SECURITY COUNCIL EXTENDS ANGOLA MISSION UNTIL 28 FEBRUARY 1997
SECURITY COUNCIL EXTENDS ANGOLA MISSION UNTIL 28 FEBRUARY 1997
SECURITY COUNCIL EXTENDS ANGOLA MISSION UNTIL 28 FEBRUARY 199719961211 The Security Council this evening extended the mandate of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III) until 28 February 1997 and approved the Secretary-General's recommendation to resume withdrawal of UNAVEM III formed military units during February 1997.
According to resolution 1087 (1996), adopted unanimously, the pace of UNAVEM's withdrawal would be commensurate with progress achieved in the quartering areas, in demobilization and in the extension of State administration throughout Angola.
The Council also authorized the Secretary-General to begin gradual withdrawal of UNAVEM units from individual quartering areas prior to February 1997 and to accelerate the withdrawal schedule, if former combatants vacated the quartering areas in accordance with the 1994 Lusaka Protocol and if other factors were conducive to withdrawal, without putting the peace process at risk.
The Council requested the Secretary-General to report, no later than 10 February, on a plan for a limited follow-on United Nations presence which would include military observers, police observers, a political component, human rights monitors and a Special Representative. It expressed readiness to consider, in that context, the possibility of sending a Council mission to Angola before the expiration of UNAVEM III's mandate.
Reminding the Government of Angola and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) to uphold, without delay, their obligations under the Lusaka Protocol, the Council stressed that both parties must immediately begin to cooperate on integrating selected UNITA officers and troops into the Angolan Armed Forces and on demobilizing those remaining in the quartering areas.
Shortly before the Council met, it received a letter from the Government of Angola stating that President José Eduardo dos Santos had ordered the appointment of nine UNITA generals to functions in the Ministry of Defence and in the Angolan Armed Forces. The letter will be issued as document S/1996/102. Also, according to several speakers this evening, prior to the Council meeting UNITA had issued a declaration that all its soldiers had been quartered.
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The Council in its resolution called on UNITA to cooperate with the Government in creating an integrated Angolan Armed Forces and police units, which would begin the gradual, orderly and peaceful extension of State administration into areas formerly occupied by UNITA. It also urged the Government to avoid offensive military operations which went beyond those strictly necessary for the restoration and maintenance of law and order in the area formerly occupied by UNITA.
Also by the resolution adopted this evening, the Council urged the two parties to reach agreement on the special status of the President of UNITA, Jonas Savimbi, as the President of the largest opposition party before 31 December 1996, without linking that issue to the formation of a Government of National Unity and Reconciliation. Accordingly, it called on the President of UNITA to travel to Luanda for the creation of such a Government and, thereafter, to maximize the amount of time spent in Luanda to enhance confidence in the country's democratic institutions and the irreversibility of the peace process.
Statements were made by the representatives of Angola, Portugal, Botswana, France, China, United Kingdom, Germany, Poland, Egypt, Indonesia, Russian Federation, Chile, Republic of Korea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, United States, Italy, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Brazil, Zambia, Mauritius, Mozambique, United Republic of Tanzania, Lesotho, South Africa, Malawi and Sao Tome and Principe.
The meeting began at 5:27 and adjourned at 8 p.m.
The Security Council met this afternoon to consider the situation in Angola.
In a progress report on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III) before the Council (document S/1996/1000), the Secretary-General recommends the extension of the Mission's mandate until 28 February 1997. Should the Council approve the recommendation, the cost of maintaining UNAVEM III during the extension period will be at an estimated monthly rate of $25,452,733 gross ($24,953,130 net), subject to the approval of a revised budget for the financing of the Mission by the Assembly.
The report says a continued but substantially scaled-down United Nations presence in Angola will be required after February 1997 to conclude the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol and to consolidate the gains made so far in the peace process. (The Lusaka Protocol was agreed upon by the Government of Angola and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) in the Zambian capital in November 1994.)
According to the report, submitted in response to Security Council resolution 1075 (1996) of 11 October, the activities of the Mission will be increasingly concentrated on political, police and human rights monitoring, as well as on vital humanitarian activities including demining, public information programmes and logistic support. The Secretary-General intends to elaborate on those tasks in his next report to the Council and to make recommendations on the mandate, structure and size of a follow-up United Nations presence after the withdrawal of the bulk of UNAVEM III formed military units.
The Secretary-General recommends the resumption of the withdrawal of those units in February 1997 to complete the draw-down within six to seven months. The intention is to repatriate by mid-June 1997 four of the six UNAVEM III infantry battalions, together with additional support units and some military headquarters personnel, with the remainder of the formed units to be repatriated by the end of July or August 1997. At the same time, the Secretary-General calls for the retention of a rapid reaction force comprising six company-sized infantry groups, one of which would be deployed in each of the operational regions of Angola until the completion of the withdrawal of all military contingents, unless the political and security conditions permit a more expeditious draw-down.
The report states that the security situation remains volatile in many parts of the country. On the positive side, there have been no major cases of harassment of UNAVEM personnel. As of 28 November, 69,093 UNITA troops had been registered in 15 quartering areas of which 13,115 had subsequently deserted. A total of 29,698 personal weapons and 4,521 crew-served weapons
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had been handed over by the quartered soldiers. Some 18,738 of the expected 26,300 UNITA troops had been selected for incorporation into the Angolan Armed Forces. As of 28 November, a total of 3,860 out of the expected 4,962 UNITA police personnel had been moved to quartering areas where they are being processed.
The report observes that the duration of quartering well beyond the time-frame set out in the Lusaka Protocol poses a serious challenge to international humanitarian organizations and to the sustainability of the peace process. It is therefore imperative, the report goes on, that demobilization commence in earnest, and that the quartering areas be converted into demobilization centres under the responsibility of the Angolan Government. Approximately 100,000 ex-combatants from the Government and UNITA armed forces are expected to be demobilized. A United Nations operational support plan for demobilization which articulates UNAVEM's exit strategy from the quartering and demobilization phases has been finalized. The plan also envisages the Mission's involvement in recommending safe routeings for convoys carrying demobilized soldiers and their families. In special cases UNAVEM III military and police observers will accompany the convoys, but the Government will have the main responsibility for their safe transport.
The Joint Commission, established under the Lusaka Protocol and including the Government of Angola, UNITA, the United Nations and the observer countries (United States, Russian Federation and Portugal), is to consider proposals by the Government and UNITA on the special status for UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi. The United Nations is still awaiting a declaration by UNITA that it has assembled all its troops and handed over all weapons. While considerable progress has recently been achieved on the military front, the report states that some of the tasks enumerated in Security Council resolution 1075 (1996) and in the consolidated timetable approved by the Joint Commission had not been fulfilled by the 15 November deadline. Those tasks include selection of UNITA troops for incorporation into the Angolan Armed Forces, registration of UNITA policemen and return of all their elected deputies to the National Assembly.
The UNAVEM III continued its public awareness campaign and other activities to promote respect for human rights and to restore confidence and dialogue between representatives of the Government and UNITA at various levels and at fostering national reconciliation, the report continues. With the assistance of Sweden, the Government has begun human rights training for selected personnel as well as for civic education monitors. The issues of human rights violations, governance, public accountability and capacity- building in the field of law and order, deserve increased attention in the present phase of the peace process, it adds.
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During the reporting period, United Nations humanitarian activities continued to concentrate on the expansion of programmes to newly accessible areas and on the return of internally displaced persons to their areas of origin, says the Secretary-General. The mine awareness campaign, and mine survey and clearance continued to be conducted by the Angolan demining brigades. A two-year plan for the development of Angola's national demining capacity will commence next January under the auspices of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Department of Humanitarian Affairs. As part of the exercise, UNAVEM is considering the transfer of its demining equipment to that project. In his next report, the Secretary-General will inform the Security Council of the details of the transition plan, as well as of the phase-out strategy for UNAVEM III military personnel currently involved in the demining activities.
The Secretary-General appeals to donors for additional resources for humanitarian assistance to quartered personnel which would have to be provided for a much longer period than initially expected. Significant resources are also needed to assist the large number of refugees, displaced persons and former combatants in resettlement areas. To that end, the Secretary-General urges the donor community to fulfil the pledges they undertook at the 1995 Brussels Round-Table Conference on Angola.
The Council also has before it a draft resolution (document S/1996/1026), which reads as follows:
"The Security Council,
"Reaffirming its resolution 696 (1991) of 30 May 1991 and all subsequent relevant resolutions,
"Having considered the report of the Secretary-General dated 2 December 1996 (S/1996/1000),
"Reaffirming its commitment to preserve the unity and territorial integrity of Angola,
"Reiterating the importance it attaches to full implementation by the Government of Angola and the Uniao Nacional para a Independencia Total de Angola (UNITA) of the "Acordos de Paz" (S/22609, annex), the Lusaka Protocol (S/1994/1441, annex) and relevant Security Council resolutions,
"Reminding the Government of Angola and UNITA to uphold strictly, without delay, their obligations under the Lusaka Protocol and the commitments they entered into in Libreville and Franceville,
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"Underlining the need for respect for human rights, and stressing the need for the Angolan parties to give greater attention to preventing incidents of human rights abuse, investigating alleged human rights violations, and punishing those found guilty by due process of law,
"Welcoming the efforts of the Secretary-General, his Special Representative and personnel of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III), the three observer States to the Angolan peace process, the Organization of African Unity (OAU), Southern African Development Community (SADC), and the international community as a whole, and encouraging them to continue their efforts to promote peace and security in Angola,
"1. Welcomes the report of the Secretary-General dated 2 December 1996;
"2. Expresses concern at the overall slow pace of the peace process, but notes some positive steps in its implementation;
"3. Decides to extend the mandate of UNAVEM III until 28 February 1997;
"4. Approves the Secretary-General's recommendation to resume withdrawal of UNAVEM III formed military units during February 1997 as set forth in paragraphs 30 through 32 of his report of 2 December 1996, with the understanding that the pace of withdrawal will be commensurate with progress achieved in the quartering areas, in demobilization and in the extension of state administration, and that the first phase of withdrawal will begin on schedule in February 1997;
"5. Authorizes the Secretary-General to commence the gradual and progressive withdrawal of UNAVEM III formed military units from individual quartering areas prior to February 1997, and to accelerate the withdrawal schedule subsequently, if former combatants vacate the quartering areas in accordance with the Lusaka Protocol and other factors are conducive to withdrawal, without putting at risk the successful completion of the peace process;
"6. Stresses that both parties must immediately begin to cooperate on integrating selected UNITA officers and troops into the FAA and on demobilizing those remaining in the quartering areas, and underlines the need for the Government of Angola to make available all necessary funds it has pledged and to speed up the processing of demobilization certificates and other administrative matters;
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"7. Reminds Member States that the need has now become urgent for the financial resources necessary to facilitate the demobilization and social reintegration of ex-combatants through the United Nations consolidated inter- agency appeal for Angola;
"8. Calls upon UNITA to cooperate with the Government of Angola in its immediate task of creating integrated FAA and police units which would begin, in the spirit of the Lusaka Protocol and monitored by UNAVEM III, the gradual, orderly and peaceful extension of state administration into areas formerly occupied by UNITA;
"9. Urges the Government of Angola to avoid offensive military operations which go beyond those strictly necessary for the restoration and maintenance of law and order in the areas formerly occupied by UNITA;
"10. Recalls the need for the President of Angola and the President of UNITA to meet inside Angola at the earliest opportunity and calls on both parties to move rapidly on the political steps towards national reconciliation, including the assumption by UNITA deputies and officials of their posts, followed by establishment of a Government of National Unity and Reconciliation prior to 31 December 1996;
"11. Urges the two parties to reach agreement on the special status of the President of UNITA as the President of the largest opposition party before 31 December 1996, without linkage of that issue to the formation of a Government of National Unity and Reconciliation;
"12. Calls upon the President of UNITA to travel to Luanda for the creation of the Government of National Unity and Reconciliation, and thereafter to maximize the amount of time spent in Luanda in order to enhance confidence in the country's democratic institutions and the irreversibility of the peace process;
"13. Welcomes the continuation of the programme for the disarmament of the civilian population by the Government of Angola, and stresses the need for its full and more effective implementation, including disarmament of the Civilian Defence Corps;
"14. Reiterates its concern over the acquisition of weapons contrary to paragraph 12 of resolution 976 (1995) of 8 February 1995, while the peace process is under way;
"15. Reaffirms the obligation of all States to implement fully the provisions of paragraph 19 of resolution 864 (1993) of 15 September 1993, calls upon all States to make the necessary actions to implement the provisions of paragraphs 19 to 25 of resolution 864 (1993) vigorously and strictly, and expresses deep concern that the failure by States, especially
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those neighbouring Angola, to do so is inconsistent with the peace process and undermines economic recovery;
"16. Demands that all parties and others concerned in Angola take all necessary measures to ensure the safety of United Nations and other international personnel and premises, including that of non-governmental organizations, and to guarantee the safety and freedom of movement of humanitarian supplies throughout the country;
"17. Calls upon both parties to intensify their demining efforts, and reiterates the need for continued commitment to peace by destruction of stockpiles of land-mines monitored and verified by UNAVEM III, and expresses support for various United Nations demining activities in Angola, including plans aimed at enhancing national demining capacity;
"18. Urges the Government of Angola and UNITA to remove all illegal checkpoints that constitute obstacles to the free circulation of people and goods throughout the country;
"19. Urges the international community to fulfil expeditiously its pledges to provide assistance to facilitate the rehabilitation and reconstruction of the Angolan national economy and the resettlement of displaced persons, and stresses the importance of such assistance at this time in order to consolidate the gains in the peace process;
"20. Requests the Secretary-General to continue planning for a follow-on United Nations presence along the lines described in paragraph 33 of his report of 2 December 1996 which would include military observers, police observers, a political component, human rights monitors and a Special Representative, with the aim of maintaining a limited United Nations presence in Angola, and to report thereon no later than 10 February 1997;
"21. Expresses its readiness to consider, in that context, the possibility of sending a Security Council mission to Angola before the expiry of the mandate of UNAVEM III;
"22. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter."
ALFONSO VAN-DUNEM "MBINDA" (Angola) said that despite well-known difficulties, there had been substantial progress in implementing key provisions of the Lusaka Protocol. His Government believed that the process was nearing its conclusion. Some hours ago, the President of Angola signed the official appointment of nine UNITA generals, incorporating them into the Angolan Armed Forces. The Government of Angola was making an enormous financial effort to ensure the reintegration of demobilized soldiers. His
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Government had been shouldering those expenses all along, but those costs should be shared by UNITA and by UNAVEM III. The Government of Angola appealed to all donor nations to honour their commitments from the September 1995 Brussels Roundtable.
PEDRO CATARINO (Portugal) said that while he welcomed the recent steps taken by both the Government and UNITA towards the fulfilment of important military tasks under the Lusaka Protocol, the overall pace of the peace process was still very slow. Several important provisions of the Lusaka Protocol remained unfulfilled, and both parties should at once implement the following tasks: integration of selected personnel into the Angolan Armed Forces; effective conclusion of the demobilization process; dismantlement of all illegal checkpoints; and extension of the State administration throughout Angola. He looked forward to firm initiatives from the Government of Angola and UNITA towards national reconciliation, and hoped to see UNITA deputies resume their seats in the National Assembly very soon. He looked forward to the determination of a special status for the President of UNITA. It was also imperative that freedom of movement of people and goods be guaranteed throughout Angola, in order to boost confidence among the population and foster national reconciliation. He was, therefore, concerned at reports of increasing acts of banditry.
Portugal, he went on, favoured phased withdrawal of UNAVEM III by the Council, following the recommendation of the Secretary-General. It was crucial, however, that the pace of withdrawal be determined by progress achieved in the different phases of the peace process. The strong presence of UNAVEM III had proved to be of key importance to implementation of the peace process. Thus, the withdrawal of United Nations forces must be approached with caution. The good work of UNAVEM III would continue to be vital to the success of the international community's efforts to bring peace to Angola. Portugal, one of the troika of observer States to the peace process, fully supported the work of UNAVEM III and offered hearty praise for the efforts of the Secretary-General's Special Representative, Alioune Blondin Beye. He hoped that the signatories of the Lusaka Protocol would honour the efforts of the international community and their own commitments, and place the interests of Angola and its people above all else.
LEGWAILA J.M.J. LEGWAILA (Botswana) said his Government firmly believed that the acceptance by the Government and UNITA of the fact that there could be no military solution to the conflict in Angola was an important first step on the road to peace and democracy. While the peace process remained fragile and reversible, the fact remained that never before in the country's history had so much been achieved to establish a lasting political solution. He strongly hoped that the Government and UNITA would not waste the historic opportunity to make peace a living reality for their country and people.
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The implementation of the Lusaka Protocol was never intended to be an unending process, he continued. Some of the urgent tasks which had to be tackled expeditiously were: the resettlement of more than 1 million internally displaced persons; demining; road rehabilitation; demobilization and social reintegration of ex-combatants; and the disarmament of the civilian population. Those monumental tasks should be addressed adequately, as they had a direct bearing on the sustainability of the peace process. He supported the Secretary-General's appeal for the establishment of a Government of National Unity and Reconciliation before 1 January 1997. It was convinced that its formation would enable the parties to focus their attention on the issues that united rather than divided them.
He said the commencement of the withdrawal of UNAVEM III should not be interpreted as an opportunity to slow down the implementation of the outstanding issues and ultimately the reneging on already agreed commitments and obligations. He supported the proposal to send a Security Council mission to Angola before the expiration of UNAVEM III's mandate. The visit would offer Council members a rare opportunity to observe first-hand the peace process in action and to develop recommendations on the support necessary for post-conflict peace-building.
ALAIN DEJAMMET (France) told the Council that he would support the resolution before it. That text permitted extension of UNAVEM III's mandate until 28 February 1997 and marked the Council's agreement on the phased withdrawal plan of the United Nations force following the expiration of the mandate. Above all, the resolution once again reminded the Angolan parties, particularly UNITA, that it was up to them to exert the final and essential efforts to implement the Lusaka Protocol. The UNITA's attitude had caused much time to be lost in the two years that had elapsed since the signing of that agreement. But, thanks to continuous pressure from the Council and the tenacity of the Secretary-General's Special Representative, progress had been made.
He said a long road lay ahead of Angola after 20 years of destructive war and France was ready to help the Angolan people back to the path of development and progress. His Government had announced in Brussels last September that it was prepared to pay some $110 million towards rehabilitation and reconstruction in Angola. Bilateral discussions with the Angolan authorities were already under way to ensure that the promised aid rapidly assumed concrete form. French aid would be focused on reconstruction projects, but would also have a beneficial effect on the reintegration of demobilized combatants. The French Foreign Minister had visited Angola in late November, and had assured President José Eduardo dos Santos and the Angolan Government of France's wholehearted support in pursuit of the peace process. He hoped that the machinery for national reconciliation could be set in motion as soon as possible, so that Angola could take its rightful place in southern Africa and rejoin the group of African democratic countries in that region that had undergone radical and exemplary change.
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QIN HUASUN (China) said the question of Angola had finally been transformed into a positive situation. Recently, the parties had made progress in implementing the Lusaka Protocol. In particular, the goals in the military area were being gradually realized. He was pleased that UNITA had completed the quartering of troops. He expected that the Government of Unity and Reconciliation would soon be established.
With the development of the Angola peace process, it was necessary to adjust UNAVEM III's mission. In the meantime, however, the presence of UNAVEM III was essential to completion of the various tasks of the Lusaka Protocol and the realization of peace in Angola.
He said that years of war had left Angola in ruins. The international community must help rebuild Angola and continue to support the peace process. His Government had and would continue to contribute to the reconstruction and peace of Angola.
STEPHEN GOMERSALL (United Kingdom) said that today, perhaps for the first time, it was possible to envisage Angola free of the deep divisions which had characterized that country over the last three decades. The parties should work together, in good faith, to complete remaining tasks and form a Government of Unity and National Reconciliation. His Government welcomed the fact that UNITA had taken the final symbolic step of declaring that it had quartered all of its troops and given up its weapons. The United Kingdom also welcomed reports that the Government of Angola would now proceed to incorporate the nine UNITA generals currently in Luanda into the armed forces.
It would be a tragedy if the chance for peace was lost when so much had already been achieved, and when relatively few tasks remained to be completed. And it would be wrong for either party to give in to temptation or to avoid making final commitments to peace. There was much that the United Nations should do to help Angola with reconstruction, rehabilitation and national reconciliation. A continuing United Nations presence, beyond UNAVEM III, could play a central role in that regard.
GERHARD HENZE (Germany) expressed great satisfaction that UNITA had issued a formal declaration that all its soldiers had been quartered. A major military aspect of the Lusaka Protocol had thus been successfully implemented. It now remained for the Angolan Government to initiate the integration of UNITA generals and troops into the regular Angolan Armed Forces. He said the political issues had to be addressed. As the resolution before the Council requested, he urged the Government and the UNITA leadership to resolve outstanding issues before the beginning of the year. There should be a meeting between President Dos Santos and UNITA President Dr. Savimbi in Angola. The special status of Dr. Savimbi should be determined. The State administration should be extended throughout the whole territory. All elected deputies to the National Assembly should return. A Government of National
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Unity and Reconciliation should be formed, with the establishment of free circulation of people and goods. Time was short. The mandate of UNAVEM III would finally expire in February 1997.
He said Germany agreed with the Secretary-General that demobilizing and reintegrating ex-combatants and reassimilating internally displaced persons into civil society was among the most critical challenges under the Lusaka Protocol. Germany, as a donor country, felt a particular responsibility in that field. It had launched a pilot project for demobilization and socio- economic reintegration of ex-combatants and the internally displaced. It had already pledged $650,000 for the project and was planning to launch a major project on the same lines, for which it was in principle ready to pledge $4 million as of 1 January 1997. Germany had also contributed significantly in the field of humanitarian assistance. It had provided up to nine demining experts for mine removal activities within UNAVEM III, to support efforts which had resulted in clearing more than 4,000 kilometres of roads from land- mines.
ZBIGNIEW MATUSZEWSKI (Poland) said although he was encouraged by the recent progress in the situation in Angola, a number of important issues remained to be resolved: demobilization of quartered UNITA troops, disarmament of civilian population and completion of the selection of UNITA troops to be incorporated into the Angolan Armed Forces. There was a clear link between the successful fulfilment of those tasks and the creation of a favourable climate necessary for taking up the outstanding political problems. Each party must not make their compliance with their obligations conditional upon the performance of the other side if the peace process was to further advance, he said. It was also important from the point of view of the international community whose continuing involvement in Angolan affairs would be feasible only with both parties faithfully fulfilling their commitments.
SOLIMAN AWAAD (Egypt) said that meeting the challenges of peace was essential to the political situation in Angola. Any delay in fulfilling the Lusaka accords would discredit the peace process and hurt the confidence of the people. The incorporation of some 24,000 UNITA soldiers and extension of the authority of the Government into all provinces was essential. He hoped that the upcoming meeting of President Dos Santos and President Savimbi, on Angolan territory, would resolve outstanding political problems, including the special role of Mr. Savimbi and incorporation of UNITA into the cabinet, the parliament and Government at all levels. The UNITA should be a political party operating in full legitimacy and legality.
Demobilizing some 100,000 soldiers from both sides and reincorporating them into civilian society was a major challenge for the peace process, he said. His Government supported the recommendations of the Secretary-General regarding the role of the UNDP in that effort. Donor countries should
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continue to provide financial and technical assistance. He supported the recommendations of the Secretary-General that the military component of UNAVEM III should be extended, consistent with its phased withdrawal through August 1997. The United Nations should maintain its presence, with more emphasis on the civilian, rather than on the military, side.
MAKARIM WIBISONO (Indonesia) said that although he welcomed the positive developments and initiatives taken by the parties as well as their willingness to work cooperatively, the pace of the peace process remained slow. He reaffirmed the importance for the Government and UNITA to fulfil their obligations in accordance with the Acordos de Paz, the Lusaka Protocol and all relevant Security Council resolutions. Both parties must make progress in the military aspect to provide the necessary impetus for the political aspect to move forward. Once the first stages of the military tasks had been implemented, the parties should begin the process of vacating and demobilizing former combatants in the quartering areas and reintegrating them into civilian society. Those steps required close cooperation among the parties and assistance from the international community.
He urged both parties, particularly UNITA, to remove all illegal checkpoints which obstructed the free circulation of people and goods throughout the country. He stressed the importance of ensuring the safety of United Nations and other international personnel and premises, as well as guaranteeing the safety and freedom of movement of humanitarian supplies throughout Angola. He hoped the parties would resolve the problem of the return to Luanda of UNITA deputies to the National Assembly, the establishment of a Government of National Unity and Reconciliation, the reaching of an agreement on the status of the President of UNITA before 31 December, and extending the State administration throughout the country.
He said the international community should fulfil expeditiously its pledges of assistance for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of the country's economy in order to consolidate the gains achieved in the peace process. He supported the Secretary-General's recommendation for a gradual withdrawal of UNAVEM III's formed units commensurate with the progress achieved in the peace process. He took note of the Secretary-General's recommendation for a new form of mandate more focused on political, police, human rights and humanitarian activities, including mine clearance, once the military components were no longer needed. That new mandate would permit a follow-up and continuity in United Nations presence to consolidate the gains made in the peace process and ensure a lasting peace in Angola.
YURI FEDOTOV (Russian Federation) said that as a member of the troika of observers to the Angolan peace process, his Government believed that conclusion of the process in Angola could become one of the great successes of the United Nations and of the international community. The official statement by UNITA that it had completed the quartering of its forces and handed in its
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weapons, and the declaration by the Government of Angola that it was willing to incorporate nine UNITA generals into the Angolan Armed Forces, were major announcements that would allow Angola to concentrate on the political challenges before it.
Procrastination in fulfilling obligations would only delay the peace process as a whole. The establishment of unified armed forces and police and an acceleration of the demobilization of soldiers were essential. Obviously, the largest peace-keeping operation, UNAVEM III, could not be withdrawn overnight. The Security Council, before the end of February 1997, should dispatch a mission to Angola and make a determination as to the further presence of the United Nations in that country. The Angolan parties should accelerate the peace process and "take it to the finish line".
JUAN LARRAIN (Chile) said that the leaders of the Angolan Government and of UNITA should continue to implement outstanding tasks under the Lusaka Protocol. Chile regretted that there had been cease-fire violations and harassment of the troops of UNAVEM III. The fact that the quartering of troops had concluded, and that the nine generals of UNITA would join the Angolan Armed Forces were encouraging. The mandate of UNAVEM III should be extended though February of 1997.
CHOI SUNG HONG (Republic of Korea) said his Government welcomed that, today, UNITA had formally declared the completion of the task of quartering all its troops and that the Government had initiated the incorporation of UNITA troops, beginning with the nine generals currently residing in Luanda. He hoped that the implementation of crucial military tasks would mark the initiation of genuine reconciliation through political negotiation.
The establishment of a Government of National Unity and Reconciliation was the next crucial step, he said. All outstanding political issues could be best settled through a tête-à-tête between the President of Angola and the leader of UNITA. He urged both parties to show a spirit of maximum cooperation and flexibility for the realization of that meeting and the settlement of all outstanding political issues.
The consolidation of peace in Angola could not be forthcoming without the Government and the international community continuing to make their best efforts to tackle issues related to the increasing need for socio-economic stability in Angola, he said. Close scrutiny of the situation on the ground would be necessary to help consolidate peace in Angola with adequately restructured presence and assistance by the international community. He welcomed the idea of sending a Security Council mission to Angola at an appropriate time to assess the situation and better decide on the pace of withdrawal of UNAVEM III and the procedures for a follow-on United Nations presence. He supported the extension of the mandate of UNAVEM III until the end of February 1997 and its subsequent reduction. He would vote in favour of the draft resolution before the Council.
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ALFREDO LOPES CABRAL (Guinea-Bissau) expressed satisfaction over the positive steps taken by the Angolan parties to strengthen the peace process. He noted the recent announcement by the Government and UNITA to complete talks specified in the Lusaka Protocol. The many delays, however, continued to be a source of concern. Other obstacles must be overcome, without which completion of the peace process would not be possible.
He called on his "Angolan brothers" to continue their efforts, and to demonstrate political determination to adopt concrete steps towards the peace process. Peace and prosperity were possible, he said. Angolans deserved to share in the wealth of their country in tranquillity and to participate in its reconstruction and socio-economic development.
The international community should continue economic and humanitarian assistance, he said. The UNAVEM III still had a role to play. He approved the Secretary-General's recommendation for an extension of the mandate.
GERARDO MARTINEZ BLANCO (Honduras) said delays in compliance with the Lusaka Protocol had caused concern. While there had been progress in the maintenance of the cease-fire, the dismantling of illegal checkpoints and the disarmament of the civilian population and the conclusion of the quartering of UNITA troops, there had been little movement on more political points, such as the establishment of a special status for the leader of UNITA. The parties should strictly comply with their obligations under the Lusaka Protocol, as well as with the directives of the Security Council.
Honduras believed the achievements thus far in Angola must be consolidated through the assistance of the international community. The Angolan economy was still in a critical state. Donor countries and the international community should support Angola with a view to consolidating the progress already achieved. A continued presence for UNAVEM III until 28 February 1997 would be essential, and Honduras would vote in favour of the draft.
KARL F. INDERFURTH (United States) said that only two months ago the Council had warned the Angolan parties to complete the military tasks agreed to in the Lusaka Protocol and to "get on" with the establishment of a Government of National Unity and Reconciliation. The Council could now feel gratified that there had been significant progress to identify UNITA members for integration into the Angolan Armed Forces, to quarter UNITA forces in Cabinda and to dissolve UNITA's military command structure. But, he was concerned that many quartering camps were full of UNITA troops scheduled for integration into the Angolan Armed Forces or for demobilization. The success of the quartering programme thus far was owed in large measure to the presence of UNAVEM III forces at those camps.
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The time had come for the camps to close and for UNAVEM III to begin withdrawal, he said. The Government and UNITA should take steps to deploy integrated units in areas formerly occupied by UNITA. The draft resolution before the Council contained an urgent message for the international community -- that the present critical stage of the peace process in Angola could not proceed without funding. The international community should move immediately, so that demobilization could be completed within the three months programmed by the Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Unit.
PAOLO FULCI (Italy) said that the next step in Angola was the integration of selected UNITA troops into the Angolan Armed Forces. The Government had taken a major step in that regard by announcing the incorporation of nine UNITA generals into the Angolan Armed Forces. The parties should now concentrate on quick implementation of the political aspects of the Lusaka Protocol. The steps to be taken so far had been postponed, pending settlement of military issues. Now, there could be no more procrastination.
His Government fully supported the paragraphs of the draft resolution which allowed the reduction of military units of UNAVEM III. They struck a delicate balance between the need to ensure the successful conclusion of the peace process and to avoid prolonging excessively the Organization's most expensive peace-keeping operation.
Action on Draft
The draft resolution was adopted unanimously as resolution 1087 (1996).
MACHIVENYIKA MAPURANGA (Zimbabwe) said that despite the two years that had elapsed since the signing of the Lusaka Protocol, the peace process had not come of age. He shared the critical observation of the Secretary-General that the peace process continued to progress in fits and starts. Particularly disturbing was the fact that, even at this late stage, progress had often come only in response to increased pressure from the international community, particularly on UNITA.
The peace process had reached a critical stage, he said. Statistics on cantonment, demobilization and reintegration could not alone impress either the people of Angola or the international community. It was a crucial juncture, and he joined the people of Angola in demanding and expecting no less than landmark decisions on the part of the Government of Angola and UNITA. For the people of Angola, the disquieting news of the imminent expiration of the mandate of UNAVEM III must be counterbalanced by unprecedented breakthroughs in the peace process. He appealed to all who could contribute to facilitate the return to Luanda of UNITA deputies to the National Assembly and the establishment of a government of national
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reconciliation. A meeting in Angola between President Dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi would be most timely at this stage.
Until today, he said, he had intended to demand that UNITA should be pressured to make the expected declaration that all UNITA soldiers had been quartered and that it had no more weapons or military equipment in its possession, in order to remove the obstacles to the extension of State administration throughout Angola. However, he had learned, belatedly, that such a declaration had apparently been issued, a typical example of the refusal of UNITA to make a positive move until heavy pressure was exercised.
As the end of the two-year period foreseen in the initial mandate of UNAVEM III approached, the countdown towards completion of that operation could only be gradual and progressive, he said. The people of Angola would remain restless until the respite offered under the Lusaka Protocol was transformed into a long-lasting peace. The countries of southern Africa held fast to the dream that had led to the commitments of the Lusaka Accord and demanded that those commitments be implemented.
MARTIN ANDJABA (Namibia) said the Government of Angola and UNITA should be encouraged to make additional efforts to speed up the pace of the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol. Namibia was fully committed to ensure the restoration of lasting peace and stability in Angola. It was concerned about the desertion of UNITA troops from the quartering areas. The UNITA's failure to make a declaration on the assembly of its troops and the handing over of all their weapons had created doubts about their commitment to the Lusaka Protocol. Namibia called upon the UNITA leadership to ensure a return of their troops to the quartering areas without delay. The UNITA should also make the declaration requested of it in accordance with Security Council resolution 1075 (1996) as soon as possible.
He said Namibia was also concerned about the delay in the settlement of outstanding political issues, namely the return to Luanda of UNITA deputies to the National Assembly, the status of the UNITA leader and the establishment of the Government of National Unity and Reconciliation. His Government agreed with the Secretary-General's recommendation that UNAVEM III's mandate be extended. It was imperative, he said, that the international community and the Security Council, in particular, demonstrated greater commitment and determination to help the Angolan people resolve the outstanding political issues. The Council should send a clear message to the parties, particularly UNITA, on the consequences of obstructing the peace process.
Namibia called upon the international community to mobilize all necessary resources for the rehabilitation of Angola's economy and the reintegration of ex-combatants into civilian life. Namibia had contributed $5,000 to the United Nations Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Angola last August and would continue its support.
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CELO LUIZ NUNES AMORIM (Brazil) said that at the end of the two-year period envisioned for the UNAVEM III mandate, much was left to be done. Many UNITA troops had deserted quartering areas and the quality and quantity of weapons turned in by them was unsatisfactory. But his Government welcomed the announcement by UNITA that it had completed quartering and by the Government that it would integrate nine UNITA generals into the Angolan Armed Forces.
The situation in Angola was in a critical phase. The Secretary-General had outlined a plan for a withdrawal of UNAVEM III's military component, but Brazil believed that that drawdown should take place only when it was clear that the move towards peace was irreversible.
PETER L. KASANDA (Zambia) said the Lusaka Protocol had opened the way to peace and stability in Angola. Regrettably, the obligations of the Protocol had not been fulfilled. While the onus was on both sides, UNITA and its leader Mr. Savimbi bore special responsibility in carrying out his responsibilities in a timely fashion and without having to wait for international pressure. The people of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) had put a high premium on the success of the peace process in Angola. Peace would bring benefits to the entire region; Angola would then be able to concentrate on rebuilding its economy so that it could make a better contribution to the SADC as coordinator for the energy sector of the region. Angola was the only country in southern Africa still grappling with internal conflict. The international community should not lose patience with the peace process in that country.
TAYE WAH MICHEL WAN CHAT KWONG (Mauritius) said implementation of the Lusaka Protocol had proceeded laboriously and progress had been recorded only when pressure was brought to bear on the parties. The party mainly responsible in that protracted process, UNITA, could be induced to take significant measures only when the situation was due to be reviewed by the Council. "Two steps forward, one step backward" appeared to be the tactic employed by UNITA to delay or evade the complete respect of its community, he said.
He said the Council should consider applying some of the measures against UNITA as envisaged in its resolution 1075 (1996), notwithstanding UNITA's recent declaration, which needed to be verified, that it had quartered all its troops and surrendered all the weapons and military equipment in its possession. While UNITA had made some positive gestures, one should question whether those efforts were genuine. The past did not seem to vindicate UNITA's sincerity. Angola would continue to need the firm support of the international community during the peace process and long after it finally achieved normalcy. He hoped the donor community would respond generously to the appeal for continued assistance in accordance with the pledges made at the 1995 Brussels Round-Table Conference.
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CARLOS DOS SANTOS (Mozambique) said UNITA's compliance with the tasks enumerated in Security Council resolution S/1996/844 of 11 October, and its confirmation of the compliance by a written declaration, would allow the peace process in Angola to move into the next stages. He urged members of the Council to ensure that UNITA complied with the agreements it had entered into and abided by the decision of the Council. The people of Angola deserved better than what was being offered. They needed assurances that they could go back to their areas of origin and rebuild their villages and communities without fear of another outbreak of war.
He said southern Africa wanted an Angola in peace, so that it could be a strong partner in the region's quest for integration and development. Mozambique would continue to lend its solidarity and support, working in concert with other countries of the region, until peace became an irreversible reality in Angola.
DAUDI MWAKAWAGO (United Republic of Tanzania) said that as the world commemorated the second anniversary of the Lusaka Protocol, it was heartening to note that the temporary upward trend in the number of cease-fire violations in Angola had gone into reverse. In addition, there had not been any major cases of harassment against UNAVEM III personnel. That positive trend needed nurturing by all parties to the conflict, under UNAVEM's skilful supervision. Other developments were equally encouraging, such as the quartering process of UNITA troops and the hand-over of weapons, although according to the Secretary-General's report the United Nations was still awaiting official word from UNITA that it had assembled all troops and handed over all weapons. As the report noted, the expiration of UNAVEM III's present mandate should inspire the concerned parties to carry out all their obligations dutifully and responsibly.
He commended efforts under way in the relief and rehabilitation process, particularly in the return to their homes of internally displaced persons. The socio-economic reforms currently in progress in Angola should be encouraged and strengthened, he said. The launching last June of the New Life Programme had been a milestone in addressing the country's economic problems. The importance of the International Monetary Fund-sponsored emergency programme -- supported at a later stage by a three-year structural adjustment programme -- need not be overemphasized. Those efforts should be complemented by the international community. He welcomed and supported the draft resolution before the Council, particularly the proposal to extend the mandate of UNAVEM III until 28 February 1997. He also supported the gradual withdrawal of UNAVEM III military units.
PERCY MANGOAELA (Lesotho) said the countries of the SADC would not falter in their resolve to bring the Angolan peace process to the front burner in their regional and international engagements. Lesotho was encouraged by the positive developments in Angola reported in the Secretary-General's report
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and urged the parties to spare no effort in fulfilling all the tasks enumerated in Security Council resolution 1075 (1996). Expressing regret that some sporadic incidents had continued to slow the peace process, he appealed to the parties to refrain from any acts that might negatively affect it.
Peace in Angola should be given a chance, he said. Lesotho supported the extension of UNAVEM III's mandate until 28 February 1997 and the reduction of the residual force over a six-month period after that date. Implementation of a programme of economic reconstruction would be a more challenging task. Lesotho expected that the United Nations would not abandon Angola and would play a key role in that task, and in ensuring peace and economic prosperity.
By extending UNAVEM III's mandate, the Council would demonstrate that, while it was prepared to continue to support the peace process, the parties should also demonstrate their commitment to fully implement the Lusaka Protocol and Council resolutions on Angola without delay.
KHIPHUSIZI JELE (South Africa) said the peoples of southern Africa believed that the sustaining of the democratization taking place in the region depended on the achievement of durable peace and stability in Angola. His delegation appreciated the progress made in Angola on disarming the civilian population, the surrender of weapons by quartered troops, verification by UNAVEM III of phased-out UNITA regional command structures, and the dismantling of illegal checkpoints. Those developments were important and should be sustained. The cessation of hostilities by the parties was crucial to the creation of a climate conducive to the evolution of peace.
The views of civil society should be harnessed in the promotion of issues of national concern and interest. His delegation applauded public education programmes aimed at fostering national reconciliation. It believed a meeting between Angolan President Eduardo Jose Dos Santos and UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi was long overdue, and that it would serve as a welcome opportunity for the two leaders to map out the way forward. Proposals on the future of the UNITA leader deserved encouragement. He hoped urgent measures would be taken on the incorporation of UNITA army officers into the Angolan Armed Forces and of its deputies into the National Assembly. South Africa supported the extension of UNAVEM III's mandate and hoped steps would be taken to ensure that the gains already achieved remained in place.
DOROTHY THUNYANI (Malawi) said it was clear from the two reports before the Council that many aspects of the Lusaka Protocol remained to be accomplished for peace to be fully established and for the war-tired people of Angola to resume their normal lives. Since time was of the essence, the days ahead were critical, and would require magnanimity and extra resolve from all concerned. She urged all the parties, particularly UNITA, to carry out all their obligations under the Lusaka Protocol in good faith and within the agreed time schedules. She implored them to desist from any moves that might negatively affect the gains already achieved and indeed jeopardize the whole peace process.
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On the plans of the Secretary-General regarding the downsizing of UNAVEM III military units, she said she had every confidence in the Secretary- General's judgment, and looked forward to his further elaboration of those issues in his next report to the Council. His reports were also quite clear on the resources required to carry out the many activities aimed at bringing Angola back to normalcy. While thanking the international community for assistance so far rendered to Angola, she joined the Secretary-General in inviting the donor community to fulfil the pledges made at the 1995 Brussels Round-Table Conference. In the short term, such assistance could only help ensure that the peace currently existing in Angola could hold. She supported the proposed extension of the mandate of UNAVEM III.
DOMINGOS FERREIRA (Sao Tome and Principe) said that implementation of the Lusaka agreement had reached a point of no return, as too much effort and hope had been applied by the parties and by the international community. Some aspects of it had not yet been implemented. Yet, without resolving all military aspects and achieving general security, political issues could not be resolved. Among those issues were the return to Luanda of UNITA deputies to the National Assembly, establishment of the Government of National Unity and Reconciliation, and establishment of a special status for the leader of UNITA. The demobilization of troops in Angola and their reintegration into society was also an important issue and donor countries should provide additional resources to support that vital programme. If they did not, Angola would face spreading urban insecurity.
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