UN Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
with support from the UN Population Fund (UNFPA)
The electronic version of this document is being made available by the United Nations Population Information Network (POPIN) Gopher of the Population Division, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. ******************************************************************* RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE FURTHER IMPLEMENTATION OF THE WORLD POPULATION PLAN OF ACTION CONTENTS Paragraphs I. PREAMBLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 11 II. PEACE, SECURITY AND POPULATION . . . . . . . . . . 12 III. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION . . . . . . . . . . 13 - 35 A. Socio-economic development, the environment and population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 B. The role and the status of women . . . . . . 15 - 17 C. Development of population policies . . . . . . 18 D. Population goals and policies . . . . . . . . 19 - 32 1. Population growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 - 20 2. Morbidity and mortality. . . . . . . . . . 21 - 23 (a) Goals and general guidance for health policies 21 (b) Infant, child and maternal morbidity and mortality 22 (c) Adult morbidity and mortality . . . . . . . . . 23 3. Reproduction and the family . . . . . . . . . 24 - 26 4. Population distribution and internal migration 27 5. International migration . . . . . . . . . . . 28 - 31 (a) General guidelines for formulating international migration policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 (b) Documented migrant workers . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 (c) Undocumented migrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 (d) Refugees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 6. Population structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 E. Promotion of knowledge and policy . . . . . . . . 33 - 35 1. Data collection and analysis . . . . . . . . . 33 2. Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3. Management, training, information, education and communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 IV. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION . . . . . . . . . . 36 - 37 A. Role of national Governments . . . . . . . . . 36 B. Role of international co-operation . . . . . . . 37 C. Monitoring, review and appraisal . . . . . . . . - I. PREAMBLE 1. During the years since the United Nations World Population Conference in 1974, the World Conference Plan of Action a/ has served as a guide to action in the field of population for Governments, for international organizations and for non-governmental organizations. The consensus of Bucharest has facilitated international co-operation and helped to bring population issues to the forefront. The principles and objectives of the Plan have shown themselves to remain valid and are reaffirmed. 2. However, the demographic, social, economic and political conditions of the world have changed considerably. In many developing countries the demographic situation has improved since 1974; fertility has declined, morbidity has diminished, infant mortality has declined and life expectancy has increased. There have also been improvements in the social sphere. In many developing countries school enrolment and literacy rates have increased, and access to health services has improved. For the developing countries as a whole, there has been an increase in per capita calorie supply, though in some regions, such as Africa, per capita calorie supply has not improved. Economic trends have, however, been less encouraging. Although per capita income did not grow as rapidly since 1974 as in the previous 10 years, it is none the less true that per capita income did grow moderately in a number of developing countries during that period. During the latter part of the decade, however, many developing countries experienced little or no growth in per capita income, and many experienced actual declines in per capita income, with the result that the gap between the per capita incomes of many developed and most developing countries widened during the period. Moreover, while progress has been made in achieving some goals of the World Population Plan of Action, other goals have not been met. Some important gaps in knowledge have been filled and new issues have emerged to challenge the international community. Therefore, as foreseen at Bucharest, some of the goals and recommendations of the Plan now call for complementing and further refinement. Though the community of nations has made considerable progress in the pursuit of the goals of the World Population Plan of Action, there is still a great need for continuation and acceleration in these efforts to realize those goals, as they have been refined at Mexico City in August 1984. 3. With respect to some major issues raised in the Plan, the following facts and trends deserve special mention: (a) Though the global rate of population growth has declined slightly since 1974, the world population has increased by 770 million during the decade, and 90 per cent of that increase has occurred in the developing countries. Furthermore, the annual additions to the world's population are increasing in size. Moreover, in many countries of Africa, Latin America and Asia growth rates have increased owing to mortality declines not accompanied by equivalent declines in fertility; (b) At the global level, and in virtually all countries, the level of mortality has fallen. However, the targets set by the World Population Plan of Action have not been met. At the same time, new approaches in the form of primary health care have been widely adopted; (c) At the global level, fertility declined substantially but, as with population growth, the changes in some regions were far greater than in others. For national and sub-national groups in populations and sub-populations representing about one fourth of the world's population, no decline of fertility was observed. The fertility changes were associated with progress in socio-economic development, with continued changes in the status of women, with changes in family structure in some regions, and with the increased availability of family planning services; (d) Improvements in the status of women have been promoted by the World Population Plan of Action and the plans and programmes generated under the aegis of the United Nations Decade for Women. However, persisting inequalities between women and men are evident in the higher incidence of poverty, unemployment and illiteracy among women, the limited range of employment categories and the uneven share of home and family responsibilities borne by women. At the same time, it is increasingly recognized that socio-economic development is curtailed without the active participation of women in all fields of activity; (e) Access to and knowledge of family planning have come to be much more widely permitted and supported by Governments as a contribution to maternal and child health, to the human rights of individuals and couples, and as a demographic measure. Nevertheless, data from the World Fertility Survey for developing countries indicate that, of women who wanted no more children and were exposed to the risk of pregnancy, on average over half were not using contraception; (f) As a result of demographic trends, population structures have changed. In particular, the aging of populations and changes in household and family structure and composition have continued; (g) In most regions of the world, urban populations continued to increase far more rapidly than total populations. In some developed countries, however, there was a trend towards deconcentration. Rapid urban population growth has become a matte~ of growing policy concern to most Governments, particularly in the developing regions in which the urban unemployment level remains extremely high. In some regions, the continued high levels of rural population growth renders rural development difficult; (h) Persistent disparities among countries, particularly in population and economic development as also the felt needs of some host countries, have increased the potential of further international migration. These migrant workers do contribute to the economic development of receiving countries. However, the direction, magnitude and the type of international migration flows is a matter of concern to some countries; (i) The flows of refugees are increasing in different regions of the world and are also a matter of increasing concern; (j) Problems relating to involuntary migration have also increased; (k) The overall social and economic development of the developing countries and the implementation of effective measures to deal with population trends in the period 1974-1984 have been greatly hampered by the serious effects of the international economic crisis on the economies of the developing countries. In the majority of developing countries, increases in population and its aspirations have contributed to increasing imports versus exports - food in particular. Furthermore, existing population programmes have been greatly affected by a shortage of adequate resources from both national and international sources; (l) In many countries the population has continued to grow rapidly, aggravating such environmental and natural resource problems as soil erosion, desertification and deforestation, which affect food and agricultural production. The mechanisms to deal effectively with these problems are still in an incipient stage in many countries. There is, however, increasing awareness of the need to take into account natural resources and the quality of the environment along with social and economic factors; (m) In the years since 1974 there have been a number of hopeful developments. New agricultural technologies, including the green revolution, have made it possible to better meet the needs of growing populations. Progress in molecular biology has potential for influencing both levels of fertility and mortality and the development of communication satellites may greatly advance mass education, including education directly related to population issues. The economic and social consequences of these advances raise serious ethical questions and may have a fundamental impact on the future of society. 4. The principles and objectives of the World Population Plan of Action affirm that the principal aim of social, economic and cultural development, of which population goals and policies are integral parts, is to improve the standards of living and quality of life of the people. Achieving this goal requires co-ordinated action in population with all socio-economic fields; thus, population trends must be co-ordinated with trends of economic and social development. In helping to achieve this co-ordination, the World Population Plan of Action should become an essential component of the system of international strategies for the promotion of economic development, the quality of life, human rights and fundamental freedoms. 5. The Plan affirms that the consideration of population problems cannot be limited to the analysis of population trends, since population variables influence development and are influenced by them. The present population situation in developing countries is related, inter alia, to unequal processes of socio-economic development, which are intensified by inequities in international relations, and by related disparities in standards of living. 6. It remains true that the basis for an effective solution of population problems is, above all, socio-economic transformation and, therefore, population policies must always be considered as a constituent element of socio-economic development policies and never as substitutes for them. However, even if social and economic development is slow or lacking, family planning programmes may have an impact on the level of fertility. 7. While the importance of integrating women into the development of society has been recognized by many Governments, much remains to be done to fulfil the recommendations adopted in 1974 by the World Population Conference as elaborated in 1975 by the World Conference of the International Women's Year, and in 1980 by the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women. The Plan, as well as other important international instruments, stressed the urgency of achieving the full integration of women in society on an equal basis with men and of abolishing any form of discrimination against women. In order to provide women with the freedom to participate fully in the life of society, it is equally necessary for men to share fully with women responsibilities in the areas of family planning, child-rearing and all other aspects of family life. The achievement of these objectives is integral to achieving development goals, including those related to population policy. 8. To achieve the goals of development, the formulation of national population goals and policies must take into account the need to contribute to an economic development which is environmentally sustainable over the long run and which protects the ecological balance. 9. The interdependence among countries has become ever more manifest and requires that national and international strategies pursue an integrated and balanced approach to population, resources, environment and development at national and international levels, by ensuring that the developing countries achieve significant improvement in their living standards and in the quality of life through economic and social transformation. 10. As the world enters a second decade after the World Population Conference of 1974, major challenges and problems in the area of population that are of primary concern to the international community and that are particularly relevant to the economic and social progress of the developing countries are: (a) The task of reducing poverty, expanding employment and assuring the right to work by encouraging economic growth, which includes measures for the just distribution of wealth; (b) The continued need to further promote the status of women and the expansion and advancement of their roles; (c) The annual increments in population, which are projected to grow larger throughout the decade; (d) The rate of population growth, which remains high in developing countries and which, for many countries, may even rise in the coming years; (e) Changes in population structures, particularly the aging of populations, changes in household and family structure and composition, and the growth of the working-age populations in developing countries where economies are not growing adequately; (f) High levels of infant and maternal mortality, and the important mortality differentials between regions, countries, social groups and sexes; (g) The persistence of fertility rates substantially higher or lower than those desired by Governments and peoples in some countries; (h) The unmet needs for family planning in many countries, which unless they are addressed will grow even greater as the number of couples of reproductive age increases substantially during the coming decade; (i) The disequilibrium between rates of change in population and changes in resources, environment and development; (j) The persistence of high rates of internal migration, new forms of mobility, high rates of urbanization, and the concentration of population in large cities in developing countries where these phenomena have negative consequences for development; (k) The importance and diversity of international migration and its consequences for countries of origin and destination and the necessity for co-operation between these countries in this field; (l) The need to find solutions to all problems related to refugees, whose numbers are increasing; (m) The increasing number of persons who lack sufficient food, pure water, shelter, health care, education and the other facilities required to achieve full human potential; (n) The consequences of progress in agricultural technology and in genetic engineering, which may lead to essential changes in the character of societies; (o) The relatively high proportion of young people in the populations of the developing countries and the problems and consequences attendant to this which, unless addressed, will assure that populations will continued to grow for many decades to come; (p) The need to strengthen the capacities of developing countries in data collection, analysis and utilization and to develop appropriately trained personnel in the population area; (q) The need for increased national and international support to implement the Plan, in particular, adequate multilateral resources to support the efforts of developing countries. 11. The Plan and the following recommendations for its further implementation should be considered within the framework of other intergovernmental strategies and plans. In this respect, they reaffirm the principles and objectives of the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (General Assembly resolution 217 A (III)), the International Covenants on Human Rights (General Assembly resolution 2200 A (XXI), annex), the Declaration on Social Progress and Development (General Assembly resolution 2542 (XXIV)), the Declaration and the Programme of Action on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order (General Assembly resolutions 3201 (S-VI) and 3202 (S-VI)), the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States (General Assembly resolution 3281 (XXIX)) and the International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade (General Assembly resolution 35/56, annex) and General Assembly resolutions 34/75 and 35/46 on the declaration of the 1980s as the Second Disarmament Decade. In addition, the following declarations, plans of action and other relevant texts that have emanated from intergovernmental meetings must be stressed because of their relevance to the objectives of the World Population Plan of Action: (a) United Nations Declaration on the Rights of the Child (1959); b/ (b) Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment and the Action Plan for the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972) c/ and resolution 1 adopted by the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme at its session of a special character (Nairobi, 1982); d/ (c) Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition (Rome, 1974); e/ (d) World Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year (Mexico City, 1975) f/ and Programme of Action for the Second Half of the United Nations Decade for Women (Copenhagen, 1980); g/ (e) Lima Declaration and Plan of Action on Industrial Development and Co-operation (Lima, 1975); h/ (f) Declaration of Principles and Programme of Action adopted by the Tripartite World Conference on Employment, Income Distribution and Social Progress and the International Division of Labour (Geneva, 1976); i/ (g) Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements, 1976; j/ (h) Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (Nairobi, 1977); k/ (i) Mar del Plata Action Plan adopted by the United Nations Water Conference (Mar del Plata, 1977); l/ (j) Declaration of Alma-Ata adopted by the International Conference on Primary Health Care (Alma-Ata, 1978); m/ (k) Programme of Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (Geneva, 1978), n/ programme of activities to be undertaken during the second half of the Decade for Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination o/ and Declaration and Programme of Action adopted by the Second World Conference to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (Geneva, 1983); p/ (l) Buenos Aires Plan of Action for Promoting and Implementing Technical Co-operation among Developing Countries (Buenos Aires, 1978); q/ (m) Declaration of Principles and Programme of Action of the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (Rome, 1979); r/ (n) Vienna Programme of Action on Science and Technology for Development (Vienna, 1979); s/ (o) Global Strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000, t/ adopted by the World Health Assembly in its resolution WHA 34.36 of 22 May 1981 and endorsed by the General Assembly in its resolution 36/43 of 19 November 1981; (p) Nairobi Programme of Action for the Development and Utilization of New and Renewable Sources of Energy (Nairobi, 1981); u/ (q) Substantial New Programme of Action for the 1980s for the Least Developed Countries (Paris, 1981); v/ (r) International Plan of Action on Aging (Vienna, 1982). w/ II. PEACE, SECURITY AND POPULATION 12. Being aware of the existing close links between peace and development, it is of great importance for the world community to work ceaselessly to promote, among nations, peace, security, disarmament and co-operation, which are indispensable for the achievement of the goals of humane population policies and for economic and social development. Creating the conditions for real peace and security would permit an allocation of resources to social and economic rather than to military programmes, which would greatly help to attain the goals and objectives of the World Population Plan of Action. III. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION 13. Many of the following recommendations are addressed to Governments. This is not meant to preclude the efforts or initiative of international organizations, non-governmental organizations, private institutions or organizations, or families and individuals where their efforts can make an effective contribution to overall population or development goals on the basis of strict respect for sovereignty and national legislation in force. A. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, THE ENVIRONMENT AND POPULATION 14. The World Population Plan of Action recognizes explicitly the importance of the interrelationships between population and socio- economic development and affirms, inter alia, that "the basis for an effective solution of population problems is, above all, socio-economic transformation" (paragraph 1) and that "population policies are constituent elements of socio-economic development policies, never substitutes for them" (paragraph 14 (d)). Consequently, the Plan of Action includes a number of recommendations dealing with socio-economic policies, the contents of which fully deserve reaffirmation and further development. The following recommendations reflect the view that if national and international policies are not adopted and implemented to increase the overall resources and the share of the world's resources going to the very poor, it will be extremely difficult for many countries to achieve the levels of fertility and mortality that they desire. The recommendations reflect the importance to be attached to an integrated approach towards population and development, both in national policies and at the international level. The recommendations also reflect the view that, although the actions of the developing countries are of primary importance, the attainment of the goals and objectives stipulated in the International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade will require appropriate policies by the developed countries and by the international community which support the efforts of the developing countries to achieve those objectives. Recommendation 1 Considering that social and economic development is a central factor in the solution of population and interrelated problems and that population factors are very important in development plans and strategies and have a major impact on the attainment of development objectives, national development policies, plans and programmes, as well as international development strategies, should be formulated on the basis of an integrated approach that takes into account the interrelationships between population, resources, environment and development. In this context, national and international efforts should give priority to action programmes integrating population and development. Recommendation 2 National and international efforts should give high priority to the following development goals included in the International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade: the eradication of mass hunger and the achievement of adequate health and nutrition levels, the eradication of mass illiteracy, the improvement of the status of women, the elimination of mass unemployment and underemployment and the elimination of inequality in international economic relations. To achieve these goals, it is further recommended that Governments should take population trends fully into account when formulating their development plans and programmes. Recommendation 3 In order to promote the broadly based socio-economic development that is essential to achieving an adequate quality of life as well as national population objectives and to respond effectively to the requirements posed by demographic trends, all countries are urged to co-operate in efforts to achieve the above objectives and to accelerate development, particularly in developing countries, inter alia, through policies to lower barriers to trade, to increase multilateral and bilateral development assistance, to improve the quality and effectiveness of this assistance, to increase real income earnings from the export of commodities, to solve the problems arising from the debt burden in a significant number of developing countries, to increase the volume and improve the terms of international lending, and to encourage various sources of investment and, wherever appropriate, entrepreneurial initiatives. To respond to the needs of populations for employment, food self-sufficiency, and improvements in the quality of life and to increase self-reliance, productive investment should be increased, appropriate industries should be encouraged and substantial investments should be fostered in rural and agricultural development. Recommendation 4 In countries in which there are imbalances between trends in population growth and resources and environmental requirements, Governments are urged, in the context of overall development policies, to adopt and implement specific policies, including population policies, that will contribute to redressing such imbalances and promote improved methods of identifying, extracting, renewing, utilizing and conserving natural resources. Efforts should be made to accelerate the transition from traditional to new and renewable sources of energy while at the same time maintaining the integrity of the environment. Governments should also implement appropriate policy measures to avoid the further destruction of the ecological equilibria and take measures to restore them. B. THE ROLE AND THE STATUS OF WOMEN 15. The World Population Plan of Action (paragraphs 15 (e), 32 (b), 42 and 43) as well as other important international instruments - in particular the 1975 Mexico City Plan of Action, the 1980 Copenhagen Programme of Action for the United Nations Decade for Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (General Assembly resolution 34/180, annex) - stress the urgency of achieving the full integration of women in society on an equal basis with men and of abolishing any form of discrimination against women. Comprehensive strategies to address these concerns will be formulated at the 1985 Nairobi Conference which is being convened to review and appraise the achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women. 16. In view of the slow progress made since 1974 in the achievement of equality for women, the broadening of the role and the improvement of the status of women remain important goals that should be pursued as ends in themselves. The achievement of genuine equality with respect to opportunities, responsibilities and rights would guarantee that women could participate fully with men in all aspects of decision-making regarding population and development issues that affect their families, communities and countries. 17. The ability of women to control their own fertility forms an important basis for the enjoyment of other rights; likewise, the assurance of socio-economic opportunities on an equal basis with men and the provision of the necessary services and facilities enable women to take greater responsibility for their reproductive lives. The following recommendations take into account the need for actions to ensure that women can effectively exercise rights equal to those of men in all spheres of economic, social, cultural and political life, and in particular those rights which pertain most directly to population concerns. Recommendation 5 Governments are strongly urged to integrate women fully into all phases of the development process, including planning, policy and decision-making. Governments should pursue more aggressively action programmes aimed at improving and protecting the legal rights and status of women through efforts to identify and to remove institutional and cultural barriers to women's education, training, employment and access to health care. In addition, Governments should provide remedial measures, including mass education programmes, to assist women in attaining equality with men in the social, political and economic life of their countries. The promotion of community support and the collaboration, at the request of Governments, of non-governmental organizations, particularly women's organizations, in expediting these efforts should be given paramount importance. Recommendation 6 Governments should ensure that women are free to participate in the labour force and are neither restricted from, nor forced to participate in, the labour force for reasons of demographic policy or cultural tradition. Further, the biological role of women in the reproductive process should in no way be used as a reason for limiting women's right to work. Governments should take the initiative in removing any existing barriers to the realization of that right and should create opportunities and conditions such that activities outside the home can be combined with child-rearing and household activities. Recommendation 7 Governments should provide women, through education, training and employment, with opportunities for personal fulfillment in familial and non-familial roles, as well as for full participation in economic, social and cultural life, while continuing to give due support to their important social role as mothers. To this end, in those countries where child-bearing occurs when the mother is too young, Government policies should encourage delay in the commencement of child-bearing. Recommendation 8 Governments concerned should make efforts to raise the age of entry into marriage in countries in which this age at marriage is still quite low. Recommendation 9 Governments should promote and encourage, through information, education and communication, as well as through employment legislation and institutional support, where appropriate, the active involvement of men in all areas of family responsibility, including family planning, child-rearing and housework so that family responsibilities can be fully shared by both partners. Recommendation 10 All Governments which have not already done so are strongly urged to sign and ratify or accede to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. C. DEVELOPMENT OF POPULATION POLICIES 18. The World Population Plan of Action urges that population policies should not be considered substitutes for socio-economic development policies but rather should be integral components of those policies (paragraph 2). In formulating population policies, Governments may aim to affect one or more of the following population trends and characteristics, among others, population growth, morbidity and mortality, reproduction, population distribution, internal and international migration and population structure. The Plan also recognizes the sovereignty of nations in the formulation, adoption and implementation of their population policies (paragraph 14), consistent with basic human rights and responsibilities of individuals, couples and families (paragraph 17). Recommendation 11 Governments are urged to adopt population policies and social and economic development policies that are mutually reinforcing. Such policies should be formulated with particular attention to the individual, the family and community levels, as well as to other factors at the micro-level and macro-level. Special emphasis needs to be given to linkages between population trends, labour supply and demand, the problems of unemployment and the creation of productive employment. Governments are urged to share their experience in integrating population policies into other social and economic development policies. Recommendation 12 Governments are encouraged to provide adequate resources and, where appropriate, to adopt innovative measures for the implementation of population policy. To be effective and successful, population programmes and development activities should be responsive to local values and needs, and those directly affected should be involved in the decision-making process at all levels. Moreover, in these activities, the full participation of the community and concerned non-governmental organizations, in particular women's organizations, should be encouraged. D. POPULATION GOALS AND POLICIES 1. Population growth 19. United Nations population projections, as assessed in 1982, indicate that, between 1984 and the end of the present century, the growth rate of the world population will decline more slowly than during the past 10 years. This is partly due to the fact that, as a consequence of high fertility levels in the past, the number of women of child-bearing age (15-49) will continue to grow rapidly. Although, according to the medium variant projections, the total fertility rate during this period is expected to decline from 3.6 to 3.0 children per woman, the annual rate of growth is projected to reach only 1.5 per cent. For the world as a whole, the present annual increment of 78 million is projected to increase to 89 million by 1995-2000. Thus, in the 16 years from 1984 to 2000, the world population is expected to increase by 1.3 billion, from 4.8 billion in 1984 to 6.1 billion in 2000. 20. These global perspectives conceal significant demographic differences existing at the regional as well as the country levels. According to the United Nations estimates, the current total fertility rates range from 6.4 children per woman for Africa, 4.7 for South Asia, 4.1 for Latin America, 2.3 for East Asia, to 1.9 for Europe and North America. During the remainder of the present century these differences are not expected to narrow significantly. Moreover, these projections assume a continuation of present efforts and policies without which uninterrupted declines in both fertility and population growth cannot be achieved. The World Population Plan of Action invites countries to consider adopting population policies, within the framework of socio-economic development, which are consistent with basic human rights and national goals and values (paragraph 17). It is in the light of that provision and the above-mentioned trends that the following recommendation is made. Recommendation 13 Countries which consider that their population growth rates hinder the attainment of national goals are invited to consider pursuing relevant demographic policies, within the framework of socio-economic development. Such policies should respect human rights, the religious beliefs, philosophical convictions, cultural values and fundamental rights of each individual and couple, to determine the size of its own family. 2. Morbidity and mortality (a) Goals and general guidance for health policies 21. The World Population Plan of Action set targets for those countries with the highest mortality levels for 1985 and noted the progress necessary for each region to attain an average life expectancy of 62 years by 1985 and 74 years by 2000 (paragraphs 22 and 23). Recommendation 14 below updates the targets for countries with higher mortality levels and challenges countries with intermediate or lower mortality levels to continue and strengthen their efforts for the improvement of health and the reduction of mortality in the context of overall population and development planning. The targets are feasible, provided a commitment is made and resources are well allocated. Their achievement requires that communities become increasingly involved in efforts to promote their health and welfare, that all agencies and institutions of government be involved in this endeavour, and that each programme be evaluated. The achievement of these targets will also require that countries will not be subject to aggression (paragraph 24 (f)). The attainment of reduced levels of morbidity and mortality is in accordance with the Declaration of Alma Ata, endorsed by the General Assembly in its resolution 34/58 of 29 November 1979. Recommendation 14 All Governments, regardless of the mortality levels of their population, are strongly urged to strive to reduce morbidity and mortality levels and socio-economic and geographical differentials in their countries and to improve health among all population groups, especially among those groups where the morbidity and mortality levels are the highest. Countries with higher mortality levels should aim for a life expectancy at birth of at least 60 years and an infant mortality rate of less than 50 per 1,000 live births by the year 2000. Countries with intermediate mortality levels should aim to achieve a life expectancy at birth of at least 70 years and an infant mortality rate of less than 35 per 1,000 live births by the year 2000. The countries with lower mortality should continue their efforts to improve the health of all population groups and to reduce mortality even further, in keeping with their social and economic capacities. Levels, trends and differentials in mortality should be monitored in order to evaluate the success of programmes in achieving these goals. Recommendation 15 Governmental, intergovernmental, parliamentary and non-governmental organizations should involve the community in all possible ways in the planning, implementation and evaluation of health improvement programmes. Recommendation 16 The promotion and preservation of health should be the explicit concern of all levels and branches of government. It is strongly urged, therefore, that governmental action in the area of mortality and health should go beyond the health sector and involve all relevant sectors of national and community development. All development programmes should be monitored and analysed by the Government concerned in order to assess and to improve their impact on health. (b) Infant, child and maternal morbidity and mortality 22. The World Population Plan of Action (paragraphs 24 and 32 (a)) gives special attention to measures aimed at reducing foetal, infant and early childhood mortality, and related maternal morbidity and mortality. The following recommendations give more precise guidelines for the implementation of the Plan, in accordance with the objective of the Global Strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000, which was adopted by the World Health Assembly and endorsed by the General Assembly in its resolution 36/43 of 19 November 1981. Recommendation 17 Governments are urged to take immediate steps to identify the underlying causes of morbidity and mortality among infants and young children and develop special programmes to attack these conditions. Strategies to be considered include emphasis on mother and child health services within primary health care, the introduction and support of a package of specific intervention measures, and massive community-wide education and mobilization to support them. Special efforts should be made to reach under-served and deprived populations in rural areas and urban slums. The international community should take concerted action to support national efforts to this end. Recommendation 18 All efforts should be made to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. Governments are urged: (a) To reduce maternal mortality by at least 50 per cent by the year 2000, where such mortality is very high (higher than 100 maternal deaths per 100,000 births); (b) To provide prenuptial medical examinations; (c) To provide prenatal and perinatal care, with special attention to high-risk pregnancies, and ensure safe delivery by trained attendants, including traditional birth attendants, as culturally acceptable; (d) To give special emphasis in nutritional programmes to the needs of pregnant women and nursing mothers; (e) To take appropriate steps to help women avoid abortion, which in no case should be promoted as a method of family planning, and whenever possible, provide for the humane treatment and counselling of women who have had recourse to abortion; (f) To support family planning as a health measure in maternal and child health programmes as a way of reducing births that occur too early or too late in the mother's life, of increasing the interval between births and of diminishing higher birth orders, and by giving special consideration to the needs of those in the post-partum and/or breast-feeding period; (g) To encourage community education to change prevailing attitudes which countenance pregnancy and childbearing at young ages, recognizing that pregnancy occurring in adolescent girls, whether married or unmarried, has adverse effects on the morbidity and mortality of both mother and child. Recommendation 19 Governments are urged, as a special measure, to take immediate and effective action, within the context of primary health care, to expand the use of techniques such as child growth monitoring, oral rehydration therapy, immunization and appropriate birth spacing, which have the potential to achieve a virtual revolution in child survival. All available communication channels should be used to promote these techniques. The important role of the family, especially of mothers, in the area of primary health care should be recognized. Recommendation 20 Governments are urged to promote and support breast-feeding. Information should be widely disseminated on the nutritional, immunological and psychological benefits of breast-feeding, as well as its influence on child spacing. Nursing mothers, especially those in the labour force, should be provided with appropriate maternal benefits, including day-care facilities, access to proper food supplements for themselves, and complementary weaning and foods for their infants, in order to ensure adequate nutrition throughout infancy and early childhood. Governments which have accepted it should be urged to take the necessary steps to implement the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, as adopted by the 34th World Health Assembly (resolution WHA 34.22). Recommendation 21 Governments are strongly urged to take all necessary measures, including, whenever they consider it useful, utilizing the services of non-governmental organizations, to raise the level of education attained by women as an end in itself and because of its close link to child survival and spacing. In countries where there are still many illiterate women, a supplementary effort should be made to extend mass education programmes. (c) Adult morbidity and mortality 23. The levels of adult morbidity and mortality and their major causes are still of concern for many Governments in both developing and developed countries. The World Population Plan of Action recognizes the importance of improving health conditions for the working-age population and stresses the need for the eradication of infectious and parasitic diseases (paragraphs 24 (d) and (e)). In countries where infectious and parasitic diseases have reached low levels of incidence, chronic and non-infectious conditions still require urgent attention. As personal health practices and behaviour affect health, dissemination of the relevant information is important so that people can act on the basis of full information Recommendation 22 Governments of countries where mortality is still high are urged, with adequate international support, to implement intensive programmes to control infectious and parasitic diseases, provide as far as possible sufficient potable water and adequate sanitation facilities, and implement other elements of primary health care for both adults and children. Recommendation 23 Governments, assisted by intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, are urged to provide individuals and families with all relevant information on the ways in which personal behaviour or practices affect health, and to ensure that the necessary resources are available for them to act on the basis of this information. In this context, Governments are urged to initiate or strengthen preventive action programmes to reduce the consumption of tobacco, alcohol, drugs and other products potentially dangerous to health. Recommendation 24 Governments are urged to take necessary preventive or corrective measures to eliminate the negative consequences for health that characterize many occupations. 3. Reproduction and the family 24. The World Population Plan of Action recognizes the family, in its many forms, as the basic unit of society and recommends that it should be given legal protection and that measures should be taken to protect both the rights of spouses and the rights of children in the case of the termination or dissolution of marriage and the right of individuals to enter marriage only with their free and full consent (paragraph 39). It also recommends that all children, regardless of the circumstances of their parentage, should enjoy equal legal and social status and the full support of both parents (paragraph 40). The family is the main institution through which social, economic and cultural change affects fertility. While the family has undergone and continues to undergo fundamental changes in its structure and function, the family continues to be recognized as the proper setting for mutual love, support and companionship of spouses, as the primary determinant of the survival of children born into it, as the first agent of the socialization of future generations, and in many societies as the only supporting institution for the aged. The family is also an important agent of social, political and cultural change. Therefore, in the design and implementation of fertility policies, Governments must respect individual rights while at the same time giving full recognition to the important role of the family. 25. The World Population Plan of Action recognizes, as one of its principles, the basic human right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children (paragraph 14 (f)). For this right to be realized, couples and individuals must have access to the necessary education, information and means to regulate their fertility, regardless of the overall demographic goals of the Government (paragraphs 28 and 29 (a)). While this right is widely accepted, many couples and individuals are unable to exercise it effectively, either because they lack access to information, education and/or services or because, although some services are available, yet an appropriate range of methods and follow-up services are not. Indeed, data from the World Fertility Survey for developing countries indicate that, on average, over one fourth of births in the year prior to the Survey had not been desired. In addition, the decline in the prevalence of certain traditional practices, such as prolonged breast-feeding and post-partum abstinence, has increased the relative importance of non-traditional family planning as a tool for the proper spacing of births. 26. While the Plan also stresses the responsibility of individuals and couples in exercising their right to choose, the experience of the past 10 years suggests that Governments can do more to assist people in making their reproductive decisions in a responsible way (paragraph 14 (f)). Any recognition of rights also implies responsibilities; in this case, it implies that couples and individuals should exercise this right, taking into consideration their own situation, as well as the implications of their decisions for the balanced development of their children and of the community and society in which they live. The following recommendations reaffirm the provisions of the World Population Plan of Action and suggest specific measures for the attainment of the objectives of the Plan in these areas. Recommendation 25 Governments should, as a matter of urgency, make universally available information, education and the means to assist couples and individuals to achieve their desired number of children. Family planning information, education and means should include all medically approved and appropriate methods of family planning, including natural family planning, to ensure a voluntary and free choice in accordance with changing individual and cultural values. Particular attention should be given to those segments of the population which are most vulnerable and difficult to reach. Recommendation 26 Governments are urged to promote the best conditions for family formation and family life, ensuring, inter alia, that children enjoy the most favourable environment for their physical, psychological and social development. Recommendation 27 Governments and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are urged to allocate, in accordance with national policies and priorities, the necessary resources to family planning services, where these services are inadequate and are not meeting the needs of a rapidly growing population of reproductive age. Recommendation 28 Governments are urged to improve the quality and enhance the effectiveness of family planning services and of the monitoring of those services, including appropriate follow-up. Coverage should be extended as rapidly as possible to all couples and individuals of both sexes, particularly in rural areas. Family planning services should be made available through appropriate and practicable channels, including integrated health-care programmes (especially maternal and child health and primary health care), community-based distribution, subsidized commercial retail sales, and, in particular, local distribution through retail outlets where health infrastructure and health referral services exist. Also, Governments should bear in mind the innovative role which non-governmental organizations, in particular women's organizations, can play in improving the availability and effectiveness of family planning services. All countries should ensure that fertility control methods conform to adequate standards of quality, efficacy and safety. Recommendation 29 Governments are urged to ensure that adolescents, both boys and girls, receive adequate education, including family-life and sex education, with due consideration given to the role, rights and obligations of parents and changing individual and cultural values. Suitable family planning information and services should be made available to adolescents within the changing socio-cultural framework of each country. Recommendation 30 Governments are urged to ensure that all couples and individuals have the basic right to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children and to have the information, education and means to do so; couples and individuals in the exercise of this right should take into account the needs of their living and future children and their responsibilities towards the community. Recommendation 31 Legislation and policies concerning the family and programmes of incentives and disincentives should be neither coercive nor discriminatory and should be consistent with internationally recognized human rights as well as with changing individual and cultural values. Recommendation 32 Governments which have adopted or intend to adopt national fertility goals should translate these goals into specific policies and operational steps that are clearly understood by the citizens. Recommendation 33 Governments that have adopted or intend to adopt fertility policies are urged to set their own quantitative targets in this area. Countries implementing family planning programmes should establish programme targets at the operational level, respecting the basic right of couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children, taking into account the needs of their living and future children and their responsibilities, assumed freely and without coercion, towards the community. Recommendation 34 Family policies adopted or encouraged by Government should be sensitive to the need for: (a) Financial and/or other support to parents, including single parents, in the period preceding or following the birth of a child, as well as the period during which parents assume the major responsibility for the care and education of children; (b) A strengthening of child welfare services and child-care provisions; (c) Maternity and paternity leave for a sufficient length of time to enable either parent to care for the child, with adequate remunerative compensation and without detriment to subsequent career prospects and basic communal facilities that will enable working parents to provide care for children and aged members of their families; and (d) Assistance to young couples and parents, including single parents, in acquiring suitable housing. Recommendation 35 Governments wishing to decrease fertility levels should adopt development policies that are known to reduce the level of fertility, such as improved health, education, integration of women and social equity. Governments that view the level of fertility in their countries as too low may consider financial and other support to families to assist them with their parental responsibilities and to facilitate their access to the necessary services. Such policies should not restrict access to education, information and services for family planning. 4. Population distribution and internal migration 27. The World Population Plan of Action makes a number of recommendations in regard to population distribution and internal migration that are of continuing relevance (paragraphs 44-50). The Plan recommends that population distribution policies should be integrated with economic and social policies. In formulating and implementing migration policies, Governments are urged to avoid infringing the right of freedom of movement and residence within States, to promote more equitable regional development, to locate services and industry so as to promote interpersonal equity as well as efficiency, to promote networks of small and medium-sized cities, and to improve economic and social conditions in rural areas through balanced agricultural development. In addition, the Plan recommends that migrants should be provided with information on economic and social conditions in urban areas, that employment creation, systems of land tenure and the provision of basic services should be improved in rural areas and that Governments should share experiences relevant to their policies. The area of population distribution and internal migration is still one of great concern to many Governments. The following recommendations indicate the means for the further implementation of the Plan of Action. Recommendation 36 Population distribution policies must be consistent with such international instruments as the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1949), wherein article 49 prohibits individual or mass forcible transfers from an occupied territory and forbids the occupier from transferring parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies. Furthermore, the establishment of settlements in territories occupied by force is illegal and condemned by the international community. Recommendation 37 Governments are urged to base policies aimed at influencing population distribution on a comprehensive evaluation of costs and benefits to individuals, families, different socio-economic groups, communities, regions and the country as a whole. Population distribution goals (e.g., target growth rates for primate cities or rural population retention goals) should be pursued to the extent that they help to achieve broader societal goals, such as raising per capita incomes, increasing efficiency, making the distribution of income more equitable, protecting the environment and improving the quality of life. In so doing, Governments should ensure that the rights of indigenous and other groups are recognized. Recommendation 38 Governments are urged, in formulating population distribution policies, to take into account the policy implications of various forms of population mobility (e.g., circular, seasonal, rural-rural, and urban-urban, as well as rural-urban), to consider the direction, duration and characteristics of these movements and the interrelationships between territorial mobility and levels and characteristics of fertility and mortality. Recommendation 39 Governments are urged to review their socio-economic policies in order to minimize any adverse spatial consequences, as well as to improve the integration of population factors in territorial and sectoral planning, particularly in the sectors concerned with human settlements. Recommendation 40 Governments wishing to minimize undesired migration should implement population distribution policies through incentives, rather than migration controls, which are difficult to enforce and may infringe human rights. Recommendation 41 Governments which have adopted, or intend to adopt, a comprehensive urbanization policy, should seek to integrate such policies into the overall development planning process, with the aim of achieving, inter alia, a reduction in current high migration to capital cities and other large urban centres, the development of medium-sized towns and a reduction of rural-urban and regional inequalities. Developed countries and the international community should extend the necessary assistance to the efforts of developing countries in this direction. Recommendation 42 Governments should support programmes of assistance, information and community action in support of internal migrants and should consider establishing networks of labour exchanges that could allow potential migrants to have adequate information about social conditions and about the availability of employment in receiving areas. Recommendation 43 Rural development programmes should be primarily directed towards increasing rural production and efficiency, raising rural incomes and improving social conditions and rural welfare, particularly for small peasant producers and rural women. Governments should therefore improve the accessibility of basic social services and amenities to scattered populations, regularize land ownership, facilitate access to credit, new technology and other needed inputs, and adopt pricing policies geared to the needs of smallholders. Appropriate measures must be taken to carry out agrarian reform as one of the important factors which increase agricultural production and promote the development of rural areas. Recommendation 44 Governments should adopt effective policies to assist women migrants, especially those who are agricultural workers, as well as women, children and the elderly left behind unsupported in rural areas. Governments are also urged to pay special attention to the difficulties of adaptation encountered in urban areas by migrant women of rural origin and to take appropriate measures to overcome these difficulties. 5. International migration (a) General guidelines for formulating international migration policies 28. The general validity of the recommendations made in the World Population Plan of Action with respect to international movements is reaffirmed (paragraphs 51-62). However, recent developments regarding the trends of international migration flows demand greater attention from the international community, especially with regard to certain types of migrants, such as documented migrant workers, undocumented migrant workers and refugees. The guidelines set out below give due consideration to the basic fact that international migration is of concern to both the receiving countries and the countries of origin, particularly when the migration of skilled persons is involved. They reflect the bearing that international migration may have on the process of establishing a New International Economic Order and recognize that the effective safeguarding of the basic human rights and fundamental freedoms of all migrants, without discrimination on the basis of race, culture, religion or sex, is an essential prerequisite for the realization of their positive contributions to the host society. Recommendation 45 International migration policies should respect the basic human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals as set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, x/ the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights y/ and other pertinent international instruments. In keeping with these documents, receiving countries should adopt measures to safeguard the basic human rights of all migrants in their territory and to ensure the respect of their cultural identity. Measures should also be taken to promote the mutual adaptation of both immigrant groups and the population of the receiving country. Recommendation 46 In formulating policies on international migration, Governments of receiving countries should take into account not only their own country's economic and social needs but also the well-being of the migrants concerned and their families and the demographic implications of migration. Governments of countries of origin concerned with the continuing outflow of skilled workers and professionals should seek to retain those workers as well as encourage their return through, inter alia, the promotion of an economic environment favourable to the expansion of employment opportunities. To redress the existing imbalance of skills, Governments should try to identify alternative skill resources. Governments should formulate national and international measures to avoid the brain-drain from developing countries and to obviate its adverse effects. While pursuing these purposes in a manner consistent with respect for human rights, Governments are invited to conduct, inter alia, consultations or negotiations, on either a bilateral or a multilateral basis, with the support, upon request, of competent international organizations. Recommendation 47 High priority should be placed on the rehabilitation of expelled and homeless people who have been displaced by natural and man-made catastrophes. In all cases, Governments are urged to co-operate fully in order to guarantee that the parties involved allow the return of displaced persons to their homes and ensure their right to possess and enjoy their properties and belongings without interference. (b) Documented migrant workers 29. The World Population Plan of Action calls for the proper treatment of migrant workers and their families (paragraphs 55 and 56) whose migration has been promoted by countries facing labour shortages and who are referred to hereafter as "documented migrant workers". The Plan also addresses the concerns of countries of origin (paragraph 54) and suggests concerted action at the bilateral and multilateral levels (paragraphs 54 and 62). In 1979, recognizing that, despite the efforts made by the States involved, documented migrant workers were still not able to exercise their rights as defined by the relevant international instruments, the General Assembly called for the elaboration of an international convention on the protection of the rights of all migrant workers and their families (resolution 34/172 of 17 December 1979). Many of the following recommendations reflect the contents of the draft of this convention. z/ It is hoped that upon adoption of the convention, it may serve as a guideline for the treatment of migrant workers and their families. Recommendation 48 Governments of receiving countries should work towards extending to documented migrant workers and accompanying members of their families whose situation as regards stay and employment in the receiving country is regular, treatment equal to that accorded their own nationals with regard to the enjoyment of basic rights, including the equality of opportunity and treatment in respect of working conditions, social security, participation in trade unions and access to health, education and other social services. In achieving this aim, Governments are invited to use as guidelines all relevant international instruments, in particular, the ILO Convention concerning Migration for Employment (Revised) 1949 (No. 97) and the ILO Convention concerning Migrations in Abusive Conditions and the Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and Treatment of Migrant Workers, 1975 (No. 143), part II. aa/ Recommendation 49 Governments of receiving countries that have not already done so are urged to consider adopting appropriate measures to promote the normalization of the family life of documented migrant workers in the receiving country concerned through family reunion. Demographic and other considerations should not prevent Governments from taking such measures. Recommendation 50 Countries of origin and receiving countries should undertake information and education activities to increase the awareness of migrants regarding their legal position and rights and to provide realistic assessments of the situation of migrants, including the availability of job opportunities. Receiving countries should recognise the right of migrants to form associations so that they may participate more effectively in the receiving society while maintaining their cultural identity. Recommendation 51 Governments of countries of origin and of receiving countries should encourage and promote the widest dissemination, inter alia, through the mass media, of information aimed at promoting public understanding of and preventing any activity prejudicial to the contribution of documented migrant workers to economic development and cultural interchange. (c) Undocumented migrants 30. The World Population Plan of Action recommends that Governments bear in mind humanitarian considerations in the treatment of undocumented migrants (paragraph 56). Owing to the irregularity of their situation, undocumented migrants are particularly vulnerable to exploitation and mistreatment. It is therefore urgent that their basic human rights and fundamental freedoms be universally recognized and that they enjoy international protection as well as the protection of receiving countries within the framework of bilateral conventions. The widest recognition of the rights of all migrant workers and the effective safeguarding of these rights will tend to discourage exploitation of undocumented migrants, particularly exploitation in the sphere of employment, by employers who wish to reap the benefits of unfair competition. bb/ Recommendation 52 All measures adopted or implemented by countries of departure and of arrival to reduce the illegal entry, stay or employment of undocumented migrants (including amnesties, other regularization schemes, border controls and deportations) should respect their basic human rights. Recommendation 53 In formulating laws and regulations to limit undocumented migration, Governments of receiving countries are invited to consider the guidelines set forth in the ILO Convention concerning Migrations in Abusive Conditions and the Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and Treatment of Migrant Workers, 1975 (No. 143), part I. cc/ To be effective, such laws and regulations should address the treatment not only of the undocumented migrants themselves but also of those persons inducing or facilitating undocumented migration. (d) Refugees 31. The World Population Plan of Action addresses the problems of refugees (paragraph 53). Since its adoption in 1974, refugees have been a source of growing concern to the international community because of their increasing numbers, the fact that a large proportion of them are from the vulnerable groups - women, children and the aged - and particularly because most refugees originate and relocate in developing countries, which have had to cope with the added economic and social burdens imposed on them. This concern has resulted in programmes by developing countries, as well as by third countries of resettlement, generally developed countries, to alleviate the dislocations associated with the influx of refugees. There seems to be broad agreement that through international co-operation within the framework of the United Nations an attempt should be made to remove the causes of new flows of refugees, having due regard to the principle of non-intervention in the internal affairs of sovereign States. In view of the existing situation, the recommendations set out below emphasize the need for continued international co-operation in finding durable solutions to the problem of refugees and for the provision of support and assistance to countries of first asylum. Recommendation 54 States that have not already done so are invited to consider acceding to the international instruments concerning refugees, in particular to the 1951 Convention dd/ and the 1967 Protocol ee/ relating to the Status of Refugees. Recommendation 55 Governments and international agencies are urged to find durable solutions to problems related to refugees and refugee movements and to work towards the elimination of the causes of these problems. Governments, international organizations and non-governmental organizations are urged to continue to promote the protection of refugees and to provide support and assistance to first asylum countries in satisfying the basic needs of refugees. Efforts towards the creation of conditions in which voluntary repatriation may take place should be pursued and assistance should be provided in rehabilitating returnees. The basic freedoms and human rights of returnees and their families should be guaranteed and assistance should be provided in developing opportunities for a return to a normal and productive way of living. In situations where neither voluntary repatriation nor resettlement in third countries appears to be feasible, Governments, international organizations and non-governmental organizations are urged to provide support and assistance to the countries of first asylum in developing the capacity of the national economic and social infrastructure to sustain and, subject to the full approval of the host countries, to integrate refugees. 6. Population structure 32. The World Population Plan of Action (paragraphs 63-67) takes particular note of changing population age structures resulting from sustained demographic change, and of the effect of such changes on socio-economic development and on family and household structures. Closely linked issues such as employment for rapidly expanding working age groups, shifts from agricultural to non-agricultural occupations and health needs of particular age and sex groups are dealt with elsewhere in these recommendations. In countries where fertility levels are high, the large absolute and relative number of children and youth is a continuing burden for social and economic development, including educational development. On the other hand, the aging of the population has become an important issue in developed countries, and an emerging one in those developing countries which experienced declines in fertility in the recent past. The rising proportion of the aged in these populations is imposing an economic burden with respect to national expenditures for social security and social services. It is noted, however, that the aged can make significant contributions to society. The following recommendations note the above and contain proposals to foster the growth and value of all age and sex groups in the community. Recommendation 56 Governments and the international community should continue to bear in mind the considerations that led to the designation of the International Year of the Child, as well as the recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action with respect to age distribution, giving due attention to the full range of the needs of children. Recommendation 57 Governments, specialized agencies of the United Nations system and other concerned intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are invited to intensify their efforts in the execution of specific programmes related to youth, duly taking into account the situation, the needs, the specific aspirations of youth and the Specific Programme of Measures and Activities to be undertaken before and during the International Youth Year endorsed by the General Assembly. ff/ Recommendation 58 Governments are urged to reaffirm their commitment to the implementation of the International Plan of Action on Aging. w/ In this context, further efforts should be made to analyse the issue of aging, particularly its implications for overall development, social services, medical care and other related fields, and on the basis of such data Governments are urged to take appropriate measures to secure the welfare and safety of older people, paying particular attention to the situation and the needs of older women. Governments and international agencies should increase their efforts and activities with a view to improving care for the aged within the family unit. Moreover, Governments should view the aging sector of the population not merely as a dependent group, but in terms of the active contribution that older persons have already made and can still make to the economic, social and cultural life of their families and community. Recommendation 59 In planning for economic and social development, Governments should give appropriate consideration to shifts in family and household structures and their implications for requirements in different policy fields. E. PROMOTION OF KNOWLEDGE AND POLICY 1. Data collection and analysis 33. The recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action regarding data collection and analysis (paragraphs 72-77) continue to be both valid and urgent and thus every effort should be made for their full implementation. The collection and analysis of population and related statistics is an indispensable basis for a full and accurate understanding of population trends and prospects for formulating population and development plans and programmes and for monitoring effectively the implementation of these plans and programmes. During the past decade considerable progress has been achieved in the field of data collection and analysis. For example, nearly all countries have carried out a population census; well-designed fertility and other surveys were carried out in many developed and developing countries; efforts aimed at improving continuing national survey-taking capabilities were initiated in a number of developing countries; and major advances were made in the development of methods for use in the analysis of incomplete data. However, a number of critical gaps in official statistics remain, including those related to the classification of data for urban agglomerations. In view of these developments and future requirements, priority attention should be given to the following recommendations. Recommendation 60 Governments are urged to develop durable capabilities for data collection, processing and analysis, including needed computer facilities, to provide reliable and timely information in support of population and other development programmes. They are also urged to accord priority to the development of national and regional population information systems. Required assistance should be provided to developing countries by the international community to develop these activities. Recommendation 61 Governments are urged to monitor population trends and to assess future demographic prospects and their implications on a regular basis. Inasmuch as population projections provide basic tools for economic and social development planning, efforts should be made to prepare statistics relevant for this purpose. Co-ordination and co-operation in this work within and between countries should be promoted. Recommendation 62 Governments are urged to ensure that population and related data are tabulated and published separately by sex, as well as data concerning other demographic, social and economic variables, so that the situation of women is rendered clearly and in order to measure the impact on women of changes that will ensue from the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action. Recommendation 63 Governments are encouraged to tabulate and publish data about minority groups to assist in assessing the impact of the World Population Plan of Action on such groups. Recommendation 64 Because migration is the least developed area of current demographic statistics, Governments may consider undertaking a comprehensive programme of migration statistics, in line with national priorities, focusing on such areas of concern as (1) internal migration, (2) urbanization and (3) international migration. It is also recommended that migration should be studied in the context of the family. To this end, Governments should consider ways of strengthening their national population censuses, sample surveys or administrative record systems in order to obtain needed migration data and estimates. Countries of origin and of destination are urged to exchange such pertinent statistical data, through the relevant United Nations authorities and other competent international organizations, where appropriate. Recommendation 65 All countries are requested to participate in the 1990 World Population and Housing Census Programme and endeavour to improve further their censuses, giving particular attention to the timely publication of census results in order to assist, inter alia, in the evaluation of population and development trends at all levels. Required assistance in support of these activities should be provided to developing countries by the international community. Recommendation 66 Governments, in collaboration with appropriate international organizations, are urged to establish or strengthen national sample survey programmes that can provide, in conjunction with data from other sources, a continuous flow of integrated statistics in support of population and other development programmes, and to build enduring capabilities for conducting surveys. It is recommended, in particular, that surveys should be carried out periodically on fertility, family planning health of mothers and children, mortality and migration and that technical assistance for this purpose should be made available from international sources. Recommendation 67 Governments are urged, in the collection, analysis and dissemination of statistical data, and in the context of national laws and practices, to ensure that confidentiality and the privacy of the individual are safeguarded. Recommendation 68 Governments are urged to collect, compile and publish on a timely basis the full range of vital statistics, as well as other demographic and related social and economic statistics needed to plan and evaluate population and health programmes, including family planning programmes. To this end, Governments should establish or strengthen civil registration systems and make use of well-designed sample surveys, special studies and available administrative reporting systems, such as population registers. 2. Research 34. The World Population Plan of Action (paragraphs 78-80) gives great emphasis to research activities relating to population and identifies a list of research priorities related to the theoretical, operational and policy-oriented aspects of population analyses. Throughout the course of the review and appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action, in each of the expert group meetings convened as part of the preparations for the International Conference on Population, 1984, as well as in all other review activities, the continuing need for research both to fill gaps in knowledge and to support programmatic activity was made evident. Increased research efforts together with the necessary institutional and financial support are made necessary by changes in the social and economic contexts within which population policies are formulated and implemented. Similarly, changes in population policies and in demographic conditions themselves and new research findings, including those concerning contraceptive technology, call for an expansion of research activities. Recommendation 69 Governments and funding agencies are urged to allocate increased resources for research in human reproduction and fertility regulation, including biomedical research, in order to improve the safety and efficacy of existing family planning methods, to develop new methods (including those for males), to develop better methods of recognizing the female fertile period and to address problems of infertility and subfecundity, including those caused by environmental pollution. Such research should be sensitive to the varying acceptability of specific methods in different cultures. Other important aspects requiring increased research efforts and support include epidemiological research on the short- and long-term adverse and beneficial medical effects of fertility-regulating agents. Modernization and updating of the official requirements for the preclinical and clinical assessment of new fertility regulating agents and a strengthening of the research capabilities of developing countries in these areas are also urgently needed. Recommendation 70 Governments and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations should give priority to service and operational research, including (a) acceptability of programmes and methods; (b) programme design and implementation; (c) management of programmes, including training of personnel, monitoring, logistics and impact evaluation; and (d) effectiveness of programmes, including information on planning the number of children. To increase the acceptance and to improve the design of family planning service programmes, priority should be given to social research into the determinants and consequences of fertility. However, substantive priorities should continue to reflect the needs of countries. The allocation of research tasks should be pragmatically divided among institutions that operate at the national, regional or global levels, in order to make the best possible use of available resources. Recommendation 71 Governments and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations should provide required assistance for the development and continued effectiveness of research capabilities, especially at the country level, as well as at the regional and global levels. Arrangements to facilitate the exchange of research findings within and between regions should also be further strengthened. Results of such research should be used in the implementation of action programmes, which in turn should have adequate built-in evaluation procedures. Recommendation 72 In setting population research goals, Governments and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations should endeavour to make them relevant to policies and programmes, with the objective of making innovations in policy formulation, implementation and evaluation. Special emphasis should be given to research on the integration of population processes with socio-economic development, considering not only applied but also theoretical and methodological topics. 3. Management, training, information, education and communication 35. The World Population Plan of Action contains a series of recommendations on management, training, information, education and communication in the field of population (paragraphs 81-93). Since its adoption, the need for the further development of management in all fields related to population has been acknowledged, both nationally and regionally, in order to enhance the effectiveness of population programmes. In view of the importance of considering the changing demographic situations as well as the interrelationships between population and development in the formulation of population policies and measures, training programmes in population and population-related studies need to be further strengthened. There is also a growing awareness of the supportive roles in population policies and programmes of dissemination of population information and of population education at national, regional and global levels. The following recommendations relate to these activities. Recommendation 73 Governments and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations should increase their support to the management of population programmes. They should also expand training programmes in population fields, particularly in the areas of demography, population studies, survey research, management, family life, sex education, maternal and child health, family planning and reproductive physiology. Such efforts should focus on action-oriented training, reflecting the milieu of the area, country or region concerned. Local-level training should be supplemented by programmes of technical co-operation among the developing countries and between the developed and the developing countries, so that they can learn from each other's experience. Development and expansion of national and regional population training institutes and facilities should be encouraged and strengthened. Special attention should also be given to the need to train those who will be involved in training activities. In order to ensure increased participation of women in the design, management, implementation and evaluation of population programmes, special attention should be given to the need to include women in all training activities. Recommendation 74 Governments, with the assistance, as appropriate, of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, should continue to explore innovative methods for spreading awareness of demographic factors and for fostering the active involvement and participation of the public in population policies and programmes and to intensify training of national personnel who are engaged in information, education and communication activities (including the management and planning of those activities), in developing integrated communication activities and education strategies, utilizing mass media and community-level and interpersonal communication techniques. Recommendation 75 Governments are invited to develop an adequate corps of trained persons for the effective formulation and implementation of integrated population and development policies, plans and programmes at all levels. In this regard, increased efforts should be made by Governments and training institutions, both at national and international levels, to further facilitate the integration of population studies into training curricula for policy-makers and executives who plan and implement development programmes. Recommendation 76 Governments and intergovernmental organizations are urged to make more effective use of available population data and, for this purpose, to promote forums for assessing the priorities in the population fields, based on the results of population data and studies, and for considering their reorientation, as necessary; moreover, national and international support should be increased with a view to improving the dissemination and exchange of information at the national levels. IV. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION A. Role of national Governments 36. The World Population Plan of Action underscores the primary role of national Governments in the formulation, implementation and achievement of the principles and objectives of the Plan (paragraphs 96-99). The experience of the last decade has demonstrated the variety of policy approaches that can be effective when designed and implemented by Governments with due regard for the particular political, social, cultural, religious and economic conditions of their countries. However, many factors, including the lack of definite commitment, inadequate resources, ineffective co-ordination and implementation and insufficient data, have limited the effectiveness of Governments in the implementation of their national population policies. The following recommendations emphasize specific means whereby Governments can enhance the effectiveness of population policies within the context of the guidelines articulated in the Plan of Action. Recommendation 77 Governments are urged to attach high priority to the attainment of self-reliance in the management of their population programmes. To this end, Government are invited: (a) To establish monitoring and evaluation systems and procedures as an important managerial tool for policy-making and programming; (b) To strengthen the administrative and managerial capability needed for the effective implementation of population programmes; (c) To ensure that international assistance is provided under arrangements and on conditions that are adapted to the administrative resources of the recipient country, and that such assistance is co-ordinated at the national level in a manner that will facilitate effective and efficient programmes; (d) To involve communities more actively in the planning and implementation of population programmes. Recommendation 78 Governments are encouraged to continue to utilize technical co-operation among developing countries; subregional, regional and interregional co-operation should be encouraged. B. Role of international co-operation 37. The World Population Plan of Action outlines the supportive role of the international community in providing technical and financial assistance to achieve the goals of the Plan (paragraphs 100-106). Since the Bucharest Conference, international co-operation activities of multilateral and bilateral agencies and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations have achieved a number of notable successes in attaining these goals. Technical assistance among developing countries has also become increasingly effective. As noted in the Review and Appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action (E/CONF.76/4) the needs of developing countries for assistance in population have increased dramatically. Although the resources available have more than doubled in nomina terms, this increase has not been sufficient either to keep pace with the demand or to compensate for erosion due to inflation. The developing countries themselves are allocating increasing shares of development expenditure for population programmes. The need for assistance for population programmes as for all development programmes continues to grow. The recommendations in this section encourage further assistance for development and population, both to enlarge programmes where effective use of resources has been demonstrated and to initiate new activities. Recommendation 79 The international community should play an important role in the further implementation of the World Population Plan of Action. For this purpose, among other things, adequate and substantial international measures of support and assistance should be provided by developed countries, other donor countries and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations. Recommendation 80 Organs, organizations and bodies of the United Nations system and donor countries which play an important role in supporting population programmes, as well as other international, regional and subregional organizations, are urged to assist Governments at their request in implementating these recommendations. Of no less importance will be the review of existing criteria for setting co-operation priorities, bearing in mind considerations of regional equity and the proper balance between the various phenomena in the field of international co-operation. Recommendation 81 The international community should give particular emphasis to: (a) Initiation and expansion of research and action programmes; (b) Institutionalization of the integration of population planning in the development process; (c) Improving the status and strengthening the role of women and providing appropriate financial and technical support for this purpose in population programmes; (d) Biomedical and social science research; (e) Collection and analysis of needed data; (f) Identification of successful programmes, ascertaining those factors accounting for their success and disseminating such information to those developing countries which initiate programmes; (g) Implementation of monitoring and evaluation systems in order to ascertain the effectiveness and impact of programmes and their continued responsiveness to community needs; (h) Promotion of exchanges between countries with common experiences; (i) Education and training in population matters. Recommendation 82 Governments are urged to increase the level of their assistance for population activities in the light of continuing needs in the field and the increasing commitment of developing countries, with a view to reaching the goals set for this purpose in the International Development Strategy for the Third United Nations Development Decade. In this context Governments of developed countries and other donor countries are urged to allocate increased contributions for population and population-related programmes in accordance with national goals and priorities of recipient countries. This increase should not be detrimental to the levels of economic development assistance in other areas. Recommendation 83 In view of the leading role of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities in population matters, the Conference urges that the Fund should be strengthened further, so as to ensure the more effective delivery of population assistance, taking into account the growing needs in this field. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is invited to examine this recommendation, and submit a report to the General Assembly on its implementation as soon as possible but not later than 1986. Recommendation 84 National non-governmental organizations are invited to continue, in accordance with national policies and laws, their pioneering work in opening up new paths and to respond quickly and flexibly to requests from Governments, intergovernmental and international non-governmental organizations, as appropriate, for the further implementation of the World Population Plan of Action. Governments are urged, as appropriate, within the framework of national objectives, to encourage the innovative activities of non-governmental organizations and to draw upon their expertise, experience and resources in implementing national programmes. Donors are invited to increase their financial support to non-governmental organizations. Recommendation 85 Members of parliament, the scientific community, the mass media, and others in influential positions are invited, in their respective areas of competence, to create an awareness of population and development issues and to support appropriate ways of dealing with these issues. Recommendation 86 Policy makers, parliamentarians, and other persons in public life are encouraged to continue to promote and support actions to achieve an effective and integrated approach to the solution of population and development problems by arousing public awareness and working towards the implementation of national population policies and programmes. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the other international organizations concerned are invited to continue providing support for such actions. Recommendation 87 The General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, the Governing Council of the United Nations Development Programme and legislative and policy-making bodies of the specialized agencies and other intergovernmental organizations are urged to examine and support the recommendations for the further implementation of the World Population Plan of Action and to include population questions among their major priorities. C. Monitoring, review and appraisal Recommendation 88 The monitoring of population trends and policies and review and appraisal of the World Population Plan of Action should continue to be undertaken by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, as specified in the Plan. The monitoring of multilateral population programmes of the United Nations system aimed at the further implementation of the World Population Plan of Action should be undertaken by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, through appropriate arrangements. The next comprehensive and thorough review and appraisal of progress made towards achieving the goals and recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action will be undertaken in 1989. Notes a/ See Report of the United Nations World Population Conference, 1974, Bucharest, 19-30 August 1974 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.75.XIII.3), chap. 1) b/ General Assembly resolution 1386 (XIV). c/ Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm, 5-16 June 1972, (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.73.II.A.14 and corrigendum), chaps. I and II. d/ See Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirty-seventh Session, Supplement No. 25 (A/37/25), part one, annex 1. e/ Report of the World Food Conference, Rome, 5-16 November 1974 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.75.II.A.3), chap. I. f/ Report of the World Conference of the International Women's Year, Mexico City, 19 June-2 July 1975 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.76.IV.l), chap. II, sect. A. g/ Report of the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Copenhagen, 14-30 July 1980 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.80.IV.3 and corrigendum), chap. I, sect. A. h/ See A/10112, chap. IV. i/ See Meeting Basic Needs: Strategies for Eradicating Mass Poverty and Unemployment (Geneva, International Labour Office, 1977). j/ Report of Habitat: United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, Vancouver, 31 May-11 June 1976 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.76.IV.7 and corrigendum), chap. I. k/ Report of the United Nations Conference on Desertification, Nairobi, 29 August-9 September 1977 (A/CONF.74/36), chap. I. l/ Report of the United Nations Water Conference, Mar del Plata, 14-25 March 1977 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.77.II.A.12), chap. I. m/ See Primary Health Care: Report of the International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma-Ata, USSR, 6-12 September 1978 (Geneva, World Health Organization, 1978). n/ Report of the World Conference to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination, Geneva, 14-25 August 1978 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.79.XIV.2), chap. II. o/ General Assembly resolution 34/24, annex. p/ Report of the Second World Conference to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination, Geneva, 1-12 August 1983 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.83.XIV.4 and corrigendum), chap. II. q/ Report of the United Nations Conference on Technical Co-operation among Developing Countries, Buenos Aires, 30 August-12 September 1978 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.78.II.A.11 and corrigendum), chap. I. r/ Report of the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development, Rome, 12-20 July 1979 (WCARRD/REP) (Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1979), part one. s/ Report of the United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development, Vienna, 20-31 August 1979 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.79.I.21 and corrigenda), chap. VII. t/ Global Strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000, "Health for All" Series, No. 3 and corrigenda (Geneva, World Health Organization, 1981). u/ Report of the United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, Nairobi, 10-21 August 1981 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.81.I.24), chap. I, sect. A. v/ Report of the United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries, Paris, 1-14 September 1981 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.82.I.8), part one, sect. A. w/ Report of the World Assembly on Aging, Vienna, 26 July-6 August 1982 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.82.I.16), chap. VI, sect. A. x/ General Assembly resolution 217 A (III). y/ General Assembly resolution 2200 A (XXI), annex. z/ See A/C.3/38/WG.l/CRP.2/Rev.l; for the deliberations of the Working Group on the drafting of an international Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families, see A/C.3/35/13, A/36/378, A/36/383, A/C.3/36/10, A/C.3/37/1, A/C.3/37/7 and Corr.l and 2, A/C.3/38/1 and A/C.3/38/5. aa/ See International Labour Conventions and Recommendations, 1919-1981 (Geneva, International Labour Office. 1982). bb/ See, in this connection, the draft Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families (A/C.3/38/WG.l/CRP.2/Rev.l), preambular paragraph 18 and proposed preambular paragraph 19, and the report of the Working Group on its meetings during the thirty-sixth session of the General Assembly (A/C.3/36/10), para. 25. cc/ See International Labour Conventions and Recommendations, 1919-1981 (Geneva, International Labour Office, 1982). dd/ United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 189, No. 2545, p. 137. ee/ Ibid., vol. 606, No. 8791, p. 267. ff/ General Assembly resolution 36/28.