SECURITY COUNCIL IMPOSES TRAVEL RESTRICTIONS ON UNITA, EXTENDS MANDATE OF UN ANGOLA OBSERVER MISSION
SECURITY COUNCIL IMPOSES TRAVEL RESTRICTIONS ON UNITA, EXTENDS MANDATE OF UN ANGOLA OBSERVER MISSION
SECURITY COUNCIL IMPOSES TRAVEL RESTRICTIONS ON UNITA, EXTENDS MANDATE OF UN ANGOLA OBSERVER MISSION19971029 Resolution 1135 (1997) Adopted Unanimously; Additional Measures Contemplated, Depending upon UNITA Compliance
Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Security Council this afternoon, after twice in recent months permitting grace periods for the imposition of sanctions against the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), allowed travel restrictions to pass into effect on senior officials of the Union and adult members of their families, as of 00.01 EST on 30 October. The restrictions, which include sealing UNITA's offices in all States, were originally proposed in Council resolution 1127 (1997) of 28 August, on the basis of UNITA's failure to comply with its obligations under the Angolan peace process.
The Council today, by unanimously adopting resolution 1135 (1997), reaffirmed its readiness to review the restrictions or to consider the imposition of additional measures, such as trade and financial sanctions, depending upon UNITA's compliance with Council demands. The Council demanded that UNITA comply immediately with all obligations set out in resolution 1127, among them full cooperation in the normalization of State administration throughout Angola, including in Andulo and Bailundo, the demilitarization of all UNITA forces and transformation of its radio station into a non-partisan broadcasting facility. The Council requested the Secretary-General to report on UNITA's compliance with those obligations by 8 December and every 90 days thereafter.
The Council also requested Member States to provide information on the measures they had adopted to implement the travel restrictions to the Committee created to monitor the sanctions, which was established by resolution 864 (1993). It requested the Committee to report to the Council by 15 December on the actions taken by Member States.
Recognizing the important role of the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) at this critical stage of the peace process, the Council also today extended the mandate of MONUA until 30 January 1998 and requested the Secretary-General to submit a report and recommendations no later than 13 January on continued United Nations presence.
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The Council also endorsed the Secretary-General's recommendation to postpone the withdrawal of United Nations military formed units until the end of November 1997 and requested him to report no later than 8 December on the schedule for resuming that withdrawal, taking into account the situation on the ground.
Following the adoption of today's resolution, the President of the Council, Juan Somavia (Chile), speaking on behalf of the Council, condemned all external interference in the Republic of the Congo, called on all foreign forces, including mercenaries, to withdraw immediately from that country, and stressed the importance of a political settlement, national reconciliation and transitional arrangements leading to the holding of democratic and free and fair elections.
Statements were also made by the representatives of Angola, Brazil, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, Egypt, Republic of Korea, Sweden, Japan, Portugal, Costa Rica, France, Kenya, Poland, Guinea-Bissau, China, United States and Chile.
The meeting, which was called to order at 12:20 p.m., was adjourned at 1:35 p.m.
Council Work Programme
The Security Council met this afternoon to consider the situation in Angola. It had before it a report of the Secretary-General (document S/1997/807) in which he says "there has been no significant progress in the peace process in Angola" since his last report of 24 September 1997. Under the circumstances, he recommends that the Council postpone slightly the withdrawal of United Nations military units from Angola and that the mandate of the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) be extended for three months, until 31 January 1998.
The report was issued pursuant to resolution 1118 (1997) of 30 June, in which the Council requested the Secretary-General to continue to take into account the situation on the ground and progress in completing the remaining relevant aspects of the peace process in implementing the scheduled withdrawal of United Nations military units, and to report thereon; and pursuant to resolution 1127 (1997) of 28 August.
Under the terms of resolution 1127 (1997), the Council decided to impose a travel ban on senior officials of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) and adult members of their families and to seal their offices as of 30 September, unless the Council was informed by the Secretary-General that UNITA had taken concrete and irreversible steps to comply with its demands to implement immediately its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol. On 29 September, in resolution 1130 (1997), the Council postponed enactment of those measures for one month.
The steps to be taken by UNITA include the demilitarization of all UNITA forces, transformation of its radio station Vorgan into a non-partisan broadcasting facility and full cooperation in the process of the normalization of State administration throughout Angola. Other Council demands call on UNITA to provide immediately to the Joint Commission, accurate and complete information about the strength of all armed personnel under its control in order for them to be verified, disarmed and demobilized. The Council also requested the Secretary-General to report on the reduction of the military personnel of MONUA.
In his report, the Secretary-General states that unless additional concrete steps are taken to accelerate implementation of the Lusaka Protocol, it will be difficult to consider that UNITA has taken all the steps necessary to comply with the provisions of resolution 1127.
Expressing concern over the slow pace of demilitarization of UNITA and the slowdown of the extension of State administration into the areas controlled by UNITA, the Secretary-General calls on UNITA to urgently finalize arrangements for the transfer of all areas to government control and to ensure that local UNITA structures cooperate unequivocally with newly installed government administrations.
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The Secretary-General strongly urges the Government and UNITA to take specific steps to enhance mutual trust and confidence, and improve the prospects for national reconciliation. He appeals to the leaders of the Government and UNITA to meet as soon as possible inside Angola. He also urges the Government to notify MONUA of any movements of its troops.
The Secretary-General also expresses concern about the presence of Angolan armed elements in the Republic of the Congo. He calls on all concerned to avoid any action that could exacerbate tensions.
It is imperative, the Secretary-General says, that every effort be made to ensure that the gains achieved so far are sustained and reinforced by adequate financial and material assistance from the donor community, especially for the reintegration of demobilized soldiers, demining activities and other pressing humanitarian projects.
According to the report, $50 million gross had been provided to meet the essential costs beginning on 1 July 1997 of the transition of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III) to MONUA and for its maintenance, pending consideration by the Assembly of the Secretary-General's proposed budget. The estimated costs for the 12-month period from 1 July 1997 to 30 June 1998 amounts to $162.1 million gross. The proposed budget provides, among other things, for the phased repatriation of military contingent personnel from 2,602 at 1 October 1997 to 170 by 1 January 1998. Should the Council decide to extend the mandate of the Mission, and agree with the Secretary-General's intention to postpone slightly the withdrawal of the formed units, any additional requirements will be sought from the General Assembly during its current session.
The Council also had before it a draft resolution (document S/1997/823) which reads as follows:
"The Security Council,
"Reaffirming its resolution 696 (1991) of 30 May 1991 and all subsequent resolutions,
"Expressing its firm commitment to preserve the unity, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Angola,
"Stressing the urgent need for the Government of Angola and in particular the União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) to complete without further delay the implementation of their obligations under the "Acordos de Paz" (S/22609, annex), the Lusaka Protocol (S/1994/1441, annex) and relevant Security Council resolutions,
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"Having considered the report of the Secretary-General of 17 October 1997 (S/1997/807),
"Expressing its deep concern at the lack of significant progress in the peace process in Angola since the report of the Secretary-General of 24 September 1997 (S/1997/741),
"Strongly deploring the failure by UNITA to comply fully with its obligations under the "Acordos de Paz", the Lusaka Protocol and with relevant Security Council resolutions, in particular resolution 1127 (1997) of 28 August 1997,
"Recognizing the important role of the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) at this critical stage of the peace process,
"1. Decides to extend the mandate of MONUA until 30 January 1998, and requests the Secretary-General to submit a report and recommendations no later than 13 January 1998 on the United Nations presence in Angola after 30 January 1998;
"2. Endorses the recommendation of the Secretary-General in his report of 17 October 1997 to postpone the withdrawal of United Nations military formed units until the end of November 1997 according to the plan outlined in paragraph 15 of the above-mentioned report, and requests the Secretary-General to report no later than 8 December 1997 on the schedule for the resumed withdrawal of military personnel, taking into account the situation on the ground;
"3. Demands that the Government of Angola and in particular UNITA complete fully and without further delay the remaining aspects of the peace process and refrain from any action which might lead to renewed hostilities;
"4. Demands also that the Government of Angola and in particular UNITA cooperate fully with MONUA, including by providing full access for its verification activities, and reiterates its call on the Government of Angola to notify MONUA in a timely manner of its troop movements, in accordance with the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol and established procedures;
"Determining that the present situation constitutes a threat to international peace and security in the region,
"Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
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"5. Demands that UNITA comply immediately and without any conditions with the obligations set out in resolution 1127 (1997), including full cooperation in the normalization of State administration throughout Angola, including in Andulo and Bailundo;
"6. Takes note that the measures specified in paragraph 4 of resolution 1127 (1997) come into force on 00.01 EST on 30 October 1997 in accordance with paragraph 2 of resolution 1130 (1997) of 29 September 1997, and reaffirms its readiness to review these measures or to consider the imposition of additional measures in accordance with paragraphs 8 and 9 of resolution 1127 (1997);
"7. Requests the Secretary-General, in lieu of the reports referred to in paragraph 8 of resolution 1127 (1997), to report by 8 December 1997, and every ninety days thereafter, on the compliance of UNITA with all the obligations set out in paragraph 5 above;
"8. Requests also Member States to provide to the Committee created pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) information on the measures they have adopted to implement the measures specified in paragraph 4 of resolution 1127 (1997) no later than 1 December 1997;
"9. Further requests the Committee created pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) to report to the Council by 15 December 1997 regarding the actions taken by Member States to implement the measures specified in paragraph 4 of resolution 1127 (1997);
"10. Reiterates its belief that a meeting in Angola between the President of the Republic of Angola and the leader of UNITA could facilitate the process of peace and national reconciliation;
"11. Urges the international community to provide assistance to facilitate the demobilization and social reintegration of ex-combatants, demining, the resettlement of displaced persons and the rehabilitation and reconstruction of the Angolan economy in order to consolidate the gains in the peace process;
"12. Expresses its appreciation to the Secretary-General, his Special Representative and the personnel of MONUA for assisting the parties in Angola to implement the peace process;
"13. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter."
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AFONSO VAN-DUNEM "MBINDA" (Angola) said that, during the past 30 days, Council members and the international community had waited with high expectations concerning UNITA's compliance with Security Council demands. In that time, UNITA had provided signs of neither cooperation nor good faith and political will. It had yet to fulfil three crucial obligations under the Lusaka Protocol, namely: the hand-over to the Government of all localities under its control; demilitarization of its remaining troops; and the end of its hostile anti-government propaganda. No substantial progress had been made in the demilitarization of UNITA's military wing. The UNITA still maintained approximately 35,000 heavily armed men, equipped with sophisticated artillery pieces and other war materiel. Unless those forces were completely disbanded, no peace would be achieved in Angola.
He said the process of normalization of State administration was being delayed due to the systematic obstacles raised by UNITA. Bailundu and Andolu remained under UNITA's control. Although steps had been taken towards the transformation of UNITA radio into a non-partisan station, very little progress had been made. The UNITA's anti-government propaganda continued unabated, with its main base in some foreign countries.
He said UNITA leadership had completely disregarded the Council's urging and blatantly violated its resolutions. All international appeals for UNITA to implement its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol had fallen on deaf ears. Instead, UNITA had systematically resorted to manoeuvres aimed at impressing the members of the Council and the international community, with a view to avoiding the imposition of sanctions.
The international community and the Council, in particular, should not be misled by an organization that so far had given no proof of abandoning its quest of taking power by force, he said. If the Council failed to use the means at its disposal to impede the realization of UNITA intentions, there would be a new outburst of violence in Angola, with serious consequences for peace and stability throughout the entire central and southern African region. The imposition of strong international restrictive measures against UNITA remained the only alternative to dissuade that organization's leadership from war and to embrace the path of peace and democracy.
Today, when a new deadline for UNITA to fulfil its obligations had come to an end, the international community could now conclude that UNITA had not taken the necessary steps to comply with all obligations set out in resolution 1127 (1997), he said. He expected no less than immediate application of the measures contained in paragraph 4 of resolution 1127 (1997) for the good of the people of Angola and to ensure the Council's moral authority.
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CELSO L.N. AMORIM (Brazil) said there had been no significant progress in the peace process in Angola during the past several months. He urged UNITA to relinquish all personnel and equipment in its possession to MONUA, in fulfilment of its commitments under the Lusaka Protocol. All parties involved should exercise restraint to ensure that the process was undertaken peacefully.
Sanctions must be regarded as an instrument of last resort, he said. Sanctions should not be seen as an end in themselves, but must be reserved for situations of extreme gravity. In the case of Angola, however, Brazil was convinced that the Security Council was on the correct path in voting for a resolution that would trigger sanctions that were specifically targeted against the reluctant party.
The international community must send the message that it would no longer tolerate the failure to abide by agreed commitment, he said. Next month would mark the third anniversary of the signing of the Lusaka Protocol. He hoped that the measures taken today would demonstrate that the only viable option in Angola was peace and reconciliation.
SERGEY V. LAVROV (Russian Federation) said the course of the peace process had been blocked during the past months by the political motives of the UNITA leadership, namely their reluctance to abide by the commitments set out in the peace agreement. The UNITA had not used the two goodwill pauses of the international community. Tonight, at midnight, sanctions would go into place. He hoped that the UNITA leadership would immediately abide by its agreement. He supported the three-month extension of the MONUA mandate and the postponing of the withdrawal of United Nations troops. The Russian Federation would vote in favour of the draft.
DAVID RICHMOND (United Kingdom) said the Council had postponed sanctions at the end of September because UNITA had promised to finish its remaining tasks in the Angolan peace process. At the time, UNITA had appeared to be making some welcome progress. Given the subsequent lack of progress, he could only conclude that those positive developments were concessions by UNITA to prevent the implementation of sanctions. During October, UNITA had continued to fail to meet its remaining obligations, despite being urged repeatedly to do so.
Once again, he said, as the Council considered the prospect of sanctions, UNITA was making welcome steps in the right direction. But that was not enough. The Council should not allow itself to be swayed again by last-minute gestures. Unfortunately, the time had come to apply the pressure on UNITA envisaged in resolution 1127 (1997). That was not to punish UNITA, but to encourage it to keep its promises. He hoped that UNITA would realize that delay did not pay and that it would quickly implement its remaining obligations in good faith. The Council was ready to lift those measures as soon as there was substantial action from UNITA, particularly on the extension
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of State administration, demilitarization and the transformation of radio Vorgan. He did not accept the claim that UNITA had no more troops to demobilize. The UNITA must declare all of its remaining troops, so that they could be demobilized.
He said the Government of Angola also had responsibilities. It must notify MONUA of its force movements and refrain from aggressive troop movements or other military acts. He also shared the Secretary-General's concern at Angola's intervention in Congo-Brazzaville. Angolan forces should be withdrawn immediately. If the peace process was to move forward, it was essential that greater trust be developed between the two sides. In that context, he welcomed the fact that a meeting would take place between President dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi in Angola in November.
He agreed that the continuing presence of MONUA military units in Angola could help to maintain stability, he said. He supported the Secretary- General's recommendations that the withdrawal of troops be further postponed and that the mandate of MONUA be extended to 31 January 1998. He would vote in favour of the draft resolution.
SOLIMAN AWAAD (Egypt) said the international community expected UNITA to implement its basic obligations under the peace agreement. He regretted that the Secretary-General's report indicated continued landing of aircraft in UNITA controlled territory and the resumption of mining. That behaviour on the part of UNITA, following the establishment of a Government of national unity, was not acceptable. It could also lead to the involvement of outside forces in Angola.
The international community must now bring pressure upon the UNITA leadership, he said. Egypt had in the past expressed the hope that UNITA would use the periods between relevant Security Council resolutions to fulfil its commitments. Yet, that had not happened. Despite its objection in principle to the application of sanctions, the situation in Angola warranted their application. He supported the recommendations of the Secretary-General on the extension of MONUA and the postponing of the withdrawal of the United Nations troops. Egypt would vote in favour of the resolution.
PARK SOO GIL (Republic of Korea) said his Government was concerned about the slow progress in the Angolan peace process, particularly the stalling of the demilitarization of UNITA and the slow pace of the extension of State administration. That included Mr. Savimbi's position that Andulo and Bailundo would be turned over to the Angolan Government only after his return to Luanda. More regrettable was that UNITA's cooperation had not been forthcoming after the postponement of sanctions late last month. Now that UNITA had not taken the steps necessary to comply fully with resolution 1127 (1997), it was incumbent upon the Council to show its resoluteness by allowing no further postponement of the sanctions.
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He said the measures set forth in resolution 1127 (1997) were not meant to punish UNITA, but to lead them to cooperation. He hoped that they would disarm and demobilize all personnel, give up their means of hostile propaganda and cooperate in the normalization of State administration without further delay. He stressed the importance of a meeting on Angolan territory between the President of Angola and the leader of UNITA.
He expressed concern about the tension created by the movement of Government troops, which negatively affected not only the Angolan peace process, but also peace and security in the region. He was especially concerned about the newly emerging pattern of cross-border intervention in the region, in clear violation of the principles of the Charter. He supported the statement by the President of the Council which called for the immediate withdrawal of foreign forces from the Republic of the Congo. He was also concerned about the acts of banditry in areas controlled by the Angolan Government and the restriction of free circulation of people and goods, in particular the restrictions imposed on the movement of MONUA and international personnel engaged in humanitarian activities. He urged the Angolan Government to take steps to address those serious problems and to extend full cooperation to the peace process.
He said continued international presence in Angola was needed and he supported the Secretary-General's proposal to extend the mandate of MONUA until the end of January 1998 and, postpone, accordingly, the reduction of its military component.
HENRIK SALANDER (Sweden) said decisions under Chapter VII of the Charter were necessary in serious circumstances. Unfortunately, that was once again the case in Angola. The measures that would come into effect today were specifically aimed at the UNITA leadership. They would not negatively affect the Angolan people. Exemptions were made for humanitarian purposes and the conditions for lifting the sanctions were clear. The draft resolution left no doubt about the Council's firm determination to help to bring lasting peace to Angola. The sanctions were not an end in themselves, but a means to convince the UNITA leadership that there is no alternative but to comply with the Lusaka Protocol.
He supported the decision to extend MONUA's mandate. Given the tense security situation in Angola, it remained important that the reduction of the military component of the mission be carried out taking into account developments on the ground, he said. The mission must be able to fulfil its mandate without harassment or obstructions.
He hoped that the next few months would also, however, show progress in the implementation of MONUA's crucial civilian mandate, not least in the human rights and political fields. He looked, in particular, to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to assist MONUA in strengthening the mission's human rights component and in the fulfilment of its human rights
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mandate. He agreed with the Secretary-General about the essential role of United Nations civilian police in the peace process, especially during the extension of State administration.
He said he would vote in favour of the draft resolution. He also urged both parties to ensure that all Angolan forces were immediately withdrawn from the Republic of the Congo, a necessary step in creating relations of mutual trust and confidence in the region, as well as in Angola itself. He urged the Government to notify MONUA of any troop movements, in accordance with the Lusaka Protocol.
HISASHI OWADA (Japan) said the measures that UNITA had taken or promised to take towards the end of September, belated and insufficient though they were, nevertheless had provided reason to hope that Angola would at last live up to its obligations in the peace process. However, it now appeared that the hope was misplaced. The UNITA had not responded to the goodwill of the international community, but had once again stalled. Now, the Council had no choice but to apply the sanctions. He attached great importance to ensuring that those sanctions were effective. The cooperation of neighbouring States was essential, in that regard.
While UNITA had been the focus of criticism, it should be noted that the Government of Angola was also called upon to meet its obligations and to cooperate with MONUA, he said. He joined others in urging both parties to agree on the date and venue of the long-awaited meeting in Angola between President dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi, as such a meeting could contribute greatly to the achievement of lasting stability. He called upon Angola to immediately withdraw all its troops from the Republic of the Congo.
The continued presence of MONUA in Angola was essential during the current critical stage, he continued. He supported the recommendation to extend the mandate of MONUA for three months and to postpone the withdrawal of United Nations military units until the end of November. Japan would vote in favour of the draft resolution now before the Council.
ANTONIO MONTEIRO (Portugal) said his Government supported the extension of the MONUA mandate and the postponement of the withdrawal of United Nations troops. The draft before the Council was designed to support the achievement of peace in Angola and he supported its adoption. The Council had given UNITA two grace periods during which it could have moved towards fulfilling its obligations. Unfortunately, UNITA had not taken concrete steps. So, the Security Council must act accordingly. The Council was clearly ready to review the matter in light of progress on the ground. It was equally ready to review increased measures.
MELVIN SAENZ-BIOLLEY (Costa Rica) said UNITA had not yet fully complied with its obligations, as spelled out by the Security Council. For that reason, the sanctions would enter into force, in order to urge movement
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towards peace. The sanctions were another example of the trend in the Council to impose sanctions on the elite or leaders of a country, so as not to negatively affect the people of that country. UNITA had no reason for maintaining an armed force or for holding territory. His Government trusted that the Angolan President and the UNITA leader would soon meet.
He was concerned about the reports of Angolan armed elements in the Republic of the Congo, he said. His Government urged all foreign forces, including mercenaries, to withdraw from the Republic of the Congo. He supported the draft now before the Council.
PHILIPPE THIEBAUD (France) said he supported the draft resolution. The current status of the peace process justified the Council following the recommendations of the Secretary-General concerning the extension of the mandate of MONUA and the postponement of the reduction of United Nations military units.
The measures set out in resolution 1127 (1997) should be applied without further delay, he said. The UNITA bore the main responsibility for the delay of the peace process. The UNITA must understand that its only chance for the future was participation in political life and the implementation of its obligations.
KIPKORIR ALY AZAD RANA (Kenya) said the Angolan peace process was at a very critical and sensitive state, where the utmost cooperation was required for the parties to meet their obligations and to make irreversible progress. The international community had made available resources and manpower to facilitate the peace process in Angola. It was, therefore, disheartening that the parties, and in particular UNITA, had not taken full advantage of those resources in order to successfully finalize the peace process.
He would vote in favour of the resolution. However, he had hoped that by now the Council would be talking of programmes and projects for the economic rehabilitation of Angola. The current situation was disappointing, considering that it could have been avoided altogether if the parties in Angola, and UNITA in particular, had fully and unconditionally complied with the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol.
He said he was equally disheartened by the fact that the two protagonists, President dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi, had not met, despite the numerous calls by the international community for them to do so. A meeting between those two leaders, even if symbolic, would have contributed to confidence-building, thereby moving the peace process forward. He was encouraged that the leaders were planning to meet early next month. He hoped that the meeting would lead to a quick resolution of the remaining issues in the peace process. In the meantime, he called upon the parties, in particular UNITA, to comply fully with their obligations under the Lusaka Protocol and resolution 1127 (1997) without further delay.
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ZBIGNIEW MARIA WLOSOWICZ (Poland) said that the international community could not do much in support of peace unless the parties themselves were committed to the peace process. He called upon UNITA to rethink its attitude. He was not happy that the sanctions would come into force tonight. Yet, Poland supported the sanctions due to the belief that they were the only way to force the parties to take the measures of the international community seriously. Also, believing that the parties would soon resume effective cooperation, he supported the extension of the MONUA mandate and the postponement of the withdrawal of United Nations troops.
MARIO LOPES DA ROSA (Guinea-Bissau) said the hopes for Angola had not been fulfilled. The Council, given the gravity of the situation in Angola, had taken past actions urging the parties to comply fully with their commitments. The Council, once again, had been called upon to address the situation in Angola. Numerous issues remained outstanding and UNITA had clearly not fulfilled its commitments. His Government supported the extension of the MONUA mandate and believed that a meeting between the Angolan President and the UNITA leader would be a positive development. Such a meeting could create a climate of confidence, which was indispensable for the peace process to succeed. He would vote in favour of the draft.
LIU JIEYI (China) said that no movement towards peace in Angola had been seen during the past two months. The aspirations of African countries for peace had become a historical tide. He hoped that Angola would now complete its peace process and begin its development. It was vital that the parties, particularly UNITA, fulfil their commitments. The UNITA should cooperate in such areas as disarmament and the development of State institutions. Without that cooperation, peace could not be achieved.
The draft before the Council should give effect to measures for further sanctions against Angola, he said. His Government had taken a cautious attitude towards sanctions, but, in support of peace in Angola, had supported the application of sanctions in that case. However, sanctions were not an end in themselves, but a means to assist peace. He hoped that UNITA would swiftly fulfil its commitments.
A. PETER BURLEIGH (United States) said the United States would express its commitment to the peace process in Angola by voting to approve an extension of the mandate of MONUA. As MONUA completed its important tasks, the United States would support the withdrawal of its formed military units. His Government was deeply disturbed by the ambush of MONUA personnel and several other people on 23 October. He expressed condolences to the families of those who had lost their lives and demanded that those responsible for the attack be brought to justice. The Angolan parties must ensure that such incidents did not recur.
He said that throughout October, the United States had actively pressed Mr. Savimbi to meet UNITA's obligations under the Lusaka Protocol. Last
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Saturday, Ambassador Bill Richardson had gone to Bailundo to advise Mr. Savimbi that sanctions would go into effect if UNITA did not comply with resolution 1127 (1997), but UNITA had not complied. The UNITA had even taken some backward steps, such as impeding the work of the administrators in areas recently transferred to Government control.
The United States believed the Council should penalize any party that failed to meet its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol, he said. He, therefore, supported the automatic entry into force of the sanctions specified in resolution 1127 (1997). His Government would vigorously enforce the new measures, as well as those measures imposed by resolution 864 (1993). He called on all Member States to do the same. He hoped that UNITA would see the imposition of those measures as a sign of the international community's determination that UNITA move rapidly to complete the remaining tasks in the peace process. If it did so, the United States stood ready to reconsider the need for sanctions.
There was, however, a message in the resolution for the Government of Angola, as well. It called on the Government to demonstrate restraint as it implemented the final steps in the peace process. The peace process would be served by a meeting between President dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi within the territory of Angola.
He went on to say that the United States and other members of the Council were gravely concerned by the Government of Angola's military intervention in the Republic of the Congo, which resulted in the overthrow of a democratically elected president. That intervention was a violation of the charters of the United Nations and the Organization of African Unity. He understood Angola's legitimate security concerns in Cabinda, and its frustration over assistance provided by the Republic of the Congo to UNITA in contravention of existing United Nations sanctions. But, military intervention was not an acceptable response. We condemned that intervention and demanded that the Government of Angola immediately withdraw its forces. The Foreign Minister of Angola had made a public commitment to do so by 15 November. He expected that commitment to be honoured. He also demanded that mercenaries and other armed groups, including UNITA, withdraw immediately.
President of the Council, JUAN SOMAVIA (Chile), speaking as a representative of his country, said he agreed with the Secretary-General's recommendation to postpone the withdrawal of the United Nations military units and the extension of the mandate of MONUA. He deplored the presence of armed Angolans in the Republic of the Congo. Tomorrow was the date of the entry into force of measures set out in resolution 1127 (1997). He regretted that that action was necessary.
With the recent group of resolutions -- 1127 (1997), 1130 (1997) and today's draft resolution, as well as those related to Sierra Leone and
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Burundi -- the Council was taking a new and positive direction with regard to the application of sanctions, he said. The sanctions were aimed at the leaders who bore responsibility for the situation of conflict and crisis. The leadership of UNITA knew, however, that the Council was ready to review those measures as soon as it complied with its obligations. He called on the leadership of the Government of Angola, and UNITA in particular, to complete without delay the remaining talks of the peace process.
The Council then unanimously adopted the draft resolution as resolution 1135 (1997).
Following adoption of the resolution, the President read the following statement on behalf of the Council:
The Security Council expresses its grave concern regarding the presence of Angolan armed elements in the Republic of the Congo, as reported by the Secretariat.
The Security Council reaffirms the statement of its President of 16 October 1997 (document S/PRST/1997/147). It condemns all external interference in the Republic of the Congo, calls on all foreign forces, including mercenaries, to withdraw immediately from that country, and stresses the importance of a political settlement, national reconciliation and transitional arrangements leading to the holding of democratic and free and fair elections with the participation of all parties as soon as possible.
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