UN Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
with support from the UN Population Fund (UNFPA)

MIGRATION NEWS, Vol. 3, No.11, November 1996


Vol. 3, No. 11  November, 1996

     Migration News summarizes the most important immigration and

integration developments of the preceding month.

Topics are grouped by region:  North America, Europe, Asia

and Other.

     There are two versions of Migration News.  The paper edition

is about 8,000 words in length, and the email version about


     The purpose of Migration News is to provide a monthly summary

of recent immigration developments that can be read in 60

minutes or less.  Many issues also contain summaries and

reviews of recent research publications.

     Distribution is by email.  If you wish to subscribe, send

your email address to: Migration News


     Current and back issues may be accessed via Internet on the

Migration News Home Page--- http://migration.ucdavis.edu

There is no charge for an email subscription to Migration

News.  A paper edition is available by mail for $30 domestic

and $50 foreign.  Make checks payable to UC Regents and send

to: Philip Martin, Department of Agricultural Economics,

University of California, Davis, California 95616 USA.

Migration News is produced with the support of the University

of California-Berkeley Center for German and European

Studies, the German Marshall Fund of the United States, and

the Pew Charitable Trusts.

Editor: Philip Martin

Managing Editor: Cecily Sprouse

Department of Agricultural


University of California, Davis

Davis CA 95616

Tel (916) 752-1530

Fax: (916) 752-5614

ISSN 1081-9916


Naturalization Controversy Continues

Immigration in the Election

Assessing 1996 Immigration Changes

INS: Enforcement and Management

Welfare Reform's Uneven Impacts

California: Population, Housing and Labor

Mexican Views on Immigration

Nonimmigrants/US Business/Inequality

Canadian Immigration Falls

Dominican Republic Immigration


EU: Majority Voting on Migration Issues

Germany Returns Bosnians

France: New Immigration Legislation?

Morocco and Spain to Fight Illegal Immigration

Netherlands Expects Increase in Immigration


Migration between Two Koreas

Singapore: Foreign Workers and Productivity

Malaysia:  Recruitment Ban Continues

Thailand:  From Illegals to Guest Workers

Vietnam Restricts Foreigner Workers


UAE Expels Migrants

Immigration in Africa

Australian Race Debate Heats Up


Slow Advancement for the Newly-Legalized

Working Papers on Immigration Issues




Naturalization Controversy Continues

     As the number of newly-naturalized US citizens surpassed 1.1

million in FY96, Republicans stepped up their attacks on

Citizenship USA.  Vice President Gore launched the INS-

administered initiative Citizenship USA in 1995 to eliminate

the backlog of 800,000 immigrants who applied for US

citizenship and were waiting to be naturalized.

     Republicans charged that expedited naturalization was an

attempt by the Clinton administration to add Democrats to the

voter rolls in California and other key states before the

November 1996 elections.  The INS officer in Fresno, for

example, asserted in an April 1996 letter that the "INS has

been told to naturalize everyone who filed Form N-400 prior

to April 1, 1996, in time for them to register to vote in the

November election."

     A Dole radio ad in California charged that "aliens with

criminal records --rapists, murderers, armed felons -- have

been granted US  citizenship so they can vote."

Republicans uncovered documents that showed that a member of

Gore's staff complained on March 28, 1996 that INS

headquarters was hindering efforts to produce "a million new

voters by election day."  One memo discussed ways to "lower

the standards for citizenship." The INS eventually granted

its district managers in some cities the authority to waive

some INS rules and regulations to speed up naturalizations.

Citizenship USA used community-based groups to recruit

permanent residents for naturalization.

     Republicans also charged that the INS permitted foreign

criminals to become US citizens.  The FBI on October 24, 1996

estimated that 100,000 immigrants with criminal histories may

have become US citizens since August 1995, when Citizenship

USA began, based on the FBI's assumption that eight to 10

percent of the applicants for naturalization have criminal


     In Los Angeles, an INS clerk charged that the INS destroyed

more than 4,000 fingerprints from aliens seeking

naturalization before they were forwarded, as required, to

the FBI to verify that the aliens did not have criminal

records.  This prompted California Governor Pete Wilson to

release a letter to US Attorney General Janet Reno on October

21, 1996 saying that "The federal government should be

deporting such dangerous criminals, not rushing to naturalize


     The INS countered that the fingerprint cards were destroyed

because they were not complete and that the naturalization

applicants were ordered to submit new ones.  The INS said

that no more than 1,300 people with criminal histories were

improperly naturalized in 1996.

     The INS says that it processed 1.3 million applications for

US citizenship in FY96, and rejected about 220,000

applications, a 17 percent rejection rate.

     On October 24, 1996, the INS issued regulations that allow

the agency, rather than a US court, to revoke the US

citizenship of persons found to have been improperly


     Senator Alan Simpson (R-WY) focused on "the rights and

privileges" of naturalization during the immigration

subcommittee's last hearing of the year on October 22, 1996.

The hearing ranged over questions such as whether the US

should permit dual citizenship and whether the US has made it

too easy to naturalize.

     Most industrial democracies are making naturalization easier.

     In the US, most legal immigrants must be residents for five

years before applying, although spouses of US citizens can

apply after three years.

In New Zealand and Australia, by contrast, legal immigrants

can apply for naturalization after two or three years of


     In California, immigrants eager to naturalize are often

bilked by notarios, non-lawyer paralegals who sometimes

operate from fancy leased offices, collect thousands of

dollars from immigrants and then disappear.  In some cases,

the $2,000 to $4,000 lost represents several years of an

immigrant's savings.

     William Branigin, "GOP Intensifies Action On Citizenship

Inquiry," Washington Post, October 25, 1996.  Julio Laboy,

"Immigrants hit by scams on citizenship," Wall Street

Journal, October 10, 1996.  Marcus Stern, "White House

pressured INS to add new citizens," San Diego Union Tribune,

October 9, 1996.   Sara Fritz, "Gore Immigrant Program Role

Draws Fire," Los Angeles Times, October 6, 1996.


Immigration in the Election

     Presidential Politics.  After the second debate between

presidential candidates Robert Dole and Bill Clinton in San

Diego on October 16, 1996, Dole tried to win votes in

California by accusing the Clinton administration of failing

to control illegal immigration.

     On October 17 in Riverside, Dole complained that Californians

must pay for "drug rehab for illegal aliens in prison."

According to Dole, "Whenever he [Clinton] has to choose

between California taxpayers and the militant groups who

demand public support for illegal aliens, he sides with the

militant special-interest groups."

     Dole accused Clinton of weakening the new immigration law by

persuading Congress to accept revisions in last minute

negotiations, so that: "If you are in this country illegally,

you can stay in public housing, collect welfare, get free

medical care and even invite family members abroad to come

and join you."

     On October 15, 1996, California Governor Pete Wilson

sponsored an "open letter" in the New York Times that accused

President Clinton of "sticking California taxpayers with $3

billion per year for illegal immigrants."  Wilson charged

that the Clinton administration's last minute changes to the

1996 immigration law will allow illegal aliens who unlawfully

received US welfare benefits to nonetheless become

naturalized US citizens, to permit illegal aliens in public

housing to remain there and to continue to allow wages earned

by unauthorized aliens to be credited to that alien's Social

Security account.

     The flap over an Indonesian couple's $425,000 contribution

to the Democratic National Committee sparked a debate over an

anomaly in US law: legal immigrants living in the United

States can contribute to political parties and candidates,

but they may not vote.  Clinton and Dole pledged that, if

elected, they would make it unlawful for non-US citizens to

make political contributions.

     There is only one Asian-American holding statewide office in

California, even though Asian-Americans are 11 percent of

California's residents.  Asian-Americans outnumber Blacks in

Los Angeles County, but there are no Asian-Americans on the

15-member Board of Supervisors, versus three African

Americans and three Latinos.

     Once Asian Americans register to vote, they vote.  In the

1994 election, 76 percent of the registered Asian American

voters went to the polls, compared to 73 percent of whites,

64 percent of Latinos and 63 percent of African Americans.

The Asian population of the US was 1.5 million in 1970 and is

expected to top 12 million by the year 2000.

     Latino Voters.  An estimated 6.6 million Hispanics were

registered to vote in the November 1996 elections, up from

4.8 million registered to vote in 1992, including two million

in California, 1.6 million in Texas, 570,000 in Florida and

540,000 in New York.  About 150,000 Latinos turn 18 every

year in the United States.

     In California, the two million registered Latinos were 12

percent of California's 16 million registered voters.

[Latinos are one-fourth of California's 32 million


     The Tomas Rivera Policy Institute reported on October 22,

1996 the results of a public opinion poll that found that 71

percent of the Latinos registered to vote in California and

85 percent of the Latinos naturalized since 1992, said they

planned to vote for Clinton.

     Several groups charged that many non-citizens have registered

to vote in the 1996 elections.

     In the 1996 election, one of the groups that backed Prop. 187

plans to hand out leaflets to voters approaching the polls

that say: "Only citizens can vote! Violators will be


     Several Hispanic groups have termed such leafleting

"harassment" designed to discourage Latino voters and the US

Justice Department promised to respond quickly to complaints

of voter harassment.  They formed Latino Election Watch '96,

which includes toll-free hotlines for complaints and a team

of lawyers ready to investigate potential violations of the

Voting Rights Act.

     The Democratic party is offering a $25,000 reward to anyone

recording video images of people near polling places "using

intimidating and physical threats against voters."

     In 1988, uniformed guards were stationed at 20 polling places

in Santa Ana in Orange County holding signs in English and

Spanish that warned that noncitizens were barred from voting.

The Republicans who arranged for the guards denied any

wrongdoing, but settled a lawsuit brought by six Hispanic

citizens for $400,000.

     On October 21, 1996, two Central Americans employed by a

landscaping company to work at the vice president's residence

were detained by the INS.  The INS began proceedings to

deport one of the workers.

     Both workers were able to obtain and present Maryland

drivers' licenses to their employer.  The immigration bill

originally contained a provision that would have required

states to check the legal status of applicants for drivers'

licenses, but this provision was deleted in last-minute


     Ken Chavez, "Voter-fraud fliers unfair, Latinos say,"

Sacramento Bee, November 1, 1996.  K. Connie Kang, "Asian

Americans slow to flex their political muscle," Los Angeles

Times, October 31, 1996.  Patrick McDonnell, "New Citizens

From Latin America Back Clinton, Poll Finds," Los Angeles

Times, October 23, 1996.  Mark Z. Barabak, "Dole attacks

president on illegal immigration," San Diego Union Tribune,

October 18, 1996.  Charles R. Babcock and Ruth Marcus,

"Indonesian Gift Points Up What Some Call a Loophole:

Political Donations From Noncitizens Questioned," Washington

Post, October 16 1996.


Assessing 1996 Immigration Changes

     In 1996, three major laws that affect immigrants and

immigration were enacted:  The Anti-Terrorism and Effective

Death Penalty Act, signed into law on April 24, 1996; the

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation

Act, signed into law on August 22, 1996; and The Illegal

Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996,

signed on September 30, 1996.

     The immigration bill will, inter alia, increase the size of

the US Border Patrol to 10,000 agents by 2001.

     The immigration bill also includes a pilot employee

eligibility verification program that employers in sectors

with a history of employing illegal immigrants will be

encouraged to enroll in.  The "basic pilot program" will be

launched in at least five of the seven highest-immigration

states.  Employer participation is voluntary, but many expect

that the INS may concentrate its enforcement efforts on non-

participating employers.

     Foreigners who remain in the United States for more than six

months in an unlawful status will be barred from entering the

US for three years after their departure, and those who stay

unlawfully in the US for one year or more will be barred from

returning legally for 10 years.

     In one of the first moves to implement the new immigration

law, Attorney General Janet Reno asked courts to dismiss five

class-action lawsuits filed on behalf of up to 400,000

illegal immigrants in California and Washington.  The suits

alleged that the aliens were wrongly disqualified from the

legalization program that permitted persons in the US

illegally since January 1, 1982 to apply for permanent

resident status in 1987-88.

     The Justice Department asserted that the lawsuits were filed

only to allow what it estimated to be 100,000 illegal

immigrants to remain in the US.

     Under the new immigration law, only the US Supreme Court may

issue broad injunctions against INS policies and procedures.

Some immigration lawyers, who call the INS a "rogue agency,"

do not believe that Congress can deprive foreigners in the US

from full access to US courts.

     Protest and Suits.  On October 12, 1996, an estimated 25,000

people demonstrated in Washington DC against "anti-immigrant"

sentiment.  "La Marcha" organizers had predicted that 100,000

of the nation's 26 million Latinos would participate in what

was termed the nation's first "pro-immigrant march."  A march

in 1994 in Los Angeles to oppose Proposition 187 drew 70,000

participants.  The Million Man March organized by African-

Americans in 1995 drew an estimated 800,000 people.

     Speakers at the rally urged support for a seven-point agenda

that included human and constitutional rights for all; equal

opportunities and affirmative action; free public education

for all; expansion of health services; citizen police review

boards; labor law reform and a $7 per hour minimum wage; a

streamlined citizenship application program; and an amnesty

for immigrants who illegally entered the United States before


     On October 11, 1996, New York City Mayor Giuliani sued the

federal government over provisions in the new welfare and

immigration laws that allow--not require-- city employees to

report suspected illegal immigrants who seek city services to

the INS.  Since 1985, New York City has prohibited its

employees from reporting suspected illegal aliens to INS.

According to the mayor's office, there were about 400,000

illegal aliens in New York City in 1993, including 85,000 of

school age.

     New York officials claimed that allowing city employees to

file reports with INS would violate the 10th Amendment, which

reserves for the states all powers not expressly granted to

the federal government.

     David Johnston, "Government Quickly Using Power of New

Immigration Law," New York Times, October 22, 1996.  George

Ramos, "Thousands of Latinos March in Washington," Los

Angeles Times, October 13, 1996.  Patrick McDonnell, " New

Law Could End Immigrants' Amnesty Hopes," Los Angeles Times,

October 9, 1996.


INS: Enforcement and Management

     Enforcement.  On October 10, 1996, the INS announced that

Operation Gatekeeper would be extended to East San Diego

county.  Intense Border Patrol agent coverage would thereby

be expanded from the 14 westernmost miles of US-Mexican

border to include the 66 westernmost miles.  The number of

Border Patrol agents in the San Diego sector has more than

doubled to 2,000 since Gatekeeper began in October 1994,

including 830 agents assigned to the border from Otay

Mountain east to Imperial County.

     In a first-ever case near San Francisco, the INS fined a home

owner $450 for failing to complete an I-9 employee

verification form for a worker he hired to do heavy yard

work.  According to the INS, the homeowner drove to a "known

day-labor pickup point" in San Rafael, California, picked up

two men and drove them to his home.

     INS agents observing the day labor market followed the

homeowner up a dirt road to his property.  When the INS

agents appeared, one worker fled and the other was


     The home owner argues that he should not be fined for two

reasons.  First, work had not yet begun, so the workers had

not yet been "hired."  Second, IRCA exempts US employers from

the need to complete I-9 forms for "domestic service."  The

INS contends that, in this case, the workers were hired for

something more akin to construction work--re-establishing a

washed-away hillside--than domestic service.

     The Immigration and Naturalization Service announced that it

would begin to issue Warning Notices to persons who have

"minor verification violations" of employment laws.  Under

the new regulations, employers can scan and print out copies

of the Employment Eligibility Verification Form (Form I-9).

Since 1989, the INS has issued 16,000 notices of intent to

fine US employers, including 2,200 in California, for hiring

illegal aliens, or for not completing I-9 forms.  When the

INS discovers violations of employment eligibility laws, its

agents issue either a Warning Notice, Form I-846, or a Notice

of Intent to Fine (NIF), Form I-763.

     An October 5 analysis in the Sacramento Bee suggests that the

INS devoted about two percent of its $2.6 budget in FY96 to

employer sanctions enforcement.  The INS typically settles

cases against employers for about 40 percent of the amount

initially assessed.  Between April 1988 and August 1995, for

example, the INS proposed $96.3 million in fines on

employers, but settled for $38.3 million.

     In a report on fraudulent documents, the Dallas Morning News

on October 29, 1996 reported that unauthorized aliens soon

learn that the coveted green card is actually pink and that

border crossing cards that permit a Mexican national to

"legally" enter the US can be rented for $50 to $100.

In Laredo, Texas, the INS seizes about 300 false documents

from the three million border crossers each month.  Some

Border Patrol agents estimate that 70 percent to 80 percent

of the illegal entrants they apprehend each year are carrying

packets of illegal documents.

     Aliens caught entering the US with false documents are

subject to fines of up to $2,000 and five years in prison.

The INS in New York City indicted on October 8, 1996 three

Chinese men, affiliated with the Fuk Ching organization, on

alien-smuggling charges after intercepting a freighter loaded

with more than 100 Chinese in near Bermuda-- 83 passengers

and 26 crew and smugglers.  Under the new immigration law,

alien smugglers can be sentenced to up to 10 years in prison

for each alien they attempt to smuggle into the US.

     Since 1992, more than 40 ships have been detected attempting

to smuggle Chinese to the United States, including the Golden

Venture, which ran aground off New York in 1993 with more

than 280 Chinese on board.

     Illegal Chinese immigrants typically pay $30,000 to $40,000

each to be smuggled into the United States.  They usually

make a down payment in China and they or their families then

pay off the rest once they reach their destination.

     The INS deported a record 67,094 illegal aliens in FY96,

including 37,000 who had committed crimes in the US.  The

INS, with 23,000 employees, has become one of the largest law

enforcement agencies in the US.

     HIV.  Several reports in October attacked the Clinton

administration for asking INS to consider granting asylum to

foreigners with AIDS.  Under a 1993 law, foreigners infected

with communicable diseases, including AIDS, are barred from

entering the United States and are subject to deportation if

they are located inside the US.

     The Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS sought to

change this policy in 1995, recommending that the INS grant

asylum "based on the social group category of HIV-positive


     In New York, a foreigner who was HIV-positive was granted

asylum in the US, prompting House Speaker Newt Gingrich to

complain that "Under the Clinton administration, you can come

to America illegally -- sneak into the country --announce

that you are HIV-positive, be declared a political refugee,

and be eligible for $120,000 of health benefits."

     Management.  A federal judge in Seattle ruled on October 9,

1996 that the INS violated the 5th Amendment's due process

clause by failing to properly inform about 5,000 aliens

charged with using false documents to obtain US jobs or

benefits that they have a right to a hearing to try to rebut

the INS charges.  Any alien who was caught using false

documents can reopen his or her case by "attest[ing] to his

or her lack of understanding" of the INS forms, which were

published only in English.

     The judge ruled that aliens who have already been deported,

perhaps as many as 2,500, can return to the US at their own

expense to contest their deportations.  The judge ordered the

INS to publicize his decision in Central America and South

America and among the 800 nonprofit immigration assistance

providers with which the INS has established contact.

     The 1990 Immigration and Naturalization Act made document

fraud a crime punishable by automatic and permanent

deportation.  The judge ruled that INS forms that were given

to aliens caught with false documents were available only in

English, and thus did not inform aliens adequately that they

were being permanently barred from the US.

The INS has 60 days to appeal the ruling.

     On September 12, 1996, the House Judiciary Immigration and

Claims subcommittee berated the INS for attempting to conceal

from a Congressional oversight committee overcrowding at a

detention center and understaffing at the Miami airport.  The

INS officials implicated in the attempt to mislead Congress

were not helpful to the investigation.  Some, nonetheless,

have been promoted by the INS.

     An estimated one-fourth of the 720,000 immigrants "admitted"

by the INS in FY95 were living illegally in the US and

adjusted their status.  Some 7.6 million foreigners are

expected to apply for the 55,000 diversity visas available in


     David McLemore, "Investigators see fake documents flourish

in wake of law," Dallas Morning News, October 29, 1996.  Ruth

Larson, "White House waffles on HIV asylum policy,"

Washington Times, October 22, 1996.  Eric Brazil, "Fine over

yardwork a test case," San Francisco Examiner, October 12,

1996.   Henry Weinstein, "Ruling Could Reopen Many Deportee

Cases," Los Angeles Times, October 10, 1996.  William

Branigin, "2-Year U.S. Probe Leads to Capture of Freighter

Crowded With Aliens," Washington Post, October 9, 1996.

Michael Doyle, "Efforts by INS to levy fines fall short,"

Sacramento Bee, October 5, 1996.


Welfare Reform's Uneven Impacts

     Food Stamps.  In the omnibus spending bill, approved at the

end of September 1996 along with the new immigration law, the

Clinton administration convinced Congress to permit legal

immigrants currently receiving Food Stamps to continue

getting them until April 1, 1997.  Food Stamps are entirely

paid for by the federal government; they provide an average

$73 per person per month in coupons that can be used to buy


     About 1.8 million of the 25 million Food Stamp recipients are

legal immigrants.  One million are expected to be removed

from the program when their eligibility is re-checked.

States are expected to re-verify immigrant Food Stamp

recipients between April 1, 1997 and August 22, 1997.

     On October 31, 1996, a state judge issued a preliminary

injunction forbidding California from implementing the part

of the new welfare law that makes many legal immigrants not

eligible for Food Stamps until the state government also

develops procedures to notify the public of the changes.

About 436,000 legal immigrants receive Food Stamps in

California; immigrants are 14 percent of the 3.2 million

recipients.  Some 373,000 are expected to be removed from the

rolls--legal immigrants can receive Food Stamps only if they

are active U.S. military personnel veterans; refugees who

have lived in the US less than five years; or legal

immigrants have worked in the United States for at least 10


     In California, counties administer the Food Stamp program.

Legal immigrants not currently receiving Food Stamps, and who

applied for Food Stamps after August 22, 1996, have had their

applications rejected.

     Suits.  On October 15, 1996, a coalition of immigrant rights

groups in California sought an injunction from the federal

judge who in 1995 blocked implementation of Proposition 187.

The suit aimed to prevent California from withholding

prenatal care from illegal immigrant women under the new

federal welfare law.  It argued that making illegal alien

women ineligible for state-funded prenatal care would

jeopardize their US-born and US-citizen babies.

     On November 1, 1996, the federal judge ruled that the new

federal welfare law DOES permit California to eliminate on

December 1, 1996 a $69 million program that provides prenatal

care for an estimated 70,000 unauthorized pregnant women,

including 20,000 in Los Angeles.  California had been

providing prenatal care to unauthorized pregnant women since


     The ruling may open the door to barring unauthorized

immigrants from other state-funded programs.

General.  President Clinton signed the law creating a new

welfare system into law on August 22, 1996.  States were

given from October 1, 1996 through July 1, 1997 to prepare

plans on the provision of assistance to poor people.

Each state will receive a federal block grant to provide

assistance to poor residents.

     Most state plans for caring for poor residents simply state

that the state will devise lawful means of assisting the

poor.  A few states, including Nebraska and Utah, said they

would use state money to provide welfare assistance to legal

immigrants who arrived in the US after August 22, 1996.

Less than 10 percent of adult welfare recipients are now

working.  Under the new welfare law, recipients are required

to work after two years of federal welfare benefits.  Half of

each state's adults on welfare are to be working by 2002.

The new law sets a five-year lifetime limit on payments to

any family.

     The minimum wage rose to $4.25 hourly on October 1, 1996.

About 25 percent of food-service workers are paid the minimum

wage.  A full-time worker would have to earn $7.80 per hour

for 2,000 hours per year to push a family of four above the

$15,600 poverty line.

     Patrick McDonell and Virginia Ellis, "Welfare law will allow

Wilson to cut immigrant aid," Los Angeles Times, November 2,

1996. "Mayor Giuliani Makes Case For Immigration in Lawsuit,"

Reuter, October 12, 1996.  Robert Pear, "Legal immigrants get

food-stamp extension," New York Times, October 3, 1996.


California: Population, Housing and Labor

     Population.  The US Census Bureau released its projections

of California's population in October, and projected that the

state would have 49.3 million residents in 2025.  In 2025,

California is projected to have 21 million Hispanics, 15

million non-Hispanic whites, nine million Asians, and three

million Blacks.

     California's Latino population is expected to double between

1995 and 2025 and account for a third of the total Latino

population in the US in 2025.  California is projected to add

a net 18 million residents between 1995 and 2025, including

nine million immigrants.

     The Center for Continuing Study of the California Economy in

mid-October released a study that projected that California

will gain a net 25,000 residents from other states in 1996,

the first net population growth due to internal migration

since 1991.

     In August, 1996 California was creating a net 25,000 new jobs

each month.

Latino Income.  Pepperdine University's Institute for Public

Policy issued a report in October that argued that, after 20

years in the US, a significant number of Latinos enter the

middle class.  According to 1990 Census data, there were

nearly four times as many US-born Latino households in the

middle class in Southern California as there were in poverty.

Middle class was defined as a household incomes above $35,000

or owning a home.

     Latinos in 1990 were about one-third of the population of the

five-county Southern California region--Los Angeles, Orange,

Ventura, Riverside and San Bernardino counties--and one-

fourth of all residents identified as middle class.  Two-

thirds of Latino households in Southern California are headed

by immigrants and two-thirds of the Latino households headed

by recent immigrants had household incomes of less than

$35,000.  In Los Angeles County, Latino households make up

nearly 47 percent of all poor households.

     The report paints a picture of hard-working, family-oriented

people who are gradually increasing their incomes and

purchasing homes, often by pooling the income of several

persons in large households.

     Housing.  Construction normally leads California out of

recession, with each 200,000 to 300,000 of added population

typically associated with 100,000 new home starts.  The Wall

Street Journal on October 10, 1996 argued that immigrants are

behind the current mini-housing boom in California.  Asians

are particularly apt to press on to home ownership.

     In 1986, California had over 300,000 new housing starts and

the net addition of over 700,000 people, but in 1991, housing

starts fell to less than 100,000 and have remained there

since.  More US-born residents are leaving than are entering

California, giving the state a net loss of population due to

domestic migration of over 300,000 per year for the past five


     According to housing experts, there are about three

immigrants per housing unit, versus two US-born persons per

housing unit.  In some areas, such as Los Angeles, immigrants

can buy houses vacated by US-born persons leaving the area,

but in cities such as Fresno, their arrival leads to new


     The five most common names of home buyers in the Los Angeles

area in 1995 were Hispanic; Smith was the eighth most common


     Since 4.5 million legal and illegal immigrants arrived in the

past 16 years, the California housing industry projects the

need for an additional 1.3 million housing units.  The

Hispanic population of California is projected to increase by

38 percent over the next decade, but the Hispanic population

between the ages of 35 and 54, prime home-buying ages, is

projected to rise by 75 percent.

     Latinos are optimistic.  An August, 1996 Field Poll of 553

Latinos showed that 50 percent of the Latinos, but only 42

percent of all Californians surveyed, believe they will be

better off a year from now.  Some 54 percent of Latinos in

California earn less than $20,000 a year, compared with 30

percent of the entire state's work force.

     Two-thirds of California's net population growth is due to

immigration.  There are about 20 million residents of

southern California and over one third, or eight million,

were born abroad.  Indeed, about one third of all the

foreign-born persons in the US live in southern California.

Welfare.  On January 1, 1997, payments to the 2.7 million

California recipients of Aid to Families With Dependent

Children will be cut by 4.9 percent in urban areas and 9.8

percent in 41 rural counties.  An urban family of three will

see its monthly check drop about $29, to $565, and rural

families of three will get $538.

     California began hearings around the state on implementing

the new welfare law and, at the first hearing in Fresno on

October 24, 1996, local officials in the "Valley of the poor"

complained that legal immigrants removed from welfare rolls

would become the responsibility of county governments.

However, the state's legislative analyst predicted that,

since most of the immigrants receiving welfare in California

have been in the state for at least five years, many will

apply for US citizenship to keep their benefits.

     In Fresno county, California, the nation's major agricultural

county, legal immigrants are 14 percent of the population,

but constitute one-third of those receiving AFDC.

Schools.  In Fall 1996, there were be a record 52 million

children enrolled in K-12 schools, topping a 51 million peak

during the baby boom in 1971.  The enrollment surge in the

1990s is due primarily to the baby-boom echo,--the baby

boomers of the 1960s having children-- to increased

immigration and higher fertility, especially among Hispanics.

     A new study found that more than 40 percent of the children

enrolled in K-12 education in 1996-97 are Hispanics and their

share of public school enrollment is expected to top 50

percent by the year 2004.  Relatively few Hispanics complete

high school in a manner that makes them eligible for

admission to the University of California.  For every 100

Latino students in 10th grade, only four become eligible for

admission into UC, which accepts the top 12.5 percent of high

school graduates, and only one enrolls in UC.

     California has 1.3 million K-12 children who are not fluent

in English, and the state is grappling with how to reform

bilingual education.  Bilingual education is currently

governed by court cases and state regulations written after

the last bilingual education law expired in 1987.  They

require that bilingual programs must be based on sound

educational theory, must be given sufficient resources to

allow that theory to make a difference and must produce


     A September 1996 poll found that 70 percent of Latino parents

said teaching children to read and write in English should be

the schools' top priority.

     Labor.  In September 1996, the city of Glendale near Los

Angeles began banning workers seeking day jobs and employers

seeking workers from public roads.  The city is, however,

building a structure with restrooms and chairs where day

laborers can wait to be hired.  Violations of the street

hiring law can result in fines of up to $500 or six months in


     Free classes in English and job-related skills are planned

for the men as they wait for work.

Beginning in the mid-1980s, many southern California cities

have sponsored day labor markets to avoid worker loitering

near home improvement stores.  The city of Los Angeles is now

operating two sites for day laborers, in North Hollywood and

Harbor City, but does not ban street soliciting for jobs.  In

1991, Agoura Hills banned street labor markets, its ordinance

was upheld and Ladera Heights and La Mirada soon followed

with similar ordinances.

     However, these cities have found it difficult to enforce

their laws.  Studies suggest that only one-fourth to one-

third of the day laborers are unauthorized workers.

Illegal Immigration.  A study released by the Public Policy

Institute of California concluded that illegal immigration

from Mexico to California reacts to changes in the economies

of Mexico and California.  Demographer Hans Johnson used a

variety of data to estimate the flow of illegal immigrants to

California from Mexico between 1980 and 1993.

     According to Johnson, illegal immigration accounted for 22

to 31 percent of the state's population growth between 1980 and

1993.  Johnson found that when California's economy boomed in

the mid to late 1980s, the state experienced brisk job growth

and illegal immigration peaked.  When California suffered

from a severe recession in the early 1990's, illegal

immigration fell.

     In mid-June, state lawyers argued before a federal judge that

California was suffering from an "invasion" of illegal

immigrants, since the estimated 1.7 to 1.8 million illegal

residents in California are five percent of the state's

population.  According to the state's lawyer, an invasion is

the "illegal entry of so many persons that it is beyond the

capability of the state to handle."

     An August 1996 survey of 1,100 Riverside county residents

found that, although 68 percent thought that illegal

immigration was a "big problem," most think that the US

should continue to permit all persons born in the US to be US


     On October 6, 1996, the Los Angeles Times reported that

California, the only state whose Medicaid program pays for

emergency hospitalization in Canada or Mexico, was being

falsely billed for hundreds of thousands of dollars by

Mexican border city doctors.

     California in mid-1996 had 163,300 full-time state employees.

They were 58 percent non-Hispanic white, 17 percent Hispanic,

12 percent African-American and six percent Asian.

     Virginia Ellis, "Welfare Official Warns of Threat From New

Law," Los Angeles Times, October 25, 1996. Bernard Wysocki,

"Influx of immigrants adds new vitality to housing market,"

Wall Street Journal, October 10, 1996. Steve Ryfle, "2-

Pronged Plan for Street-Side Job Seekers," Los Angeles Times,

September 13, 1996.  David Lesher and Dan Morain, "Care for

Disabled Illegal Immigrants Periled," Los Angeles Times,

September 4, 1996.  Rochelle Sharpe, "Record school

enrollments lie ahead," Wall Street Journal, August 22, 1996.


Mexican Views on Immigration

     On October 22, 1996, Mexican Foreign Relations Secretary Jose

Angel Gurria asserted that "The phenomenon of migration can

be beneficial and offers great potential advantages to both

the migrants' original and new countries, but only when a

common vision on this phenomenon is reached."

     The Sacramento Bee of October 9, 1996 noted that 40 percent

of the almost 1,000 Mexicans who apply for visas to visit the

US every day are turned down.  Since July 1996, Mexicans

applying for non-immigrant visas to visit the US must pay $20

each time they apply for a visa.

     To prevent fraud, the consulate does not tell visa applicants

what materials to bring to their interviews and many must

apply several times.

     About a third of the estimated 150,000 foreigners per year

who settle illegally after lawful entry are believed to be


     Mexico's population, 94 million in 1995, is rising by two

million a year and is expected to reach 125 million in 2010.

The Inter-Secretarial Commission for the Creation and Use of

Population Identification Numbers recommended in October that

Mexico adopt a "universal identification system for all


     Kelly Librera, "Committee to explore national ID system

formed," The News, October 24 1996.  Dorsey Griffith, "No

welcome mat at US embassy," Sacramento Bee, October 9, 1996.


Nonimmigrants/US Business/Inequality

     Labor Certification.  US mathematicians holding doctorates,

whose unemployment rate jumped to almost 11 percent in 1995,

are protesting the provision of the 1990 IMMACT that

increased the number of foreigners allowed to immigrate to

the US to fill vacant US jobs from 54,000 per year to 140,000

per year.

     According to the protesting US mathematicians, US employers

have taken advantage of the increased number of immigration

visas available.  According to one group, 40 percent of the

720 jobs available to PhD mathematicians in 1995 went to


     In 1994, some 561 professors and researchers received US

immigrant visas because they were considered outstanding in

their fields, down from 615 in 1993.

     The US mathematicians argue that because of easy immigration,

universities and other US employers can select from 50 or 100

equally-qualified candidates for each opening.

     There is disagreement over whether intense competition for

professor jobs is helpful or harmful.  According to economist

Jagdish Bhagwati, the fact that Russian and Chinese

immigrants are included in the competition for professorships

is good, since it raises the standard in mathematics

departments from research universities to community colleges.

This process highlights the re-distributive aspects of

immigration--even if all US residents gain, there can be

significant and concentrated costs.

     The May 1996 DOL Inspector Generals' report that concluded

that many US employer requests for temporary and permanent

foreign workers merely legalize the status of a foreigner

already employed continued to echo in news reports.  For

example, Philadelphia Inquirer reporters Donald Barlett and

James Steele on October 20, 1996 detailed the jobs that US

employers asked to fill with temporary and permanent

immigrants in 1995--a $5.25 per hour hair stylist in

Washington DC, a $15 per hour biologist for the Red Cross and

a $53,000 per year systems analyst at Perot Systems.

Other jobs filled by foreigners after DOL certified that US

workers were not available included housecleaners, fast-food

restaurant managers and cooks.

     Immigrant Businesses. The number of US businesses reached

17.3 million in 1992, up from 13.7 million in 1987, and their

sales topped $3.3 trillion, up from $2 trillion.  The average

US firm had sales in 1992 of $193,000.

     The US Census reported on July 10 that the number of Hispanic

businesses in the US increased from 490,000 in 1987 to

863,000 in 1992, and that their receipts jumped from $33

billion to $77 billion. About 47 percent of Hispanic-owned

firms, and 45 percent of all US businesses, had annual sales

in 1992 of less than $10,000, suggesting that most are

sideline operations.  California has about one-third of US

Hispanic-owned businesses--250,000 firms, followed by Texas

with 156,000 and Florida with 118,000.

     The number of US firms owned by people of Asian descent

increased rapidly between 1987 and 1992, from 386,000 to

603,000.  Most of the Asian-owned firms provide services in

California, New York, and Texas.  Almost half of the Asian-

owned business are owned by persons who trace their roots to

China or Korea (not all Asian-owned businesses are immigrant-


     Inequality.  By all measures, inequality in the US has

increased over the past 20 years.  The median income of US

families in real dollars fell from $29,900 in 1989 to $27,100

in 1993.  Thus the median income was 3.25 times the poverty

level in 1989, but only three times the poverty level in


     Over the past 20 years, the share of US jobs that paid wages

too low to keep a one-earner family above the poverty line

has increased from 24 to 30 percent of all US jobs.

Four major explanations have been advanced for increased

inequality:  technological change that raised wages for

educated workers and reduced them for workers without a high

school education; the shift to a service economy, where the

spread in wages is greater than in manufacturing; increased

trade, pitting US manufacturing workers more directly against

lower wage workers abroad; and increased immigration, which

puts downward pressure on wages at the bottom of the US job

ladder.  There is widespread disagreement about the

percentage of inequality explained by each of these factors.

One recent poll reported that two-thirds of Americans blame

trade and immigration for stagnant wages and rising


     According to a study by Occidental College, about 25 percent

of the immigrants who arrived in  California's San Fernando

Valley in the 1980s had incomes below the poverty line at the

time of the 1990 census.  Of the immigrants who arrived in

the 1970s, by contrast, only 12 percent were poor in 1990.

The study concludes that immigrants are upwardly mobile.

A report from the California Public Policy Institute released

July 14 found that inequality among men is increasing faster

in California than among men in the US as a whole.  In 1995,

men earning less than $6,000 per year were in the bottom 10

percent of the male earners and men earning $65,000 or more

were in the top 10 percent of earners.

     Michael Phillips, "Math PhDs add to Anti-Foreigner Wave,"

Wall Street Journal, September 4, 1996.  Michael Selz, "US

firms owned by Pacific Islanders, Asians are growing at a

rapid pace," Wall Street Journal, August 2, 1996.  Peter

Passell, "Technology's edict:  adapt or lose out," New York

Times, July 25, 1996.


Canadian Immigration Falls

     Canada anticipated the arrival of 220,000 immigrants and

refugees in 1996 but, as of October, only about 160,000 had


     The platform of Canada's governing Liberal Party calls for

the annual addition via immigration of one percent of the

country's population, which would mean about 300,000

immigrants per year.  However, Canada publishes an expected

level of immigration each year and, for 1997, it expects to

admit between 195,000 and 220,000.  About 113,000 will be

economic migrants, persons admitted under a system that

awards points for education and skills, 61,000 are family

unification immigrants and 26,000 are refugees.

     In 1971 Canada launched a national policy of

multiculturalism.  A Ministry of Multiculturalism was

established in 1973, and in 1982, the Canadian Charter or

constitution was amended to say that it should be interpreted

to preserve and enhance "the multicultural heritage of

Canadians."  The Canadian government was pledged by law in

1988 to preserve and enhance multiculturalism.

     The Liberal government recently reaffirmed multiculturalism

despite widespread criticism that state-funded

multiculturalism is accelerating the break-up of Canada.

Toronto in 1996 won the United Nations' Best Practices Award

for the integration and celebration of immigrants.

A recent poll in the Vancouver Sun found that many immigrants

from Hong Kong believe they are victims of racism.  Some

analysts say the racism stems from reactions of jealousy from

the native community over the wealth of the Hong Kong


     Manitoba, which attracted 3,400 immigrants in 1995, won

permission in October 1996 to relax some of Canada's

immigration restrictions to meet the province's goal to

attract 8,000 immigrants per year.

     The UNDP ranks Canada first among 174 nations in human

development, even though Canada was only one of three rich

countries--the other two were Finland and Ireland--considered

worse off today than in 1980.

     Anne Dawson, "Fewer coming to Canada," Toronto Sun, October

29, 1996.  Peter Rekai, "Canada's upscale influx," New York

Times, September 16, 1996.  Pierre Longnus, "Taiwan

immigrants to Canada settle in Vancouver," Agence France

Presse, August 17, 1996.  Pierre Longnus, "Chinese immigrants

feeling racism pressure: poll," Agence France Presse, August

18, 1996.  "Manitoba, Canada Recruiting Skilled Scottish

Workers," Universal News Services, July 5, 1996.


Dominican Republic Immigration

     An estimated 700,000 Dominicans, almost 10 percent of the 7.5

million population of the Dominican Republic, are believed to

have emigrated since 1985.  About 400,000 were admitted as

legal immigrants to the US.  Over half of these settled in

New York City.

     The Dominican Republic receives an estimated $1 billion in

remittances each year.

     More Dominicans receive public assistance than any other non-

refugee group of immigrants.  About 28 percent of the

Dominican immigrants who arrived since 1980 have received

public assistance for some period of time.  Only Vietnamese,

at 38 percent, and persons from the ex-USSR, at 33 percent,

have higher rates of dependence on public assistance.

Dominican President Leonel Fernandez Reyna, who took office

in August, 1996, acknowledged in September 1996 that "many

Dominican families residing in the United States that have

benefited from welfare and food stamps will begin to

experience difficulties once this law is promulgated."

Reyna, who went to elementary and high school in New York

City, urged Dominicans in the US to become US citizens to

retain their benefits; the Dominican Republic made dual

citizenship legal in 1994.

     In Reyna's words: "If you... feel the need to adopt the

nationality of the United States in order to confront the

vicissitudes of that society stemming from the end of the

welfare era, do not feel tormented by this.... Do it with a

peaceful conscience, for you will continue being Dominicans,

and we will welcome you as such when you set foot on the soil

of our republic."

     The US Coast Guard reports that growing numbers of poor

people from the Dominican Republic are hiring smugglers to

take them on the 18-hour sea journey to Puerto Rico.  Those

who establish themselves in the US commonwealth have a

foothold into the US.  The Coast Guard has picked up 4,162

Dominicans at sea in 1996, about the same as in 1995.

The 14-nation Caribbean Community or Caricom wants the US to

grant the island nations a free-trade status equivalent to

that enjoyed by Mexico and Canada, but Congress, reportedly

responding to US grower concerns of increased fruit and

vegetable imports, did not act in 1996.

     Angus MacSwan, "Dominican smuggling rings growing problem for

US,: Reuters, October 16, 1996.  Larry Rohter, "Fewer

Immigrant Benefits Do Not Faze Dominicans," New York Times

October 12, 1996.  Ian Fisher, "A Dominican Leader Receives

an Official  Embrace," New York Times, October 5, 1996.

"Dominican President Criticizes US Immigration Law," Reuters,

October 3, 1996.




EU: Majority Voting on Migration Issues

     Third Pillar.  The European Union agreed on October 2, 1996

to move from unanimity to majority decision-making on

immigration, border control, asylum and visa issues, leaving

Britain isolated in its refusal to give up its veto on such


     EU decisions relating to home and judicial affairs under the

third pillar of the Maastricht treaty are currently required

to be unanimous.  Majority rule would be coupled with the

right of the EU commission to propose legislation and make

immigration decisions subject to scrutiny by the European


     In addition, the proposed new structure for dealing with

third pillar issues would make the European Court of Justice

responsible for settling disputes.  Britain is opposed to any

extension of the court's jurisdiction.  If Britain does not

change its position after its expected April, 1997 elections,

the other 14 members of the EU will move ahead without


     In an October 18 speech, an EU leader called on the European

Union to focus on human rights as the key element of a

preventive refugee policy.  He said that the EU provides

humanitarian funds to care for refugees, but does not have a

plan to stop refugee flows before they begin.

     Second, he said that the UNHCR should rewrite its refugee

convention, adopted 44 years ago, to take into account the

social realities of population displacements today, which are

often caused by civil discord, rather than individual

persecution by governments.

     Third, he called upon the IGC to grant the European Court of

Justice supervisory powers over EU asylum policy in order to

guarantee that asylum seekers will not be returned to unsafe

territories.  Currently the European Court of Justice has no

jurisdiction over asylum decisions made by individual EU


     France in October rejected a proposal made by the 39-member

Council of Europe that advocates a smaller role for national

parliaments in dealing with immigration.

     Britain in October asked the UN to consider recommending that

member nations deny asylum to persons "financing, planning

and inciting terrorist acts."  Critics say that, if the

British amendments to the 1951 Geneva refugee convention were

adopted, Nelson Mandela could have been denied asylum in

Europe and extradited to South Africa as a terrorist.

Denmark, Sweden and Finland became full members of the

Schengen pact that opens internal European borders.  Norway

and Iceland, both non-EU members, are associate members, but

they pledged to implement some EU legislation, such as EU

guidelines on asylum and visa policy.

     Italy, Austria and Greece hope to become full members of the

Schengen agreement in 1997.

     French officials continue to work on an accord with the

Netherlands to control drug sales, so that France would drop

its land border controls with Belgium and Luxembourg.  French

officials continue to accuse the two countries of being

transit areas through which Dutch drugs enter France.

     Population and Unemployment.  The population of the 15-member

EU, including resident foreigners, reached 373 million on

January 1, 1996.  In the EU, fertility was less than 1.9

births per woman ranging from 1.9 in Ireland to 1.2 in Italy.

There were about four million births and 3.7 million deaths

in the EU in 1995, for a natural increase of 300,000.

The total population of the EU rose by 800,000 because a net

500,000 immigrants arrived, including 422,000 in Germany and

90,000 in the UK.  Ireland and Portugal were net emigration


     Unemployment in the EU is not likely to fall as EU nations

struggle to satisfy the Maastricht requirements for monetary

union.  With an unemployment rate that is twice the US rate,

it may be hard for EU nations to develop immigration policies

that anticipate the entry of foreigners seeking jobs, even

though every EU country reports shortages of workers with

particular skills.

     The Irish director of the EURES (European Employment

Services) asserted in October that there were only two ways

to reduce unemployment-- "educate and migrate."  Among EU

countries, those with the highest unemployment rates have the

lowest levels of worker skills and therefore the least


     In some cases, there is cross-border migration in Europe to

take advantage of wage and tax differences between member

countries.  For example, hundreds of Swedish nurses

reportedly live in Malmo, Sweden and commute daily to jobs in

Copenhagen where wages are higher. Sweden is attractive

because of lower income taxes.

     EU member countries must give nationals of other EU member

states three-month work and residence permits upon request.

But there is no obligation to renew the work and residence

permit if the worker does not find employment.

     According to the Council of Europe, Luxembourg has the

highest percentage of foreigners in its population, 32

percent; followed by Switzerland, 19 percent; Germany, nine

percent; France, six percent; and the UK, four percent.

EU labor and social affairs ministers agreed on September 24,

1996 that an EU employer who sends workers to another EU

country must abide by the labor laws of the country to which

the workers are sent, including paying minimum wages to EU

migrant workers.  The new rules are aimed at preventing

"social dumping," or taking advantage of wage differences

within the EU by using low-wage workers in high-wage


     The European Court of Justice ruled on October 10, 1996 that

spouses of workers entitled under German law to child-rearing

benefits may receive those benefits whether or not they live

in Germany.  Germany had argued that the benefit was

originally intended for single parent families and not to

benefit spouses residing outside of Germany.  The court said

that if a benefit is granted without "individual and

discretionary assessment of personal needs and if it concerns

one of the risks expressly listed in the community

regulation," it is subject to the Community regulations for

migrant workers.

     The UK and Portugal dissented.  All EU nations will have

three years to implement the agreement.

     Janet McEvoy, "Schengen Group Opens Doors to Nordic

Neighbors," Reuters, October 17, 1996.  "ELDR President

Address on Asylum, Refugee Policy," Reuter European Community

Report, October 18, 1996.  Padraig Yeates, "More efficient,

mobile EU workforce urged," Irish Times, October 11, 1996.

"Court Applies Migrant Worker Rules to Child-raising

benefits," Reuter European Community Report, October 10,

1996.  Angus MacKinnon, "EU pressure mounts on Britain over

immigration veto," Agence France Presse, October 2, 1996.

"Population: Fewer than four million babies born in EU last

year," European Report, October 2, 1996.


Germany Returns Bosnians

     Bosnians.  Under an August 1996 agreement between the 16

German states and the Interior Ministry in Bonn, a three-

phase repatriation program began October 1, 1996 for the

320,000 Bosnians refugees in Germany.  Criminals, single

people and childless couples are to leave Germany by March


     Some predict that the expulsion orders will push Bosnians

underground in Germany, as many try to stay without legal

residence papers.

     Bavaria, Thuringia, Baden-Wurttemberg and Berlin have

announced plans to remove the Bosnians by force if necessary.

On October 9, 1996, Bavaria forcibly expelled a 29-year old

Bosnian who had been convicted of sexual offenses.  He had

applied for amnesty in January 1996; the application had been


     The Chicago Tribune profiled a Serb-Croat woman in Berlin who

was raped and beaten by Muslims as she tried to escape from

Bosnia and who was the first of 615 Bosnians in a former East

Berlin workers' hostel to receive a notice to leave Germany.

The woman does not want to return and reportedly is

considering seeking political asylum in the Netherlands.  But

European Union rules make the first EU country's decision on

an asylum applicant binding on all other members.

     Berlin has nearly 30,000 Bosnian refugees.  Berlin's interior

minister said that Berlin will not send home rape victims and

others traumatized by the war until after their medical

treatment is completed, but that a majority of the Bosnian

refugees should be returned by the end of 1999.  The interior

minister estimates that caring for the Bosnians costs Berlin

between $460 million and $525 million a year.

     On October 10, 1996, Germany and what remains of Yugoslavia

signed an agreement to repatriate over the next three years

135,000 persons whose applications for asylum in Germany were

rejected.  Many are ethnic Albanians from Kosovo.  The

Yugoslav interior minister acknowledged that the return of

this many people will create difficulties and hoped that the

international community would help with resettlement costs,

since Yugoslavia did not demand financial assistance from

Germany as a condition for taking back its citizens.

     German interior minister Kanther said that the treaty, which

is effective December 1, signals Germany's determination not

to allow individuals without legitimate claims to political

asylum to remain in the country for extended periods.  The

accord provides for the return within three years of all

refugees from the former Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)

who entered Germany before the October 10 signing.

     Asylum Seekers.  The number of foreigners seeking asylum in

Germany was 10,742 in September, 1996, compared with 9,548 in

August.  Between January and September, some 86,643 people

applied for asylum in Germany, a drop of six percent from

1995 levels.  Of the asylum applications adjudicated, 7.5

percent the applicants were granted asylum in Germany.

After 19 months of refuge in a church in Nuremberg, a Turkish

family voluntarily returned to Turkey.  About 150 foreigners,

including 50 in Bavaria, have taken "refuge" in churches.

Under "Altfallregelungen"--old cases rules--families in

Germany six or more years who can support themselves can

continue living in Germany.

     The number of Aussiedler--ethnic Germans moving from the ex-

USSR to Germany--fell from 151,000 in the first nine months

of 1995 to 129,300 in the first nine months of 1996.

The German Sports Federation has pledged to reduce the number

of requests it makes to have foreigners naturalized so that

they can play on German teams.  The current number of 50 per

year is to be reduced to five.

     "Official urges right to stay for former immigrant workers,"

Agence France Presse, November 1, 1996.  Ray Moseley,

"Savaged Bosnia Refugees Afraid to go Home; Germany Plans to

Eject Thousands," Chicago Tribune, October 20, 1996.  "More

Asylum Seekers in Germany," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, October

14, 1996.  "Germany and Yugoslavia Sign Treaty of Return of

Refugees, Bavaria Expels Bosnian," This Week in Germany,

October 11, 1996. Alan Cowell, "Bavaria Expels Bosnian War

Refugees," New York Times, October 10, 1996.


France: New Immigration Legislation?

     The French government in October proposed legislation to

crack down on immigrants employed in the underground economy.

If enacted into law, France would offer legal residence

rights to illegal immigrants who have a French spouse or

French children, or have been employed in France for at least

15 years, or would face serious danger if sent home.  The

bill does not offer permanent residence to illegal immigrant

parents of children born in France.

     French leftists and human rights groups criticized the

proposed immigration reforms.  One the one hand, the new law

would boost state controls on foreign residents and reduce

judicial safeguards that prevent deportation.

     On the other hand, the legislation would remove provisions

from immigration law that have deprived some immigrants of

residence rights.  These provisions led to the recent

protests by African immigrants who occupied a Paris church.

On October 26, between 100 to 150 protesters took over a

Paris center for foreigners to demand residence permits and a

halt to expulsions.

     French sociologist Claude-Valentin Marie, in an October 15,

1996 Le Monde article, argued that the government's attempt

to crack down on illegal immigration might damage the French

economy.  The article pointed out that legal and illegal

immigrant workers serve as shock absorbers during economic

restructuring and argued that reducing the number of flexible

immigrant workers may therefore make restructuring more


     The report put the total number of foreign workers dismissed

from heavy manufacturing industry jobs between 1973 and 1988

at 500,000.  Many laid-off foreign workers entered the

underground economy.  According to Marie, 90 percent of those

employed in the underground economy are French citizens or

legal immigrants.

     The National Front, the political party with the slogan

"France for the French," is only about 15 years old, but it

won 15 percent of the vote in the first round of the 1995

presidential elections, and it frequently wins 30 to 35

percent of the vote in local elections.  The National Front

has attracted support among police and transportation


     On October 16, the National Assembly approved an amendment

that would allow the government to prosecute under anti-

racism laws statements that do not single out a particular

race or religion when making derogatory comments.

     On October 20, about 30 Africans evicted from a Paris church

two months ago briefly re-occupied the building, protesting

tough immigration measures that are keeping them in a legal

limbo.  Police ringed the church and by late afternoon the

Africans left.

     French police arrested 17 people who brought in hundreds of

illegal immigrants from Sri Lanka over the past eight years.

The illegal immigrants paid about $800 to be flown from Sri

Lanka to Kiev, and then be driven to France through Poland,

Germany and Switzerland.  They were then housed in Paris

suburbs and given forged documents to show in applying for

political asylum.

     Sri Lankans who find themselves stranded in Poland simply

apply for asylum there.  In one week in September, about 700

illegal immigrants were caught in Poland, including 168 in

two houses in a village near Warsaw.  Most applied for asylum

in order to prevent their immediate deportation.  Poland's

Ministry of Internal Affairs estimates the number of illegal

aliens in Poland at 100,000 to 200,000.

     "Police evict immigrants from Paris offices," Reuters,

October 29, 1996. "Poland: A Gateway to Heaven," Polish News

Bulletin, October  17, 1996.  "France adopts new law to fight

racism," Xinhua News Agency, October 16, 1996.  "Immigrants

contribute to modernization of French economy," Xinhua News

Agency, October 15, 1996.  "Patijn Annoyed with French Misuse

of Schengen Accord," ANP English News Bulletin, October 11,

1996.  "France smashes network smuggling illegal immigrants,"

Reuters, October 9, 1996. "France to close loopholes in

immigration law," Reuters, October 8, 1996.


Morocco and Spain to Fight Illegal Immigration

     Spain and Morocco on October 3, 1996, announced new measures

to combat illegal immigration.  The two countries will

establish joint commissions to study the problems of illegal

immigration and drug smuggling.

     Spain has been criticized by other members of the Schengen

Group for lax border controls which allow illegal immigrants

and drugs to enter the EU.

     Illegal immigrants from Morocco cross the 12-mile Strait of

Gibraltar between the two Africa and Europe.  Others try to

enter the two Spanish enclaves on Morocco's Mediterranean

coast, Ceuta and Melilla, which include an estimated 700

illegal immigrants.

     Morocco will, on a case-by-case basis, readmit illegal

African immigrants who arrive in Spain directly from Morocco.

A Moroccan fisherman taking 26 Moroccans to Spain for 4,000

dirhams ($460) pleaded guilty to causing their deaths in

October--the boat sank in the Strait of Gibraltar, and all


     The European Court of Justice said that member states must

recognize the Cooperation Agreement between Morocco and the

EU by giving social security benefits to Moroccans living in

the EU.

     "Moroccans die in Gibraltar Strait," United Press

International October 11, 1996. "Spain and Morocco to tackle

illegal immigration and drugs," Deutsche Presse-Agentur,

October 3, 1996.  "Court says states must give resident

Moroccans benefits," Reuters, October 3, 1996.


Netherlands Expects Increase in Immigration

     The Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics reported on October

8, 1996 that the improving economic climate of the Netherlands

is expected to increase immigration 11 percent in 1996.

Immigration fell sharply in 1994 after stricter rules were


     Most immigrants to the Netherlands come from Germany, the

United Kingdom, Turkey, Morocco and Surinam.  The number of

immigrants from Turkey, Morocco and Surinam is expected to

rise by 32, 48 and 52 per cent between 1995 and 1996,

respectively, while an eight per cent rise in immigrants is

expected from the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba.

     The Netherlands, long known for toleration, is beginning to

take steps that some see as necessary to integrate

foreigners, and others see as racism.  One politician

proposed that all foreigners from outside the European Union

wishing to live permanently in Holland would have to learn

Dutch and take "lessons in social assimilation and career

guidance courses."

     The number of asylum seekers in 1994 reached 52,576, in part

because the Netherlands was perceived to be more generous

than neighboring countries.  As the Netherlands cracked down

on asylum seekers, many were detained in a converted army

barracks known as Willem II that was opened to asylum seekers

in May 1994.  There have been a series of hunger strikes and

suicides by asylum seekers protesting what they say is very

harsh treatment.

     In the Netherlands,  illegal immigrants are subject to the

provisions of the Dutch criminal law, and thus, can be

ordered to work while detained.  In the spring of 1996, the

Netherlands was holding 700 asylum seekers, mostly North


     Morocco asked the Dutch government to legalize the status of

the Moroccans living in the country without proper

documentation.  Nearly 200,000 Moroccans live in the


     Dutch police on October 16 announced the arrest of 30 people

who ran a worldwide alien smuggling network.  One smuggler

made travel arrangements for Iraqis and Iranians to fly to

the Ukraine or Austria, where they would be supplied with

forged documents and an airline ticket to the Netherlands.

Other members of the smuggling ring would help the illegal

immigrants with asylum applications in the Netherlands.  Many

of the smuggled immigrants went on to Canada after a short

stay in the Netherlands.

     "Morocco, Netherlands to combat drugs, criminals," Reuters,

October 30, 1996. "International 'Frontier Running' Network

Cracked, 30 Arrested," ANP English News Bulletin, October 17,

1996.  "Strong economy could be behind sharp rise in 1996

immigration," ANP English News Bulletin, October 8, 1996.

Georgie Anne Geyer, "Dutch move to control immigration,"

Chicago Tribune, September 13, 1996




Migration between Two Koreas

     China and South Korea are reportedly building refugee camps

to handle what some expect to be a hunger-induced mass

emigration from North Korea of up to five million people this

winter.  South Korea's Ministry of National Unification has

sought 4.6 billion won ($5.6 million) in the fiscal 1997

budget to build a refugee camp south of Seoul.

     In recent years, about 100 North Koreans have moved to South

Korea each year.  It is easier for North Koreans to move to

China, because that border is not heavily mined: 1,000 North

Koreans are believed to have moved to China since 1992,

blending into ethnic Korean communities in the Chinese border

provinces of Jilin and Liaoning.

     But those who are caught meet a harsh fate.  Under a 1986

treaty, illegal North Koreans apprehended in China are

returned to North Korea, where most are executed.  In some

cases, an entire village is punished for the defection of one

villager.  Within North Korea, there is reported to be a

reverse migration from cities to farms in search of food.

Some 400 North Koreans are refusing to return home from

logging camps in the Russian Far East.

     North Korea has offered resort and beach facilities for the

hundreds of South Korean workers expected to enter the

country when construction of its new nuclear reactors begins

later in 1996.

     The South Korean Ministry of Labor is currently drafting a

new foreign labor employment act which would extend basic

labor rights to foreign workers if their employment was

approved by the government.  The act would also require

employers with foreign workers to post a bond with a bank or

insurance company that would be refunded when the foreign

worker returns to his/her native country.

     South Korea is considering hiring foreign workers to

construct the country's first high-speed train line.  An

official at the Ministry of Construction and Transportation

said that foreign workers were needed because of high wages

and labor shortages.  In addition to South Korean workers,

570 foreign workers will be employed for three years,

beginning in 1997.

     The government hopes to complete the 250-mile track in time

for the 2002 World Soccer Cup.  Japan and South Korea will

share the World Cup soccer tournament in 2002, with half of

the games to be played in each country.

     Both countries are already making plans to change their

immigration laws to facilitate the movement of players,

trainers and fans between the two countries without

unleashing illegal immigration.  South Koreans currently need

a visa to visit Japan, while South Korea permits Japanese

visitors to enter South Korea for up to 15 days without a


     In January 1996, there were 135,686 foreign workers in South

Korea, including 51,301 legal workers and 84,385 illegal

workers.  At the end of May, 1996, according to government

estimates, the number of illegal foreign workers had risen to

100,000, accounting for 60 percent of the foreign workers in

the country.

     The legal foreign workers included 8,539 professional and

technological personnel, and 42,762 industrial technology

trainees.  Most of the illegal migrant workers are from China

and other Asian countries.  Many of the foreign workers from

China are ethnic Koreans.

     South Korea's labor shortages were most acute in 1991, when

almost 10 percent of all manufacturing jobs were vacant.  In

1992, the government reported that 61,126 illegal foreigners

were working in South Korea.

     In 1993, 20,000 foreign trainees were admitted and in

February 1996, the trainee quota was raised to 70,000.

Trainees come from 12 Asian countries, including China, the

Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Myanmar (Burma),

Sri Lanka, Nepal and Pakistan.

     South Korea plans a crackdown on illegal foreign workers in

November 1996.  The crackdown will focus on service

industries such as restaurants, entertainment venues and

factories.  Two similar crackdowns in the past 12 months

resulted in the deportation of 8,500 illegal foreign workers.

There are three types of illegal foreign workers in South

Korea.  Most are foreigners who enter South Korea on tourist

visas and then go to work.  The second type enters South

Korea on a false passport or is smuggled into the country and

hopes to stay and work.

     The third type of illegal foreigner is a trainee who abandons

the traineeship to work illegally.  As of January 1996, about

12,000 foreigners left their traineeships to work illegally.

South Korea's economy is expected to grow by 6.5 percent in

1996, down from nine percent in 1995.

     South Korean-owned factories outside Korea have a reputation

for harsh treatment of local workers.  South Korean companies

invested $2.75 billion abroad in 1995, but from China to

Vietnam to Argentina, local workers complain that their

Korean managers vigorously resist unions, demean workers and

expect overly hard work.  They may have local government

support in this:  In Pakistan, a South Korean construction

firm sent a letter to police listing the names of union-

sympathizer employees  and all were detained.

     South Koreans own sewing and apparel shops around the world.

In Argentina, South Korean-owned textile firms typically hire

illegal Bolivian immigrant day laborers for $3 per day and do

not pay social security or other taxes.

     "Crackdown on illegal foreign workers looming," Agence France

Presse, October 28, 1996.  "S. Korea's Foreign Labor

Relations," Chicago Tribune, October 27, 1996.  "South Korea:

Foreign Workers to Receive Basic Labor Rights," Korea

Economic Daily, October 5, 1996.  "South Korea to import

Southeast Asian workers for train project," Agence France

Presse, September 24, 1996.  "Korean bosses anger workers

overseas," Wall Street Journal, July 23, 1996. "Simplified

Employment Procedures Foreseen for Foreign Workers," Comline

Daily News, July 11, 1996.  "Number of Illegal Workers Rising

in South Korea," Reuter Asia-Pacific Business Report, July 7,

1996.  Song Byoung-jun, "Labor Shortages & Foreign Workers,"

Tokyo Financial Wire, March 28, 1996.  Shim Jae Hoon, "Hunger

could trigger an exodus of refugees from North Korea and

bring the country to its knees," Far Eastern Economic Review,

October 10, 1996.


Singapore: Foreign Workers and Productivity

     In September 1996, Singapore reached its highest-ever level

of foreign worker employment, when the 350,000 foreign

workers reached 20 percent of the country's 1.7 million work


     The government in 1996 launched campaigns against illegal

immigration and to promote on the job safety.  One result is

that many contractors are requesting one- to two-month

extensions on construction projects because their sub-

contractors cannot find enough workers.

     The number of illegal immigrants apprehended has been rising.

An average of 580 illegal immigrants and overstayers were

arrested each month between March and September, 1996.  Heavy

fines have not deterred the employment of illegal workers,

including a $1.5 million fine for having 188 illegal foreign

workers at one job site.

     Singapore's Minister for Home Affairs began a Construction

Safety campaign on October 12, 1996 to improve the safety of

foreign workers on the job.  In 1996, there has been an

average of one fatal accident a week involving foreign

workers at construction sites and about one murder involving

foreign workers each month.

     Singapore is attempting to upgrade the skills and

productivity of its economy.  In a Foreign Affairs article in

1994 entitled "The Myth of Asia's Miracle," economist Paul

Krugman argued that countries such as Singapore grew by

increasing the amount of capital and labor, not by increasing

the productivity of each worker or unit of capital.

Singapore Airlines, with 23,000 employees, is the island-

nation's largest employer.

     "Projects held up by labor crackdown," UPI, October 30, 1996.

Sharon Vasoo, "High price of relying too much on low-cost

workers," Straits Times, October 12, 1996.  "Dependence on

foreign workers poses social problems for Singapore," Xinhua

News Agency, October 11, 1996.


Malaysia:  Recruitment Ban Continues

     Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim announced on October 12

that the government would continue the ban on permits to

import unskilled foreign workers first imposed on July 10,

1996.  Malaysia still needs foreign workers, Anwar said, but

labor-short companies should recruit illegal immigrants from

detention centers.  According to Anwar, "if they [employers]

need  foreign workers they can always go to the camps and

hire these [illegal] people."

     However, of the 37,000 detained illegal workers available to

employers in October 1996, only 3,000 were hired.  Most

Malaysian companies say that the illegal aliens in detention

centers have too few skills.

     Employers with illegal foreign workers are supposed to

register them with the Immigration Department by December 31,

1996 and to have a physical exam.

     Employers can continue to apply for permission to import

skilled foreign workers, with applications considered on a

case-by-case basis.

     Anwar said there were 750,000 foreign workers with work

permits in Malaysia and one million illegal aliens.  The

legal foreign workers include 306,000 from Indonesia and

117,500 Bangladeshis; others are from the Philippines,

Thailand, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and Burma.

     According to Anwar, Malaysia will reduce the number of

foreign workers to reduce the social problems they cause.

There have been several clashes in 1996 between Bangladeshis

and Malays.  Anwar asked Indonesia and Bangladesh to

cooperate by preventing the movement of their nationals to

Thailand on their way to Malaysia.

     The Malaysian Human Resources minister also warned employers

that they face sanctions if they lay off Malaysian workers

before dismissing foreign workers.  The government is

investigating two factories in Jahor that laid off 87 Malays

and retained 119 foreign workers.

     In order to speed up repatriations and encourage the hiring

of illegal workers in detention, Malaysia began requiring

employers bringing foreign workers into the country to pay a

fee equivalent to repatriation expenses for 25 per cent of

the number of workers who arrive, e.g., to admit 100 foreign

workers, the employer must pay for the repatriation of 25.

Malaysia is a country of 19 million with a labor force of

eight million, including one to two million foreigners.  The

Malaysian Trades Union Congress estimates three million

foreign workers.

     The economy has been growing at an annual rate of eight to

nine percent, the labor force at an annual rate of two to

three percent and employment at an annual rate of three to

four percent.  One result of rapid economic and job growth

are labor shortages, estimated to be five to 10 percent of

current employment in plantation agriculture (250,000

employees) and manufacturing (1.4 million employees).

Malaysia has had a stop-go policy on foreign worker

recruitment.  On October 16, 1991, the Malaysian government

announced an "amnesty" that permitted the employers of

illegal alien workers to register them and pay a fee of M$420

in most cases, and some 447,000 illegal aliens equivalent to

six percent of Malaysian employment registered by June 30,


     In April 1993, unskilled foreign worker recruitment was

suspended but, after employers protested the recruitment

freeze was lifted for manufacturers in June 1993.  On January

7, 1994, recruitment of unskilled and semi-skilled workers

from outside the country was stopped, but was later permitted

on a sector-by-sector basis.

     The New Straits Times reported on October 9, 1996 that two-

thirds of 1996 Malaysian employer requests for 210,249

foreign workers, including 106,000 of 141,300 requests from

the manufacturing sector, have been approved.

     On October 18, 1996, Malaysia announced proposals that would

increase penalties to deter illegal immigrants, including a

proposal to cane illegal workers and their employers if they

are caught twice.

     Under current law, illegal immigrants face RM$1,000 ($400)

fines, several months imprisonment and deportation, while

Malaysian employers face fines of $800 and imprisonment for

several months.  The new penalties are expected to be

approved by parliament before the end of 1996.

     On October 28, Malaysian officials reported that nearly

30,000 Bangladeshis were massing in southern Thailand in a

bid to illegally enter Malaysia.  Many were trying to enter

Malaysia through the hills along the border or by sea.  The

Malaysian government mobilized about 6,000 members from the

civilian national guard to help police the Malaysian-Thai


     Many Indonesians and Bangladeshis are smuggled into Malaysia

on fishing boats for fees that average about $1,000.

The Malaysian press blames foreign workers for committing a

disproportionate number of crimes.  However, of the 10,623

serious crimes committed in Malaysia in 1995, 628 were

committed by foreign workers.  Of the 70,798 minor crimes,

2,197 involved foreigners.

     The Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers advised its member-

employers to be more diligent when hiring foreign workers.

Some Malaysian firms are paid RM1,000 ($400) for each foreign

worker they hire from a recruitment agency, which allegedly

encourages the hiring of unauthorized foreign workers.

According the International Trade and Industry ministry, some

company officers were allegedly receiving under-the-table

payments for recruiting foreign workers from certain agents.

The official said that this may explain why companies are not

hiring detained illegal aliens who have been given work


     According to the government, Bangladeshi workers are subject

to criticism because of their social differences and their

tendency to marry local women.  The government printed

pamphlets "to educate women on the consequences they will

have to face if they still decide to marry foreigners."  One

Malaysian government minister said that marriages of

convenience by Bangladeshi and Indian foreign workers would

increase social problems in the Malaysia.

     Merbok Wanita Chief Rosnah Majid warned that "We [Malaysia]

should learn from the German experience where  foreign

workers  had caused a lot of problems."

     "30,000 illegal massing at border to enter Malaysia," Straits

Times, October 25, 1996.  "Retrench foreign workers first,

Malaysia warns employers," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, October

30, 1996.  "Malaysia says stop importing foreign workers,"

Reuters Financial Service, October 12, 1996.  Hamisah Hamid,

"Be alert when hiring aliens, employers told," Business

Times, October 10, 1996.  "Find long-term measures to

overcome labour shortage," New Straits Times, October 10,

1996.  "JAIP works with Immigration on marriage issue," New

Straits Times, October 9, 1996.  Michael Richardson,

"Malaysia Readies a Crackdown on Illegal Workers,"

International Herald Tribune, October 7, 1996.


Thailand:  From Illegals to Guest Workers

     Foreign Workers.  According to the Interior Ministry, of the

590,000 illegal immigrants in Thailand in mid-1995, about

300,000 came from Burma, 100,000 from China, and 10,000 each

from Cambodia and Laos.

     Under new rules, employers are required to legalize their

illegal workers by paying a fee and registering them with the

Immigration Police.  The legalized migrants will be granted

two work permits and only those employed in agriculture,

construction, fishing and water transportation can be


     As of October 11, only 27,536 immigrant workers had been

registered and passed medical examinations, less than four

per cent of the estimated illegal labor force of 700,000.

Most employers complain that the 5,000 baht (US$200)

registration fee is to stiff.

     On November 17, a new general election will be held in

Thailand and many wonder it the legalization program will be

continued by a new government.

     When the government legalized the presence of many illegal

immigrants in June 1996, trade unions protested that foreign

workers put downward pressure on wages.

     Bangkok has become the Asian hub for organizing travel for

illegal Chinese immigrants to Europe and the US.  Stolen

passports, primarily from Korea and Japan, are sent to

Bangkok and sold for $2,000 to $3,000 each.  Genuine

passports from Bolivia, Honduras, Argentina and Belize can be

bought for $12,000 to $32,000.

     Smugglers can fly a Chinese migrant to the US from Beijing

as a bogus member of a trade delegation for about $18,000.

Ships have lost their popularity because of the difficulty

entering ports without detection.

     In 1995, investigators found that a subcontractor hired by

shoe giant Reebok was paying ethnic Karen refugees from Burma

working in Thailand less than half of the minimum wages paid

their Thai counterparts.

     A professor at Mahidol University in Thailand told a seminar

on October 5, 1996 that the government should not attempt to

lure foreign investors with offers of cheap labor.  He found

that in a random survey most foreigners are paid a quarter of

what their Thai counterparts earn for the same jobs.  This

situation, he added, might subject Thailand to trade

sanctions by Western countries who regard labor exploitation

as a violation of human rights.  The Thailand Development

Research Institute is now completing a study on the

advantages and disadvantages of employing foreign workers.

     Internal Migration.  On October 13, 1996, some Thai workers

held a march to demand that migrant Thai workers be allowed

to vote at their work places.   There are believed to be five

million internal migrant workers who are employed away from

the address where they are registered as living and voting.

Since voting in Thailand must be done in person, many will

not be able to vote in the November 17 general election.

Unions asked that internal migrants be able to use their

employer's address and vote where they are employed.

Thailand raised its daily minimum wage to 157 baht ($6.19) on

October 1, 1996.

     Peter Janssen, "Thailand squeezes black market out of

immigrant labour trade," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, October 28,

1996.  "Workers Announce Demands," Bangkok Post, October 14,

1996.  Sirikul Bunnang, "Open Door Policy for Foreigners a

Mistake," Bangkok Post, October 5, 1996.  Onnucha Hutasingh,

"Thai-Cambodian Relations--Plight of Immigrants in Bangkok

not as Good as They Hope," Bangkok Post, September 8, 1996.

Kim Gooi, "Bangkok is Asia's hub for the illegal travel

business,"  Presse-Agentur, September 23, 1996.  Tina Gill,

"Foreign Labor Pains Thai Unions," InterPress Service,

September 2, 1996.


Vietnam Restricts Foreigner Workers

     Vietnam in October 1996 announced new rules for the

employment of foreigners.  Foreigners working in joint

venture and wholly foreign-owned companies will be limited to

a stay of three years in the country and foreign-owned

companies will be required to train local replacements for

their foreign staff.

     Most foreigners with business visas will also have to apply

for work permits.  Those exempt from the new rules include

diplomats, employees of non-government organizations, foreign

media and executives in company representative offices.

About two million Vietnamese live outside Vietnam, including

one million in the US.  Overseas Vietnamese remit an

estimated $600 to $700 million annually.  Vietnam hopes that

its Diaspora will stimulate foreign investment.  Some 265,000

"Viet kieu" returned for at least brief visits in 1995, but

they registered only 58 investment projects, worth about $100


     Many of the 400 US companies operating in Vietnam are

pressing Congress to grant a waiver of the Jackson-Vanick

Amendment, which withholds government-guaranteed financing of

trade with countries that do not allow free emigration.

"Vietnam curbs foreign workers," Financial Times, October 10,

1996. Seth Mydans, "Uncertainty Reigns for Returning

Vietnamese," New York Times, August 3, 1996.




UAE Expels Migrants

     The United Arab Emirates in October continued to expel

thousands of illegal migrants, leading, in at least one case,

to labor shortages.  Foreigners make up about 75 percent of

the 2.4 million population in the UAE.

     Illegal foreign workers were ordered to leave the UAE in

August and the original September 30, 1996 deadline was

extended to October 31, 1996.  Most of the illegal workers

are from India, Bangladesh, the Philippines, Sri Lanka,

Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran.  Most arrived legally and

then stayed after their visas expired or illegally changed


     The UAE reports that as of early October, some 145,000

foreigners from India, the Philippines, Pakistan, Bangladesh,

Sri Lanka and Iran had left.  Many of the Indians wishing to

leave cannot afford the airfare home, so the Indian

government is sending boats to bring Indian workers home.

The Indian state of Kerala expects about 30,000 migrants to

return from the UAE.

     Tough new penalties on illegal aliens go into effect on

November 1, 1996, including fines of up to 30,000 dirhams

($8,200) and three years in jail.  Boat owners bringing

illegal aliens into the country face up to 15 years in prison

and fines of between 15,000 dirhams and 100,000 dirhams

($4,100 - $27,000).

     The Philippine government reports that about 6,000 Filipinos

in the UAE plan to leave before the October 31, 1996

deadline.  Three out of four Filipinos working abroad are the

sole supporter of their families.  The Manila labor monitor,

Migrante, found that within one month of their return, most

foreign workers are broke.  Many of the Filipinos who leave

the UAE are expected to seek employment in other countries.

King Fahd of Saudi Arabia on October 21 called on Saudi

private businesses to employ more Saudi workers.  The

announcement came three days after the Saudi government

refused to renew residency permits for foreign workers in 13

occupations, including guards, receptionists and


     Saudi Arabia in October 1996 barred foreign laborers from

driving or owning cars, according to the Filipino Overseas

Workers Welfare Administration.  Foreigners classified as

watchmen and servants are not affected by the ban.  There are

about 600,000 Filipinos working in Saudi Arabia as domestic

helpers, manual laborers and technicians.

     "Saudi king calls on private sector to hire more Saudi

laborers," Xinhua News Agency, October 22, 1996.  "More

Saudis to replace foreigners," UPI, October 24, 1996.

"Filipino laborers in Saudi Arabia banned from driving,

owning cars," Agence France Presse, October 10, 1996.  Edgar

C. Cadano, "Labour nationalization plan needs evaluation,

expert tells Gulf firms," Moneyclips, October 7, 1996.  "UAE

says 144,979 illegal workers have left," Reuters, October 7,

1996.  "Asian nations count cost of UAE expulsion of illegal

workers," Agence France Presse, October 6, 1996.


Immigration in Africa

     Throughout Africa in 1996, illegal immigrants were expelled

by countries who blamed them for everything from spreading

AIDS to crime and unemployment.  Rising unemployment in

immigrant-dependent Middle Eastern countries lead to the

expulsion of tens of thousands of immigrants from Saudi

Arabia and migrant workers in other Middle Eastern countries

face increased work permit fees and other measures aimed at

reducing immigrant numbers.

     South Africa, with a per capita income of $3,000--is

attracting immigrants from other parts of Africa. The stock

of immigrants is estimated at two to four million.  The major

countries of origin include Mozambique, with a per capita

income of less than $100, Malawi and Zaire.

     In October 1996, South Africa announced that it would tighten

visa issuance procedures after more than 90 000 Zimbabweans

violated the terms of their six-month visas in 1995-96.

Most of the illegal African migrants work in the informal

sector of South Africa's economy as street peddlers or day


     On July 22, 1996, the South African government announced that

foreigners without "special skills" would be banned from

working in the country.

     Polls suggest that most South Africans associate illegal

immigrants with unemployment, homelessness and crime.

However, many of the countries of origin sheltered African

National Congress members during apartheid and South Africa

recently agreed to Mozambique's request that it slow down the

deportation of illegal Mozambicans.

     South Africa granted a temporary right to stay for nationals

of Rwanda, Burundi, Somalia, Angola, Ethiopia and Liberia.

This gives nationals of Zaire and Mozambique incentives to

claim that they are from one of these nations.

     South Africa is considering an amnesty, a guest worker

program or an arrangement in which increased aid to

neighboring countries is tied to stepped-up enforcement.

South Africa still employs about 170,000 foreign miners to

work in gold and diamond mines.  In September 1996, wages

were raised eight to 13 percent for 190,000 miners.

     There has been a dramatic increase in emigration by South

Africans with professional or technical skills.  There was a

first quarter increase of 27 percent in 1996 of the total

number of emigrants over the same period last year.  The

number of immigrants in the same period decreased by 21

percent.  Some observers say that rising crime and fears

about education standards are causing the increased

emigration and decreased immigration rates.

     Zimbabwe will refuse to renew work permits for foreigner

professionals to make room for Zimbabwe professionals

returned from South Africa.  In Cabora Bassa, Songo, in

Mozambique's Tete Province, 900 Mozambican workers staged a

sit in at a dam-power plant to protest the higher wages and

benefits paid to Portuguese workers.

     In August, 1996 Angolan police arrested more than 800 illegal

immigrants in a crackdown on illegal immigrants in the

province of Luanda.  Called Operation Cancer III, illegal

immigrants from Mali, Lebanon and Senegal have been deported.

The police plan to extend the operation to other provinces in

the to arrest illegal immigrants reportedly from Bulgaria,

Russia and Portugal.

     More than 1,000 foreigners were arrested in Luanda Norte

province during the past six months.  Most were Zairians

involved in diamond smuggling.

     Gambia used to be considered the gateway to Europe and the

United States.  Many African migrants went to Gambia because

of the country's open-door policy for professionals.

     Relatively high salaries attracted medical doctors, lawyers

and accountants, but most of the Ghanaians, Nigerians,

Guineans, Sierra Leoneans and Liberians in Gambia are

teachers who planned to use Gambia as a stepping stone to

Europe or the US, but were unable to get visas and remained.

Many were lured to Gambia by stories of West African

professionals, especially teachers, who ended up in Europe,

Canada or the US after working for a year or two in Gambia.

The rising cost of living in Gambia and stepped up

enforcement in Europe, Canada and the US, has encouraged some

foreign teachers to return home, or to try their luck in

neighboring Senegal.  Some try to reach Spain from Senegal

via Mauritania and Morocco.

     Both poverty and wealth have increased in Egypt since 1991

when the country opened itself to foreign trade and

investment.  Egypt has 61 million people with an average

income of $750 per year; 57 percent of the population lived

below the poverty line of $226 per person per year in 1990-


     At the other extreme, the richest six million Egyptians had

about 28 percent of the country's national income.

Lansana Fofana, "Gambia-Population: Migrants' Dreams Turn to

Dust," InterPress Service, October 15, 1996.  "Calm maybe in

Cabora Bassa," Indian Ocean Newsletter, October 12, 1996.

"Crackdown on illegal immigrants in Angola continues,"

Deutsche Presse-Agentur, August 14, 1996. "S. Africa bans

foreign workers without "special skills." Agence France

Presse, July 23, 1996. Ken Wells, "Waves of immigrants

consider South Africa a land of opportunity," Wall Street

Journal, April 2, 1996.


Australian Race Debate Heats Up

     On October 30, Australia's political leaders issued a joint

statement in the Parliament opposing racism.  The debate on

race in Australia was sparked by, a September 10, 1996 speech

by a newly elected member of Parliament that called for a

moratorium on immigration, since Australia was "in danger of

being swamped by Asians."

     On October 31, Pauline Hanson, a Queensland MP, challenged

the government by demanding a referendum on immigration and

multiculturalism.  Hanson issued a statement saying she

supported parts of the statement opposing racism, but vowed

to continue her anti-Asian immigration and anti-Aboriginal

funding message.  Recent polls show that as many as two-

thirds of Australians back her call for a halt to


     The number of immigrants arriving in Australia rose to 99,139

in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1996.  The three leading

countries of origin were New Zealand (12.4 percent), Britain

(11.4 percent), and China (11.3 percent).  Australia's

conservative government announced in July, 1996 that general

immigration would be reduced to 74,000 in the current fiscal

year that ends  June 30, 1997.

     A Newspoll survey in September 1996 reported that 71 percent

of 1,200 voters surveyed believed immigration was "a lot" or

"a little" too high.

     Nearly 2,000 Australians marched in Brisbane on November 2

in solidarity with Asian Australians and to protest the

Australian Prime Minister's failure to deal with the race


     Since September, many Asian tourists, including a group of

160 from Singapore, have bypassed Australia, hurting the

country's billion-dollar tourism industry.  Nearly two

million tourists from Asian countries visit Australia each


     Some 28,670 people emigrated from Australia in the fiscal

year ending June 30, 1996.

     Winston Peters, leader of the populist New Zealand First

Party, received 13 percent of the vote in New Zealand's

October 12, 1996 election on an anti-foreigner platform.  New

Zealand adopted a German-style voting system in 1993 and, for

the first time, each voter can vote for a party and also for

a local representative.

     Anita Jain, "Singaporeans stay away from Australia," UPI,

November 1, 1996.  Luke Slattery, "Australian premier appeals

for calm over racism row," The Scotsman, November 1, 1996.

Kiichiro Harano, "Australian legislator's remarks anger Asian

media," Daily Yomiuri, November 2, 1996.  "Australian race

debate MP demands referendum" Agence France Presse, October

31, 1996. S. Karene Witcher, "New Zealand politics turn

tumultuous,"  Wall Street Journal, October 9, 1996.




Slow Advancement for the Newly-Legalized

The Houston Chronicle ran a series, Out of the Shadows, which

concluded that many of the aliens legalized in 1986-87 are

falling into America's dead-end culture of urban poverty.

In addition to profiles of unauthorized aliens who received

amnesty, the series includes interviews with Peter Brimelow,

who says that "There is no precedent for a sovereign country

undergoing such a rapid and radical transformation of its

ethnic character [brought about by the 1965 amendments to US

immigration law] in the entire history of the world."

Julian Simon, by contrast, asserted that "On average, when an

immigrant comes into the country, natives are made richer."

Immigrants pay more in taxes than they receive in government

benefits because they are young and likely to work.

     George Borjas argued that the costs of today's immigration

patterns outweigh the benefits, and that gap between the

level of education and skills of recent immigrants and

natives have been widening.

     Michael Fix, co-author of Immigration and Immigrants: Setting

the Record Straight, concluded that immigrants generate a net

annual surplus for the US of $25 billion to $30 billion per


     Roy Beck, author of The Case Against Immigration, argues that

much of the increase in US wages between 1925 and 1965 was

due to tight labor markets, which in turn was due to low

levels of immigration.

The entire series is available at:



Working Papers on Immigration Issues

     Borjas, George, and Lynnette Hilton.  1996.  Immigration and

the Welfare State:  Immigrant Participation in Means-Tested

Entitlement Programs.  NBER WP 5372.

     In 1990, about nine percent of US households with foreign-

born heads received cash assistance such as AFDC, versus

seven percent of households headed by US-born persons.

However, if in-kind welfare assistance such as Medicaid and

Food Stamps are included, then 21 percent of households with

foreign-born heads received benefits in 1990, versus 14

percent of households headed by US-born persons.

     Note that many other analysts of the usage of welfare by

immigrants do not consider the household to be an immigrant

household if the head was born in another country.  One

estimate is that two-thirds of immigrant-headed households

include a US-born person.

     Households with foreign-born heads received more assistance--

such households were nine percent of all US households, but

they received 14 percent of the $184 billion spent on federal

welfare assistance in 1990.  The gap between foreign-born and

native-born households was greatest for Medicaid--15 percent

of the immigrant households, and seven percent of native-born

households, received Medicaid benefits in 1990.

     Hanson, Gordon and Antonio Spilmbergo.  1996.  Illegal

Immigration, Border Enforcement, and Relative Wages. NBER WP


     This paper concludes that a 10 percent decrease in Mexican

real wages was associated with about eight percent more

apprehensions in the following month between 1976 and 1995.

Adding one more hour of Border Patrol enforcement time was

associated with about 0.3 more apprehensions.

     Hanson, Gordon.  1996.  US-Mexican Integration and Regional

Economies:  Evidence from Border-City Pairs. NBER WP 5485.

This paper investigates the growth of trade and investment in

the six largest US-Mexican border pairs between 1975 and

1989, and concludes that NAFTA will expand employment and

population on both sides of the border.

     Krueger, Alan and Jorn-Steffen Pischke.  1996.  A Statistical

Analysis of Crime Against Foreigners in Unified Germany. NBER

WP 5485.

     Using data on the number of crimes committed against

foreigners from newspaper reports, this paper finds that

crimes against foreigners are highest in the former East

Germany and that the number of foreigners in a county is

associated with more crimes against foreigners only in the


     Borjas, George, Richard Freeman, and Lawrence Katz.  1996.

     Searching for the Effects of Immigration on the Labor Market.

NBER WP 5454.

     This paper compares area and factor proportions methods of

estimating the effects of immigrants in local labor markets.

In area analyses, the share of immigrants in employment, or

the change in the share of immigrants, is an independent

variable that is used to try to explain changes in the wages,

unemployment etc of native workers.  As the labor market

expands, the estimated negative effects of immigrants

increase in 1980 and 1990 Census data.

     In factor-proportions analyses, by contrast, the analyst

assumes that e.g., immigrants are unskilled, and natives are

skilled, and then estimates the effects of more immigrants on

skilled workers' labor market outcomes.  These analyses

suggest that immigration contributed to falling wages for US

workers with less than a high school education in the 1980s.

Raphael, Steven and Eugene Smolensky.  1996.  Immigration,

Foregone Human Capital, and the Fisc.  Berkeley:  Graduate

School of Public Policy WP 224.

     If Prop. 187 prohibitions on the estimated 300,000 to 350,000

illegal alien children in California public schools were

implemented, and if the children stayed in California and

were not educated, then the illegal children not educated

would earn from $62,000 to $430,000 less in their lifetimes,

with the largest earnings losses for illegal alien children

kept out of kindergarten and not receiving any education.

Since more education is associated with higher earnings and

more taxes, the analysis suggests that denying education to

persons who remain in California and seek jobs could be


     Research Perspectives on Migration is a new bi-monthly

newsletter produced by the migration programs of the Carnegie

Endowment and the Urban Institute.  The first issue,

September/October 1996, deals with the use of welfare by

foreign-born persons in the US and concludes that there is

too little consensus in the social science research to serve

as a basis for changing the legal immigration system in a

manner that would attempt to reduce the welfare costs of

immigrants.  For further information, contact David Aronson

at daronson@ceip.org

     The Carnegie Endowment's International Migration Policy

Program issued several brief papers on migration issues in

1996.  The first paper, entitled Managing Uncertainty, argues

that the immigration problem flows from unwanted immigration,

compassion fatigue, and reactions against global

interdependence.  The paper concludes that the most important

steps needed to deal with immigration are to have "sound"

polices that are reviewed regularly, and to prevent "anti-

immigrant demagogues" from shaping public opinion.

     The "US Refugee Policy" paper reviews resettlement, temporary

protection, asylum, and emergency responses to migration

crises.  The paper cautions against too much reliance on the

prevention of refugees, and urges that the US continue to

offer protection to those facing persecution.  The

"Converging Paths to Restriction" paper reviews how

governments in France, Italy, and the UK responded to

immigration and asylum issues.  For copies of these reports,

contact Yasmin Santiago at tel (202) 862-7982 or fax 202-862-


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