UNITED NATIONS POPULATION INFORMATION NETWORK (POPIN)
UN Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
with support from the UN Population Fund (UNFPA)

What has AIDS to do with agriculture? (A brochure by FAO)

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This document is being made available by the Population Information

Network (POPIN) Gopher of the United Nations Population Division,

Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis,

in collaboration with the Population Programme Service, Sustainable

Development Department, United Nations Food and Agriculture

Organization.  For further information, please contact: Mr. Jacques

du Guerny, email:

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              WHAT HAS AIDS TO DO WITH AGRICULTURE?





                 Brochure by Martina Haslwimmer

                         September 1994





Introduction



The purpose of this brochure is to create awareness about the

effects of the pandemic HIV/AIDS on agriculture in sub-Saharan

Africa. It should stimulate consideration being given by the

readership to improve programmes and project design thus to

contribute to the mitigation of the impact of HIV/AIDS on rural

farm households.

 

This brochure is based on a study undertaken by FAO in 1993 and

financed by UNDP to assess the impact of HIV/AIDS on

agricultural production systems in Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia.

It summarizes the results gained in a Rapid Rural Appraisal

exercise which generated the necessary qualitative and quantitative

information. This document is meant for policy makers and

planners, agricultural researchers and extension staff, staff of

agricultural and rural development projects, multi- and bilateral

donors, Non-Governmental Organizations, medical personnel with

an interest in development issues and anybody else interested in

the problem.



The brochure was prepared by Martina Haslwimmer of FAO's

Farm Management and Production Economics Service (AGSP) with

the editorial support of Alison Small.



==================================================================



Contents



Page



WHAT HAS AIDS TO DO WITH AGRICULTURE?                    1



    The impact of HIV/AIDS on the rural household        2

    The impact on labour                                 4



THE IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS ON SMALL FARMERS                  6



    The impact on crop production                        6

    Decline in crop yields                               7

    Decline in soil fertility                            7

    Increase in pests and diseases                       7

    Decline in the variety of crops grown                8

    The impact of HIV/AIDS on livestock production       9

    The impact of HIV/AIDS on pastoralists               9

    The impact of HIV/AIDS on agricultural extension 

    services                                            10

    The loss of agricultural knowledge and management 

    skills                                              10



THE CONSEQUENCES OF HIV/AIDS                            11



       The consequences of HIV/AIDS on farming systems         11

       The declining status of nutrition and health            11

       The problem of orphans                                  12

       Coping mechanisms: the role of NGOs and self-help 

       groups                                                  12

       The impact of HIV/AIDS on programmes and projects       13



RECOMMENDATIONS                                                15



       General recommendations at the planning and policy 

       level                                                   15

       The incorporation of HIV/AIDS in the project cycle      15

       Vulnerability mapping                                   16

       Determining epidemic impact on labour availability      17

       Focus on women                                          17

       Exploring and disseminating existing coping 

       strategies                                              18

       Cost recovery                                           18

       At the micro level                                      18

       Income-generating activities                            19

       Health                                                  19

       Nutrition                                               20



LITERATURE CONSULTED                                           21



==================================================================



What has AIDS to do with agriculture? 

- the case of sub-Saharan Africa





Since the first case of Anti-Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

was recognized in 1981 in the United States, the Human

Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has spread, largely unnoticed in the

beginning, throughout the world. By the year 2000, the current

projection of the World Health Organization (WHO) is that there

will be a cumulative total of 30 - 40 million HIV infections in

men, women and children, the projected cumulative total of adult

AIDS cases is close to 10 million worldwide. The WHO estimates that

10 million people have been infected by HIV as of mid-1994 in sub-

Saharan Africa. It is further estimated that more than 2.5 million

AIDS cases had occurred in this region as of mid-1994.  The

predominant way of transmission is heterosexual. The disease

affects the most productive age group in the population - those

between 15 and 49 years of age, a fact which is unique to

HIV/AIDS in comparison with other diseases such as malaria or

cholera.



       HIV/AIDS is a medical problem, but has social and

economic dimensions as well. In most sub-Saharan African

countries small farmers are not part of a fully operating medical

care system. At the family level, medical costs associated with

caring for the sick and bedridden have to be borne along with the

funeral expenses of family members who die of the disease.

Besides the costs of drugs,  conventional and traditional medical

treatment, households caring for AIDS patients are often faced with

meeting expenses for additional special foods to comfort the sick

or for items such as extra blankets.



     The impact of HIV/AIDS on the rural household HIV/AIDS causes

direct costs, mostly medical and funeral expenses, and indirect

costs, which are mainly labour-related. Potential income is lost

due to illness and death of individuals and the task of caring for

these patients. If no safety net is present or is incomplete,

small-scale households and rural communities have to bear these

costs by themselves. The impact can also affect the development of

off-farm activities; the degree to which extension reaches, in

particular the small farmer, and the provision of social services.

Virtually no sector or sub-sector involved in the planning, design

and implementation of agricultural development projects and

programmes may thus be regarded as being beyond the reach of effect

of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.  



       HIV/AIDS intervenes and effects farm households, their

different sub-systems and their interlinkages as demonstrated in

Figure 1 below.  Cash income and labour are partly diverted to cope

with and/or compensate for the effect of HIV/AIDS, leaving less

labour for farm and off-farm activities as well as reducing the

amount of money available to the household. Cash, which is

exchanged by the farm and off-farm system in purchasing fertilizer

or other inputs or financing investments in off-farm activities,

may have to be used to pay for AIDS-related expenditures.  Where

households own livestock, and there is no cash income, cattle may

be sold to pay for medical and funeral expenses. 



       The high cost of treating AIDS and the expenses incurred

through the death of an AIDS victim, mean that households either

require assistance or cash incomes to cope with these additional

expenses.



===================================================================



Figure 1: Resource diversion due to AIDS in a farm-household

system 



====================================================================

       At the national level, HIV/AIDS requires budgeting for

health and for health education programmes.  These expenses

involve not only treatment programmes but awareness-building and

information campaigns.  While much of this work is being

undertaken by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the

effective dissemination of information requires the support of

governments.  Additional costs to governments may also arise from

the loss of skilled labour in certain areas, to be replaced by

higher-paid international employees and by the import of foodstuffs

or other items which may be needed to supplement the loss of

production.



The impact on labour 



In some rural communities of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS is

now resulting in labour shortages for both farm and domestic work.

Besides the labour loss of the AIDS patient through sickness and

subsequent death, family members have to divert time to care for

the sick and eventually neglect farm or off-farm activities. This

results in a loss of potential income. The situation is aggravated

in farming systems with pointed labour peaks in the year and by a

marked gender division of labour. With the death of a spouse the

widow or widower does not necessarily take over the work of the

deceased spouse. Labour-intensive farming systems with a low level

of mechanization and agricultural input use are particularly

vulnerable to the impact of HIV/AIDS as the economic return to

labour tends to be low. In addition, traditional customs like the

extended time of mourning, where no farming activities can be

carried out, can have an adverse effect on labour availability

during periods in which deaths are frequent.  



The impact of HIV/AIDS on small farmers



     The impact on crop production The impact of HIV/AIDS on crop

production relates to a reduction in land use, a decline in crop

yields and a decline in the range of crops grown.  



       The reduction in land use is attributed to a number of

factors which have occurred as a direct result of the HIV/AIDS

epidemic.   These include:  sickness and death in households,

leading to fewer family members being available to work in the

fields and thus in the size of land that can be cultivated;  the

limitations of land inheritance and land tenure systems, especially

as they may affect widowed and orphaned households;  poverty,

resulting in malnutrition, which in turn affects the health of

family members and their ability to perform agricultural work,  and

which leads to reduced cash incomes needed to purchase inputs such

as seed and fertiliser; and the loss of soil fertility on farms

with limited areas cultivated.



       The effect of HIV/AIDS in reducing the number of family

members needed to cultivate larger areas of land, has led to

substantial reductions in land use in many communities. In some

communities, where land tenure and inheritance traditions favour

male inheritance, the effect of the HIV/AIDS epidemic may be

especially severe.  As increasing numbers of women are left

widowed, and their right to land is already constrained by

traditional inheritance customs, their access to land becomes

extremely difficult.  



Decline in crop yields 



     In several farming systems examined by the FAO study, a

decline in the crop yield per area, especially in the last five

years could be observed.  The factors for the decline include: 



o      a decline in soil fertility

o      increases in pests and diseases

o      changes and delays in cropping practices 

o      decline of external production inputs.  



     These factors are in part attributed to the effects of

HIV/AIDS in limiting the availability of labour for tasks like

weeding, mulching, pruning, as noted above, and the clearing of

land. These tasks are either inadequately carried out, or

completely neglected.  Declines in yields result in a reduction in

household spending power. Cash from the sale of products to buy

basic items like soap and paraffin and to hire occasional labour,

or to purchase inputs such as seed and fertiliser as well as

agricultural implements may not sufficiently available anymore.



Decline in soil fertility



There are signs that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is reducing soil

fertility.  This appears to be due, in part, to a reluctance by

farmers to carry out long-term soil conservation measures because

such measures do not yield an immediate income and are labour

demanding in an environment in which the farming system is already

short of human resources.

  

Increase in pests and diseases



One of the phenomena occuring in crop production systems which

are highly dependent on farm labour, is the increasing incidence of

pest and plant diseases.  The loss of labour, as a result of AIDS,

has reduced the amount of time, care and cash required to

effectively carry out cultural practices and/or pesticide use by,

in particular, small farmers.  In the coffee-banana system the

banana weevil which destroys banana plantations, and stinging ants

which make it difficult to work on coffee plantations are affecting

yields. Banana weevils used to be controlled either by traditional

means, which are labour-intensive, or with the use of chemicals. A

shortage of human resources hinders farmers from controlling

weevils using traditional methods moreover they do not have the

financial resources to purchase chemicals.  Similarly, in the

coffee plantations, increasing infestations of large stinging ants

are believed to be symptomatic of poor cultural practices.  In some

cases this has resulted in the plantations having reverted so far

that it is no longer economic for all but the wealthiest or most

labour-endowed households, either to recover their old coffee trees

or open new lands for coffee production.



Decline in the variety of crops grown



A general shift was observed away from crops that are labour

demanding, like bananas and coffee, to those that are easy to plant

and maintain, require less labour and are also drought resistant.

A narrower range of crops are being grown in East Africa, with

greater emphasis on sweet potatoes, cassava, and maize.  Other

reasons for the decline in the range, as well as in the volume of

crops include:  the depletion of soils, lack  of labour, the high

incidence of pests and diseases, are at least partly attributable

to the frequent deaths and sickness of farmers and their children

caused by AIDS.  



       In order to adapt to factors caused by AIDS farmers have

responded by changing their cropping patterns.  In some farming

systems this has resulted in a shift away from the cultivation of

cash crops such as coffee in order to concentrate all available

labour on the production of subsistence crops like sweet potatoes

and cassava. 



The impact of HIV/AIDS on livestock production



The impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on livestock-raising

practices has been felt in several ways: cattle are frequently sold

to pay medical bills and funeral expenses and decreases in labour

availability result in lower levels of care of livestock. Partially

as a result of the latter, there appears to be a parallel trend

towards the keeping of smaller stock, most notably pigs and

poultry, which are less labour demanding.  

 

The impact of HIV/AIDS on pastoralists



Little is known about the impact of HIV/AIDS on pastoralists. One

example from Uganda's Rakai District, a predominantly pastoralist

tribe, maintains close relationships with the crop farmers and

practices social traditions which favour the spread of HIV/AIDS:

several brothers may share one wife. Among these pastoralists

there has been a tendency for herd sizes to become smaller.  While

one of the reasons given was due to the outbreak of the disease,

Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia,  another reason is

HIV/AIDS.  As with sedentary cattle keepers, people who fall sick

sell their animals to pay for drugs, hospitalization and other

expenses.  



The impact of HIV/AIDS on the agricultural extension services 



The effect of HIV/AIDS on extension work in areas of high

epidemic incidence may be two-fold: in one case a local extension

officer in Uganda noted that between 20 and 50 percent of all

working time was lost as a result of the disease.  Staff members

were frequently absent from work attending funerals and caring for

sick relatives; in some cases extension messages have had to be

revised to take into account the impact of the disease on

agricultural systems, i.e., the shortage of labour, changes in

farmers' needs and priorities both in crop and livestock production

systems.  



The loss of agricultural knowledge and management skills 



Case studies undertaken in rural areas with high levels of

seroprevalence make repeated references to the loss of traditional

knowledge and cultural practices, in part attributed to HIV/AIDS-

related morbidity and mortality.  When one or both parents die or

are seriously ill, their skills may not be transferred to their

children or other relatives.  This may have far reaching

implications in terms of the continuity of agricultural production. 

In Eastern Africa, where the cultivation of coffee and bananas has

been a traditional feature of the farming system, cultural

practices associated with coffee and banana tree cultivation may be

essential towards ensuring the system's continuity. As has already

been noted, the correct mulching, weeding and pruning of

plantations is a prerequisite for reasonable yields.  However, in

areas where there is a high incidence of HIV/AIDS, and the

subsequent lack of understanding of the correct agricultural

practices, plots have been neglected resulting in poor yields.



The consequences of HIV/AIDS



The consequences of HIV/AIDS on farming systems



The consequences of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on rural populations

and agricultural systems include:  the threat to household and

community food security; a decline in the nutritional and health

status of smallholders and their families; a decline in educational

status, as children are forced to leave school; and changes in the

social system, as households adapt to the impact of HIV/AIDS (i.e.

the break-up of families, a growing incidence of female-headed

households, and increasing number of orphans and rural poor). The

impact of HIV/AIDS is also likely to be most severe among

already vulnerable groups such as the malnourished and the food

insecure.  



       Individuals and groups have begun to develop survival

strategies in the light of the changes which are occuring,

partially as a result of the impact of HIV/AIDS on their lives. 

For example, in a number of cases farmers have expressed interest

in supplementing their incomes through small income-earning

activities like bee keeping, tailoring, pig keeping, etc. 

Smallholders have also shown a growing interest in receiving

extension advice, skills training or education (basic literacy,

numeracy, health education, etc). 



The declining status of nutrition and health



In severely AIDS-affected communities there has been a change in

the volume and kinds of crops produced in the farming systems. 

Partly as a result of this the process of impoverishment is induced

that levels of nutrition are falling due to the reliance on starchy

staples like cassava and sweet potatoes in Eastern Africa, compared

with other more nutritious but labour-intensive traditional crops

and or protein from animal products.  In addition there is the lack

of understanding of the nutritional value of foods.  Lower levels

of nutrition result in the increased vulnerability of people to

disease and thus to an overall decline in health.  



The problem of orphans



With increasing numbers of children left orphaned by HIV/AIDS-

related deaths or departure from home of their parents, the health,

well-being and education of such children is a special problem.  If

orphans are provided for by relatives, the cost of maintaining and

educating these children may strain the resources of the receiving

households.  Orphaned children generally cannot pay school fees

or buy uniforms and other school necessities such as exercise books

and text books.  In areas with a high incidence of HIV/AIDS and

orphaned children, NGOs have been playing an important role in

providing housing, and financial, educational and health

assistance. 



Coping mechanisms: the role of NGOs and self-help groups



At the level of the farming system, some coping responses have

already been touched upon.  At the level of the community as a

whole, the most important response has been the formation of self-

help groups, some spontaneous and some under the aegis of an

NGO.  This is an important development in societies where

cooperation between individual households is not the norm.  It

suggests that the traditional response may provide a firm base for

future efforts to cope not only with the impact of the epidemic,

but also with the wider problem of poverty which forms the

background to that impact. A number of NGOs in providing advice

to farmers and extension staff in animal and crop husbandry

practices, have shown their work to be especially pertinent in

communities where sickness and death from HIV/AIDS have left

some households composed of orphans and in need of resources,

both in terms of financial assistance and education, health and

other basic services.  



The impact of HIV/AIDS on programmes and projects



Rising mortality and morbidity as a result of AIDS are likely to

have an impact on project performance since health is a

precondition for development. One of the most serious threats to

any project is absenteeism on the part of both beneficiaries and

project staff, which can be caused by mortality and morbidity,

attendence to funerals and various other exigencies of daily life.

Absenteeism from project activities may set back the progress of

projects in countries severely affected by the disease.

Discrimination at the workplace of HIV-positives staff may further

interfere with the work performance of all staff.



       The impact of AIDS can manifest itself in various ways. It

may result in labour shortages forcing farm households to shift

from cash to subsistence crops when food security is being

threatened. Cash crops which require a long investment period may

not be suitable for families afflicted by AIDS that are in need of

quick returns to cover immediate medical, funeral or orphan-related

expenses.



       Livestock activities might be jeopardized by family

members selling off their animals to finance medical care for AIDS

patients. In addition, if the person in charge of the livestock

dies, family members are often unable to manage the livestock due

to the loss of skills and relevant experience.

       

     The viability of agricultural credit schemes may be at risk

as a result of HIV/AIDS for three reasons: a) increased mortality

may raise the number of defaults; b) AIDS-affected families may

be forced to liquidate their assets in order to repay the credit or

else have their assets seized, thereby ending up worse off than

before they incurred the credit; and c) AIDS-afflicted families may

have to spend part or all of the credit to finance medical care for

family members suffering from AIDS, rather than use the funds for

investment. 

    

     Agricultural research priorities might shift in view of AIDS

to focus on the special needs of farm household with fewer

working adults. Projects supporting agricultural extension services

need to ensure that forms of labour-substitution, technical advice

and credit services are made available to AIDS-affected farm

families. Such projects should review the impact of HIV/AIDS

both in terms of increased mortality among agricultural extension

staff, but also in terms of the reduction of the work time as a

result of the increase in funeral attendence. 

       

     In countries or regions where AIDS is claiming the lives of

skilled labour and the labour market is limited in this labour

segment, consideration of the impact of AIDS may be critical to

the success and sustainability of investment projects. Recruitment,

personnel replacement, training strategies and employment benefits

(medical, pension funds, etc) may have to be revised accordingly.

       

     For any training activity, HIV/AIDS may have to be taken

into account both in terms of replacement/re-training provisions

and strategies, but also in terms of revising training curricula.





Recommendations



General recommendations at the planning and policy level

One result of the research conducted to date is that the impact of

HIV/AIDS is uneven between and within countries, thus it follows

that policy responses must be developed in relation to the

situation as it is observed in particular regions, districts and

communities and thus that local involvement in policy and project

development is essential.   Even in countries with high national

rates of seroprevalence and cumulative AIDS cases, it is quite

difficult to observe the impact of the epidemic in rural

communities.  This is because the epidemic manifests marked

regional and local variations and the impact may vary dramatically

over small distances.  This has implications for the method to be

used in any future work on this problem. Community involvement

should be ensured in diagnosis and programming if resources are to

be used most effectively.



       In communities, where the impact is just being felt it may

be necessary to think in terms of rapid response so as to ensure

that labour-economising strategies are immediately developed for

the specific needs of this type of community through the extension

services, research stations and NGOs.  In such communities

extension messages with explicit HIV/AIDS components should

include both general HIV/AIDS advice and education on the

disease and also advice how to cope with the known impacts of

HIV/AIDS on rural livelihoods and production.



The incorporation of HIV/AIDS in the project cycle



     In countries with pandemic proportions of HIV/AIDS its impact

should be taken into account in all steps of a project cycle such

as project identification and design, project appraisal, project

implementation and monitoring & evaluation. 

       

     In the project identification phase, it is important to find

out, to what extent HIV/AIDS is prevalent in a project area.

Statistical data provide a first indication, but as experience

shows, they often differ significantly from the real situation.

Therefore the potential impact of AIDS should be included in

Participatory Rural Appraisal and Rapid Rural Appraisal exercises.

The identification of target groups should be taken serious to

ensure that AIDS affected families are not excluded and that their

special needs are addressed.



       The implications of AIDS need to be considered in cost-

benefit analyses on which labour shortages, reduced agricultural

yields, absenteeism, etc have their effect. For the project

implementation phase the reduced labour availability of both

project staff and beneficiaries to participate in project

activities should be reflected in the workplan.

       

     The impact of the epidemic on projects needs to be closely

monitored in order to make timely adjustments. Due to the special

nature of HIV/AIDS the impact is expected to become more

serious over the next years. Project strategies and interventions

should be revised accordingly. 



Vulnerability mapping





In general, HIV/AIDS farming system/rural livelihood vulnerability

mapping should be developed for countries with high

seroprevalence rates where an intervention is being planned.  This

serves a number of purposes. It enables the broad identification of

risk by administrative area, agro-ecological zone, farming systems

and livelihood strategy.  It also provides a framework for the

development of area-specific policies and would facilitate the

monitoring of impact and policy outcomes.

       

Determining epidemic impact on labour availability



There is considerable difficulty in distinguishing epidemic impact

on labour availability from other background effects such as local

labour market operation.  Nevertheless, since a major result of

HIV/AIDS impact is increased pressure on the household labour

economy, the most important programme and policy responses are

those which enable people to cope with the results of labour loss. 

Recommendations include working with local people to develop

labour economising responses.



       Given that the main burden of the impact at the household

level falls on the labour economy of the household, this has many

implications for the targeting of assistance on women, children and

in some cases widowed men who are raising children.  Policy

responses should also endeavour to integrate all aspects of poverty

relief, domestic and farm labour, the educational needs of orphans

and other young people, food security and income generation.



Focus on women



To assist women, especially those who are or may become (e.g. by

reason of sickness or divorce) heads of households, action should

be taken in the following areas:



o      Land and inheritance laws;  such legislation should be

       reviewed so as to clearly stipulate land ownership rights

       for women.  Although laws may not discriminate against

       women with regard to land rights, traditional or customary

       laws often do.  In this regard, state laws should prevail

       over customary or religious laws;



o      Assistance is generally required in the transport, storage

       (e.g. through the provision of milling facilities for grains

       in order to produce flour) and in the marketing of produce.



o      Access by women to draught power, farm implements and

       other inputs;



o      Provision of adequate extension services especially to

       women in remote areas.



o      Encouragement of group formation among widows who

       carry much of the burden of coping.  





Exploring and disseminating existing coping strategies

Communities and households have developed their own coping

mechanisms. The reorganisation of cropping schedules, selection

of cultivars, and the rearrangement of domestic/farm labour

relationships are some examples. Some of the accumulated

experience of coping strategies should be documented and members

of full impact communities should be encouraged to share their

experience with pre-impact and early impact communities. This

sharing could be achieved both via the extension services and

NGOs and through the facilitation of direct contacts between

members of different communities.



Cost recovery



Cost recovery of both school and medical costs have become more

widespread in recent years as part of liberalisation programmes.

These place additional burdens on all households and in particular

on affected households.  Relief in these two areas could make an

important contribution to both current and future welfare of rural

households.



At the micro level



In broad terms, for individual farming systems, the following basic

types of activities are required in order to improve the economic

returns to labour: 



o      Extending the planting period (minimum tillage, early

       maturing varieties, crops and methods for later planting);



o      Crop diversification and reducing external input

       requirements;



o      Improved livestock management techniques;



o      Small credit schemes.



Income-generating activities



Where appropriate, small home-based income-generating

opportunities and petty trading activities may be considered. 

However, these may well mean that provision needs to be made to

ensure access to credit by small farmers, either as individuals or

groups.  But local initiatives and ideas are only feasible in

circumstances where there are markets for products.

Encouragement of any kind of income-generating activity should

consider access to the inputs needed for the activity, storage and

transport facilities. The marketability of the product should be a

prerequisite.



Health



The large number of AIDS affected families in areas of high

seroprevalence means that the care of AIDS patients is an

important, time-consuming and expensive part of the daily lives of

such households. Many of those interviewed in the course of the

field studies whose families had been affected by AIDS said that

they preferred to have patients die at home. Measures should

therefore be taken regarding the home care of HIV/AIDS patients

to provide for the training of family members in the basic skills

of patient care to avoid the risk of infection and provide

resources so that households can afford food, treatment and bedding

for the sick. In all farming systems, regardless of the stage of

epidemic impact, AIDS prevention measures, most notably through

health education, urgently need to be introduced or strengthened as

the case may be.  



Nutrition 



Efforts should be made to improve the diets of households burdened

by having to care for patients or having a high dependency ratio,

because of children (and mothers) who have been relocated through

divorce and death.  Greater encouragement should be given to:

 

o      Creating awareness of the need for a balanced diet (and

       therefore for diversified production);



o      Mothers continuing breastfeeding even when pregant again;



o      Improving food preparation (many foods are frequently over

       cooked);



o      Involving men in nutrition programmes; and 



o      Promoting child spacing programmes (i.e. to allow

       sufficient time for a baby to be adequately weaned and to

       grow before the next child is born). 



=================================================================

Literature consulted





Barnett, T. and Blaikie, P., AIDS in Africa:  its present and

future impact, Belhaven Press, London and Guilford Press, New York,

1992.



Barnett, T. The Effects of HIV/AIDS on Farmings Systems and

Rural Livelihoods in Uganda, Tanzania and Zambia, AGSP, FAO,

Rome, February 1994



Drinkwater, M., The Effects of HIV/AIDS on Agricultural

Production Systems in Zambia, Vol. 1, Vol.2, Mpongwe Field

Report and Vol.3, Teta Field Report, AGSP, FAO, Rome, 1993.



FAO. Farming Systems Development: Guidelines for the Conduct

of a Training Course in Farming Systems Development. Rome,

1990.

       

Haslwimmer, M., The Social and Economic Impact on Nakambala

Sugar Estate, AGSP, FAO, January, 1994.



Kapinga, A., Kissawike, K., Ndelike, M. and Ngasonga, J.,

Report on the Study of Effects of HIV/AIDS on Agricultural

Production Systems in Tanzania, Institute of Development Studies,

Sokoine Agricultural University, Morogoro, Tanzania and AGSP,

FAO, Rome, October 1993.



Mitti, G., Zambia:  The Major Farming Systems, a summary of

information on the main agricultural zones and systems based on

analysis of socio-economic studies and provincial reports, Adaptive

Planning Research Team, Mount Makulu Central Research Station,

Zambia and AGSP, FAO, Rome, September 1993.



Topouzis, D., The Implications of HIV/AIDS on Investment Centre

Work, DDC, FAO, Rome, January 1994



Tumushabe, J., Bantebya, G. and Ssebuliba, R.,  The Effects of

HIV/AIDS on Agricultural Production Systems and Rural Livelihood

Systems in Eastern Africa:  Uganda, AGSP, FAO, Rome, October

1993.



WHO. The HIV/AIDS Pandemic: 1993 Overview, Global Programme on

AIDS, Geneva, 1993



 


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