While there was much in the resolution that the United States supported, it had voted against it because of profound disagreement on the following principles, she said. The United States did not agree that international macroeconomic policy-making, globalization, and debt relief were proper subjects for consideration in this forum. It believed it was wrong -- and dangerously misleading -- to pin blame for longstanding problems of food, health, education, and unemployment on the current international financial difficulties. Those problems had existed long before the global financial crisis, and those required structural measures to rectify them. Further, the United States did not support a Convention on the Right to Development because there were many United Nations agencies devoted to development activities. Additionally, it did not support adding to the mandate of the High Commissioner for Human Rights burdensome new mandates in the field of development. Apart from being wasteful and duplicative, that would divert scarce resources from human rights activities for which the High Commissioner had an exclusive mandate.

Lastly, the resolution failed to note an essential point agreed upon at the Vienna World Conference on Human Rights that "the lack of development cannot be invoked to justify an abridgment of internationally recognized human rights", she said. Five years after the first consensus in Vienna on that subject, and after the Commission on Human Rights, the United States believed developing and developed countries would be able to proceed another step towards a more complete understanding of what the right to development meant and how to work together toward its realization.

PETER FELTEN (Germany) said that with regard to the resolution on the human genome and human rights, he wanted to draw the attention of the Assembly to his country's explanation of position at the time of the approval of the text in the Third Committee. For the reasons set out in that explanation, Germany was not yet in a position to decide upon the implementation of the Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights.

NADEZDA HOLIKOVA (Czech Republic) said that she had abstained on resolution XVI, on the right to development, but her vote had not been recorded as such.

The Assembly then turned to the Committee's report on human rights situations and reports of special rapporteurs and representatives (document A/53/625/Add.3) containing 10 draft resolutions.

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Speaking in explanation of position before action, WALID ABDULWAHED AL-ETHARY (Yemen) said that the democratic process in Yemen since its unification had greatly improved the human rights situation there. Human rights and fundamental freedoms had been promoted by parliamentary elections, which were fair and free, as international observers had testified, and he denounced any violations of human rights. However, he said the issue of human rights had been treated in a politicized way, and Yemen would therefore not vote on any of the resolutions contained in the report. Human rights had been politicized and used as political tools. States had tried to impose hegemony through human rights issues, and to interfere with the internal affairs of other countries. Double standards were too often employed in questions of human rights.

AHMAD KAMAL (Pakistan), explaining his country's position on draft resolution X of the report, the human rights situation in Afghanistan, said that the human rights situation there was a cause of international concern. That situation was likely to improve once peace had returned, and he urged for reconciliation within the country. He also called for international engagement and dialogue to promote humanitarianism, human rights and peace in Afghanistan, and said he fully supported international efforts in that regard. However, he believed that cessation of all outside interference inside Afghanistan was crucial.

He also said a vacant seat formula should be employed regarding Afghanistan in the United Nations, as had been implemented by the Organization of the Islamic Conference. He was encouraged that the authorities in Khabul had established a commission of enquiry into the killings of Iranian diplomats in Afghanistan. During discussions in the Third Committee, he said he had expressed dissatisfaction with the interim report of the Special Rapporteur on human rights in Afghanistan, who said in paragraph 3 of his report that he had been unable to travel to Pakistan due to security considerations. He was unable to understand that reference to Pakistan. It was clear, however, that the Special Rapporteur had not visited Afghanistan itself. His delegation could not associate itself with an unsubstantiated report, and dissociated itself from consideration of the resolution.

AGIM NESHO (Albania), in explanation of vote before the vote on the situation of human rights in Kosovo, said that although Albania had in the past co-sponsored the draft resolution, it would not do so this year. Reference to respect of the will of the inhabitants of Kosova had been taken out of the resolution. That had been the core element of the previous resolutions on the situation of human rights in Kosova adopted by the Assembly in the past. No sustainable solution to the conflict in Kosova would be found without respecting the will of the Kosovar Albanians, he said.

Also, the resolution failed to consider the fact that the Kosovar Albanians had organized a peaceful resistance for nine years to the Serbian

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oppression and state terror, he said. For that period, Albanians had not committed a single act of violence despite the persecutions, torture, deprivations, illegal detentions and the negation of all human rights by the Belgrade regime. In front of the Serbian military and police attack of this year, which had threatened their basic right to live, Kosovar Albanians had been obliged to resist through self-defense. Thus, for instance, preambular paragraph 6 and operative paragraphs 6 and 9 did not reflect the reality on the ground. Had those and operative paragraph 16 been put to a separate vote, his delegation would have voted against them.

Draft resolution I, on human rights in Rwanda, was adopted without a vote.

Operative paragraphs 4, 13, 15 and 17 of draft resolution II, on human rights in Iraq, were adopted as a block by a separate recorded vote of 93 in favour to two against (Libya, Sudan), with 57 abstentions. (See Annex VII.) Those paragraphs read as follows:

Operative paragraph 4 -- "Strongly condemns the systematic, widespread and extremely grave violations of human rights and of international humanitarian law by the Government of Iraq, resulting in all-pervasive repression and oppression";

Operative paragraph 13 -- "Also urges the Government of Iraq to respect the rights of all ethnic and religious groups and to cease immediately its repressive practices aimed at the Iraqi Kurds, Assyrians, Turkomen and the population of the southern marsh areas, and to ensure the personal integrity and freedoms of the Shi'a and their religious establishment";

Operative paragraph 15 -- "Also calls upon the Government of Iraq to increase its cooperation with international aid agencies and non-governmental organizations to provide humanitarian assistance and monitoring in the northern and southern areas of the country, in particular to ensure the right to an adequate standard of living, including to food and health care";

Operative paragraph 17 -- "Calls upon the Government of Iraq to continue to cooperate in the implementation of Security Council resolutions 986 (1995), 1111 (1997), 1143 (1997) and 1153 (1998) and to ensure fully the equitable distribution, without discrimination, to the Iraqi population of the humanitarian supplies, including to remote areas, purchased with the proceeds of Iraqi oil, and to continue to facilitate the work of United Nations humanitarian personnel in Iraq by ensuring the free and unobstructed movement of observers throughout the country".

The draft resolution, as a whole, was adopted by a vote of 103 in favour to 3 against (Libya, Nigeria, Sudan), with 56 abstentions. (See Annex VIII.)

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Draft resolution III, on human rights in Iran, was adopted by a vote of 64 in favour to 41 against, with 56 abstentions. (See Annex IX.)

Draft resolution IV, on human rights in Haiti, was adopted without a vote.

The Assembly then turned to draft resolution V, on human rights in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

ENGELBERT THEUERMANN (Austria), said that in the French version of the resolution, operative paragraph 8 had not been properly translated.

The draft resolution was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution VI, on human rights in Nigeria, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution VII, on human rights in Myanmar, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution VIII, on the situation of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), was adopted by a vote of 141 in favour to none against, with 21 abstentions. (See Annex X.)

Draft resolution IX, on human rights in Kosovo, was adopted by a vote of 122 in favour to 3 against (Belarus, India, Russian Federation), with 34 abstentions. (See Annex XI.)

Draft resolution X, on human rights in Afghanistan, was adopted without a vote.

FASSASSI YACOUBOU (Benin), explaining his country's position after action on draft resolution III, on the situation of human rights in Iran, said that Benin remained committed to human rights and fundamental freedoms. It had endeavoured to pursue human rights, and enjoyed the assistance of the international community to that end. There was a real political will to establish in Iran a more tolerant and peaceful society, and the Government had undertaken efforts to improve the human rights situation in the country. Despite its modest experience in the field of human rights, Benin knew that establishing human rights was a long-term endeavour. Iran should be supported and encouraged to establish a state of law. He had therefore voted against the resolution.

XIE BUOHUA (China), in explanation of his vote on the resolution on the human rights situation in Kosovo, said that sovereignty, territorial integrity and non-interference were important principles in the United Nations Charter.

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China was not in favour of interfering in internal affairs of a country, and within a region of a sovereign State. Kosovo was a part of the territory of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and China could not support the resolution. It had therefore abstained.

GAUTAM MUKHOPADHAYA (India), also speaking in explanation of vote on the text on the situation of human rights in Kosovo, said India was not indifferent to the plight of the Albanian minority in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It had voted against the resolution because it was inconsistent in the manner in which human rights violations in the former Yugoslavia had been treated in the Third Committee. On the one hand, draft resolution VIII dealt with the situation of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which were three independent countries. On the other, there was another resolution, piloted by the same delegation, dealing with one part of those three countries as though that part was not an integral part of the country concerned.

India was also committed to the preservation and protection of the territorial integrity, national sovereignty and independence of Member States of the United Nations, he said. Indeed, Security Council resolutions of March and of September 1998 had reaffirmed the commitment of all United Nations Member States to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Given the existence of another resolution on the same country, the draft resolution on Kosovo would convey the presumably unintended signal that the Committee was referring to the situation of human rights in a separate territory. Consequently, it was inconsistent with article 2 (7) of the United Nations Charter. The right place to have addressed the situation of human rights in Kosovo should have been in the context of either the omnibus resolution or a separate resolution on the situation of human rights in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

PERCY M. MANGOAELA (Lesotho) said his delegation had voted in favour of the resolution on the human rights situation in Iran, because it highlighted the positive development and general progress in human rights in the country, and welcomed its commitment to respect the rule of law.

JEAN RAVOU-AKII (Vanuatu), speaking in explanation of vote on the draft on the situation of human rights in Iran, said last year, his country had voted in favour of the resolution, but this year it had abstained. That was mainly because the President of Iran had launched an appeal at the beginning of the current General Assembly session, asking for the international community to support Iran's efforts.

RAVAN FARHADI (Afghanistan), speaking in exercise of the right of reply, said he was referring to the statement by the representative of Pakistan regarding the resolution on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan. He was saddened to see that Professor Choong-Hyun Paik, such a prominent

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personality, had been treated as though he were a dishonest man because his report was questioned. People like him served society well. He had been in Afghanistan several times, and his statements were well founded. Clearly, he was not able to enter Afghanistan in the last couple of months because he was refused entry and because of the security situation.

The representative of Pakistan had again brought up the old litany of a vacant seat at the United Nations for Afghanistan, he said. Since the Organization of the Islamic Conference had adopted the vacant seat for Afghanistan, the Taliban side had refused every request of the Conference. Pakistan clearly wanted that there be no Afghan voice in the General Assembly, as that voice conveyed the message that Pakistan interfered with the affairs of Afghanistan. It was clear that no State in the General Assembly Hall supported the points that had been raised by the representative of Pakistan.

The Assembly then took up the Committee's report on the comprehensive implementation of and follow-up to the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (document A/53/625/Add.4), containing one draft resolution.

That draft resolution, on the Vienna Declaration, was adopted without a vote.

Next, the Assembly took up the report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (document A/53/625/Add.5), containing one draft resolution.

That draft resolution, on the question of resources for the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the human rights activities of the United Nations, was adopted without a vote.

The Assembly took up the report of the Third Committee on the report of the Economic and Social Council (document A/53/614) containing two draft decisions.

Draft decision I, on the organization of work of the Third Committee and the biennial programme of work for 1999-2000, was adopted without a vote.

The Assembly then adopted draft decision II, taking note of the report of the Economic and Social Council, without a vote.

(annexes follow)

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ANNEX I

Vote on Use of Mercenaries and Human Rights

The draft resolution on the use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights and impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to self- determination (document A/53/624) was adopted by a recorded vote of 115 in favour to 18 against, with 35 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States.

Abstain: Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Estonia, France, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Marshall Islands, Monaco, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Samoa, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Spain, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu.

Absent: Angola, Bangladesh, Burundi, Dominica, Georgia, Palau, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Turkmenistan.

(END OF ANNEX I)

38

ANNEX II

Vote on Right of Palestinian People to Self-Determination

The draft resolution on the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination (document A/53/624) was adopted by a recorded vote of 162 in favour to 2 against, with 6 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: Israel, United States.

Abstain: Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Georgia, Marshall Islands, Uruguay, Uzbekistan.

Absent: Angola, Dominica, Palau, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Turkmenistan.

39

(END OF ANNEX II)

40

ANNEX III

Vote on Operative Paragraph 26 of Draft on Human Rights Instruments

Operative paragraph 26 of the draft resolution on effective implementation of internal instruments on human rights, including reporting obligations under international instruments on human rights (document A/53/625/Add.1) was adopted by a recorded vote of 104 in favour to 7 against, with 44 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Samoa, San Marino, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Tajikistan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Gabon, India, Iran, Libya, Sudan.

Abstain: Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Georgia, Grenada, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Indonesia, Jamaica, Jordan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Syria, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Viet Nam, Yemen.

Absent: Afghanistan, Angola, Bahrain, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Comoros, Dominica, Guinea, Haiti, Maldives, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Palau, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates.

41

(END OF ANNEX III)

42

ANNEX IV

Vote on Human Rights and Unilateral Coercive Measures

The draft resolution on human rights and unilateral coercive measures (document A/53/625/Add.1) was adopted by a recorded vote of 110 in favour to 45 against, with 10 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: Albania, Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States.

Abstain: Armenia, Cyprus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malta, Marshall Islands, Nicaragua, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan.

Absent: Azerbaijan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Kuwait, Maldives, Palau, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Turkmenistan, Uganda.

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(END OF ANNEX IV)

44

ANNEX V

Vote on Right to Freedom of Travel and Family Reunification

The draft resolution on the respect for the right to universal freedom of travel and the vital importance of family reunification (document A/53/625/Add.2) was adopted by a recorded vote of 103 in favour to 2 against, with 66 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: Angola, United States.

Abstain: Albania, Andorra, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Mongolia, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Samoa, San Marino, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Trinidad and Tobago, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan.

Absent: Burundi, Dominica, Palau, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Turkmenistan.

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(END OF ANNEX V)

46

ANNEX VI

Vote on Right to Development

The draft resolution on the right to development (document A/53/625/Add.2) was adopted by a recorded vote of 125 in favour to 1 against, with 42 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: United States.

Abstain: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.

Absent: Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Burundi, Czech Republic, Dominica, Palau, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Uzbekistan.

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(END OF ANNEX VI)

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ANNEX VII

Vote on Operative Paragraphs 4, 13, 15, 17

The operative paragraphs 4, 13, 15 and 17 of the draft resolution on the situation of human rights in Iraq (document A/53/625/Add.3) were adopted by a recorded vote of 93 in favour to 2 against, with 57 abstention, as follows:

In favour: Albania, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Mongolia, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Spain, Swaziland, Sweden, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Zambia.

Against: Libya, Sudan.

Abstain: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Brunei Darussalam, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Viet Nam.

Absent: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Comoros, Dominica, Grenada, Guinea, Iran, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Oman, Palau, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen, Zimbabwe.

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(END OF ANNEX VII)

50

ANNEX VIII

Vote on Human Rights in Iraq

The draft resolution on the situation of human rights in Iraq (document A/53/625/Add.3) was adopted by a recorded vote of 103 in favour to 3 against, with 56 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Albania, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Comoros, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Swaziland, Sweden, Tajikistan, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Zambia.

Against: Libya, Nigeria, Sudan.

Abstain: Aghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei Darussalam, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Saint Lucia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Syria, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, Zimbabwe.

Absent: Azerbaijan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Dominica, Grenada, Iran, Madagascar, Oman, Palau, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Yemen.

(END OF ANNEX VIII)

51

52

ANNEX IX

Vote on Human Rights in Iran

The draft resolution on the situation of human rights in Iran (document A/53/625/Add.3) was adopted by a recorded vote of 64 in favour to 41 against, with 56 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Algeria, Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Monaco, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Samoa, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sweden, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, United States, Zambia.

Against: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Brunei Darussalam, China, Comoros, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Morocco, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Viet Nam, Zimbabwe.

Abstain: Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Bhutan, Botswana, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Senegal, Singapore, South Africa, Suriname, Swaziland, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela.

Absent: Belize, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Dominica, Gambia, Georgia, Grenada, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Palau, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Turkey, Yemen.

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(END OF ANNEX IX)

54

ANNEX X

Vote on Human Rights in Bosnia, Croatia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

The draft resolution on the situation of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) (document A/53/625/Add.3) was adopted by a recorded vote of 141 in favour to none against, with 21 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela.

Against: None.

Abstain: Belarus, Cameroon, China, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mali, Namibia, Russian Federation, United Republic of Tanzania, Zimbabwe.

Absent: Armenia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Dominica, Fiji, Grenada, Iraq, Liberia, Palau, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia.

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(END OF ANNEX X)

56

ANNEX XI

Vote on Human Rights in Kosovo

The draft resolution on the situation of human rights in Kosovo (document A/53/625/Add.3) was adopted by a recorded vote of 122 in favour to 3 against, with 34 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Canada, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, Comoros, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gambia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu.

Against: Belarus, India, Russian Federation.

Abstain: Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Bhutan, Botswana, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Jamaica, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Peru, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Trinidad and Tobago, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela, Zimbabwe.

Absent: Armenia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Dominica, Georgia, Grenada, Madagascar, Palau, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Syria, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia.

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For information media. Not an official record.