UN Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
with support from the UN Population Fund (UNFPA)

97-05: ICPD News, No. 6, Final Issue, May 1997

                        ICPD NEWS

     A Newsletter of the UNFPA Task Force on ICPD Implementation

                   No. 6, Final Issue, May 1997


Youth Speak out

News Briefs

ACC Task Force on Basic Social Services for All

Principles of the ICPD

Commission on Population and Development

Taking Stock: UNFPA Publications on Key ICPD Themes

                             * * *


Young people around the globe say they need accurate information

about sex, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other

sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); they want access to family

planning information and services; and they want to marry and

have children later in life. They also want their parents' help

in all these matters, but they do not want to be pressured or

controlled by them.

Those are some of the views of youth and adolescents that emerged

during a recent international essay contest sponsored by the

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) on the theme "Promoting

Responsible Reproductive Behaviour: The Youth Perspective." The

contest was held in support of the World Youth Forum of the

United Nations (UN), which took place in Vienna, Austria, 25-29

November 1996. The Forum aims at promoting collaboration between

UN organizations and agencies and youth non-governmental

organizations (NGOs), several of which helped organize the essay


The Programme of Action of the International Conference on

Population and Development (ICPD) highlights the critical need to

address adolescent sexual and reproductive health issues, which

have largely been ignored by existing reproductive health

services: "[I]n particular, information and services should be

made available to adolescents to help them understand their

sexuality and protect them from unwanted pregnancies, sexually

transmitted diseases and subsequent risk of infertility. This

should be combined with the education of young men to respect

women's self-determination and to share responsibility with women

in matters of sexuality and reproduction" (paragraph 7.41).

UNFPA is increasing its attentionto addressing the reproductive

health needs of youth and adolescents through its programming and

information activities. Since theICPD, increased resources have

been devoted to this key area. As Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive

Director, UNFPA, noted in a recent interview, "[Adolescent

reproductive health] is an area where we will have to work in a

very culturally sensitive manner; presenting the problems to the

Government and to policy-makers; giving them the information on

what works and what doesn't work. . . ."

UNFPA's role in promoting adolescent reproductive health was

singled out for mention in the United Nations World Programme of

Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond, which was adopted

by the United Nations General Assembly in December 1995.

Recognizing that youth should be actively involved in the

planning, implementation and evaluation of development activities

that have a direct impact on their daily lives, UNFPA organized

the international essay contest to get a clear indication of

their concerns. "We want to listen to young people," said O.J.

Sikes, Chief of UNFPA's Education, Communication and Youth

Branch. "We need to know their dreams, fears and concerns. To be

effective, policies and programmes that seek to meet their needs

must be based on a proper understanding of their attitudes and


Young people from 107 countries participated in the essay

contest. Thousands of entries were receivedat the national level;

520 of the top national essays were entered officially in the

international contest. The 15 winners attended the World Youth

Forum in Vienna, with UNFPA bearing the travel costs.

The essays expressed a number of common concerns, including:

*    The need for timely, specific sex education and accurate

information, particularly because of the prevalence of human

immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS and other STDs;

*    The important role of parents and families in providing

accurate sex education and information and enabling young people

to understand their responsibilities;

*    The need for family planning services for sexually active

youth so that they can exercise responsibility;

*    The need for an enabling sociocultural environment that

supports youth who choose to abstain from sexual relations;

*    The need for gender equality and equity, particularly in

education and employment; and

*    The need for greater male involvement in family affairs,

including family planning.

Other recurring points made by the young essayists include the


*    Although parents are the preferred source of information on

sexuality, they are not often equipped to help their children;

programmes should be designed to help parents educate their

children, as a complement to school programmes;

*    Community support, including that of religious leaders, is

needed for education programmes on reproductive health for both

in-school and out-of-school youth and adolescents;

*    Ignorance is a root cause of irresponsible and risky

behaviour, and alcohol often plays a role in early sexual

experimentation, first intercourse and unplanned pregnancies;

*    Accurate information about reproductive health and sexual

education is more difficult to obtain for young people who are

not in school; and

*    Early marriage and early child-bearing severely limit young

people's options for life.

In addition, many essayists from Africa opposed harmful

traditional practices such as female genital mutilation.

UNFPA will shortly publish a book containing the full texts of

the prize-winning entries as well as selected excerpts from other

entries. This will serve both as a source of youth views on

reproductive health issues and as an advocacy tool to promote

reproductive health information and services for youth and


                             * * *


By Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director

United Nations Population Fund

In the two and a half years since the International Conference on

Population and Development, countries have been addressing

population issues in a wide variety of ways. Several countries

reoriented their policies and family planning programmes to adopt

the broader reproductive health approach advocated by the ICPD.

Others drafted -- and some have already adopted -- population

policies for the first time, using the ICPD Programme of Action

as a guide. Several countries have established institutions to

safeguard women's rights, and several are emphasizing the

importance of increasing the role and responsibility of men in

family planning and family life. In addition, attention is being

focused increasingly on adolescents' needs for information and

services in reproductive health. Improving the quality of

services has been a widespread concern in many regions.

The common thread in these activities -- an emphasis that can be

traced largely to the ICPD Programme of Action -- is an emphasis

on responding to people's needs. These needs differ from country

to country and so, too, do the responses from Governments and

civil society.

In sub-Saharan Africa, countries are moving ahead with

programmes. Many African countries that never had a population

policy -- including Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Uganda and

Zimbabwe -- have now adopted or are developing one. Uganda has

undertaken programmes in adolescent reproductive health, women's

empowerment and reproductive rights, and the prevention of

harmful traditional practices, including female genital

mutilation. In the United Republic of Tanzania, parliamentarians

have been active in translating the Cairo recommendations into

reality. A Tanzanian NGO, Elimu ya Malezi ya Ujana -- Responsible

Parenthood Education for Youth -- initiated a youth guidance and

counselling project.

In the Arab States and Europe, countries are examining the

implications of the Programme of Action for their own services

and programmes. For example, the Syrian Arab Republic is

increasing its focus on such concerns as the reproductive health

rights of women and the roles of youth and men in population and

in support for women in their realization of reproductive health

rights. In countries with economies in transition, steps are

being taken to assess the status of reproductive health services

and to identify the training needs of service providers and the

information, education and communication activities to support

reproductive health. Ten Member States of the Economic

Cooperation Organization (ECO) met in Kazakstan to discuss

implementation of the Programme of Action.

In Asia, several countries have made remarkable progress. In

Bangladesh, where the size of family is down to 3.1, the focus is

on integrating the family planning programme into a broader

reproductive health programme. India responded positively tothe

call to eliminate targets and quotas and has reoriented its

reproductive health and family planning programme to emphasize

the quality of services. Indonesia is integrating family planning

into a broader reproductive health concept. In the Philippines,

the Department of Health is setting up a Task Force on Women's

Reproductive Health to carry out programmes within the context of

the Philippine Family Planning Programme. The Government of Viet

Nam has organized several workshops to address the ICPD


In Latin America, the emphasis has been, inter alia, on

institutional development, as well as an extension of quality

services. Brazil established the National Commission of

Population and Development. In El Salvador and Mexico, new

departments for reproductive health were established in their

respective health ministries. In Panama, the Ministry of Health

created a National Commission on Sexual and Reproductive Health.

Other institutions established to safeguard women's rights are

the Directorate for Gender Equity in Colombia, a Ministry for

Women's Affairs and Women's Rights in Haiti and the Women's

Rights Commission in Peru.

In many of these countries, new and more far-reaching

relationships are being forged between Governments and NGOs,

including women's organizations. In South Africa, the Planned

Parenthood Association has launched a project responding to the

urgent needs of young people vulnerable to sexual health risks.

In the Philippines, women's groups are being actively supported

for their advocacy and monitoring role and their service

programmes, which include counselling and care for abortion

complications. These new relationships between Governments and

NGOs, too, stem in part from the emphasis on cooperation with

NGOs and civil society expressed in the ICPD Programme of Action.

Despite the progress made in many of these and other countries,

many problems persist. Moreover, the sensitivity of certain

topics sometimes creates a barrier to progress. For example,

youth are concerned about problems such as sexually transmitted

diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus/acquired

immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). In many countries, however,

they are denied information. The subject of what kinds of

information and services should be provided to adolescents is

very controversial -- not just in developing countries but within

developed countries as well. Meanwhile, however, an increasing

number of young girls are becoming pregnant in their teens. Some,

before the age of 20, have had two or more children, which

compromises their health and hinders the attainment of their

potential. Above all, we must give a voice to young people

themselves and let them be heard.

To reach the goals set by the ICPD, both countries themselves and

the international community need to commit more resources. Many

developing countries have already increased the share of their

own resources for population. It is essential that the

international community honour its commitments. The 20/20

Initiative would facilitate these processes. This Initiative

calls on countries to allocate 20 per cent of their domestic

resources to the social sector, and it calls on donors to channel

20 per cent of official development assistance to the social

sector. The private and non-governmental sectors also have an

important role to play in mobilizing resources for social

development at the country level.

The entire United Nations system will continue to play a key role

in assisting countries in implementing goals of the ICPD and

other United Nations conferences which emphasized the importance

of eradicating poverty and providing basic social services for

all, including safety nets for vulnerable population groups.

Eradicating poverty, which will require sustained economic growth

within the context of sustainable development, will contribute to

achieving early population stabilization and to the ultimate goal

of raising the quality of life for all people.

                             * * *


The concerns of youth were the focus of the recent African Youth

Forum on Adolescent Reproductive Health, held at the United

Nations Economic Commission for Africa in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia,

20-24 January 1997. Organized by UNFPA and an international

non-governmental organization (NGO), the Center for Development

and Population Activities (CEDPA), the African Youth Forum was

attended by approximately 500 participants from 48 countries,

representing youth and youth-serving NGOs, research and other

institutions, and donors. Approximately 200of the participants

were young people under the age of 25.

The Forum drew up a comprehensive set of recommendations that are

also relevant to other regions of the world and have wide

applicability as guidance for programme design and

implementation. The recommendations deal with: information,

education and communication activities; reproductive health

services; policy and legislation; religion and culture; gender and

empowerment; parents and communities; training and research;

networking and coalition; implementation of international

resolutions and declarations; and funding and sustainability.

In her closing statement to the Forum, Dr. Nafis Sadik, UNFPA

Executive Director, emphasized that UNFPA stood ready to

implement and present to decision makers the recommendations

adopted at the meeting. She underscored to the participants that

"together, we can become effective advocates for change that

will, at last, ensure thereproductive and sexual healthof all

adolescents everywherein the world."

                             * * *


Expert Group Meets on the Global Programme of Training

UNFPA convened an Expert Group Meeting on the Global Programme of

Training in Population and Development in New York on 3-5

February 1997. The objective was to establish a framework that

would facilitate the translation of ICPD priorities and

recommendations into the global training initiative. Fifteen

experts from the field, including directors and coordinators of

the Global Training Programme, and 20 UNFPA staff members

attended the meeting.

Established in 1986, the Global Training Programme is part of a

comprehensive effort to assist developing countries in

integrating population into development strategies, policies and

programmes. It is being undertaken in conjunction with

host-country Governments and participating institutions. Training

courses of the Global Training Programme have been established in

association with the Cairo Demographic Centre, Cairo, Egypt; the

Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum, India; theInstitut

National de Statistique etd'Economie Appliqu=B1e (INSEA), Rabat,

Morocco; the Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; and the

University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana. The Training

Programme at INSEA in Rabat was originally at the Catholic

University of Louvain in Belgium, and the Training Programme in

Botswana was originally at the Institute of Social Studies in The

Hague, the Netherlands.

The Expert Group Meeting's recommendations addressed curriculum

development, operations and management. In line with the ICPD

priorities, the Expert Group urged that the curriculum give

special attention to the interlinkages between population,

sustained economic growth and sustainable development, with

emphasis on poverty eradication, gender equality and the

situation of vulnerable and underserved groups; reproductive

health; adolescents' concerns; population mobility; and

environmental degradation. The Expert Group also discussed

expanding the range of potential participants and modalities for

ensuring the long-term sustainability of the Global Training

Programme. The Group recommended greater collaboration with

UNFPA-funded training programmes at global, regional, subregional

and national levels and with UNFPA Country Support Teams.

Centres of Excellence for South-South Cooperation

On 1-4 April 1997, representatives from the Centres of Excellence

for South-South cooperation (located in Indonesia, Mexico,

Thailand and Tunisia) met at UNFPA headquarters in New York to

discuss and share experiences of their reproductive health

training programmes, designed within the framework of the

Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population

and Development (ICPD).  They also discussed the institutional

sustainability of the Centres, which are currently supported by

UNFPA for 1996-1999.

The training programmes offered by the Centres are designed for

policy makers, programme managers and service providers. The

training modalities are short-term and emphasize practical

application. Examples include courses and study tours on the

topics of adolescents and mass media in Mexico, community

participation and programme management in Indonesia, population

and development policies in Thailand and gender perspectives and

programme management in Tunisia.

At the April meeting, it was agreed that the Centres will use

selected common materials on reproductive health that reflect the

ICPD approach, improve the participant selection process and

employ a common evaluation strategy.

Agenda 21 to Be Reviewed

Preparations are now under way for the Special Session of the

General Assembly in June 1997 to assess progress on Agenda 21,

the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on

Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The

Commission on Sustainable Development's (CSD) Ad Hoc

Inter-sessional Working Group met in New York on 24 February-7

March 1997 to assist the CSD in these preparations. The CSD met

7-25 April to review proposals in the Working Group's draft

report, entitled Proposed Outcome of the Special Session. The

document, which reflects population and gender considerations,

assesses achievements since the Rio Conference, reviews

implementation and takes account of international institutional

arrangements. Population is included among the areas requiring

urgent attention along with such issues as poverty eradication,

consumption and production patterns, trade and the environment,

health and sustainable human settlements. The report will be

submitted to the General Assembly for further debate.

Rotary International Fellowship on Population and Development

Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director, has welcomed the initiative

of the International Fellowship on Population and Development of

Rotary International (a non-governmental organization) to hold a

meeting at UNFPA headquarters in New York, on 9-10 May 1997. The

meeting aims at promoting closer collaboration, at different

levels, between the International Fellowship and UNFPA. About

fifty Rotarians from different parts of the world plan to attend

the meeting. The programme will include presentations by senior

UNFPA staff on various aspects of UNFPA's work including the

implementation of the Programme of Action of the International

Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). It is expected

that the meeting will produce a set of recommendations on how

best the Rotarians could increase their attention to population

and development. In keeping with the ICPD Programme of Action,

the meeting with the Rotarians is yet another example of UNFPA's

continuing efforts to increase and enhance partnerships with

non-governmental organizations, the private sector and civil


Nicaragua Approves National Population Policy

In June 1996, after 18 months of intensive work following the

International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD),

Nicaragua's Social Council of Ministers approved the National

Population Policy. The Policy aims at promoting the social and

institutional conditions that will facilitate responsible

parenthood so that couples can decide on the number and spacing

of their children. It also aims at increasing access to

information related to reproductive health/family planning (RH/FP)

and to quality RH/FP services as basic rights of all couples. The

Policy was formulated as part of the nation's efforts to reduce

poverty and increase access to education and basic health

services by the very poor, especially by women.

To facilitate the implementation of the National Population

Policy, a National Plan of Action is now being formulated with

the wide participation of governmental institutions and civil


                             * * *


The ACC Task Force on Basic Social Services for All (BSSA) held

its third meeting at UNFPA headquarters on 11 March 1997. A total

of 31 participants from 16 organizations and agencies attended

the meeting, chaired by Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of

UNFPA. The BSSA Task Force is one of three Task Forces

established, in October 1995, by the Administrative Committee on

Coordination (ACC) to galvanize the United Nations (UN) system

around priority goals emerging from recent UN global conferences

and to strengthen the system's follow-up mechanisms for

delivering, at country and regional levels, coordinated

assistance aimed at meeting the overall goal of the eradication

of poverty.

The other two task forces are on Employment and Sustainable

Livelihoods, chaired by the International Labour Organisation

(ILO), and on an Enabling Environment for Economic and Social

Development, chaired by the World Bank. The BSSA Task Force

maintains close linkages with these task forces, the Inter-Agency

Committee on Women and Gender Equality, and other UN initiatives.


Steady progress has been made towards completion of the Task

Force's end-products. The Wall Chart on Basic Social Services for

All (see Box) was published recently and is being widely

disseminated to, inter alia, UN Resident Coordinators,

non-governmental organizations and other interested parties. The

wall chart will also be made available electronically, via the

Internet. Eight of the indicators on the BSSA wall chart are the

same as those in the Minimum National Social Data Set (MNSDS) of

fifteen indicators, as endorsed by the Statistical Commission of

the United Nations at its twenty-ninth session in February 1997.

Other end-products of the BSSA Task Force which are nearing

completion are: (1) Guidelines for the UN Resident Coordinator

system on primary health care; reproductive health; basic

education; national capacity-building in tracking child and

maternal mortality; and guidance notes on international migration

and development; (2) a report on lessons learned/best practices

in donor collaboration in assistance to the social sector; (3) an

information card on advocacy for basic social services; and (4) a

compendium of international commitments relevant to poverty and

social integration.

Technical Symposium on International Migration

Under the auspices of the BSSA Working Group on International

Migration, a technical symposium on international migration is

planned for May 1998. The aims of the symposium are to: examine

salient international migration policy issues faced by

Governments such as protecting migrants and preventing their

economic and social marginalization, taking into account gender

concerns; provide fresh insights through in-depth country-level

analyses on a comparative basis using new information, defining

measurable indicators and, where necessary, developing

methodologies; study existing policies, procedures, measures and

mechanisms in the light of their stated or implied goals and

advance ideas on how to increase their effectiveness; and foster

orderly migration flows and suggest ways to counteract the

economic and social marginalization of migrants.


At the meeting on 11 March, Dr. Sadik emphasized the importance

of ensuring that the guidelines are short, clear, and

user-friendly so that they may be easily and readily used by the

Resident Coordinators and field staff in their day-to-day work.

Underscoring the importance of training in the use of the

guidelines, the Task Force agreed that the Turin Training Centre

in Italy would be asked to design and test modules on the

guidelines; also, one day of training focusing on the guidelines

would be added to already scheduled/planned training sessions

organized by the Task Force member-organizations. The guidelines

would also be used as an input in the Common Country Assessment

process. Moreover, the UN Regional Commissions have key role to

play in promoting the use of the BSSA Task Force end-products;

at the same time, these products can serve as valuable inputs to

the work of the Regional Commissions.

Dr. Sadik underscored the importance of having a country-level

focus in implementing the work of the Task Force. Special

attention should be focused on developing partnerships with

NGOs, the private sector and civil society, in assisting

countries in achieving the goals agreed to at the recent UN

global conferences. To ensure feedback from the field, some

months after the issuance of the guidelines, a questionnaire

should be sent out to the UN Resident Coordinators concerning

the usage and usefulness of the guidelines.

The BSSA Task Force agreed that special attention should be

given to establishing a "gender perspective" throughout the UN

system and in all operational activities. It is essential that

the UN system be a leader on this key issue. From the very

outset, the gender perspective has informed the work programme

of the BSSA Task Force and is one of the cross-cutting

dimensions treated in the guidelines and other end-products.

The Chair noted that mobilizing resources is a critical theme in

the work of the BSSA Task Force. Linkages should be made with

the 20/20 Initiative so as to allow the UN Resident Coordinators

to help countries to mobilize additional resources for basic

social services. At the same time, donors should be informed of

what the consequences would be if sufficient resources are not


                             * * *


The Wall Chart on Basic Social Services for All was recently

published and is being widely distributed. Prepared under the

auspices of the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC)

Task Force on Basic Social Services for All (BSSA), chaired by

the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the chart shows, for

184 countries and areas, quantitative indicators directly related

to social goals adopted at recent United Nations global

conferences, including the ICPD. The United Nations Population

Division of the Department for Economic and Social Information

and Policy Analysis was the lead organization in preparing the

chart, with inputs from other member organizations of the BSSA

Task Force, including financial support from UNFPA. Shortly, the

wall chart will be made available electronically, via the


The chart's 12 indicators are total population size; the

percentages of population with access to health services, to safe

water and to sanitation; contraceptive prevalence rates; maternal

mortality ratio; infant and under-five mortality rates; life

expectancy at birth, by sex; gross enrolment ratios for primary

and secondary schools combined, by sex; adult illiteracy rates,

by sex; and floor area per person (this measures the adequacy of

living space in dwellings). The wall chart also presents maps for

several indicators and summarizes the goals for selected

indicators of basic social services, agreed upon at the recent

United Nations global conferences.

                             * * *


The implementation of the recommendations contained inthe

Programme of Action is the sovereign right of each country,

consistent with national laws and development priorities, with

full respect for the various religiousand ethical values and

cultural backgrounds of its people, and in conformity with

universally recognized international human rights.

International cooperation anduniversal solidarity, guided bythe

principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and in a spirit

of partnership, are crucial in order to improve the quality of

life of the peoples of the world.

In addressing the mandate ofthe International Conference

onPopulation and Development and its overall theme, the

interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth

and sustainable development, and in their deliberations, the

participants were and will continue to be guided by the following

set of principles:


All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in

the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, without distinction of

any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion,

political or other opinion, national or social origin, property,

birth or other status. Everyone has the right to life, liberty

and security of person.


Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable

development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life

in harmony with nature. People are the most important and

valuable resource of any nation. Countries should ensure that all

individuals are given the opportunity to make the most of their

potential. They have the right to an adequate standard of living

for themselves and their families, including adequate food,

clothing, housing, water and sanitation.


The right to development is a universal and inalienable right and

an integral part of fundamental human rights, and the human

person is the central subject of development. While development

facilitates the enjoyment of all human rights, the lack of

development may not be invoked to justify the abridgement of

internationally recognized human rights. The right to development

must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet the population,

development and environment needs of present and future



Advancing gender equality and equity and the empowerment of

women, and the elimination of all kinds of violence against

women, and ensuring women's ability to control their own

fertility, are cornerstones ofpopulation and development-related

programmes. The human rights of women and the girl child are an

inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human

rights.The full and equal participation ofwomen in civil,

cultural, economic, political and social life, at the national,

regional and international levels, and the eradication of all

forms of discrimination on grounds of sex, are priority

objectives of the internation-al community.


Population-related goals and policies are integral parts of

cultural, economic and social development, the principal aim of

which is to improve the quality of life of all people.


Sustainable development as a means to ensure human well-being,

equitably shared by all people today and in the future, requires

that the interrelationships between population, resources, the

environment and development should be fully recognized, properly

managed and brought into harmonious, dynamic balance. To achieve

sustainable development and a higher quality of life for all

people, States should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns

of production and consumption and promote appropriate policies,

including population-related policies, in order to meet the needs

of current generations without compromising the ability of future

generations to meet their own needs.


All States and all people shall cooperate in the essential task

of eradicating poverty as an indispensable requirement for

sustainable development, in order to decrease the disparities in

standards of living and better meet the needs of the majority of

the people of the world. The special situation and needs of

developing countries, particularly the least developed, shall be

given special priority. Countries with economies in transition,

as well as all other countries, need to be fully integrated into

the world economy.


Everyone has the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable

standard of physical and mental health. States should take all

appropriate measures to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and

women, universal access to health-care services, including those

related to reproductive health care, which includes family

planning and sexual health. Reproductive health-care programmes

should provide the widest range of services without any formof

coercion. All couples and individuals have the basic right to

decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their

children and to have the information, education and means to do



The family is the basic unit of society and as such should be

strengthened. It is entitled to receive comprehensive protection

and support. Indifferent cultural, political and social systems,

various forms of the family exist. Marriage must be entered into

with the free consent of the intending spouses, and husband and

wife should be equal partners.


Everyone has the right to education, which shall be directed to

the full development of human resources, and human dignity and

potential, with particular attention to women and the girl child.

Education should be designed to strengthen respect for human

rights and fundamental freedoms, including those relating to

population and development. The best interests of the child shall

be the guiding principle of those responsible for his or her

education and guidance; that responsibility lies in the first

place with the parents.


All States and families should give the highest possible priority

to children. The child has the right tostandards of living

adequate for its well-being and the right to the highest

attainable standards of health,and the right to education. The

child has the right to be cared for, guided and supported by

parents, families and society and to be protected by appropriate

legislative, administrative, social and educational measures from

all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse,

neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation,

including sale, trafficking, sexual abuse, and trafficking in its



Countries receiving documented migrants should provide

propertreatment and adequate social welfare services for them and

their families, and should ensure their physical safety and

security, bearing in mind the special circumstancesand needs of

countries, in particular developing countries, attempting to meet

these objectives or requirements with regard to undocumented

migrants, in conformity with the provisions of relevant

conventions and international instruments and documents. Countries

should guarantee to all migrants all basic human rights as

included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.


Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries

asylum from persecution. States have responsibilities with

respect to refugees as set forth in the Geneva Convention on the

Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol.


In considering the population and development needs of indigenous

people, States should recognize and support their identity,

culture and interests, and enable them to participate fully in

the economic, political and social life of the country,

particularly where their health, education and well-being are



Sustained economic growth, in the context of sustainable

development, and social progress require that growth be broadly

based, offering equal opportunities to all people. All countries

should recognize theircommon but differentiated responsibilities.

The developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they

bear in the international pursuit of sustainable development, and

should continue to improve their efforts to promote sustained

economic growth and to narrowimbalances in a manner that

canbenefit all countries, particularly the developing countries.

                             * * *


The 1997 theme for the Commission on Population and Development

(CPD), which met on 24-28 February 1997 at United Nations

Headquarters in New York, was "International Migration, with

special emphasis on the linkages between migration and

development, and on gender issues and the family." At this, its

30th session, the CPD considered, inter alia, five reports on the

implementation of the Programme of Action of the International

Conference on Population and Development (ICPD).

The Report of the Secretary General on world population

monitoring, 1997: international migration and development

summarizes recent information on selected aspects of

international migration. It covers such topics as the

international migration agenda from the World Population

Conference in Bucharest (1974) to the ICPD in Cairo (1994) and

beyond; migration dynamics; international migration policies;

documented and undocumented migrants; refugees and asylum-seekers;

labour migration; gender issues; and relationships between

migration and development. The report observes that the numerous

and complex linkages between international migration and

development -- in the size, type and direction of migration

movements and in national policies -- are a function of

political, economic and social contexts. The report notes that

discussions of migration are generally characterized by: a lack

of migration data, the absence of a comprehensive theory to

explain international migration and a limited understanding of

the intricate interrelationships between migration and


The Report of the Secretary General on the monitoring of

population programmes reviews progress with respect to policies,

programmes and other activities in international migration that

Governments undertook at the national level following the ICPD.

It focuses on efforts to promote cooperation and dialogue between

sending and receiving countries and on policies and programmes to

facilitate family reunification, promote social and economic

integration, facilitate short-term and project-related labour

migration, assist refugees, protect migrants against

discrimination, prevent international trafficking in migrants and

monitor migratory flows. The report also underscores concerns

raised by Governments in matters pertaining to policy formulation

and programme implementation in international migration.

The Report of the ACC Task Force on Basic Social Services for All

presents an overview of the activities of the Task Force on Basic

Social Services for All (BSSA), highlighting the efforts of the

Task Force's Working Group on International Migration in

considering dimensions of international migration and development.

In line with the ICPD Programme of Action, the report stresses

the need for United Nations (UN) bodies to collaborate on

assisting countries in addressing the causes of migration,

increasing partnerships with non-governmental organizations (NGOs)

and civil society, advancing the human rights of migrants,

enhancing resource mobilization and strengthening international

cooperation in this field. Based on information received from

BSSA Task Force members, the report identifies elements that have

contributed to successful cooperation and collaboration among UN

bodies. It also notes some of the difficulties encountered. The

report concludes that the UN system is uniquely positioned to

facilitate cooperation in international migration and development

through regular dialogue and communication; the sharing of

relevant information and data; joint programmes; advocacy; and

the promotion of increased understanding among sending and

receiving countries.

The Report of the Secretary General on activities of

intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in the area

of international migration summarizes information gathered through

correspondence and questionnaires sent to intergovernmental

organizations and NGOs to assess their progress towards achieving

the objectives of the ICPD Programme of Action. The report

includes a summary of activities undertaken by the United Nations

Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East

and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, in

collaboration with NGOs, in the search for solutions to problems

of refugees.

The Report of the Secretary General on the flow of financial

resources for assisting in the implementation of the Programme of

Action notes the evidence of an increasing flow of resources in

the form of external assistance for the implementation of the

Programme of Action in 1994 and again in 1995. The report

describes domestic resource flows in developing countries based

on provisional data and indicates how information on both

international and domestic flows will be systematized in the

future through a cooperative agreement between UNFPA and an

international non-governmental research institution. The report

concludes that, although the trend of increased resource flows

documented for the 1994-1995 period is encouraging, successful

implementation of the Programme of Action is still dependent on

higher levels of resource mobilization and greater efficiency in

resource utilization. It also emphasizes that additional

resources are urgently required to identify and respond to unmet

needs in the field of population and development. Sub-Saharan

Africa, parts of Asia and least developed countries everywhere

will need a much larger share of resources from the international

community. In addition, all countries should redouble efforts to

increase their own resources for population and reproductive


                             * * *


The more than two years since the International Conference for

Population and Development (ICPD) have been full ones, both for

UNFPA and for the countries it serves. In line with the

recommendations of the ICPD Programme of Action, UNFPA

reorganized its programming efforts to make reproductive health,

including family planning and sexual health, population and

development strategies and advocacy the focus of its activities.

This article highlights some of the UNFPA publications dealing

with key themes addressed in the ICPD Programme of Action:

United Nations agencies and organizations have joined in an

effort to follow up the ICPD and other global conferences of the

past decade and to translate their various recommendations into

reality. A forthcoming UNFPA publication entitled Gender,

Population and Development Themes in United Nations Conferences,

1985-1995, reviews eight international conferences dealing with

human rights and social concerns.

UNFPA's annual publication, "The State of World Population", in

1995 dealt with "Decisions for Development: Women, Empowerment

and Reproductive Health", which examines the scope of

reproductive health and family planning and the needs in various

countries. The 1996 issue was entitled Changing Places:

Population, Development and the Urban Future and was published in

the same year as the Habitat II conference. It examines

conditions of life in urban areas and strategies for improving

cities. The 1997 issue, to be released in May, is entitled

Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health.

Three months after the ICPD, in December 1994, UNFPA held a

consultation to review the concepts and principles underlying the

operationalizing of reproductive health programmes. The report of

this meeting, Expert Consultation on Reproductive Health and

Family Planning: Directions for UNFPA Assistance, reflects the

new thinking about what reproductive health includes and about

priorities in reproductive health programmes. The meeting was a

major input for the post-Cairo development of UNFPA guidelines in

the field of reproductive health.

The ICPD Programme of Action emphasized the importance of male

responsibility in family planning. In 1996, UNFPA published Male

Involvement in Reproductive Health, Including Family Planning and

Sexual Health as part of its Technical Report series. The report

examines a range of programmes and services for men and reviews

the special information, education and communication approaches

used to reach men concerning their reproductive health concerns.

Examples are provided of efforts in Brazil, Colombia, Egypt,

Ghana, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Pakistan, the Territory of Hong

Kong, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

A special publication, Report of the Technical Consultation on

Female Genital Mutilation, summarizes the discussions at a

UNFPA-sponsored meeting in Addis Ababa in March 1996. There were

58 participants, representing 25 countries. Working groups at the

meeting examined the types of training, research and services

that would help eradicate the practice of female genital

mutilation, the population and development strategies that could

be employed and the advocacy and educational efforts that would

be required. Presentations were made by participants from Burkina

Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, the Sudan and Uganda.

Maternal mortality is one of the overrriding concerns in the

Programme of Action. The UNFPA Office of Oversight and Evaluation

undertook a technical evaluation of programmes for training

traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Bolivia, Ghana, the

Islamic Republic of Iran, Malawi, Nepal, the Syrian Arab Republic

and Uganda. Recently published, this report, Support to

Traditional Birth Attendants, identifies the strengths and any

needed improvements in these seven national TBA training


UNFPA's Technical Reports series includes the publication

Framework of Selected Indicators for Evaluating the Impact of

Population Education Programmes, which presents a series of

indicators and questionnaires to help programme managers and

others assess student knowledge and attitudes towards population

dynamics, reproductive health and family planning, family life,

gender issues and other issues in the curricula of formal

population education programmes.

The ICPD Programme of Action stresses the need for improved data

collection and research. The Technical Report series includes two

publications (in press) dealing with the potential and scope for

using rapid assessment procedures in reproductive health and

family planning programmes.

A pocket version of the ICPD Programme of Action is now

available. Measuring 3.75 by 6 inches, the pocket version is a

convenient resource for those who refer regularly to the

Programme of Action.

A forthcoming publication, Food Security, Gender and Population,

written by Professor Pan A. Yotopoulos of Stanford University's

Food Research Institute, analyses the complex factors involved in

chronic undernutrition, which afflicts some 800 million people.

It looks at sociocultural and gender biases as well as land use

and economic factors as elements in food security.The report also

examines several indices used as indicators of food security and

develops a complementary indicator that can help planners devise

an early-warning system concerning countries at risk of food


Under the Global Initiative on Contraceptive Requirements and

Logistics Management Needs, in-depth studies have been carried

out in Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, India, Mexico, Nepal, Pakistan,

the Philippines, Turkey, Viet Nam and Zimbabwe. Technical reports

have been published on each of these in-depth studies. Similar

reports are forthcoming on studies undertaken in Haiti, the

Dominican Republic and Morocco. UNFPA also published two related

technical reports, Contraceptive Use and Commodity Costs in

Developing Countries, 1994-2005 and The Global Initiative on

Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs: Lessons

and Methodologies.

                             * * *


ICPD News, a quarterly newsletter of the UNFPA Task Force on ICPD

Implementation, is designed to keep the international community,

government representatives, donors, non-governmental organizations

and others informed about follow-up activities to the

International Conference on Population and Development

(ICPD), held in Cairo, Egypt, 5-13 September 1994.

For additional copies, please contact:

UNFPA Task Force on ICPD Implementation

United Nations Population Fund

220 East 42nd St., 22nd floor

New York, NY 10017 USA

Fax: 212-297- 5250

World Wide Web: http://www.unfpa.org


Catherine S. Pierce

Contributing Editor:

Ranjana Dikhit

Editorial Consultant:

Barbara Ryan

This is the final issue in this series of ICPD News. Readers are

referred to Dispatches for news from UNFPA, including ICPD

follow-up activities. Dispatches, a monthly bulletin, is

available free of charge from UNFPA offices worldwide. For

further infor-mation, contact the Information and External

Relations Division, UNFPA, at the above address.

                          *   * * *    *

For further information, please contact: popin@undp.org
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