SECURITY COUNCIL CALLS ON SUDAN TO EXTRADITE SUSPECTS IN ATTEMPTED ASSASSINATION OF EGYPTIAN PRESIDENT19960131 Resolution 1044 (1996) Unanimously Adopted; Ethiopia Says Sudan Implicated; Sudan Denies Allegations, Pledges Cooperation
The Security Council this afternoon called on the Government of the Sudan to comply with requests of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) to extradite to Ethiopia the three suspects wanted for attempting to assassinate President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt on 25 June 1995, in Addis Ababa.
As it condemned the assassination attempt, the Council also called on the Government of the Sudan to stop assisting, supporting and facilitating terrorist activities and to act in its relations with its neighbours and with others, in full conformity with the Charter of the United Nations and the charter of the OAU.
By its unanimous adoption of resolution 1044 (1996), the Council deplored the violation of the sovereignty and integrity of Ethiopia and the attempt to disturb the peace and security of Ethiopia and the region. It urged the international community to encourage the Government of the Sudan to respond fully and effectively to the OAU requests.
The Council requested the Secretary-General, in consultation with the OAU, to seek the cooperation of the Government of the Sudan in the implementation of this resolution and to report to the Council in 60 days.
The representative of Ethiopia told the Council that evidence unearthed by his Government had implicated the Government of the Sudan in the assassination attempt against President Mubarak of Egypt, clearly illustrating a threat to the peace and security of the region. The Central Organ of the OAU had called on the Sudan to hand over the terrorists, but that Government had turned a deaf ear. For that reason, Ethiopia had felt compelled to bring the matter before the Security Council. State-sponsored international terrorism clearly constituted a threat to international peace and security, he said.
Security Council - 1a - Press Release SC/6170 3627th Meeting (PM) 31 January 1996
The representative of the Sudan said that his country would not allow its territory, nationals or institutions to be used in any manner for terrorist activities. His Government was ready to fully cooperate with the parties concerned and pledged its support to the Secretaries-General of the OAU and the United Nations, in accordance with the terms of the draft resolution.
Also speaking this afternoon were the representatives of Indonesia, Botswana, Republic of Korea, Germany, Honduras, Chile, China, Poland, Guinea- Bissau, United States, Italy, France, Egypt, Russian Federation and the United Kingdom.
The meeting, which was called to order at 3:46 p.m., was adjourned at 5:30 p.m.
Letters before the Council
As the Security Council met this afternoon it had before it a series of letters concerning the attempt to assassinate President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt on 26 June 1995, following his arrival in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
The Permanent Representative of Ethiopia, in a letter dated 9 January 1996 (document S/1995/10), requests an urgent meeting of the Council to consider "Sudan's refusal to comply with repeated demands for extradition to Ethiopia of the terrorists sought for their role in the assassination attempt".
The document includes several annexes. Annex I contains a statement issued on 11 September 1995 by the Organization of African Unity (OAU) Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution, which calls upon the Government of Sudan to hand over to Ethiopia "three terrorists who are sheltering in the Sudan". It also calls on all governments, "and in this case the Government of Sudan", to stop assisting, supporting and facilitating terrorist activities and giving shelter and sanctuaries to terrorist elements. The statement was made following a meeting to consider a report on the outcome of an investigation conducted by Ethiopian authorities.
In a follow-up statement dated 19 December (Annex II), the Central Organ of the OAU regrets that there was no progress in the extradition by Sudan of the three suspects and urges the Sudanese Government to look for, locate and extradite the three terrorists.
Also annexed to the Ethiopian letter is a report by Ethiopia detailing its findings regarding the assassination attempt. It states that the attempt was a sophisticated plot in which the security organs and the leadership of Sudan were involved. It describes the attempt as a violation of international law and the Charter, which warranted the immediate attention of the Council. Ethiopia had not come to the Council before because it felt that bilateral means and regional forums should be engaged first. When the Sudanese Government wanted Ethiopia to engage in a cover-up of the crime, Ethiopia took the matter to the OAU. The Sudanese authorities, however, "are determined to continue to prevaricate and frustrate the OAU's efforts".
The act of terrorism in which Sudan assisted must be taken as an indirect aggression against Ethiopia, according to the Ethiopian report. At first Sudan had claimed that the matter was political in nature and, as such, could not be dealt with by the OAU Conflict Prevention Mechanism. Now that Ethiopia had brought the matter to the United Nations, the Sudanese insist that only OAU deal with the issue, it states.
According to Ethiopia's investigation, those involved in the assassination attempt were members of a terrorist organization called Al- Gama'a-Islamia. The two main leaders were based in Khartoum. Of the nine deployed in Addis Ababa, one escaped and three were now in the custody of Ethiopian authorities. Two had been killed during the attack and three others were killed five days later during a shoot-out with security personnel. The terrorists in custody admit that: their leaders live in Khartoum; the plot was hatched in Khartoum; their mission to assassinate President Mubarak was given to them in Khartoum; and the weapons intended to be used in their mission were flown into Addis Ababa by Sudan Airways from Khartoum. Moreover, the passports they possess, in virtually all cases, were prepared for them in Khartoum.
The report notes that the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents,
Security Council - 4 - Press Release SC/6170 3627th Meeting (PM) 31 January 1996
which came into force in February 1977 states that it is an international crime to make "a violent attack upon the official premises, the private accommodation or the means of transport of an internationally protected person", including a head of State. Furthermore, the 1994 General Assembly Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism states that, "the suppression of acts of international terrorism including those in which States are directly or indirectly involved, is an essential element for the maintenance of international peace and security". Ethiopia called on the Council to consider the matter and adopt a resolution commensurate with the gravity of the crime.
In response to the Ethiopian letter, the Permanent Representative of Sudan to the United Nations addressed a letter to the President of the Council dated 11 January 1996 (document S/1996/22) in which he says that introduction of the issue in the Council could seriously damage the reputation and credibility of OAU in the field of conflict management and add more obstacles to negotiations between the parties concerned. The crux of the matter was the declared design of a certain world Power to destabilize the Sudan using some of the neighbours, under what they termed a "dual containment" policy against "an outlaw of the new world order".
He states that the Central Organ of the OAU had urged the continuation of efforts by the Sudan to "look for, locate and extradite the three suspects". Ethiopia, the current Chairman of the OAU, opted to disregard the letter by unilaterally resorting to the Council, thus reflecting the current hostile campaign against the Sudan. In addition, the letter questions some of the evidence from the suspects in custody.
He points out that 10 days after receiving the Ethiopian request, the Sudanese Government dispatched a high-level delegation to the Ethiopian Government with the results of the investigations that had been conducted, at the same time explaining the difficulties encountered due to the insufficiency of information. The delegation asked for additional information, and also requested the dispatch of an Ethiopian investigation team to the Sudan.
Security Council - 5 - Press Release SC/6170 3627th Meeting (PM) 31 January 1996
Instead, the Ethiopian Government proposed the 1 September 1995 measures aimed at eliminating all Sudanese presence in Ethiopia. Accordingly, the Sudan has demanded the intervention of the OAU. Neither the leadership in the Sudan, nor the Sudanese security organs or any Sudanese individual were involved in the assassination attempt, he states. It was ready to cooperate fully with a constructive unmasking of the facts.
The Sudan has also submitted to the Council the text of the letter from the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Sudan to the Secretary-General of the OAU (document S/1996/25) in which he addresses the extradition issue and the accusations levelled by Egypt against the Sudan regarding the allegation of training and sanctuary given by the Sudan to terrorist elements from some African countries. The Foreign Minister invites the Secretary-General to visit the Sudan as soon as possible to discuss with Sudanese authorities the ways and means of implementing the extradition of the alleged suspects. He also calls on the Secretary-General to urge both Ethiopia and Egypt to collaborate with the Sudan by furnishing the information that they claim to have concerning the three suspects and their whereabouts. He goes on to say that the Sudan is not training or giving sanctuary to any terrorist elements from any country and he proposes that a fact-finding mission be sent to the Sudan to investigate the claims and make its findings known to all.
In another letter to the Council, dated 12 January (document S/1996/29), the Permanent Representative of Sudan requests an urgent meeting of the Council to find ways and means to stop "a military aggression" by the Ethiopian army against a number of locations in Sudan, in late December and early January. The aggression, he states, confirms the complicity of Ethiopia in the designs and plots against the Sudan and threatens the security and stability of the region and the world. He requests that the Council take the necessary measures to ensure that Ethiopia ceases its aggression against the territory of the Sudan and compensate the victims of its aggression.
A letter from the Permanent Representative of Ethiopia (document S/1996/30) describes the "false accusations made recently by the Sudan against Ethiopia" and refers to "Sudanese attempts to divert attention" from the Ethiopian request to have the Council look into Sudanese involvement in the assassination attempt. Further, it states that the Sudanese invitation to the OAU to send a fact-finding mission is a gimmick to create the impression that the Sudan is enthusiastically cooperating.
The Council also has before it a draft resolution (document S/1996/69), sponsored by Botswana, Chile, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras and Indonesia, which reads as follows:
Security Council - 6 - Press Release SC/6170 3627th Meeting (PM) 31 January 1996
"The Security Council,
"Deeply disturbed" by the world-wide persistence of acts of international terrorism in all its forms which endanger or take innocent lives, have a deleterious effect on international relations and jeopardize the security of States,
"Recalling the statement made by the President of the Security Council on 31 January 1992 (S/23500) when the Council met at the level of Heads of State and Government in which the members of the Council expressed their deep concern over acts of international terrorism and emphasized the need for the international community to deal effectively with all such acts,
"Recalling also the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, opened for signature at New York on 14 December 1973,
"Stressing the imperative need to strengthen international cooperation between States in order to make and adopt practical and effective measures to prevent, combat and eliminate all forms of terrorism that affect the international community as a whole,
"Convinced that the suppression of acts of international terrorism, including those in which States are involved, is an essential element for the maintenance of international peace and security,
"Gravely alarmed at the terrorist assassination attempt on the life of the President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on 26 June 1995, and convinced that those responsible for that act must be brought to justice,
"Taking note that the Third Extraordinary Session of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution of 11 September 1995, considered that attack as aimed, not only at the President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, and not only at the sovereignty, integrity and stability of Ethiopia, but also at Africa as a whole,
Taking note also of the statements of the Central Organ of the OAU Mechanism of 11 September 1995 and of 9 December 1995 and supporting the implementation of the requests contained therein,
"Regretting the fact that the Government of the Sudan has not yet complied with the requests of the Central Organ of the OAU set out in those statements,
"Noting the letter from Permanent Representative of Ethiopia of 9 January 1996 (S/1996/10) to the President of the Council,
Security Council - 7 - Press Release SC/6170 3627th Meeting (PM) 31 January 1996
"Noting also the letters from the Permanent Representative of Sudan of 11 January 1996 (S/1996/22) and 12 January 1996 (S/1996/25) to the President of the Council,
"1. Condemns the terrorist assassination attempt on the life of the President of the Arab Republic of Egypt in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on 26 June 1995;
"2. Strongly deplores the flagrant violation of the sovereignty and integrity of Ethiopia and the attempt to disturb the peace and security of Ethiopia and the region as a whole;
"3. Commends the efforts of the Government of Ethiopia to resolve this issue through bilateral and regional arrangements;
"4. Calls upon the Government of Sudan to comply with the requests of the Organization of African Unity without further delay to:
"(a) undertake immediate action to extradite to Ethiopia for prosecution the three suspects sheltering in the Sudan and wanted in connection with the assassination attempt on the basis of the 1964 Extradition Treaty between Ethiopia and the Sudan;
"(b) desist from engaging in activities of assisting, supporting and facilitating terrorist activities and from giving shelter and sanctuaries to terrorist elements and act in its relations with its neighbours and with others in full conformity with the Charter of the United Nations and with the Charter of the Organization of African Unity;
"5. Urges the international community to encourage the Government of Sudan to respond fully and effectively to the OAU requests;
"6. Welcomes the efforts of the Secretary-General of the OAU aimed at the implementation of the relevant provisions of the statements of the Central Organ of the OAU Mechanism of 11 September 1995 and of 19 December 1995, and supports the OAU in its continued efforts to implement its decisions;
"7. Requests the Secretary-General, in consultation with the OAU, to seek the cooperation of the Government of the Sudan in the implementation of this resolution and to report to the Council within 60 days;
"8. Decides to remain seized of the matter."
Security Council - 8 - Press Release SC/6170 3627th Meeting (PM) 31 January 1996
MULUGETA ETEFFA (Ethiopia) said that over the last five years, his country had striven to build peace at home and with its neighbours, among them the Sudan. Despite excellent relations with its neighbours and its continued effort to find a durable solution to the crisis in Somalia, efforts to maintain good relations with the Sudan had not yet yielded fruit. That was because the forces that directed the Sudan had placed themselves on a collision course with the entire sub-region.
He said that even though the assassination attempt against the President of Egypt had failed, the evidence unearthed by Ethiopian investigations had implicated the Government of the Sudan, clearly illustrating the threat to the peace and security of the region.
Ethiopia had intended to resolve the issue, in the first place, at the bilateral level, he said. After investigations revealed that three of the terrorists suspected of involvement in the crime were in the Sudan, his Government had provided the relevant information Sudanese authorities and requested the Sudan to extradite the terrorists. In response, the Sudan had limited its response to removing its Minister of Internal Affairs and a few other officials. It had resisted the extradition, hoping that Ethiopia would be satisfied by a few dismissals and promises of cooperation. Ethiopia had been expected to participate in a cover-up.
Realizing the resistance of the Sudanese Government, his Government had brought the matter to the attention of the OAU, he continued. The OAU Central Organ had called upon the Sudan to hand over the three terrorists and to desist from engaging in activities of assisting, supporting and facilitating terrorist activities. The Sudan, however, had given the OAU a deaf ear and had not complied with the OAU resolution. For that reason, Ethiopia felt compelled to bring the matter before the Council.
An act of State-sponsored international terrorism undertaken in the territory of another State clearly constituted a threat to international peace and security, he continued. He was appealing to the Council, so that the voice of the international community would be heard in bringing the perpetrator of the crime to justice. A Security Council resolution calling on the Sudan to comply with the requests by Ethiopia and the OAU for the extradition of the terrorists would confront the Sudanese authorities with a direct challenge. The Sudan should accept and carry out the decision of the Council.
Such action by the Council in support of the decisions of the OAU would enhance and strengthen the cooperation and complementarity between the United Nations and the regional organizations in the maintenance of peace and security, he said. In closing, he pointed out that certain other countries
Security Council - 9 - Press Release SC/6170 3627th Meeting (PM) 31 January 1996
were mentioned in Ethiopia's submission, but none of those States, except the Sudan, had been involved in supporting the activities of the terrorists.
ALI M. O. YASSIN (Sudan) said that his country would not allow its territory, nationals or institutions to be used in any manner for direct or indirect terrorist activities. His country had been outraged at the assassination attempt on the life of the President of Egypt and had condemned that action on many occasions.
Upon receiving the request of the Government of Ethiopia regarding the three Egyptian suspects in the Sudan, his Government had established a high- level Committee of Investigation endowed with the powers necessary to undertake a thorough inquiry. The report of that Committee was communicated to Ethiopia within 10 days of the receipt of their letter. That Committee had concluded that there was no clue whatever indicating that two of the terrorists entered Sudan at any time, before or after the incident. As to the third suspect, authorities in the Sudan had confirmed the entry of a person bearing one of the three names offered by Ethiopian authorities on a regular commercial flight from Addis Ababa. But, the Committee had not been able to locate the suspect.
His Government had expressed its readiness to cooperate with the Governments of Ethiopia and Egypt, and had reintroduced visa restrictions for entering the Sudan. His Government had requested additional information from Ethiopia to help in the investigation efforts of the Committee of Investigation, but Ethiopia had responded by bringing the matter to the attention of the OAU. The OAU, without inviting the Sudan to attend the meeting, adopted its resolution of 11 September 1995 in violation of established procedures for international organizations.
Under international law there could be no accusation without evidence, he continued. Accused persons had the right to be heard and should be presumed innocent until proven guilty. Although disappointed in its decision, the Sudan had continued to cooperate with the OAU. Despite a 19 December 1995 resolution in which the Central Organ of the OAU decided to remain "seized of the issue", the Deputy Foreign Minister of Ethiopia had brought the matter to the attention of the Security Council. Why had pressure been exerted on the Security Council to consider a question that at the same time was being considered by the OAU? he asked.
It had been argued that the Security Council had decided to consider the question because the Sudan had not cooperated in implementing resolutions of the OAU, he said. But the Sudan had always abided by resolutions of both the OAU and the United Nations. The Sudan strongly supported efforts to deal firmly with terrorism and ensure that perpetrators were brought to justice. But the resolution before the Security Council was not balanced, as it did not take into consideration the position of Sudan, which was to cooperate fully
Security Council - 10 - Press Release SC/6170 3627th Meeting (PM) 31 January 1996
and unconditionally. The authors of the draft resolution had only one objective -- to implicate Sudan as a symbol of international terrorism.
Operative paragraph four of the draft text had deliberately ignored the 19 December decision of the Central Organ of the OAU, which had called on the Sudan to locate and extradite the three terrorists. It reflected a new dimension of Security Council resolutions based upon hypothesis ad assumption. The draft assumed that three Egyptian suspects were in the hands of the Government of the Sudan, and that all the Government of the Sudan had to do was extradite them to Ethiopia. If Egypt and Ethiopia possessed information on the whereabouts of the terrorists, they should provide the Sudan with that information. His Government had offered to cooperate with them and had invited them to send investigative teams for that purpose -- an initiative rejected by those Governments. His Government was ready to hand the Egyptian terrorists over to Ethiopia if they were found in the Sudan.
His country had not committed aggression against its neighbours, he said. The Security Council, however, might recall acts of aggression against the Sudan. The allegations against the Sudan had been challenged by the invitation extended by the Sudan to the Secretary-General of the OAU to visit Sudan and establish a fact-finding mission to verify the allegations. It was easy to make allegations, but difficult to hide an act of aggression.
His country categorically condemned terrorism. No pretext of any nature could justify acts of terrorism. Further, his Government condemned the assassination attempt against the President of Egypt. His country was ready to cooperate fully and unconditionally with the parties concerned and pledged its support to the Secretaries-General of the OAU and the United Nations, in accordance with the provisions of the present draft resolution.
He said the Sudan was open to guests and refugees and followed the rules of good-neighbourliness. The killing of a human being was an apostasy. Sudan would continue to be giving and generous and would continue to keep its promises to its neighbours to the North and East.
MAKARIM WIBISONO (Indonesia) said his Government condemned acts of violence and terrorism, which constituted the most flagrant violation of human rights. He hoped that the perpetrators of the assassination attempt would be brought to swift justice. He called for intensified cooperation in the fight against terrorism. The most expeditious way to resolve the question would be for the Council to extend its full support to the continuous bilateral efforts that had already been undertaken. Those endeavours should be augmented by the OAU.
He supported operative paragraph six, which called on the Secretary- General to seek the cooperation of the Government of the Sudan. He also supported the proposal because the modality established required the
Security Council - 11 - Press Release SC/6170 3627th Meeting (PM) 31 January 1996
cooperation of the Government of the Sudan, without which the task of the OAU would be more difficult, He was gratified to note that the Sudan had extended an invitation to the OAU to come to the Sudan. The draft resolution should be viewed as supporting the thrust and objectives of the OAU Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution. He hoped that it would facilitate the tasks undertaken by the OAU.
The draft offered a balanced and pragmatic approach, he said. It also provided the OAU with a flexible and appropriate mechanism for resolving the question. Such an approach would take into account the interest and viewpoints of the parties directly involved in the unfortunate episode. He called upon the parties to refrain from any action that might lead to or be construed as an attempt to further escalate tensions. He also appealed to them to cooperate with the Secretary-General of the OAU. He was confident that the good offices of the Secretary-General of the United Nations combined with the determined efforts on the part of the OAU would render positive results.
LEGWAILA J.M.J. LEGWAILA (Botswana) said that the assassination attempt on the life of the President of Egypt had stirred indignation among African States, as it had occurred on the day of the opening of the Summit meeting of the Heads of State and Government of the OAU. The crime had been aimed at all African leaders.
The issue before the Council was an African problem that deserved an African solution, he said. He would have preferred that the issue be resolved without reference to the Security Council, but Ethiopia had exercised its right to bring the issue to the Council. It was a matter of regret that, six months after the attempt on President Mubarak, the suspects had not been brought to justice.
Ethiopia had tried to achieve the extradition of the suspects at the bilateral level and had twice seen the matter addressed by the Central Organ of the OAU. The draft resolution before the Council did not represent an effort to usurp the role of the OAU on the matter. The OAU needed the support of the international community and there was only one Security Council. It was natural that the Council support the OAU.
The draft resolution did not propose to impose any measures against the Sudan. It simply called upon the Government of the Sudan to comply with requests of the OAU and extradite the three suspects to Ethiopia for prosecution.
PARK SOO GIL (Republic of Korea) said his Government condemned international terrorism in all its forms, and in particular State-sponsored acts of terrorism against a head of State. Such acts were a major threat to international peace and security. The imperative need for the international
Security Council - 12 - Press Release SC/6170 3627th Meeting (PM) 31 January 1996
community to wipe terrorism from the face of the earth could not be overemphasized.
His country's firm commitment to the eradication of State-sponsored terrorism was based on its traumatic experiences in the recent past, he said. In October 1983, the entourage of the President of the Republic of Korea had been subjected to a bomb attack in Myanmar, during the President's State visit to that country. Although the perpetrators of that attack had been brought to justice and irrefutable evidence establishing the sponsorship of a State was presented to the United Nations, the sponsor of that act of terrorism had been left unpunished.
He said that impunity had led to another act of terrorism four years later by the same State, against a commercial airliner of the Republic of Korea, which had resulted in the killing of the 115 people on board. The Council had failed to act upon the overwhelming evidence of State-sponsorship. The half-hearted manner in which those acts of terrorism were handled then by the United Nations had sent a wrong signal to potential sponsors of State- terrorism. As in all crimes, impunity towards acts of terrorism bred terrorism.
He said that by adopting the draft resolution, the Council was making amends for past inaction. He stressed that he had no intention to prejudge the merits of the case at hand. However, given the gravity of the case and its potential consequences for the peace and stability of the countries concerned and the region, the Council had a moral and political responsibility to help bring the three suspects wanted in connection with the assassination attempt to justice and, thus, bring the truth of the case to light.
The most practical step was to support the efforts undertaken by the OAU in the African regional context, he said. By endorsing the actions taken by the OAU, the Council could strengthen the authority and capability of the OAU in the field of conflict prevention, management and resolution in the region. While he was inclined to read a positive indication of the Sudan's willingness to cooperate with the OAU, he regretted that the Sudan had not yet complied with the OAU requests for extradition of the three suspects. The best way for the Government of the Sudan to disprove its responsibility was to apprehend and extradite the three suspects without further delay.
TONO EITEL (Germany) said that the Government of Ethiopia had sought to settle the problem of extraditing the three suspects at the bilateral level, then at the regional level, and finally had turned to the Security Council for support. The OAU Central Organ had very clearly expressed its conclusion that the Government of the Sudan had not cooperated sufficiently. It was for that reason that the Security Council should adopt the draft before it.
Security Council - 13 - Press Release SC/6170 3627th Meeting (PM) 31 January 1996
The actions of the OAU and of the Security Council had been in response to a terrorist attack that had been viewed by many Governments, including that of Germany, as an attempt to disturb peace and security in the region. That criminal act must not remain unpunished.
The action of the Security Council was complementary to the initiatives of the OAU, he said. The Council fully supported the role of the regional organization in that respect. The draft resolution had explicitly mentioned the requests submitted by the OAU to the Government of the Sudan. The intention of the draft was to bring to justice those responsible for a criminal act that had flagrantly violated international law and that could have seriously affected the stability of the region.
JULIO RENDON BARNICA (Honduras) said his Government had always condemned acts of terrorism wherever and by whomever committed. It had supported all efforts to combat the threat to international peace and security. Repeated commission of those reprehensible acts made clear the need for States to cooperate with each other to eradicate such acts.
The attempt against the life of the President of Egypt served as a reminder to States to adopt anti-terrorist legislation and to not grant asylum or refugee status to the perpetrators of such acts, he said. Impunity was unacceptable, especially when there were agreed mechanisms, such as extradition, to deal with such situations. The efforts of Ethiopia to resolve the problem of extradition, both bilaterally and regionally were worthy of commendation. In the fight against terrorism, international agreements were not enough. The Government of the Sudan must comply with the requests for extradition. He had taken note of the statement of the representative of the Sudan affirming his Government's intention to cooperate.
JUAN SOMAVIA (Chile) said that his Government supported the draft resolution and energetically condemned the assassination attempt against President Mubarak of Egypt. The attempt had fortunately not been successful, but there were criminals who had not been brought to justice. The international community had, through General Assembly resolution 49/60, condemned all terrorist acts as criminal and unjustifiable. That had been a unanimous resolution of the Assembly.
His Government supported the decisions of the OAU in the matter being considered. The action of the Security Council in no way duplicated or interfered with the work of that body. He urged the Sudan to cooperate with the OAU in that regard. Resolutions of the General Assembly and Conventions related to terrorism should be publicized and promoted by the United Nations. The "culture of impunity" should not be allowed to continue.
Security Council - 14 - Press Release SC/6170 3627th Meeting (PM) 31 January 1996
QIN HUASUN (China) said his Government had always strongly opposed and condemned acts of terrorism in all its forms, as they not only endangered innocent lives and social stability, but also posed a threat to international security. Those involved in the assassination attempt must be brought to justice. He hoped that the OAU, with the support of the Security Council would continue to play its important role in bringing about a proper solution. The main purpose of the draft resolution was to demonstrate the Council's support for and cooperation with the OAU.
He said that, in addressing that act of terrorism, as in other international disputes, the Council should observer the purposes and principles of the Charter, act strictly according to the norms of international law and make its own judgement in a fair and objective manner by respecting facts and attaching importance to evidence. The Council should be careful, serious and prudent when taking any actions. He expressed reservations on elements in part b of operative paragraph 4 of the text, which called upon Sudan to desist from engaging in activities of assisting, supporting and conniving at terrorist activities. A Chinese saying goes "Listen to all sides and you will be enlightened; otherwise you will be benighted." The Council should also fully listen to the views of the parties concerned and the OAU and give play to their role as much as possible. He would vote in favour of the draft.
ZBIGNIEW M. WLOSOWICZ (Poland) said that those committing acts of terrorism should be held accountable. The deplorable event at the opening of the OAU Summit on 26 June 1995 by far exceeded national dimensions. Such a tragedy could have had grave consequences for regional peace and security. The search for the perpetrators and their being brought to justice was an important factor in the maintenance of trust and stability.
Ethiopian authorities had undertaken legal measures, he said. Unfortunately, those efforts had not been successful, and they had handed the matter over to the attention of the OAU. Despite the efforts of the OAU, a satisfactory solution had not been found. In light of the futility of both bilateral and regional efforts to resolve the issue, the Security Council had deemed it necessary to place the matter on its agenda. All Council members shared the view that the efforts of the OAU must be supported and enhanced. The Government of the Sudan must undertake immediate measures to commit itself to the decisions of the OAU and the present resolution of the Council.
MARIO LOPES DA ROSA (Guinea Bissau) said that acts of terrorism were catastrophic for homes, families, societies and States. Nobody could feel safe. The international community must adopt practical measures to spare society from those odious acts. He reaffirmed support for the 1994 General Assembly Declaration on measures to eliminate international terrorism.
Security Council - 15 - Press Release SC/6170 3627th Meeting (PM) 31 January 1996
He condemned the terrorists' assassination attempt, stating that the seriousness of the attack merited the attention of the international community. He thanked the Secretary-General of the OAU and all those who were making efforts to assist the Government of Sudan to find the suspects. He would vote in favour of the draft resolution, while hoping that the Government of the Sudan would continue to cooperate in the effort to find a speedy solution to the crisis.
Action on the draft
The Council then unanimously adopted the draft resolution as Security Council resolution 1044 (1996).
Following action on the resolution, MADELEINE K. ALBRIGHT (United States) said that the terrorist attack on President Mubarak had been carried out by Egyptian nationals who had used Khartoum as a base of operations for more than two years while planning the action. It had failed because of the professional response of Ethiopian and Egyptian security personnel, some of whom had lost their lives. Had it succeeded, the action would have undermined peace and stability in the North African and Middle East regions. Terrorism as a means of affecting conflicts must be condemned, she said.
Terrorism, much of it externally-sponsored, was a fact of life from Eritrea, to Pakistan, to Israel and Sri Lanka, she said. Terrorist attacks had even been threatened against United Nations Headquarters.
The United States had found the evidence gathered by Ethiopia to be compelling and convincing, she continued. The Sudan had the responsibility to extradite those responsible. The Government of the Sudan had failed to seriously respond to the OAU and could not provide proof that it had made any effort to arrest the three individuals. It had made a transparently insincere offer to allow an OAU team to join in the search, as if that body would be able to find three terrorists in a country of 2.5 million square kilometres, when the security forces of that country did not want them to be found.
The unanimous adoption of the draft resolution before the Council was a measure of the international isolation in which the Sudanese Government had chosen to live, she said. The United States wished for good relations with the Sudan, but positive bilateral relations were not built upon declarations, but upon concrete actions. The demands of the Council were simple and straightforward. The Government of the Sudan must immediately extradite the terrorists it was sheltering and stop supporting terrorism. The requirements of the resolution, like the OAU decisions upon which it was based, were logical and justified. The obligation to extradite dangerous criminals and terrorists was among the minimum obligations of States that wished to live in peace with their neighbours. It was within the power of the Government of Sudan to comply immediately and fully with those requirements.
Security Council - 16 - Press Release SC/6170 3627th Meeting (PM) 31 January 1996
Her Government hoped that the Secretary-General would be able to report within 60 days that the Sudan had extradited the suspects for the sake of the war on terrorism to which all must be committed.
FRANCESCO PAOLO FULCI (Italy) said that great concern had been raised in his country by the dispute between Ethiopia and the Sudan over the case created by the assassination attempt on the President of Egypt. He condemned terrorism of every form. Italy knew by direct experience the grave dangers that such a plague posed to States and to the international community. It was also well aware of how difficult it was to root out the problem once it had spread. He hoped that Ethiopia would soon be able to successfully conclude the judicial process with a condemnation of the culprits.
He said the resolution sent a strong signal to the Sudan to comply with the OAU requests without further delay. He hoped that the Sudan took that signal into account, thereby preventing an escalation of the dispute which would lead the country into isolation from Africa and from the international community. The Sudan must show the OAU and the international community its political will to strengthen cooperation with the States in the region, and its commitment to the common efforts to maintain international peace and security, as a prerequisite for economic development and stability.
HERVE LADSOUS (France) said that the assassination attempt perpetrated against President Mubarak on 26 June 1995 had been a reminder of the ever- present threat of terrorism. France had condemned that attempt and today reaffirmed that position.
He welcomed the decision of the Government of Ethiopia to request the OAU to contribute to shedding light on the event. He also welcomed the efforts of the OAU. Today's Council resolution had spoken to those requests in the strongest possible manner. His Government welcomed the efforts of the OAU and supported its demands. He awaited full compliance with the resolution of the Security Council by all those to whom it had been addressed.
NABIL ELARABY (Egypt) said the adoption of the resolution must express a clear and unambiguous message that the Council was resolute in its support of the OAU resolution.
He said the timing of the assassination attempt reflected the existence of an organized conspiracy. The resolution of the Council condemned the attack on the sovereignty, integrity and stability of Ethiopia. The consequences of the crime went beyond the territory of Egypt, as it was an attack against the whole of Africa. The Council was not dealing with a bilateral dispute whose settlement could be ignored by the international community.
Security Council - 17 - Press Release SC/6170 3627th Meeting (PM) 31 January 1996
Despite the extreme gravity, the matter had been put before the Council more than six months after the event had taken place, he said. The terrorists had spent a long time hatching the attempt. Ethiopia, however, had placed its information before the Sudan soon after the event. There had been, however, an attempt by the Sudan to hide information regarding the event.
All attempts made by Ethiopia to convince the Sudan to extradite the suspects had regrettably failed, he said. The OAU had requested the Sudan to extradite the three suspects sheltering in the Sudan and to desist in activities in support of terrorism. When Ethiopia had resorted to the Council, it had done so under its rights under the Charter. Article 54 made it clear that the Council should be kept informed of the actions of the regional organizations.
He said there was no conflict between dealing with the matter on regional and international levels. The Council's action today could spare the international community a threat to international peace and security. He hoped that the Government of the Sudan would deal with the Council action and the OAU resolution with due seriousness, and that it would comply without procrastination or prevarication. He also hoped that the Secretary-General would report to the Council that the Sudan had implemented all the measures contained in the resolution. He counted on the efforts of all States to encourage the Sudan to comply with the resolutions. Such compliance would indicate that the Government of the Sudan had changed its direction.
He said that Egypt considered that the Sudan and Egypt were natural extensions of each other. Any harm that befell one befell the other. Egypt had a keen interest in the Government of the Sudan returning to the right path.
VASILIY SIDOROV (Russian Federation) said that his Government was ready to cooperate with all regional and international organizations to eradicate terrorism. Russia had firmly condemned the assassination attempt against President Mubarak. There could be no doubt that the matter could only be resolved through the cooperation of all parties concerned.
The OAU had made every attempt to resolve the problem, he said. Russia welcomed the cooperation between regional organizations and the United Nations. The Security Council should not substitute for regional bodies, however. Collaboration between the OAU and the United Nations could yield positive results on the question before the Council.
He hoped that efforts would be stepped up to find the three suspects being sought and that the matter could be thereby resolved, he said. The resolution adopted today had not sought to isolate the Sudan. It had sought to encourage bilateral channels to resolve the issue. That was why the Russian Federation had endorsed the resolution. He had taken note of the
Security Council - 18 - Press Release SC/6170 3627th Meeting (PM) 31 January 1996
comments of the Sudan today and hoped that the constructive efforts of that Government would be duly noted by the international community.
Sir JOHN WESTON (United Kingdom) said that his Government had been shocked and had strongly condemned the assassination attempt on President Mubarak and applauded the Ethiopian Government for its effective investigation into that attack. The United Kingdom had found the evidence produced convincing and regretted the failure of the Government of the Sudan to comply with requests of the OAU.
He hoped that the Government of the Sudan would cooperate with the implementation of the Council's resolution, in particular by extraditing the three suspects for prosecution. He also hoped that, in the report requested by the resolution, the Secretary-General would be able to report that the problem had been satisfactorily resolved.
* *** *