UNITED NATIONS POPULATION INFORMATION NETWORK (POPIN)
UN Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
with support from the UN Population Fund (UNFPA)

Population, Development & Environment, An NGO Position Paper

                                



     The following position paper has 78 signatories from around

the world, and it is now available in Spanish and French. please

call Sidonie Chiapetta at 1-202-797-6639 for a Spanish or French

copy. Our goal is to build up a network of NGOs around the

positions paper, for future action alerts and for lobbying at the

PrepComs and at Cairo.  Additional southern NGO signatories are

especially welcome.





             POPULATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT

                  AN NGO POSITION PAPER FOR THE

   1994 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT



                (DRAFT) 10/28/93





Population, development and environment are inextricably linked

and are critical to determining quality of life on Earth, now and

for generations to come.  The 1994 International Conference on

Population and Development (ICPD) must address these paramount

issues together, with foresight well into the next century.

Increasing poverty, overconsumption of resources in the North,

low status of women, inappropriate economic policies, rapid

population growth and unsustainable use of natural resources are

all interconnected.  One quarter of the world's population -

predominantly in the industrialized nations - consumes over 70%

of the earth's resources and is responsible for most of the

global environmental degradation.  In addition, the implications

of adding 95 to 100 million people annually to the world's

current population of 5.4 billion people are staggering and will

place tremendous stress on the earth's ability to provide for

basic human needs.



Clearly, current patterns of consumption and distribution of

people, wealth and natural resources are as much to blame for

widespread environmental degradation as is the sheer number of

people.  Efforts to address population should focus on the root

causes of poverty, migration and high fertility rates, such as

low status of women and girls, early ages of marriage, lack of

education and health care, high child mortality rates, lack of

access to family planning information and services for women, men

and teenagers, etc.  Addressing the consumption lifestyles of

peoples and societies is equally important.



Alleviating poverty, empowering women, increasing access to

family planning and health care, ensuring human rights,

developing more sustainable lifestyles in the North and improving

international development policies are all critical to providing

a decent quality of life for future generations, without causing

irreversible damage to the environment.

                RECOMMENDATIONS



A.   Improve the status of women.  Women's empowerment/ability to

control their own lives is the foundation for all action linking

population, environment and development.  Women are agents for

environmental and economic change worldwide, and should be

recognized for their role in managing resources and families.  As

the status of women improves, they become empowered to make

independent decisions concerning their lives, fertility, and

contributions to development processes.



ACTIONS:



       1. All governments should strive for universal access

of women to primary health care that includes reproductive

health, maternal and child health and family planning information

and services through programs that are women-managed and women-

centered.  In the effort to meet these goals, governments should

follow the United Nations Development Program's recommendation to

dedicate 20% of total spending to the satisfaction of basic human

needs.



       2. Governments and aid agencies should increase total

funding to U.S. $3.5 billion per year for closing the gender gap

in primary and secondary school education and for raising

literacy rates of women.  Efforts should also be made to train

and hire more female teachers, build more small schools for

greater accessibility to rural populations, especially girls, and

set up literacy and tutoring campaigns at the community level.



       3. Governments should provide legal framework for

increasing women's access, especially rural women, to financial

services (credit and savings), land tenure rights, new

agricultural technologies and vocational training skills.



       4. All nations should ratify and actively support

implementation of the Convention for the Elimination of all Forms

of Discrimination Against Women and Girls and the United Nations

Treaty on Human Rights.



       5. Governments, multilateral and bilateral aid-giving

agencies, and NGOs should increase the staff representation of

women in all areas of policy-making, program and project

evaluation and implementation.



       6. Governments should promote public education campaigns

to improve social perceptions of women's roles in society and to

raise awareness of the value of women's work and welfare to

families and societies.



       7. ICPD should recognize the fundamental role of women

in regulating the relationship between humans and their

environment, and should call for increased targeting of

development projects toward a better quality of life for women

and their children.



B.   Increase and improve international family planning and

health assistance programs.  Current international population

assistance is far from sufficient to meet the demand for

voluntary family planning and comprehensive health care.  Some of

the most effective population programs are those which integrate

family planning with comprehensive health care and education, and

that encourage men to take responsibility for their own fertility

and recognize they have a role in their partners' health and

well-being.



     ACTIONS:



       1. ICPD should endorse the 1989 Amsterdam Forum, with

its goal of at least $9 billion annually in global population

assistance by the year 2000.



       2. Signers of the Amsterdam Declaration should recommit

to those policy recommendations, and countries with the resources

and responsibility to act should increase international

population aid to 4% of their official development assistance

budget.



       3. Donor nations should increase funding for programs

which are committed to comprehensive health care, that include

reproductive health care and provide for pre and post-natal care,

safe and legal voluntary contraceptives, prevention and treatment

of reproductive tract infections, AIDS/HIV and other sexually

transmitted diseases, and sex education and information for girls

and boys.



       4. Donor nations should support programs that ensure

access to a wide range of contraceptive methods where supplies

are reliable, and where caregivers are trained to educate clients

adequately about choices available and enable them to make

competent and well-informed decisions.



       5. Governments should provide financial and technical

mechanisms which support local reproductive health care

initiatives with modest amounts of money to work within their own

cultural and economic framework.  Priority should be given to

programs that ensure outreach to the very poor, migrants,

refugees, unmarried women and adolescents.



       6. Governments should encourage programs that educate men

on male methods of contraception and their parental

responsibilities.



       7. All nations should formulate and enforce policies

which ensure human rights in order to prohibit involuntary or

coercive family planning programs.



       8. Donor nations should provide increased funds for

research on safer contraceptives, including women-controlled

methods that protect against sexually transmitted infections as

well as pregnancy.



C.   Reduce overconsumption and poverty.  As population and/or

consumption in any given area increases, more demands are placed

on natural resources.  In the industrialized countries of the

North, these demands are excessive and overconsumption has led to

inequities in resource use.  One fifth of the world's population

is consuming a majority of the world's resources, leading to

global climate change, deforestation, loss of biodiversity,

perpetuation of poverty, and local and national environmental

degradation.  In many regions of the South, a vicious cycle of

poverty combined with inappropriate development policies,

inequitable land distribution, lack of education and choices, and

increasing concentrations of populations drives people to exhaust

the very resources on which their livelihood depends, and thereby

leads to environmental degradation.



     ACTIONS:



       1. All governments, especially in the North, should

adopt natural resource and population policies that take into

consideration population growth, demographic patterns (such as

migration), access to and availability of resources.



       2. Northern governments should take action to reduce

CO2 emissions in their countries by at least 25% from 1990 levels

by the year 2005; to take appropriate measures to reduce

substantially emissions of other greenhouse gases; and to take

steps to ultimately reduce greenhouse gases by 60%.



       3. Northern governments should urge the development and

implementation of programs and policies promoting energy

efficiency, the use of renewable energy sources, and the transfer

of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries.



       4. Governments, especially Northern, should encourage

community efforts to implement educational programs on the social

and environmental impacts of overconsumption and production and

to build awareness of consumer responsibility to global

environmental well-being.



       5. Governments should promote conversion to equitable and

ecologically sustainable economies and take responsibility for

the needs of those whose livelihoods are negatively affected.



       6. Governments should support fair trade, land

redistribution, debt alleviation, equitable tax systems,

regulation of transnational corporations, an end to structural

adjustment policies and the integration of social and

environmental costs into product prices.



       7. Governments should support and enforce legislation to

strengthen consumer rights, especially to ensure environmentally

sustainable, safe and healthy products, and establish the "right

to know" laws which enable people to make informed consumption

choices.



       8. Northern governments should ensure access to safe

and effective means of family planning for both men and women

citizens in their own countries.



       9. Governments should contribute 20% of their overseas

development assistance to meeting basic human needs, as called

for at the 1990 U.N. World Summit for Children.



D.   Increase participation of local organizations and indigenous

people in the design and implementation of programs.  As is the

case with all programs for sustainable development, health and

family planning programs must be built with, not for, local

people. Consulting with and working through local organizations

assures appropriate design of programs, and the quality and

effectiveness of service delivery.



     ACTIONS:



       1. Countries should commit to increasing the decision-

making role of local groups and communities in the design and

implementation of population assistance projects.  This may be

aided by increasing representation of women in the highest

administrative levels of governments and multilateral aid

organizations.



       2. Governments should establish or strengthen

procedures for regular consultations with non-governmental

organizations representing local, national and global interests

in designing, implementing and evaluating development plans,

programs and projects.



       3. Donor nations should direct support to non-

governmental organizations that design and implement community

programs.



E.   Preparation of ICPD national reports.  All nations

participating in ICPD should assess interlinkages among

population, development and environment in their countries and

should strive to coordinate national population policies with

their environment and development strategies.

     ACTIONS:



       1. Each national report should delineate the ways in

which rapid growth, population migration and resource consumption

are affecting development plans and poverty and make projections

for the future.  Such assessments should include relationships to

availability of basic human needs, including health care,

education, food and employment.



       2. Each national report should assess population within

the context of sustainability, including where and how

demographic pressures are interacting most with natural resources

and ecologically sensitive areas, i.e., including population-

environment dynamics such as:



     Soil erosion and desertification; deforestation; water

scarcity; urbanization; production of greenhouse gases;

extinction of species from habitat destruction; and coastal

resource depletion due to increased demands for water, conversion

of wetlands for agriculture and housing, and unsustainable

fishing.



     Special focus should be on the so-called "ecologically

endangered zones":  coastal agricultural areas, upland forests,

urban squatter settlements, arid and semi-arid grazing areas,

etc.



F.    Institution-building for integrating population into

environmental decision-making.  The institutional framework

needed to assess the implications of population growth and

distribution, especially their potential impact on natural

resources and sustainable development, must be strengthened in

all countries.



The institutions available for policy analysis and project

implementation have been useful to those governments which have

invested in long-term planning.



     ACTIONS:



       1. Governments and multilateral institutions should

require an analysis of the effects of population growth and rate

of consumption of natural resources in all planning documents and

Environmental Impact Assessments.



       2. All nations should develop their population impact

assessment capability.



       3. Those countries with advanced demographic skills and

technology should collaborate with countries in the process of

strengthening their own resources.  Bilateral and multilateral

development program funding should include institution building

mechanisms with the ultimate objective of enhancing individual

country ability to accumulate, analyze and project demographic

and natural resource data.



                 SIGNATORIES:



ALEPPO UNIVERSITY  -- SYRIA

ACTION FOR DEVELOPMENT  --  UGANDA

ALLIANCE FOR CHILD SURVIVAL  --  U.S.A.

APPUI A LA FORMATION ET AUX TECHNOLOGIES (AFOTEC) -- SENEGAL

ARADIKES  --  COSTA RICA

ASOCIACION CONSERVACIONISTA DE WILLIAM VILLEGAS FONSECA  --

     COSTA RICA

ASOCIACION DEMOGRAFICA COSTARRICENSE  --  COSTA RICA

ASOCIACION PARA EL APOYO DE LA NUEVA FAMILIA EN NICARAGUA

IXCHEN/ANFAM -- NICARAGUA

ASOCIACION SALUD CON PREVENCION  --  COLOMBIA

ASOCIACION SALVADORENA PRO-SALUD RURAL  --  EL SALVADOR

ASSOCIATION SENEGALESE POUR LE BIEN-ETRE DE LA FAMILLE -- SENEGAL

ASSOCIATION OF DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES IN JAMAICA  --  JAMAICA

ASSOCIATION FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT  --  EGYPT

ASSOCIATION FOR VOLUNTARY SURGICAL CONTRACEPTION  --  U.S.A.

CARE INTERNATIONAL

CENTER FOR DEVELOPMENT AND POPULATION ACTIVITIES

CENTRO DE CAPACITACION Y ASESORIA PARA EL DESARROLLO COMUNITARIO

     --  MEXICO

CENTRO DERECHO AMBIENTAL Y DE LOS RECURSOS NATURALES (CEDARENA)

     -- COSTA RICA

CENTRO DE DESARROLLO JOCOTEPEC, A.C.  --  MEXICO

CENTRO SALVADORENO DE TECNOLOGIA APROPIADA-- EL SALVADOR

CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE OF NIGERIA -- NIGERIA

CHRISTIAN DEVELOPMENT GROUP OF SIERRA LEONE  -- SIERRA LEONE

COLORADO POPULATION COALITION -- U.S.A.

DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES FOR FRAGILE LANDS  --  U.S.A.

DIANNE DILLON-RIDGLEY, YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION (YWCA)

     *  --  U.S.A.

ECOLOGY AND HEALTH FOUNDATION  --  POLAND

ENVIRONMENT AND POPULATION CENTRE  --  ZAMBIA

ENVIRONMENTAL DEFENSE FUND  --  U.S.A.

FAMILY LIFE PROMOTION AND SERVICES  --  KENYA

FAMILY PLANNING ASSOCIATION OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

FEDERACION MEXICANA DE ASOCIACIONES PRIVADAS DE SALUD Y           

     DESARROLLO COMUNITARIO  --  MEXICO

FUNDACION ECOLOGISTA HECTOR RODRIGO PASTOR FASQUELLE-- HONDURAS

FUNDACION NATURA  --  ECUADOR

FUNDACION PARA EL ECODESARROLLO Y LA CONSERVACION  --  GUATEMALA

FUNDACION PRO-SIERRA NEVADA DE SANTA MARTA  --  COLOMBIA

FUNDACION DE DEFENSE DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE DE BAJA VERAPAZ

     (FUNDEMABV) --  GUATEMALA

GABINETE DE ENFERMERAS Y CENTRO DE INFORMACION-- MEXICO

GENERAL FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S CLUBS  --  U.S.A.

GILBERTE VANSINTEJAN  --  U.S.A.

GREENBELT MOVEMENT--LESOTHO

HELSINKI CITIZENS' ASSEMBLY  --  CZECH REPUBLIC

INDONESIAN PLANNED PARENTHOOD ASSOCIATION -- INDONESIA

INSTITUTE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STUDIES --INDONESIA

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS  --  NORWAY

INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S HEALTH COALITION

JANICE MIANO, AUDUBON INTERNATIONAL NETWORK *  --  U.S.A.

KATHRYN CAMERON PORTER, CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL *  --  U.S.A.

KENYA VOLUNTEER DEVELOPMENT SERVICES  --  KENYA

KIRSTEN B. MOORE, THE POPULATION COUNCIL *  -- U.S.A

MALUDEBO TA WANAWOKE  --  KENYA

MIRIAM ABRAMOVAY, UICN/ORCA * -- COSTA RICA

NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY  --  U.S.A.

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW CENTER  --  U.S.A.

NATIONAL WILDLIFE FEDERATION  --  U.S.A.

NIGERIAN AGENCY FOR VOLUNTARY DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS --

     NIGERIA

NIGERIAN GIRL GUIDES ASSOCIATION  --  NIGERIA

PAMI  --  GUATEMALA

PANOS INSTITUTE  --  U.S.A.

PLANNED PARENTHOOD ASSOCIATION OF ZAMBIA  --  ZAMBIA

POLISH FEMINIST ASSOCIATION -- POLAND

POPULATION COMMUNICATIONS  --  U.S.A.

POPULATION ACTION INTERNATIONAL  --  U.S.A.

PRABHA PRABHAKAR BHARDWAJ  --  KENYA

PRERANA  --  INDIA

RAINFOREST ALLIANCE  --  U.S.A.

RANTHAMBHORE FOUNDATION  --  INDIA

SANCTUARY MAGAZINE  --  INDIA

SIERRA CLUB  --  U.S.A.

SOCIEDADE CIVIL BEM-ESTAR FAMILIAR NO BRASIL (BEMFAM) -- CHILE

UNNITI FOUNDATION  --  INDIA

WAHIDA PATWA-SHAH, KENYA ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS *

     -- KENYA

WEEDEN FOUNDATION  --  U.S.A.

WILARSA BUDIHARGA, INDONESIAN PLANNED PARENTHOOD ASSOCIATION

     *  --  INDONESIA

WOMEN OF COLOR -- NASSAU NOW (NATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF WOMEN)

     --  U.S.A.

WORLD POPULATION FOUNDATION  --  NETHERLANDS

WORLD POPULATION FOUNDATION  --  SWEDEN

YOUTH FOR POPULATION INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION  --  GHANA

YWC  --  KENYA

YWCA OF GHANA  --  GHANA

YOUTH FOR UNITY AND VOLUNTARY ACTION  --  INDIA

ZAMBIA ALLIANCE OF WOMEN  --  ZAMBIA

ZERO POPULATION GROWTH  --  U.S.A.



* Organization listed for identification purposes only







       NGO POSITION PAPER FOR INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON 

                   POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT





                FORM FOR SIGNATORIES





All Southern and Northern NGOs and individuals who support these

recommendations are invited to be signatories.  Please indicate

if your organization supports these recommendations or if you

list your organization for identification purposes only.



  (  )    My organization supports the recommendations



  (  )    I list my organization for identification/affiliation



purposes only.



Name    ________________________________________________________





Address ________________________________________________________









     ________________________________________________________





Country ________________________________________________________





Telephone ___________________      Fax  ________________________









Organizational signatories: Please write one or two sentences

about



your organization:



_________________________________________________________________

_





_________________________________________________________________

__





_________________________________________________________________

__



PLEASE RETURN THIS FORM TO:





              NATIONAL WILDLIFE FEDERATION

              POPULATION PROGRAM

              1400 16TH STREET, NW

              WASHINGTON, D.C.  20036



              FAX: 202-797-5486     TEL: 202-939-3311





FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:



              Karen Rindge, National Wildlife Federation

              1400 16th St. N.W.

              Washington, D.C. 20036, U.S.A.



              Tel: 1-202-939-3311  Fax: 1-202-797-5486



              Econet: NWFIP



              Wanga Mumba, Environment and Population

              Centre





              PO Box 35614



              Lusaka,   Zambia



              Tel/Fax: 260-1-289298








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