COUNCIL TO IMPOSE MEASURES AGAINST UNITA, EFFECTIVE 25 JUNE, UNLESS IT COOPERATES TO EXTEND STATE ADMINISTRATION THROUGHOUT ANGOLA19980612 Freezing of UNITA Funds among Measures Specified in Resolution 1173 (1998), Adopted Unanimously
Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter, the Security Council this evening decided to impose a series of measures against the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), with effect from 25 June, unless it was informed by the Secretary-General that UNITA had fully cooperated with all its demands.
By unanimously adopting resolution 1173 (1998), the Council demanded that UNITA cooperate without conditions in the immediate extension of State administration throughout the national territory, particularly in Andulo, Bailundo, Mungo and Nharea, and stop any attempts to reverse that process.
If those demands were not met by 23 June, the Council would require States, except Angola, to freeze UNITA funds within their territory and ensure that those funds were not made available directly or indirectly to the organization or its leaders. It would also require States to take the necessary measures to prevent all official contacts with UNITA leadership in areas of Angola to which State administration had not been extended, as well as to prohibit import of diamonds from Angola that were not controlled through the Government's Certificate of Origin regime. States would also take measures to prohibit the sale or supply of mining equipment and motorized vehicles to persons or entities outside the State administration areas.
Further by today's text, the Council expressed it readiness to review those measures and terminate them if the Secretary-General reported at any time that UNITA had fully complied with its obligations. The Council also expressed its readiness to consider the imposition of further additional measures if UNITA did not fully comply with its obligations under the Peace Accord, the Lusaka Protocol and relevant Security Council resolutions.
Also by the text, the Council requested the sanctions-monitoring Committee established under resolution 864 (1993) to draw up guidelines expeditiously for implementing the measures and to consider ways and means for further strengthening the effectiveness of the measures adopted by the Council in its previous resolutions. It also requested the Committee to report to the Council by 31 July regarding actions taken by States to implement those
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measures. The Committee might authorize, on a case-by-case-basis, exemptions to the measures for verified medical and humanitarian purposes.
Also by the text, the Council condemned UNITA and held its leadership responsible for its failure to implement fully its obligations contained in the Lusaka Protocol and relevant Council resolutions, particularly resolution 1127 (1997). By the terms of that resolution, the Council imposed travel restrictions upon UNITA senior officials, sealed its offices, and prohibited the flight of aircraft by or for UNITA.
The Council also reiterated its demand that UNITA complete its demilitarization and stop any attempts to restore its military capabilities. It also demanded that UNITA cooperate fully with the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) in the verification of its demilitarization and that UNITA stop any attacks on the MONUA personnel, international personnel, Government of Unity and National Reconciliation (GURN) authorities, and the civilian population.
By the terms of a preambular paragraph, the Council recognized the steps taken by the Government to fulfil its obligations under the peace process plan to cease the dissemination of hostile propaganda on State-controlled media and to reduce abuses by the Angolan National Police. The Council urged the Government to continue to refrain from any action which might undermine the process of normalization of State administration, and encouraged it to make use of UNITA personnel in areas under State administration and to give priority to peaceful actions that contribute to the successful conclusion of the peace process.
By the text, the Council also urged the Secretary-General to redeploy MONUA personnel immediately to support and facilitate the extension of State administration throughout the national territory, and called upon UNITA to cooperate fully in that regard.
The meeting, which was called to order at 6:45 p.m., was adjourned at 7:43 p.m.
Council Work Programme
The Council met this evening to consider the situation in Angola.
It had before it a draft resolution (document S/1998/504), the text of which reads as follows:
"The Security Council,
"Reaffirming its resolution 696 (1991) of 30 May 1991 and all subsequent relevant resolutions, in particular resolution 1127 (1997) of 28 August 1997,
"Reaffirming its firm commitment to preserve the unity, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Angola,
"Expressing its grave concern at the critical situation in the peace process, which is the result of the failure by the União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) to implement its obligations under the "Acordos de Paz" (S/22609, annex), the Lusaka Protocol (S/1994/1441, annex), relevant Security Council resolutions and the plan for the completion by 31 May 1998 of the remaining tasks of the Lusaka Protocol, which was submitted by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General to the Joint Commission on 15 May 1998,
"Recalling the statement of its President of 22 May 1998 (S/PRST/1998/14),
"Recognizing the steps taken by the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation (GURN) to fulfil its obligations under the above-mentioned plan to cease the dissemination of hostile propaganda on State-controlled media and to reduce cases of abuse by the Angolan National Police,
"Taking note of the statement of 2 June 1998 issued by the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) regarding the continued existence of non-demobilized UNITA forces (S/1998/503, annex),
"1. Condemns UNITA and holds its leadership responsible for its failure to implement fully its obligations contained in the Lusaka Protocol, relevant Security Council resolutions, in particular resolution 1127 (1997), and the plan submitted by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General to the Joint Commission;
"2. Demands that UNITA fully cooperate without conditions in the immediate extension of State administration throughout the national territory, including in particular in Andulo, Bailundo, Mungo and Nharea, and stop any attempts to reverse this process;
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"3. Reiterates its demand that UNITA complete its demilitarization and stop any attempts to restore its military capabilities;
"4. Demands also that UNITA cooperate fully with MONUA in the verification of its demilitarization;
"5. Demands further that UNITA stop any attacks by its members on the personnel of MONUA, international personnel, the authorities of the GURN, including the police, and the civilian population;
"6. Urges the GURN to continue to refrain from any action, including the excessive use of force, which might undermine the process of normalization of State administration, encourages the GURN to make use of UNITA personnel, as appropriate and in accordance with the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol, in areas to which State administration is extended, and encourages also the GURN to continue to give priority to peaceful actions that contribute to the successful conclusion of the peace process;
"7. Also calls upon the GURN and in particular UNITA to avoid taking any action which might lead to renewed hostilities or undermine the peace process;
"8 bis. Stresses the importance of strengthening the rule of law, including the full protection of all Angolan citizens throughout the national territory;
"9. Calls upon the GURN and in particular UNITA to guarantee unconditionally the safety, security and freedom of movement of all United Nations and international personnel;
"10. Requests the Secretary-General to redeploy MONUA personnel immediately and as appropriate to support and facilitate the extension of State administration throughout the national territory, including in particular in Andulo, Bailundo, Mungo and Nharea, and calls upon UNITA to cooperate fully in this regard;
"Recalling paragraph 9 of resolution 1127 (1997),
"Determining that the current situation in Angola constitutes a threat to international peace and security in the region,
"Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
"11. Decides that all States, except Angola, in which there are funds and financial resources, including any funds derived or generated from
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property of UNITA as an organization or of senior officials of UNITA or adult members of their immediate families designated pursuant to paragraph 11 of resolution 1127 (1997), shall require all persons and entities within their own territories holding such funds and financial resources to freeze them and ensure that they are not made available directly or indirectly to or for the benefit of UNITA as an organization or of senior officials of UNITA or adult members of their immediate families designated pursuant to paragraph 11 of resolution 1127 (1997);
"12. Decides also that all States shall take the necessary measures:
"(a) to prevent all official contacts with the UNITA leadership in areas of Angola to which State administration has not been extended, except for those by representatives of the GURN, of the United Nations and of the Observer States to the Lusaka Protocol;
"(b) to prohibit the direct or indirect import from Angola to their territory of all diamonds that are not controlled through the Certificate of Origin regime of the GURN;
"(c) to prohibit, upon notification by the Chairman of the Committee created pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) to all Member States of guidelines approved by that Committee, the sale or supply to persons or entities in areas of Angola to which State administration has not been extended, by their nationals or from their territory, or using their flag vessels or aircraft, of equipment used in mining or mining services;
"(d) to prohibit upon notification by the Chairman of the Committee created pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) to all Member States of guidelines approved by that Committee, the sale or supply to persons or entities in areas of Angola to which State administration has not been extended, by their nationals or from their territory, or using their flag vessels or aircraft, of motorized vehicles or watercraft or spare parts for such vehicles, or ground or waterborne transportation services;
"13. Decides further that the Committee created pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) may authorize, on a case-by-case basis, upon a no-objection procedure, exemptions to the measures specified in paragraphs 11 and 12 above for verified medical and humanitarian purposes;
"14. Decides that the measures specified in paragraphs 11 and 12 above shall come into force without further notice at 00.01 Eastern Daylight Time on 25 June 1998, unless the Security Council decides, on the basis of a report by the Secretary-General, that UNITA has fully complied by 23 June 1998 with all its obligations under paragraph 2 of this resolution;
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"15. Expresses its readiness to review the measures specified in paragraphs 11 and 12 above and in paragraph 4 of resolution 1127 (1997) and terminate them, if the Secretary-General reports at any time that UNITA has fully complied with all its relevant obligations;
"16. Expresses also its readiness to consider the imposition of further additional measures if UNITA does not fully comply with its obligations under the "Acordos de Paz", the Lusaka Protocol and relevant Security Council resolutions;
"17. Calls upon all States and all international and regional organizations to act strictly in accordance with the provisions of this resolution notwithstanding the existence of any rights or obligations conferred or imposed by any international agreement or any contract entered into or any licence or permit granted prior to the date of adoption of this resolution;
"18. Also calls upon all States to implement strictly the measures imposed in paragraphs 19, 20, and 21 of resolution 864 (1993) and paragraph 4 of resolution 1127 (1997), as well as to comply with paragraph 6 of resolution 1127 (1997);
"19. Requests the GURN to designate, and to notify to the Committee created pursuant to resolution 864 (1993), the areas of Angola to which State administration has not been extended;
"20. Requests the Committee created pursuant to resolution 864 (1993):
"(a) to draw up guidelines expeditiously for the implementation of paragraphs 11 and 12 above and to consider ways and means for further strengthening the effectiveness of the measures adopted by the Council in its previous resolutions;
"(b) to report to the Council by 31 July 1998 regarding the actions taken by States to implement the measures specified in paragraphs 11 and 12 above;
"21. Requests Member States to provide to the Committee created pursuant to resolution 864 (1993), no later than 15 July 1998, information on the measures they have adopted to implement the provisions of paragraphs 11 and 12 above;
"22. Requests also Member States having information about any violations of the provisions of this resolution to provide this information to the Committee created pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) for distribution to Member States;
"23. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter."
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HIGINO CARNEIRO, Vice-Minister for Territorial Administration of Angola, said the series of destabilizing activities carried out by UNITA had significantly hindered the prospects for immediate peace. Those activities, which his Government and MONUA both identified as emanating from UNITA's leadership, must be stopped to prevent another armed confrontation in the country. About 1 million displaced people had already returned to their areas of origin. The State administration was already starting to show its positive effects in areas formerly controlled by UNITA, and the lives of rural populations were slowly being normalized. However, hundreds of thousands of people were once again returning to urban centres and State intervention was being impeded. All of this was being caused by the obstacles to the free circulation of people and goods, and by increasing attacks by UNITA military forces.
As was known to everyone, UNITA hid military forces and equipment from MONUA and continued to recruit and train citizens, he said. Those forces were rearming as rapidly as possible because MONUA was not able to disarm UNITA in the last three and a half years. The present involvement by UNITA's leader with foreign forces, now destabilizing Angola's borders with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, was a threat to the whole region. He called on the Security Council to face the dangers those forces could bring if firm steps were not taken to control them. The draft resolution before the Council could help find a common denominator for UNITA to adopt a more constructive attitude and to act in good faith to fulfil its responsibilities to the peace process without further delays. The Angolan Government accepted the draft resolution and fully supported it. UNITA's leadership must now clarify its stand. Their members could not be kept in Parliament, in the Government, in the armed forces and in the police, working for peace, development and security, while their military leaders created military obstacles to the completion of the peace process.
Sir JOHN WESTON (United Kingdom), speaking on behalf of the European Union, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Cyprus and Norway, said the European Union was dismayed at the lack of recent progress in the Angolan peace process. The UNITA continued to put its own interests before the very real needs of the people of Angola. Consistently, it had fallen short of its promises to transform from a military organization to a political one, and to permit the extension of State administration to all Angolan territory.
The draft resolution before the Security Council set out some of the tasks which were expected of UNITA in order to safeguard the peace process, he said. In the immediate future, UNITA must remove the obstacles to the extension of State administration in Bailundo and Andulo, as well as to other localities. It must also abandon, once and for all, its military activity and demobilize any of its forces. The European Union condemned the armed attacks
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against MONUA, humanitarian and other international personnel, Angolan authorities, and civilians. The Union supported further Security Council action against UNITA. The further sanctions were not intended to punish, but to encourage UNITA to finalize the implementation of the peace process.
CELSO LUIZ NUNES AMORIM (Brazil) said the Council had been called upon to deal with another torturous juncture in the Angolan peace process. The facts had been described in the Vice-Minister's statement. Attempts to put the process on track had not been successful. Such a pattern of defiance on the part of UNITA was inadmissible, and the Council owed it to the Angolan people, whose plight was being so prolonged, to make its position clear. The draft was as fair an attempt as was possible.
The draft resolution demanded that UNITA fully cooperate, without conditions, in the immediate extension of State administration, he said. Complete demobilization on the part of UNITA was also an imperative. Further, targeted sanctions were provided for if UNITA did not fully cooperate in the transfer. The Angolan Government had displayed admirable restraint, and their efforts were to be applauded. The presence of the Vice-Minister was to be acknowledged and his statement must be taken note of. By adopting the draft, the Council was contributing to the conclusion of the drawn out situation in Angola. It was hoped that common sense would prevail.
MELVIN SAENZ BIOLLEY (Costa Rica) said the Council was meeting to send a clear message to UNITA leaders that there was no doubt of the Council's intention to secure the success of the peace process. The UNITA stance was unacceptable to Costa Rica; UNITA continued to fail to comply with its own proposals and commitments. The draft resolution contained a clear and unequivocal message that this would be the last chance to be given to UNITA. It was precisely targeted at UNITA's direct interests. It also gave UNITA time to take steps to comply. Costa Rica also paid a tribute to the Government of Angola which had demonstrated its willingness to comply with its obligations under the peace process and the Lusaka Protocol.
YURIY FEDOTOV (Russian Federation) said UNITA had taken a diametrical approach to that of the Angolan Government and ignored repeated warnings of the Council. It had also blocked access by the Angolan Government to certain areas and stepped up attacks on government staff, as well as United Nations and other international personnel in the area. The situation called for prompt and decisive measures on the part of the Council. The draft resolution contained a thorough and well thought-out list of political and economic sanctions. He hoped that UNITA will use the two-week grace period to comply with obligations under the peace process.
SHEN GUOFANG (China) said the peace process in Angola had continued for several years. The vast majority of provisions in the Lusaka Protocol had been fulfilled, and the end was in sight. However, because of repeated delays
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by UNITA, the process had been greatly hindered. On many occasions, UNITA had gone as far as violent action -- something that no State wished to see.
The Council had no option but to take further measures of sanctions against UNITA, he said. China appreciated the position of the Angolan Government that it wished to find a political solution to the situation. The UNITA must seize this final opportunity and swiftly and completely fulfil its obligations. China would vote in favour of the draft resolution.
ANDERS LIDEN (Sweden) said the mechanism for achieving lasting peace in Angola had been clearly defined in the Lusaka Protocol. However, peace could not be achieved unless both parties fulfilled their obligations under the Protocol. The UNITA must remove the obstacles it had put on the path to peace. It was also expected that the Angolan Government fulfil its commitment to resort exclusively to political dialogue and peaceful means in its search for an exit from the present impasse.
A successful peace process required the participation of UNITA, which had still not taken concrete and irreversible steps to fulfil its remaining obligations under the Protocol. Therefore, the Security Council must take the necessary measures to ensure full compliance with its decisions. The scope of measures in the draft resolution, backed by a unanimous Council, would send a clear message to Jonas Savimbi that the international community would not accept UNITA's continued obstruction of the peace process. At the same time, delayed entry into force of those measures would serve as a useful impetus for UNITA to fulfil its obligations. Sweden urged both parties, and in particular UNITA, to cooperate fully with MONUA and to guarantee freedom of movement and the safety of the personnel of the United Nations and other international organizations.
BABOUCARR-BLAISE ISMAILA JAGNE (Gambia) said the conflict in Angola had been painfully long and devastating. The perpetuation of the conflict was not in the interest of the Angolan people. Thus, the urgent need, once again, to give the people of Angola a new lease on life. The legal framework already in place and the strict adherence to the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol would have brought about a desirable end to the conflict. Unfortunately, however, the delaying tactics by UNITA constituted the major stumbling block to the smooth and rapid implementation of the said Protocol. The Gambia hailed the GURN for showing restraint, by not succumbing to domestic pressures to resort to the use of force to break the log-jam.
The international community had been urging UNITA to comply with the provisions of the Peace Accord, but to no avail, he said. His delegation had been echoing the need to send unambiguous signals to UNITA indicating the non- acceptance by the international community of any moves that would stagnate or reverse the peace process. The Gambia was glad that, with the adoption of the present resolution, the Security Council was doing just that.
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MASAKI KONISHI (Japan) said that if UNITA harboured any hope that the international community lacked the will to act decisively, or that it could be cajoled into tolerating further delays, the resolution the Security Council was about to adopt would disabuse them of that mistaken notion. "We must not fail the Angolan people by allowing the situation once again to erupt into conflict." He welcomed the recent reaffirmation by the GURN of its commitment to resolve the remaining issues by political, not military, means. He commended the GURN for continuing to demonstrate admirable patience and self-restraint in the face of a difficult situation.
He said Japan would vote in favour of the draft resolution before the Council. If UNITA's leaders contemplated the impact which the sanctions called for in the resolution would have, they would realize there was no recourse but to cooperate, fully and without delay, in completing the remaining tasks under the Lusaka Protocol. He called on UNITA to demonstrate through concrete actions that it was committed to the peace process. If it did so by the stated deadline of 23 June, sanctions would not be imposed, and cooperative efforts for the consolidation of peace throughout Angola would resume.
JASSIM MOHAMMED BUALLAY (Bahrain) said efforts to restore normalcy in Angola had suffered. The road left to traverse was short; almost all the tasks had been completed and government authority had been extended to almost all the territory. Normal political life was returning. However, each time the peace process neared its end, some degree of reversal was experienced. Bahrain condemned the recent attacks against United Nations staff. Those attacks must be halted.
The peace process was at the crossroads, he said. Both parties, especially UNITA, must refrain from force. Bahrain supported the peace process in Angola and would support the draft resolution. It was hoped that UNITA would comply with its provisions as soon as possible.
DANILO TÜRK (Slovenia) regretted that the situation in Angola had poisoned the political atmosphere, particularly in light of the Secretary- General's Special Representative's valiant efforts to maintain the momentum of the peace process. UNITA's tactics were disturbing, especially in view of the increased number of armed incidents during May, which, there was evidence to suggest, had been caused by UNITA forces. Further, evidence about arms smuggling operations indicated that UNITA was rearming and keeping open the option to continue as a guerrilla force. At this crucial juncture, the international community's efforts to safeguard the peace process were essential.
Targeted sanctions should be used to ensure UNITA's implementation of the Lusaka Protocol and subsequent timetables, he said. Slovenia supported freezing UNITA's financial assets and prohibiting trade as described in the resolution. UNITA's leadership was responsible for the current impasse. The Angolan
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Government must be urged to persevere to insist on peaceful actions, even though its patience was being stretched to the limit. Political means must be utilized to complete the peace process. Only such an approach would guarantee the achievement of a lasting and peaceful solution, and allow the people of Angola to devote themselves to rebuilding their war-ravaged country.
ALAIN DEJAMMET (France) said the situation in Angola had been marked by an absence of the pursuit of the goals of the peace process and by incidents against the United Nations mission there. His delegation commended the Angolan Government for implementing the plans to bring peace and for living up to its commitments. UNITA leadership had not lived up to its own obligations, which had seriously jeopardized peace and security in Angola. The draft resolution called on UNITA to cooperate immediately with its obligations. If it did not, sanctions would enter into force. Those sanctions were envisaged by previous resolutions. France hoped that UNITA would understand the signal sent to it and act accordingly.
NANCY SODERBERG (United States) said the draft resolution should not undermine UNITA's activity as a legal political party, but push UNITA to change its behaviour. The text did not impose sanctions immediately, but rather gave UNITA one last chance to fulfil its obligations and avoid additional sanctions. The United States urged UNITA to make use of this opportunity. If UNITA did not act now, the sanctions would come into effect on 25 June. Decisive action by UNITA now would also enable the Council to remove the sanctions imposed last fall.
The United States also urged the Government of Angola to exercise patience and restraint, she said. Her delegation was concerned about reports that government police and security forces had committed acts of violence against UNITA supporters. Those actions damaged confidence in the peace process. The United States welcomed the steps the Government had taken recently to curb those offences, and urged it to continue. The Government should win the confidence of UNITA followers through a campaign of reconciliation, including by making full use of trained UNITA personnel to provide services in areas where government administration was extended, particularly in the fields of health and education.
NJUGUNA M. MAHUGU (Kenya) said UNITA had continued to delay and frustrate the process. The many promises and deadlines that had not been honoured by UNITA in the past have left the Council in a weak position. While agreeing to the position that "our eyes should remain set" on the completion of the peace process by the end of June, he believed that the time had come for the Council to act decisively on the matter, as it did in August 1997, when it adopted resolution 1127. His delegation believed that the imposition of additional measures would force UNITA to proceed with the peace process and would further re-establish the authority of the Council.
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For the process to move forward, he said, it was important that UNITA fully complied with its obligations, including handing over areas under its control for extension of State administration. Kenya commended the Government of Angola for the commitment it had shown so far in fulfilling its obligations. His delegation hoped it would continue to play its part and cooperate with the international community. In particular, Angola should continue to refrain from any action that could negate the peace process.
ANTONIO MONTEIRO (Portugal) said he wished to express Portugal's full support for the draft resolution. The Council was about to take a decision imposing a third package of measures against UNITA; that was a regrettable but necessary course of action. Since the beginning of 1998, UNITA had missed five deadlines for compliance. Those deadlines had been accepted and even proposed by UNITA.
The great gains that had been achieved were now in jeopardy, he said. Those substantial efforts must not be thrown away. The UNITA should heed the Council's message and seize the current opportunity. The additional measures being imposed were to help conclude the peace process, which was in the interest of all Angolan people, including UNITA.
Action on Draft
The Council then unanimously adopted the draft text as resolution 1173 (1998).
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