SECURITY COUNCIL SAYS UNITA, ENDANGERING ANGOLA PEACE PROCESS, MUST LIVE UP TO TERMS OF AGREEMENTS REACHED19970828 Resolution 1127 Lists Comprehensive Measures To Be Taken Unless Compliance with Lusaka Protocol Is Confirmed by 30 September
Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Security Council this afternoon decided that all States should take necessary measures to restrict the travel of senior officials of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) and adult members of their families and to seal UNITA offices, with effect from 30 September, unless the Council is informed by the Secretary-General that UNITA had taken concrete and irreversible steps to comply with its demands.
By resolution 1127 (1997), adopted unanimously by the Council, the restrictions would have States prevent the entry into or transit through their territories of UNITA leaders and adult members of their immediate families, and suspend or cancel all of their travel documents, visas or residence permits.
They would also prohibit the flight of aircraft by or for UNITA, the supply of aircraft or their components to UNITA, and the insurance, engineering and servicing of UNITA aircraft. States would be required to deny permission to any aircraft to take off from, land in, or overfly their territories, if the aircraft has taken off from or intended to land at a place not included in a list to be supplied by the Angolan Government to the monitoring committee established by resolution 864 (1993) of 15 September 1993.
By today's resolution, States would also prohibit the supply of aircraft or their components to the territory of Angola except through points of entry agreed by the Government. Also prohibited would be the provision of engineering, maintenance, airworthiness certification and insurance for Angola-registered aircraft unless listed by the Angolan Government.
Those measures would be imposed, according to the resolution, if UNITA does not comply with the Council's demands that it immediately implement its obligations under the 1994 Lusaka Protocol. Required actions include the demilitarization of all of its forces, the transformation of the radio station Vorgan into a non-partisan broadcasting facility and full cooperation in the normalization of State administration throughout Angola.
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Condemning any UNITA attempts to restore its military capabilities, the Council also demanded that UNITA immediately give the Joint Commission complete information on the strength of all its armed personnel so that they could be verified, disarmed and demobilized.
The Council asked the Secretary-General to report by 20 October, and every subsequent 90 days, on UNITA's compliance with its demands and expressed its readiness both to review the measures in the resolution or to consider additional ones. New steps could include trade and financial restrictions, if UNITA does not comply fully with its Lusaka Protocol obligations and with all relevant resolutions.
All States, international and regional organizations were urged to stop travel by their officials and delegations to UNITA's central headquarters, except to promote the peace process and humanitarian assistance. They were also called on to act strictly according to today's resolution and to comply in a similar manner with the measures imposed by resolution 864 (1993).
In a section of the resolution devoted to the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA), the Council endorsed the Secretary-General's recommendation to postpone the withdrawal of the United Nations military units from Angola until the end of October, with the understanding that the plan is for the drawdown to be completed in November.
Statements were made by the representatives of Angola; Malawi; Brazil; Argentina; Luxembourg, on behalf of the European Union and associated States; Lesotho; Mozambique; Zimbabwe; Canada; South Africa; Guinea, as President of the African Group of States; Russian Federation; Japan; Sweden; Poland; Republic of Korea; Kenya; Guinea-Bissau; China; Egypt; Costa Rica; Chile; Portugal; United States; France; and the United Kingdom.
The Council meeting, begun at 10:45 a.m., was adjourned at 1:32 p.m.
Council Work Programme
The Security met this morning to consider the situation in Angola. It had before it a report from the Secretary-General on developments related to the United Nations Observer Mission In Angola (MONUA) (document S/1997/640), relaying his intention to postpone the withdrawal of United Nations military units from Angola and to retain up to 2,650 military personnel until the end of October. He took the decision because of the precarious situation in Angola, the incomplete implementation of the 1994 Lusaka Protocol, the need to give the Angolan parties an additional chance to complete the peace process, as well as the need to ensure the security of United Nations and other international personnel in Angola. In reaching the decision, the Secretary- General also considered the Angolan Government's request for the retention of a sizeable United Nations presence until the process of demobilizing combatants is completed.
In a report covering the political, military, police, human rights, humanitarian and socio-economic aspects of MONUA's mission, the Secretary- General observes that the Angolan peace process is going through some of its most serious difficulties since the signing of the Lusaka Protocol, with the progress of the last two-and-a-half years being severely undermined by persisting tensions in the country. He urges both the Angolan Government and the União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA) to refrain from actions that might lead to renewed fighting. He states that current situation is the result of delays by UNITA in implementing its Lusaka Protocol obligations. "The complete demilitarization of UNITA, the restoration of State administration throughout the country, the transformation of radio Vorgan into a non-partisan station and the true transformation of UNITA into a political party are imperatives for the implementation of the peace process", the Secretary-General writes. While the international community expects a credible and unconditional implementation by UNITA of its obligations, "last- minute half-hearted concessions by UNITA, under pressure and on the eve of Security Council deliberations, are no longer acceptable", he adds.
The Secretary-General encourages the Angolan parties to convene a meeting between President Jose Eduardo dos Santos and UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi, to help improve the political climate and facilitate the successful completion of the peace process.
Providing further information on political developments since his last report to the Council in June, the Secretary-General states that no significant progress has been made in normalizing State administration throughout Angola due to lack of cooperation by UNITA. Normalization is crucial not only for Angola's territorial integrity, but also for its economic and social reconstruction. With delays in normalization impeding the flow of goods and a return to normal life, 64 per cent of the population lives below the poverty line, with 21 per cent in extreme poverty.
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Further, he continues, the transformation of UNITA's radio Vorgan into a non-partisan station has not made progress. Rather, after some reduction in hostile propaganda, there has recently been an increase in such broadcasts, particularly by UNITA. Accusations, unfounded rumours and inflammatory public pronouncements have further aggravated the political atmosphere. Some radio Vorgan propaganda broadcasts were aimed at United Nations staff and other international personnel in Angola. Those working for MONUA and non-governmental organizations have been physically attacked, despite statements by Mr. Savimbi and other UNITA political organs that such actions would stop. Restrictions on the movement of MONUA observers in several strategic areas by both sides have prevented the Mission from fully carrying out its tasks.
Angola's military situation, the Secretary-General states, is characterized by tension in almost the entire country, particularly in the provinces of Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul and Malange. The mobilization of troops and military equipment and an increase in hostile propaganda was reported. Large-scale, last-minute changes in the destination of demobilized ex-UNITA troops and their deployment at strategic UNITA-controlled locations underline the gravity of the deteriorating situation in Angola.
On 10 July, the Secretary-General reports, however, the Government marked the completion of the formation of the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA), which incorporates about 10,899 UNITA troops out of an originally planned figure of 26,300 UNITA personnel.
The Council had before it the following draft resolution, as orally amended at the outset of the meeting. It is sponsored by Portugal, Russian Federation and the United States.
"The Security Council,
"Reaffirming its resolution 696 (1991) of 30 May 1991 and all subsequent resolutions,
"Recalling the statement of its President of 23 July 1997 (S/PRST/1997/39) which expressed its readiness to consider the imposition of measures on the Uniao Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA), inter alia, those specifically mentioned in paragraph 26 of resolution 864 (1993),
"Emphasizing the urgent need for the Government of Angola and in particular UNITA to complete without further delay the implementation of their obligations under the "Acordos de Paz" (S/22609, annex), the Lusaka Protocol (S/1994/1441, annex) and the relevant Security Council resolutions,
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"Expressing its grave concern at the serious difficulties in the peace process, which are mainly the result of delays by UNITA in the implementation of its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol,
"Expressing its firm commitment to preserve the unity, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Angola,
"Having considered the report of the Secretary-General of 13 August 1997 (S/1997/640),
"Strongly deploring the failure by UNITA to comply with its obligations under the "Acordos de Paz" (S/22609, annex), the Lusaka Protocol and with relevant Security Council resolutions, in particular resolution 1118 (1997),
A "1. Demands that the Government of Angola and in particular UNITA complete fully and without further delay the remaining aspects of the peace process and refrain from any action which might lead to renewed hostilities;
"2. Demands also that UNITA implement immediately its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol, including demilitarization of all its forces, transformation of its radio station Vorgan into a non-partisan broadcasting facility and full cooperation in the process of the normalization of State administration throughout Angola;
"3. Demands further that UNITA provide immediately to the Joint Commission, as established under the Lusaka Protocol, accurate and complete information with regard to the strength of all armed personnel under its control, including the security detachment of the Leader of UNITA, the so- called "mining police", armed UNITA personnel returning from outside the national boundaries, and any other armed UNITA personnel, not previously reported to the United Nations, in order for them to be verified, disarmed and demobilized in accordance with the Lusaka Protocol and agreements between the parties in the context of the Joint Commission, and condemns any attempts by UNITA to restore its military capabilities;
"Determining that the resulting situation in Angola constitutes a threat to international peace and security in the region,
"Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
"4. Decides that all States shall take the necessary measures:
"(a) To prevent the entry into or transit through their territories of all senior officials of UNITA and of adult members of their immediate families, as
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designated in accordance with paragraph 11 (a) below, except those officials necessary for the full functioning of the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation, the National Assembly, or the Joint Commission, provided that nothing in this paragraph shall oblige a State to refuse entry into its territory to its own nationals;
"(b) To suspend or cancel all travel documents, visas or residence permits issued to senior UNITA officials and adult members of their immediate families, as designated in accordance with paragraph 11 (a) below, with the exceptions referred to in subparagraph (a) above;
"(c) To require the immediate and complete closure of all UNITA offices in their territories;
"(d) With a view to prohibiting flights of aircraft by or for UNITA, the supply of any aircraft or aircraft components to UNITA and the insurance, engineering and servicing of UNITA aircraft,
"(i) to deny permission to any aircraft to take off from, land in, or overfly their territories if it has taken off from or is destined to land at a place in the territory of Angola other than one on a list supplied by the Government of Angola to the Committee created pursuant to resolution 864 (1993), which shall notify Member States;
"(ii) to prohibit, by their nationals or from their territories or using their flag vessels or aircraft, the supply of or making available in any form, any aircraft or aircraft components to the territory of Angola other than through named points of entry on a list to be supplied by the Government of Angola to the Committee created pursuant to resolution 864 (1993), which shall notify Member States;
"(iii)to prohibit, by their nationals or from their territories, the provision of engineering and maintenance servicing, the certification of airworthiness, the payment of new claims against existing insurance contracts, or the provision or renewal of direct insurance with respect to any aircraft registered in Angola other than those on a list to be provided by the Government of Angola to the Committee created pursuant to resolution 864 (1993), which shall notify Member States, or with respect to any aircraft which entered the territory of Angola other than through a point of entry included in the list referred to in subparagraph (d) (i) above;
"5. Further decides that the measures set out in paragraph 4 above shall not apply to cases of medical emergency or to flights of aircraft
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carrying food, medicine, or supplies for essential humanitarian needs, as approved in advance by the Committee created pursuant to resolution 864 (1993);
"6. Urges all States and international and regional organizations to stop travel by their officials and official delegations to the central headquarters of UNITA, except for the purposes of travel to promote the peace process and humanitarian assistance;
"7. Decides also that the provisions of paragraph 4 above shall come into force without any further notice at 00.01 EST on 30 September 1997, unless the Security Council decides, on the basis of a report by the Secretary-General, that UNITA has taken concrete and irreversible steps to comply with all the obligations set out in paragraphs 2 and 3 above;
"8. Requests the Secretary-General to submit by 20 October 1997, and every ninety days thereafter, a report on the compliance of UNITA with all the obligations set out in paragraphs 2 and 3 above, and expresses its readiness to review the measures set out in paragraph 4 above if the Secretary-General reports at any time that UNITA has fully complied with these obligations;
"9. Expresses its readiness to consider the imposition of additional measures, such as trade and financial restrictions, if UNITA does not fully comply with its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol and all relevant Security Council resolutions;
"10. Calls upon all States and all international and regional organizations to act strictly in accordance with the provisions of this resolution notwithstanding the existence of any rights or obligations conferred or imposed by any international agreement or any contract entered into or any licence or permit granted prior to the date of adoption of this resolution, and also calls upon all States to comply strictly with the measures imposed in paragraphs 19, 20, and 21 of resolution 864 (1993);
"11. Requests the Committee created pursuant to resolution 864 (1993):
"(a) To draw up guidelines expeditiously for the implementation of paragraph 4 of this resolution, including the designation of officials and of adult members of their immediate families whose entry or transit is to be prevented and whose travel documents, visas or residence permits are to be suspended or cancelled in accordance with paragraphs 4 (a) and 4 (b) above,
"(b) To give favourable consideration to, and decide upon, requests for the exceptions set out in paragraph 5 above,
"(c) To report to the Council by 15 November 1997 regarding the actions taken by States to implement the measures set out in paragraph 4 above;
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"12. Requests Member States having information on flights prohibited in paragraph 4 (d) above to provide this information to the Committee created pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) for distribution to Member States;
"13. Requests also Member States to provide to the Committee created pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) information on the measures they have adopted to implement the provisions of paragraph 4 above no later than 1 November 1997;
"14. Demands that the Government of Angola and, in particular, UNITA cooperate fully with the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA), stop restricting the verification activities of MONUA, refrain from laying new mines, and ensure the freedom of movement and especially the safety of MONUA and other international personnel;
"15. Reiterates its call upon the Government of Angola to notify MONUA of any troop movements, in accordance with the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol;
"16. Endorses the recommendation of the Secretary-General in his report of 13 August 1997 to postpone the withdrawal of the United Nations military units from Angola until the end of October 1997, with the understanding that the plan is for the drawdown to be completed in November 1997, taking into account the situation on the ground and progress in completing the remaining relevant aspects of the peace process, and requests the Secretary-General to report thereon no later than 20 October 1997, including on the schedule for the resumed withdrawal of military personnel;
"17. Reiterates its belief that the long-awaited meeting within the territory of Angola between the President of Angola and the Leader of UNITA could greatly contribute to the reduction of tensions, to the process of national reconciliation and to the achievement of the goals of the peace process as a whole;
"18. Expresses its appreciation to the Secretary-General, his Special Representative, and the personnel of MONUA for assisting the parties in Angola to implement the peace process;
"19. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter."
AFONSO VAN-DUNEM "MBINDA" (Angola) said the framework envisioned under the peace accords had still not been fully established, there were still two armies -- one, the Angolan armed forces, under the Government of National Unity and Reconciliation; the other, at the service of a political party, the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), that insisted on preserving its military wing.
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A few months ago, the inauguration of the Government of National Unity and Reconciliation and the return to the Parliament of UNITA deputies rekindled hope regarding the quick and successful conclusion of the peace process and the final end of war in Angola. Regrettably, those expectations had been thwarted, because of UNITA's unilateral suspension of the implementation of its obligations, systematic violations of the accords, and its increasing military build-up throughout the country. The range of the UNITA military preparations led his Government to believe that the return to war was imminent.
UNITA's main military units, which were never disarmed or reported to the United Nations, were undergoing training and being re-equipped. Thousands of demobilized soldiers had been recruited by UNITA, which was also coercing many civilians into its military ranks. The UNITA had an army of 35,000 deployed throughout the country, and its occupation of territory that should have been unconditionally handed over to the Government's administration enabled UNITA to preserve its military structures, and to exploit and smuggle out the natural resources.
He said UNITA's radio was relentlessly engaged in hostile propaganda against the Government, inciting hatred and intolerance. The Council and the international community could not allow UNITA to sacrifice an entire people and hold hostage country's future. UNITA's posture was totally incompatible with its participation in the Government and in the Parliament, he said. The UNITA leadership was not interested in the implementation of the peace accords, and was merely waiting for a pretext to launch a new war, and thus force the renegotiation of the peace accords. UNITA's many repeated displays of bad faith, delaying and diversionary manoeuvres, and protestations of commitment to its obligations only when the Council was about to go into session revealed a lack of seriousness and political will.
He said the Angola Peace Accords and the Lusaka Protocol remained the only valid, legal basis for the settlement of the conflict. His Government would not accept any compromises or deviations that sought to go outside the bounds of that framework. UNITA's leaders had to be persuaded that rejection of war and full compliance with the Lusaka Protocol was the only way to a genuine national reconciliation, and the consolidation of democracy in Angola. If UNITA was to play an important role in the Angolan political scene, it must complete its demilitarization and its transformation into a full-pledged political party. Angola was facing serious and dangerous threats to its peace process that might jeopardize all progress to date and bring about the collapse of all the United Nations peace-keeping operations, he said.
He trusted the Council would not countenance any more obstacles to the peace process and convey a strong signal to UNITA's leadership that the international community would not tolerate any more stonewalling nor allow the peace process to be derailed.
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The Council's past experience with the Angolan conflict had demonstrated that only the use of pressure, including the enforcement of restrictive measures, could dissuade UNITA's leaders from their warmongering and compel them to take the path of peace and democracy, he said. It was time to apply the second package of sanctions, as provided for in resolution 864/93. The Angolan Government fully supported the measures in the draft resolution, which was an effective instrument that would help prevent war and speed up the peace. The approval of those sanctions would underscore, in a fair manner, the distinction between those who complied with the Lusaka Protocol and those who would rather treat them as dead letter. The Government had complied with its obligations, acting in good faith and with great flexibility; other obligations could not be honoured because of UNITA's lack of cooperation.
The UNITA must show the international community, through practical, credible and reliable deeds, that it had demilitarized, that it no longer claimed and controlled any portion of the country's territory, that its radio broadcasting system was complying with Angola's laws, and that it had truly become a genuine political party. Otherwise, the Council would have no alternative than to resort to further measures. Such steps would also help bring about meaningful and productive meeting between President Jose Eduardo dos Santos and UNITA's leader within Angola.
DAVID RUBADIRI (Malawi) condemned what he called UNITA's cowardly acts that threatened the peace process, and expressed regret at the party's intransigence. The slow progress in the implementation of already-agreed measures was a sign of bad faith. There should be a meeting between the President of Angola and the leader of UNITA, the transformation of radio Vorgan should be accelerated and State administration normalized throughout the country. The Security Council should send a clear message to UNITA and all enemies of peace in Angola. He expressed support for the recommendations of the Secretary-General and for all measures the Council had taken, including those of resolution 864 (1993). Angola was a "jewel" in the region of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and lasting peace there would enable the region to realize its dreams for peace and development. He expressed hope that the message of the Council would have the desired effects: peace and prosperity.
HENRIQUE R. VALLE (Brazil) said he felt that sanctions must not be an end in themselves. They were a serious expedient to be reserved for extremely grave situations. The imposition of sanctions could lead to deleterious effects on innocent populations and neighbouring countries, and the utmost restraint must be exercised in contemplating such action under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter. While sanctions should be the last resort of the international community, the situation in Angola was a situation in which they could be used. The framework of the Lusaka Protocol was being eroded by UNITA and, as the party thwarting the major steps towards the establishment of peace, UNITA and its leader must be held accountable.
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The draft resolution before the Council, he said, would not have been necessary had the Lusaka Protocol been duly observed. The resolution would not come into force if UNITA showed a truly unequivocal disposition to honour its commitments to the people of Angola and the international community. If the measures in the text became effective, UNITA would have no one to blame but itself.
FERNANDO ENRIQUE PETRELLA (Argentina) said much more progress should be made in the process towards peace in Angola in order to move it out of its current stagnation. The international community should urge the two parties to take measures to ensure that their peace process made progress and to avoid actions that would lead to a resumption of fighting. The UNITA should take measures to ensure that sanctions would not need to be imposed on it. The President of Angola and the UNITA leader must take actions to speed up their peace process.
SYVIE LUCAS (Luxembourg), speaking for the European Union, and also for Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Cyprus and Norway, urged the Angolan Government and, in particular, UNITA, to improve the situation and refrain from the use of force. She said that more than six weeks after the adoption of resolution 1118 (1997), UNITA had still not complied with the demands of the international community. The European Union strongly appealed to the party to take advantage of the grace period before the imposition of measures to supply, in full, the requisite information on its military personnel, to demobilize all forces and to meet other demands of the Council.
The Union, she said, endorsed the Secretary-General's proposal to postpone the withdrawal of United Nations military units in Angola, and to keep up to 2,650 troops there. A meeting between Angola's president and the UNITA leader would significantly improve the political atmosphere and advance national reconciliation. The Union had, in the last few years, provided substantial resources to help the Angolan people achieve lasting peace and economic recovery. But the future of the peace process depended basically on the Angolan Government and UNITA, which must refrain from actions that could lead to the resumption of fighting. The UNITA should honour the basic obligations of the Lusaka Protocol.
PERCY MANGOAELA (Lesotho) said it was clear the Angolan peace process was being derailed and would be doomed if decisive action was not taken. The peace hopes had been shattered by UNITA's failure to fully comply with the Council's resolutions and its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol. He expressed particular concern that tensions in northern Angola were rapidly spread to central and southern provinces, thus posing a serious threat to the peace process. The situation had become more disturbing because of UNITA's constant failure to submit information on the strength and location of its security detachments and so-called "mining police", and its failure to ensure
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the safety and security of United Nations personnel and staff of non- governmental organizations. The international community had become increasingly impatient with UNITA's intransigence and unwillingness to meet its obligations. Key outstanding issues included the normalization of State administration throughout the country, the transformation of radio Vorgan into a non-partisan station, and the total transformation of UNITA into a political party.
The international community and the Security Council must demonstrate their determination and commitment to the Angolan peace process by sending a firm and unequivocal message to UNITA to fully and urgently comply with its commitments and Council resolutions, he said. There must be decisive action to ensure UNITA stopped its delaying tactics and cooperated fully with MONUA. Freedom of movement and safety of MONUA and other international personnel must be ensured, and UNITA must stop laying mines and restricting MONUA's verification activities. The draft resolution made it clear further and more drastic action would be taken, if necessary, to bring peace to Angola. His Government was willing to support the imposition of additional measures if UNITA continued with its intransigence. More importantly, the draft was directed to Member States to adopt necessary measures to restrict UNITA's personnel movements. Those measures could not succeed without cooperation by States. He urged all Member States to implement those measures and to redouble their efforts to comply with earlier measures imposed by the Council.
CARLOS DOS SANTOS (Mozambique) said it was with grave concern and disappointment that he noted the lack of substantive progress in the Angolan peace process since the last Council meeting on the subject, notwithstanding the significant steps already taken. The persistent military tension affecting almost the entire country had dangerous implications on stability and normalization in Angola. The peace process was facing setbacks because of the persistent procrastination by UNITA on the implementation of important aspects of the Lusaka Protocol.
Military tension was increasing. The normalization of State administration throughout the country was facing serious problems because of lack of cooperation by UNITA. The transformation of radio Vorgan into a non-partisan station had not progressed, despite the repeated promises by UNITA to find a mutually acceptable solution. He appealed to UNITA and the Angolan Government to refrain from any action which might lead to renewed fighting. He also appealed to UNITA to fulfil its obligation in the implementation of important aspects of the Lusaka Protocol, such as demilitarization, complete demobilization of remaining UNITA forces, cooperation with the Government in the restoration of State administration throughout the country, transformation of radio Vorgan into a non-partisan station, and true transformation of UNITA into a political party.
MACHIVENYIKA T. MAPURANGA (Zimbabwe) said the peace process was in mortal danger of collapse, and the renewal of civil war could not altogether
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be discounted. His Government joined the international community in demanding that UNITA implement immediately all its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol, including the dismantling of its armed forces and the so-called mining police and their integration into the national army, the transformation of Radio Vorgan into a non-partisan broadcasting facility and full cooperation with the process of normalizing State administration throughout Angola.
The peace process in Angola had generally proceeded in "fits and starts", too often because of UNITA's inertia, as well as last-minute and minimalist moves which came only in response to international threats of harsher measures, he said. His Government fully supported the Council's decision to implement further punitive and cohesive measures against UNITA. It was displeased with UNITA's performance and wished to demonstrate and reaffirm its commitment to ensuring that the Angolan peace process and the country's destiny were not further jeopardized by narrow selfish interests.
DAVID KARSGAARD (Canada) said the agreement, on 18 August, by the Central Inter-Sectoral Group of plans for the normalization of State administration was welcome evidence that progress was still possible. So, too, was the report by MONUA of a reduction in hate broadcasts by UNITA's radio Vorgan. But further measures were required from UNITA, including measures regarding the declaration, disarmament and demobilization of its fighters. He endorsed the Council's insistence that UNITA immediately implement its obligations in the draft resolution before the Council, and said he would support a decision by the Council to impose the sanctions specified in it, if UNITA were to fail to take the actions called for in the draft text.
Canada, he said, had been pleased to work with Angolans to address one of the worst anti-personnel mine situation in the world by providing financial support for mine-awareness and mine-clearance. He expressed concern about reports that new mines were being planted in some parts of the country, something that would be a setback for Angola which already had the highest number of amputees in the world. It would be a setback for global efforts to reverse the scourge of anti-personnel mines.
KHIPHUSIZI J. JELE (South Africa) said peace in Angola was a priority concern for the member States of the SADC, as it would contribute to the extension of the frontier of stability to the entire subregion. The mobilization of UNITA military resources, the drive for conscription and an increase in the hostile propaganda were activities that underlined the gravity of the situation. Given the tense atmosphere, it was not surprising that military attacks had taken place between elements of the Angolan armed forces and UNITA. Those clashes showed the urgent need to expedite the demobilization of both UNITA commanders and officers of the Angolan police.
Since UNITA was widely held responsible for the civil war in Angola, he said, the Council should exert maximum pressure on it to deliver on its
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obligations. It should not be allowed to continue violating the Lusaka Protocol with impunity. Therefore, the time had come for the Council to act decisively to ensure that UNITA fulfilled its commitments. Attempts at appeasing the Council with piecemeal concessions could no longer be tolerated. South Africa supported the draft resolution before the Council and the postponement of the withdrawal of United Nations military units from Angola.
MAHAWA BANGOURA CAMARA (Guinea), President of the Group of African States in the United Nations, expressed concern that UNITA had recruited some more troops and created about nine military camps. The Council should no longer wait for UNITA to implement its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol or relevant Council resolutions. The time had come for UNITA to acknowledge the full authority of the Council, which should ensure that the peace process was not threatened. If that happened, it should impose comprehensive sanctions on UNITA, as appropriate, to safeguard the fragile peace process in Angola.
YURIY V. FEDOTOV (Russian Federation) said that, unfortunately, the hopes and aspirations of the Angolan people for peace had not been fulfilled. Indeed, there was a danger that the peace process might be reversed. In light of the developing situation, the international community should demand that the Angolan Government and, particularly, UNITA should refrain from action which would threaten the peace process.
As a result of UNITA's actions, there had been a complete paralysis in implementation of the Lusaka Protocol, he said. Radio Vorgan's propaganda activities had a negative impact. Such developments showed a lack of political will by Mr. Savimbi towards the peace process and the transformation of his organization into a full political party.
He said UNITA had virtually challenged the United Nations and the Council. The international community, therefore, had no alternative but to adopt the measures outlined in the draft resolution. The set of measures it envisaged was precisely targeted and included provision for them to be lifted or increased, as necessary. Those tough but necessary measures would send a clear signal that the international community's patience was at an end and that it would no longer acquiesce in the thwarting of the peace process.
MASAKI KONISHI (Japan) said the draft resolution made it clear that UNITA must bear the main responsibility for the current impasse. Despite repeated urgings by the Council, UNITA had consistently failed to fulfil its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol. Therefore, the Council must now go beyond merely applying verbal pressure on UNITA and take decisions on the concrete measures provided for in the draft. The UNITA could still avoid the imposition of those measures if it immediately took real steps to meet its obligations. Indeed, that was what the international community wished to see, demanded in the strongest terms that UNITA do. Japan attached great importance
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to the effectiveness of those measures, for which cooperation from the neighbouring States was fundamental. The UNITA should bear in mind the Council's readiness to consider further measures in the event that UNITA persisted in refusing to meet its obligations.
While it was mainly UNITA which had reneged on its commitments concerning the peace process, the Angolan Government must also meet all its obligations and cooperate fully with MONUA, he said. Both parties must ensure the freedom of movement and safety of MONUA personnel, stop obstructing the Mission's verification activities, and refrain from any use of force which could obstruct full implementation of the peace process. The long-awaited meeting between President dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi on Angolan territory could also greatly help to remove major obstacles to lasting stability. He urged both parties to engage in serious talks to find a mutually acceptable way of holding such a meeting.
ANDERS LIDEN (Sweden) said the Angolan peace process was at serious risk and no efforts should be spared to bring it back on track. The mechanisms for achieving a lasting peace in Angola had been clearly defined in the Lusaka Protocol. He urged both parties to fulfil all their obligations under that Protocol and, once and for all, commit themselves to reconciliation and peace.
He said UNITA was delaying the peace process. It had not taken the necessary irreversible steps to meet its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol. It was time for the Council to take a decision that would send an unambiguous message to Mr. Savimbi that the international community would no longer tolerate his obstructions.
The draft resolution told UNITA exactly what to do to avoid sanctions. The measures were aimed at the UNITA leadership and would not affect ordinary Angolans as necessary exceptions were made for humanitarian purposes. The possibilities for dialogue and continuation of the peace process would not be hampered. His Government would vote in favour of the draft.
Angola needed national reconciliation he said. It could be realized only through negotiations and dialogue conducted in good faith. Any attempts to seek victory by force were short-sighted and would only extend the suffering of the Angolan people. President dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi should show their continued commitment to the peace process by meeting in person as soon as possible. Such a meeting could provide important and necessary impetus to the peace process.
He said the situation in Angola was putting the personnel of the United Nations and other international organizations at risk. He urged both parties, particularly UNITA, to cooperate fully with MONUA and to guarantee the free movement and safety of the personnel of the United Nations and other international organizations.
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ZBIGNIEW WLOSOWICZ (Poland) said that, while working on the draft resolution, Council members had examined the sanctions regime they were about to impose on UNITA. They had been satisfied that the humanitarian aspect of the sanctions had been considered duly. The fact that Council members had accepted the text showed their determination to save the Angolan peace process. With 33 days before the resolution was implemented, there was time for the sanctions to be avoided. He expressed hope that UNITA's leaders would consider the resolution seriously and cooperate effectively.
PARK SOO GIL (Republic of Korea) said that, despite numerous warnings by the Council, UNITA had not fulfilled its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol. The international community had to intervene with resoluteness to salvage the Angolan peace process. Therefore, his delegation supported the draft text which would impose sanctions on UNITA, if it failed to meet its obligations.
However, he went on, UNITA could stop the clock of sanctions from ticking against it by disarming and demobilizing its military personnel, giving up its means of hostile propaganda and cooperating in the normalization of State administration before the end of next month. Today's decision did not mean a diminution of the international community's commitment to the Angolan peace process. The MONUA and the Secretary-General's Special Representative would continue helping the parties implement the peace process and in national reconstruction. His Government was contributing $250,000 to help demobilize combatants.
NJUGUNA M. MAHUGU (Kenya) said that, in voting for the draft resolution, Kenya wished to state its disappointment with the current situation in Angola. Since the international community was running out of patience, it was time to take measures against UNITA for delaying the implementation of its obligations in the peace process. The UNITA should consider the international community's concern and abide by the Lusaka Protocol in order to prevent the imposition of the measures contained in the draft resolution.
MARIO LOPES DA ROSA (Guinea-Bissau) said his country had close historical ties with Angola and was particularly concerned with threats to the peace process in that country. The parties involved, particularly UNITA, must abide by the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol. The Secretary-General's report showed that the peace process was encountering serious difficulties. Recent events had resulted in cynicism about the peace process. He urged UNITA to abide by all its commitments made under the Lusaka Protocol. His Government was particularly concerned about threats to MONUA's operations, and he called on the parties, particularly UNITA, to restrain from such actions and cooperate with MONUA. Recent threats to the Mission were intolerable. Any delay in the full implementation of the Lusaka Protocol would threaten the peace process, which depended on the goodwill of all the Angolan people.
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A great deal of money had been spent on ensuring that the peace process continued in Angola, he said. That process would be effective only if the international community raised sufficient funds for the gigantic task of national reconstruction. The civil war had had devastating impact on the country. He appealed to the international monetary organizations and the donor community to stand by their commitments made at the round table in Brussels in 1995. It was hoped President dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi would meet soon in Angola to foster a climate of trust, which was so vital for the country's future peace prospects. His Government hoped the provisions of the draft resolution would help speed up the peace process.
WANG XUEXIAN (China) said it was necessary for the Council to take further action against UNITA, in conformity with the will of the Angolan people, to ensure smooth progress and the completion of the peace process. Even though China had always taken a prudent approach to the matter of sanctions, it saw the situation in Angola as a special case. It would, therefore, vote for the measures in the draft text to help an early realization of peace in Angola. He expressed hope that UNITA would consider the situation, change its course of action, renounce separatist rule and complete the demobilization of its forces at an early date, in order to avoid the implementation of the measures contained in the draft resolution.
NABIL ELARABY (Egypt) said the laying of mines and the landing of aircraft in areas under UNITA control was a practice that implied that the party was trying to act like State within a State. Members of the international community should bring pressure to bear on UNITA to fulfil its obligations. While supporting the general trend of the draft, he expressed reservations regarding the inclusion of the families of senior UNITA officials among those to be affected by the sanctions to be imposed on the party. Since the members of the families could be innocent, they should have been spared because they had not directly thwarted the peace process. Acting against the members of the families of UNITA leaders could constitute a form of collective punishment, which Egypt rejected. It should not be a precedent. The UNITA should take urgent action to prevent the sanctions in the draft resolution from coming into force.
He expressed support for the recommendations of the Secretary-General regarding MONUA and said he would vote for the text, despite the reservations he had expressed regarding sanctions imposed on the members of the families of UNITA leaders.
FERNANDO BERROCAL SOTO (Costa Rica) condemned UNITA's effort to mine some areas in Angola and to mobilize more troops. The parties should be committed to the cause of peace and not incite hatred amongst Angolans. They should ensure the safety and freedom of movement of all international personnel, especially MONUA's. The imposition of sanctions should be seen as a temporary measure and a collective means of self-defence of the international community. They should
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be used neither as a covert means of war in a situation of internal conflict nor to punish innocent populations. Sanctions should be implemented restrictively and carefully, and measures should be taken to prevent the suffering of the civilian populations and to provide for the need for humanitarian assistance. He expressed reservations regarding the application of sanctions against members of the immediate families of UNITA officials. Efforts should be made to ensure that innocent people were not unduly harmed by the Council's actions.
JUAN LARRAIN (Chile) said that important provisions of the Lusaka Protocol had not been fulfilled, including complete demobilization and the restoration of the State administration throughout the country. At the same time, restrictions had been placed on the movement of MONUA. Large-scale military movements in parts of the country showed the extent to which the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol were being threatened. Angola was at a decisive stage in the peace process, and UNITA must end its delays and unfulfilled promises and adhere to relevant Council resolutions and the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol which had been freely entered into by both parties.
He said Chile supported the Secretary-General's efforts to arrange a meeting between President dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi in order to establish a climate of trust. The UNITA should see the new action by the Council not just a punitive exercise, but an opportunity to return to the peace process. It was up to both parties to determine whether they would work towards the consolidation of peace or return to military confrontation. They must ask themselves what the people really wanted and rise above their own selfish interests. Peace in that part of the African continent deserved to be given another chance.
ANTONIO MONTEIRO (Portugal) said his Government associated itself with the statement made by the representative of the European Union. Patience and persistence were perhaps the key words to describe the Council's work regarding the peace process in Angola. Between the signing of the peace agreements on 31 May 1991 and the end of 1996, the Council had adopted 21 resolutions directly related to the situation in Angola and issued 25 presidential statements. In 1997, it had adopted three resolutions and made three presidential statements. That statistical evidence also underlined the persistent obstacles to peace, particularly UNITA's recurrent lack of compliance with the Lusaka Protocols.
The peace process was at a crucial stage, he said. It required the UNITA leadership to take positive and decisive steps instead of the usual tactics of last-minute half-hearted concessions on the eve of the Council's deliberations. Those tactics were unacceptable. The UNITA had to understand its current behaviour left the Council without credible options other than the imposition of additional sanctions, which were designed to stimulate UNITA's
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move in the right direction. The international community wanted UNITA back in the peace process and it hoped that the sanctions would not have to enter into force. Portugal supported the Secretary-General's decision to postpone the withdrawal of the United Nations military units from Angola and would maintain its presence in MONUA.
BILL RICHARDSON (United States) said his Government was gravely concerned that, because UNITA had failed to fulfil some key commitments, the peace process was not moving forward. The international community could not sit idly by, hoping the parties would somehow put the peace process back on track. Too much was at stake for Angola and for peace in the southern African region. He urged UNITA to make use of the period before 30 September to fulfil its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol and said he hoped that the Secretary-General would report to the Council before that date that UNITA was in compliance with its obligations.
The sanctions were strong, practical and enforceable, and the United States stood ready to examine further Council measures, he said. The Angolan Government must also abide by its commitments under the Lusaka Protocol and continue to refrain from any action that would lead to a resumption of hostilities. Any military offensive against UNITA would be a reason to discontinue sanctions against UNITA. He called on President dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi to meet as soon as possible within Angola. They must fulfil their obligations under the Lusaka Protocol, settle their dispute over diamond revenues and put Angola back on the path of national reconciliation. The United Nations supported the Secretary-General's recommendation that some MONUA military units remain in-country to assist if additional UNITA forces were registered and could be demobilized. However, at their reduced strength, those units could no longer ensure their own security if hostilities resumed, and then would not be able to separate warring factions. If UNITA did not heed the call for complete demobilization, the withdrawal of the remaining MONUA military units should resume.
PHILIPPE THIEBAUD (France) said UNITA bore the main responsibility for the difficulties being faced by the Angolan peace process. The steps to be established by the resolution had been carefully considered. The Council had set out the conditions under which the sanctions could be lifted, if they ended up being imposed on UNITA. France wanted the sanctions to be temporary in duration, with their extension subject to a decision of the Security Council. The intention of the members of the Council was not to impose coercive measures, but to give fresh impetus to the Angolan peace process to help it along to its final completion.
The President of the Council, Sir JOHN WESTON, speaking as representative of the United Kingdom, said UNITA should not doubt the Council's resolve to do everything to keep the peace process from slipping. Regrettably, the time had come to impose additional measures, which had been carefully drafted to send a
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message to UNITA's leaders to fully meet their Lusaka Protocol obligations. He expressed hope that the measures would not have to come into effect, since there was more than enough time for UNITA to respond to the Council's demands.
He expressed concern at the recent military tensions in Angola, caused by both the Angolan Government and UNITA. The parties should make every effort to avoid military measures, which would only set back the international community's heavy investment in making Angola a success story. Since a meeting between Angola's President and the UNITA leader would lower the political temperature and contribute to the peace process, they should meet to resolve any outstanding differences.
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