UNITED NATIONS POPULATION INFORMATION NETWORK (POPIN)
UN Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
with support from the UN Population Fund (UNFPA)

Rural Women, Pop. & Devel. in Lusophone Africa: Annotated Bibliography

************************************************************************

The electronic version of this document is being made available by the 

Population Information Network (POPIN) of the United Nations Population 

Division (DESIPA), in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture 

Organization of the United Nations, Population Programme Service, Women 

and Population Division.  For further information please contact Mr. 

Jacques du Guerny via email at: jacques.duguerny@fao.org

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Viale delle Terme di Caracalla,

00100 Rome, Italy













           RURAL WOMEN, POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT

               IN LUSOPHONE AFRICAN COUNTRIES



      An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Literature

                   in Portuguese Language

                         1991 - 1996









            Population Programme Service (SDWP)*

                Women and Population Division

             Sustainable Development Department

                             FAO









This has been prepared by Zoran Roca with the financial

assistance of the UNFPA Technical Support System



*  For further information, contact point

        Fax:  (39 6) 5225 5490

        e-mail:  jacques.duguerny@fao.org



==============================================================





                          Contents





INTRODUCTION                                               1



METHODOLOGICAL NOTES AND COMMENTS

  Selection and presentation of references                 2

  Sources of literature                                    3

  Comments on the broader body of consulted literature     5



ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY - PART ONE

  Angola                                                   6

  Cape Verde                                              11

  Guinea Bissau                                           16

  Mozambique                                              27

  Sao Tome e Principe                                     36

  PALOPs                                                  36



ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY - PART TWO

  Index                                                   41



CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  Themes                                                  44

  Authors                                                 45

  Institutions                                            45

  Suggestions for FAO/UNFPA TSS                           46

  ===================================================================





                     INTRODUCTION



     Removing cultural, political and other barriers between the

receivers and donors is a precondition for effective international

transfer of knowledge and technical assistance for development.

Eliminating such barriers means laying grounds for better

understanding of, and responding to, the needs of the developing

countries, and should contribute to the strengthening of their human

resource and institutional capacities.



     In this context, the Bibliography presented here is an attempt

at providing additional grounds for the implementation of the

FAO/UNFPA TSS in parts of Africa that still tend to remain behind

communication barriers.



     FAO and UNFPA have been jointly providing technical assistance

to countries with quite different cultural, economic and political

backgrounds, and the Country Support Teams (CSTs) established

collaboration with, and strengthened the capacity of, African

academic and other institutions, NGOs and Governments through many

programmes and projects. However, in this process of international

cultural integration around population activities, one group of

African countries has been lagging behind, namely the group of

Lusophone countries: Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique

and Sao Tome e Principe. These countries, their institutions and

individual experts, have not been as intensively integrated in the

implementation of FAO/UNFPA TSS as those from the majority of

countries belonging to the Anglophone and Francophone parts of

Africa.



     The reasons for a lower participation of Lusophone countries -

officially addressing themselves as the PALOPs (Paises Africanos de

Lingua Official Portuguesa) - are to be found in their cultural

isolation from international communication and co-operation for

development due to:



     -  language, i.e., scholars and institutions communicating in

        Portuguese have virtually been unknown in the mainstream,

        internationally accepted, and English dominated, evolution

        of concepts and practices in Population and Development

        in Africa;



     -  politics, i.e., the PALOPs were the last to achieve

        independence from the colonial rule, initially adhered to

        the ideologically biased co-operation with the East, and

        have till recently suffered from civil wars and political

        strives; and



     -  underdevelopment, i.e., by all socio-economic and demographic

        standards, the PALOPs are among the least developed

        countries. The nature and dimensions of poverty- and war-

        provoked emergency situations have prompted sizable

        influxes of international humanitarian aid to them, while

        true technical assistance for development only recently

        emerged as more important.



     The largest portion of world literature on population/

development-related issues in the PALOPs has been realized by

European (especially French, German and Swedish), as well as by

Canadian scholars and institutions. The titles in Portuguese are very

few. Population issues per se do not figure high on the agenda of

academic or policy research in the PALOPs themselves, nor in Master

theses and Doctoral dissertations of students from the PALOPs at

Universities in Portugal. Human resource and institutional bases

needed for continuous data collection, research and interpretations

of population dynamics, and their translation into development

programmes and projects, have yet to be consolidated in the PALOPs.



     However, there is an important portion of sociological,

anthropological, economic, political science and other research in

the PALOPs themselves, as well as on the PALOPs realized in Portugal,

that does address many aspects of population/development issues and

dilemmas in these countries. It is probably the very weight of the

population problem in the PALOPs that is making ■population■ a non-

avoidable, and indeed motivating topic in development-related

research outside of Population Studies. In particular, sociological

and economic literature devoted to food and agricultural production

and rural development issues in the PALOPs frequently bears important

references to major population issues, such as, natural increase and

spatial distribution versus natural resource base, age and sex

ratios, cultural and micro-economic contexts of reproductive behavior

and family formation, rural exodus, international migration, human

labour requirements versus farming technology, etc.



     This Bibliography attempts at presenting and assessing the

available literature in Portuguese on population, agriculture and

rural development in the PALOPs from the perspective of the

sensibility and competence of authors for one particular, pressing,

and strategically crucial issue: gender-relations in the rural

setting. In view of the traditional and new gender-asymmetries

against women in Africa, as well as of the key role African women

play in subsistence agriculture and management of family resources,

no wonder that literature on population, agriculture and rural

development in the PALOPs addresses the status and role of women and

gender-relations from the perspective of various disciplines.



     Through annotations of nearly one hundred selected references,

this Bibliography thus intends to shed more light on the manner in

which the theme of Women, Population and Development (WPD) figures

in the main focus, or as part of broader interpretations of

agriculture and rural development issues in the PALOPs.



=====================================================================



                 METHODOLOGICAL NOTES AND COMMENTS



                 Selection and presentation of references



     The basic criteria applied in the selection of references for

this Bibliography have been the following:



     -  referred literature is in Portuguese language;



     -  referred literature analyzes phenomena related to, and

        linkages between, status and roles of women, population

        issues, and agriculture and rural development in the

        PALOPs;



     -  referred literature has been produced since 1981; and



     -  referred literature is available for consultation in Lisbon.



     In the Bibliography, each reference appears in its Portuguese

original, followed by English translation of the main title, and by

an annotation. All annotations contain, to a maximum extent possible,

the following elements:



     -  indication of the nature and purpose of the referred text;



     -  indication of the manner in which rural women, population and

        development figure in the text (e.g., main focus, chapter,

        section, substantive references, etc.); and



     -  technical substance and main findings.





The typology of the selected references as regards their format is

as follows:



     -  author's monographs (books);



     -  "readers", i.e. books containing collections of author's

        articles;



     -  author's articles and bibliographies in periodicals;

        unpublished doctoral dissertations, master theses, and

        graduation papers;



     -  books of proceedings from technical meetings;



     -  author's papers at technical meetings;



     -  unpublished field project and desk research reports;



     -  unpublished technical support texts by individual experts or

        institutions (e.g., prepared for sensibilization and

        training courses, etc.); and



     -  publications issued by governmental and non-governmental

        organizations (e.g., statistical reviews, technical

        manuals, booklets, briefs, etc.) containing information

        and/or discussion on issues of relevance to gender-

        relations and the status of women in the rural setting.



     The Bibliography consists of two main parts. Part One contains

bibliographic references in separate sections for Angola, Cape Verde,

Guinea Bissau, Mozambique and Sao Tome e Principe. As appropriate,

references are grouped (in authors' alphabetical order) under the

following topics:



     -  Gender Relations in Agriculture;

     -  Gender in Family Relations;

     -  Women's and Children's Livelihoods;

     -  Women and Migration;

     -  Women and Environment;

     -  Women and Development Policies and Projects; and

     -  Miscellanies.



     Part One also contains a section with references dealing with

two or more PALOPs.



     Part Two presents the same references (in fact, the numbers

under which they appear in Part One) grouped under selected "key

words", or denominators, which are relevant to WPD-related issues in

the context of agriculture and rural development.



                        Sources of literature



     This bibliographic research has revealed the existence of at

least sixteen different specialized libraries and information/

documentation centers and other relevant sources in Lisbon, ranging

from NGOs to Universities. Full names and addresses of these sources

are listed hereunder.



NGOs dealing with PALOPs



     CIDAC - Centro de Informacao e Documentacao Amilcar Cabral

     Centro de Documentacao

     Rua Pinheiro Chagas, 77, 3ž Esq. - Lisboa



     INDE - Intercooperacao e Desenvolvimento

     Biblioteca e Centro de Informacao/Documentacao

     Rua Gomes Freire, 211, 4ž Dto. - Lisboa



     OIKOS - Cooperacao e Desenvolvimento

     Centro de Estudantes Africanos

     Rua S. Tiago, 9 - Lisboa



Higher education institutions



     Universidade de Lisboa

         Faculdade de Letras, Instituto de Estudos Africanos

         Centro de Documentacao, Cidade Universitaria - Lisboa



     Universidade Nova de Lisboa:



         Faculdade de Ciencias Sociais e Humanas

         Departamento de Antropologia, Centro de Documentaco

         Avenida da Berna, 24 - Lisboa



         Faculdade de Ciencias Sociais e Humanas

         Departamento de Geografia e Planeamento Regional,

         Biblioteca

         Avenida da Berna, 24 - Lisboa



     Universidade "Lusofona" de Humanidades e Tecnologias

         Biblioteca, Largo de Sequeira, 7 - Lisboa



     Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa:



         Instituto Superior de Agronomia (ISAG), Biblioteca central

         Tapada da Ajuda - Lisboa



         Instituto Superior de Ciencias Sociais e Politicas (ISCSP)

         Biblioteca e Documentacao, Rua da Junqueira, 86 - Lisboa



         Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao (ISEG)

         Centro de Estudos sobre Africa e do Desenvolvimento

         Rua Miguel Lupi, 20 - Lisboa



     Instituto Superior de Ciencias de Trabalho e da Empresa (ISCTE)

         Centro de Estudos Africanos, Avenida Forcas Armadas  -

         Lisboa



Research and other institutions



     Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical

     Centro de Documentacao e Informacao, Rua de Jau, 47 - Lisboa



     Fundacao Calouste Gulbenkian

     Servico de Bibliotecas e Apoio a Leitura, Avenida da Berna 56 -

     Lisboa



     Ministerio da Agricultura

     Servico de Informacao, Praca do Comercio - Lisboa



     Museu Nacional de Etnologia

     Biblioteca, Avenida Ilha da Madeira - Lisboa



     Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa

     Biblioteca, Rua das Portas de Sao Antao, 100 - Lisboa





          Comments on the broader body of consulted literature



     As part of the process of identification of appropriate sources

of bibliographic information, and during the search for references

for inclusion in this Bibliography, a vast body of literature on

agriculture and rural development, and on the rural setting in the

PALOPs in general, had to be examined. An assessment of some

characteristics of the part of that literature which was not selected

to enter this Bibliography is given below.



     - The majority of texts are geared to cultural (i.e., ethnological,

       linguistic, artistic) and to political (international

       relations, government ideology, administration, etc.) than to

       the economic, social, or technological issues;



     - In texts on economic issues, the macro-themes and sectoral approaches

       dominate over micro-level strategic or practical issues in food

       security and agricultural production, even when the smallholder

       sector is referred to;



     - There are no periodicals or other publications which would

       systematically cover, or focus exclusively on, the situation

       and policy issues in the social sphere of agricultural

       production, food security and rural development at the micro-

       level (i.e., family household, local community);



     - In documents on planned and realized programmes and projects in food

       production and rural development, etc., distinctions among

       beneficiaries most often do not go beyond ■farmers■, or

       "families";



     - Almost as a rule, books on household and national food security and

       agricultural development are full of photo-illustrations of

       women-farmers and women-managers of family resources. However,

       the word "woman" virtually never appears in these texts. Rural

       women (i.e., their specific problems) remain hidden under terms

       such as farmers, villagers, co-operative members, domestic

       groups, family producers, family members, farm workers,

       agricultural labour, the young, the old, project beneficiaries,

       rural population, etc.



     On the other side, the bibliographic search has identified an

important amount of references in which linkages between the roles

of women, population dynamics and rural development in the PALOPs are

explicitly presented and are well elaborated. The Bibliography

presented in the next section is a proof to that effect. (An

assessment of its content is given in Conclusions and

Recommendations.)



=====================================================================

                 ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY - PART ONE



                           A N G O L A



                  GENDER RELATIONS IN AGRICULTURE



                                   1

CARVALHO, Ruy Duarte de (1989). Ana a Manda: os Filhos da Rede.

     Identidade Colectiva, Criatividade Social e Producao da

     Diferenca Cultural - um Caso Muxiluanda. Lisboa: Instituto de

     Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, pp. 354.



Ana a Manda: Sons of the Network. Collective Identity, Social

Creativity and Cultural Difference - a Muxiluanda Case-Study



     The livelihood situation of the fish-folk (called ■muxiluanda■)

on the Island of Luanda is presented in great detail in this

monograph, covering historical and present aspects of their labour-

intensive economy and culture. The importance of women in the

transformation and commercialization of fish is explained in the

context of the overall intra- and inter-family household division of

labour. Social values and norms, as well as various cultural and

religious expressions are presented, with many references to the

prevailing gender-relations. In particular, the therapeutic-religious

importance of the kalundus (ancestral spirit) in relation to the

fertility is stressed.





                             2

EASTERMANN; Carlos (1983). Etnografia de Angola (Sudoeste e Centro):

     Colectânea de Artigos Dispersos. Lisboa: Instituto de

     Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, pp. 483.



Ethnography of Angola (South-East and Centre): A Collection of

Dispersed Articles



     This reader contains some thirty articles with references to

the cultural aspects of gender- and age-related division of labour

and responsibilities in subsistence agriculture, home management and

intra-family community relations among the peoples of Central and

South-Eastern Angola. Traditional and changing religious and

spiritual aspects of social institutions, social communication and,

to a lesser extent, of micro-economic relations, are presented in

great detail.





                               3

KRANTZ, Lasse (1984). A Pesca Artesanal em Angola: Estudo Socio-

     economico do Apoio Sueco a Pesca Artesanal em Angola.

     Estocolmo: Universidade de Estocolmo, Instituto de Antropologia

     Social, Seccao de Estudos da Problematica do Desenvolvimento,

     pp. 71. (mimeo.)



Artisanal Fishery in Angola: A Socio-Economic Analysis of the Swedish

Assistance to Artisanal Fishery in Angola



     This study elaborates on the economic, social and institutional

factors conditioning the present and future practice of small-scale

fishery in the areas of Barra do Dande, Ambriz, Soyo and Cabinda,

that is, in the regions where the fishing technology was improved

thanks to a Swedish technical assistance project. Though only men

catch the fish and women are farmers, women's role in artisanal

fishery production cycle is considered as particularly important. In

Barra do Dande, for example, it has become a common practice that

women buy a considerable quantity of fresh fish from their husbands

and then dry it and sell it at better prices. Women keep their own

money accounts separately from those of men, and make use of that

money independently in running the family economy.





                            4

PACHECO, Fernando  (1991). Agricultura e Sociedade Rural na Angola

     dos Anos 60: O Caso de Malanje - Subsidios para a Compreensao

     dos Sistema Agrarios em Presenca. (s.l.), (s.n.), pp. 66.

     (mimeo.)



Agriculture and Rural Society in Angola in the Sixties: The Case of

Malanje - a Contribution to the Understanding of Contemporary

Agrarian Systems



     This study attempts to explain the linkages among the economic,

social, environmental and legal conditions under which smallholders'

agriculture was coping during the last ten years of the Portuguese

colonial rule. Gender related differentials are highlighted in the

analysis of the access to the agricultural land, as well as of the

labour division in farm and home tasks, in the production of specific

farm cultures, and in the marketing of produce. The subtle forms of

harsh and determined social and cultural resistance of men and women

in confrontation with the imposed social and political system by the

colonial authority are also described.





                            5

URLICH, Susan (1992). Mulheres no Desenvolvimento: Angola - Analise

     Generica do Pais (Volume I). Luanda: Autoridade Sueca para o

     Desenvolvimento Internacional - ASDI; Ler & Escrever, pp.124.

     (mimeo.)



Women in Development: Angola - a Generic Analysis of the Country



     This is an interdisciplinary study of socio-economic

development issues in Angola, specifically from the perspective of

women's status and roles. In the chapter on agriculture, major

women's farming tasks (manioc, corn, vegetables, etc.) are described

in detail. It is also explained how women's nutritional status has

been significantly worsened due to war situation and Angola's

dependency on food imports. The war also affected the extension

services and rural credit. Women today receive by far less technical

assistance and have much less access to technological improvements

than men. Women-heads of households in rural areas are the poorest

of the poor. Numerous recommendations are offered for the improvement

of women's status in agriculture, and in other sectors.



=====================================================================



                   GENDER IN FAMILY RELATIONS



                            6

FONSECA, Antonio (1984). Sobre os Kikongos de Angola. Sao Paulo:

     Edic■es 70, pp.118.



About the Kikongos of Angola



     This monograph presents a socio-anthropological interpretation

of the traditional life-style of the Kikongo people in Cabinda and

other Northern provinces of Angola. The accent is on the patterns of

kinship and family formation and on cultural values and practices

related to different phases and events in the life-cycles of men,

women, boys and girls, including nutritional habits, principles of

justice, educational aspirations, etc. Polygamy is very common. Women

are the main responsible for subsistence agricultural production in

the savanna areas and along the lagoons (and men in the forest

regions). Certain types of fishing activities also belong to the

exclusive tasks of women.





                            7

LIMA, Mesquitela (1989). Os Kiaka de Angola. (Volume II). Lisboa:

     Edicoes Tavola Redonda, pp. 221.



The Kiaka People of Angola



     This monograph contains a detailed socio-anthropological

analysis of the kinship system among the Kiakas (a Bantu sub-group),

with references to family issues such as the access to, and use of,

agricultural land, inheritance rules, segmentation of the lineage

bonds, relations between husbands and wives, parents and children and

among all other family members, etc. The present patrilineal system

still contains various traces of the matrilineal system which was

dominated in the earlier period.



=====================================================================



               WOMEN'S AND CHILDREN'S LIVELIHOODS



                            8

ADRA (1993). Pobreza e Crise Social em Angola: Relatorio Final.

     Workshop da Accao para o Desenvolvimento Rural e Ambiente

     (ADRA), Banco Mundial e Secretaria do Estado do Planeamento.

     Luanda: ADRA. (mimeo.)



Poverty and Social Crisis in Angola: Final Report.



     These deliberations at the ADRA workshop were focused on the

following three areas: first, diagnosis of the situation of poverty,

with the identification of target populations and causes of poverty;

second, definition of individual and group survival strategies to

combat poverty; and third, proposals for actions and related agents.

Rural families, and especially rural women, are most affected by all

aspects of poverty. The situation of women who became single heads

of households due to the war is referred to frequently in many parts

of the Report. Policy of promoting women's status is stressed as an

important strategic aspect in local community development

initiatives. Detailed indicators of poverty in Angola are presented

in the paper "Diagnostico da Pobreza em Angola" by Carlos Machado,

annexed to the Report.



                               9

ADRA (1990). Simposio Nacional sobre a Crianca. Luanda: Accao para o

     desenvolvimento rural e ambiente (ADRA). (mimeo.)



National Symposium on Children



     This conference was devoted to the pressing issues bothering

the social and economic situation of children in Angola, such as

children's rights, health and nutrition, water and sanitation, basic

education, family situation, poverty and children in exceptionally

difficult situations. In the policy recommendations on children and

family it is stressed, inter alia, that women should have access to

labour saving technologies, especially those needed in farming, so

as to alleviate the need for a considerable amount of child work.



=====================================================================



           WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT POLICIES AND PROJECTS



                            10

MORAIS, Julio de; PACHECO, Fernando (1991). Diagnostico das

     Associacos de Camponeses em Angola: Provincias de Huila,

     Huambo e Malanje. Luanda: Association pour la cooperation,

     recherche et developpement (ACORD); Accao para o

     desenvolvimento rural e ambiente (ADRA), pp. 78.



A Diagnosis of Peasants' Associations in Angola: Provinces of Huila,

Huambo e Malanje



     It is argued in this study, realized in co-operation with the

National Union of Peasants (Uniao Nacional dos Camponenses - UNCA),

that the role and conditions of smallholder agricultural producers

are not sufficiently known in the context of Angola's agricultural

and rural development. The study attempts to shed some light to that

effect. It is stressed, inter alia, that women hold the key to family

food production, but that they are far from technical assistance and

local power structures. It is argued that women farmers should have

a greater access to farmers' associations and their management

structures. This should not be realized as yet another demagogic

formality regarding women's emancipation, but rather directly, i.e.,

in the context of efforts to improve the family production. Projects

should be designed and implemented so as to treat women equally as

men in their productive capacities, responsibilities and benefits.





                            11

OMA (1983). A Mulher e a Familia. Luanda: Organizacao das Mulheres

     Angolanas OMA, pp. 27.



Women and Family



     After an introduction with the description of the traditional

subordinate roles of women against the new socialist values and

institutions that should allow women's full emancipation, this

political-technical booklet brings about an overview of the situation

of young women, single women, and women housewives. It also reviews

sexual education and family planning, the abortion issue, and the

prostitution. Child spacing and contraceptive practices are proposed

as key contributions to the good health of the mother and the child.

Single mothers, it is argued, should be given greater assistance,

while education and remunerated work are viewed as pivotal to women's

emancipation.





                            12

OMA (1983). A Mulher Trabalhadora. Luanda: Organizacao das Mulheres

     Angolanas (OMA), pp. 23.



Working Women



     The major part of this booklet is devoted to the unfavourable

situation of rural women, and to the need to provide assistance for

their full integration into the socialist society, as well as to the

mother's and child's protection and care as an indispensable

precondition for women's ability to participate in the active labour

force. Statistical data and other information are given about low

educational and health-nutritional status of rural women, as well as

data on the role of the family sector agricultural production. The

division of labour between men and women is as follows: in the North,

men cultivate coffee palms, and cotton, and women take care of the

manioc, sweet potato and other subsistence products. In the South,

men farm corn for own use and for the exchange for other products,

while women are responsible for daily food production on small plots.



=====================================================================



                       MISCELLANIES



                            13

LIMA, Mesquitela (1991). Angola: uma Perspectiva Socio-Antropologica.

     Africa Hoje. nž 42, pp.33-35; nž 43; pp.79-85; nž. 44,

     pp. 28-33.



Angola: A Socio-Anthropological Perspective



     This is a geographical, socio-anthropological and political

analysis of the present regional distribution of the population in

Angola, by ethnic groups. An exhaustive listing of names of all

ethnic groups in Portuguese, as well as in the native languages, is

provided.





                            14

SILVA, Helia Lains e (1993). Contribuicao para uma Bibliografia sobre

     Agricultura, Silvicultura, Pecuaria e Pescas da Angola.

     Comunicacoes - Series de Ciencias Agrarias, nž 12, Lisboa:

     Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, pp. 160.



Contribution to a Bibliography on Agriculture, Forestry, Animal

Husbandry and Fisheries in Angola



     This bibliography of international literature on the entire

agricultural sector in Angola is structured around topics which,

inter alia, bear direct relevance to social, economic, technological,

institutional and other conditions of rural development. Such topics

are: Social Change, Human Resources, Land Occupation, Population,

Settlements, Farming Systems, and Quality of Life.



=====================================================================



                      C A P E   V E R D E



                  GENDER AND LABOUR IN AGRICULTURE



                            15

ABREU, A. Trigo de (1985). Familia e Trabalho numa Comunidade

     Camponesa de Cabo Verde.  Revista Internacional de Estudos

     Africanos, nž 3, pp. 85-106.



Family and Labour in a Peasant Community in Cape Verde



     This article discusses the labour-exchange systems in a

community of 90 peasant families on the Island of Santiago. Peculiar

climatic conditions are the major constraint to agriculture, imposing

the need for reconciling time-consuming farming operations with a

very rigid farming calendar. Labour requirements and labour supply

mechanisms are analyzed, particularly from the perspective of the

four major sources of labour supply: the household, the kinship

system, and the established labour-reciprocity schemes called djuda

and junta-mao. The common function of these forms of labour supply

are presented, as well as their specific functions in relation to

family and the access to land.



=====================================================================



                  GENDER IN FAMILY RELATIONS



                            16

DEPRAETERE, Marguerite (1983). Estudo Monografico sobre o Papel da

     Mulher Rural na Organizacao dos Recursos e Consumos. Regiao do

     Serelho. Lisboa: Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, Centro de

     Estudos de Economia Agraria, pp. 23.



A Monographic Study on the Role of Rural Women in the Organization

of Resources and Consumption. The Region of Serelho.



     This is a base-line study of the productive and reproductive

roles of women in over one hundred households in the area of Serelho

in Cape Verde, specifically  women whose husbands emigrated,

separated women, widows, and single women with or without children.

Besides the analysis of the labour requirements and the division of

work within the households, the study also presents the dynamics of

the established inter-household complementarities in labour exchange

and other matters, as well as the patterns of maintaining community

cohesion in economic, social and cultural terms.





                            17

LOPES, Joao (1993). Ilha de S. Nicolau - Cabo Verde: Formacao da

     Sociedade e Mudanca Social. Dissertacao de Doutoramento.

     Departamento de Antropologia, Faculdade de Ciencias Sociais e

     Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, pp. 1049 + 415. (mimeo.)



The Island of S. Nicolau - Cape Verde: Formation of the Society and

Social Change



     The first volume of this interdisciplinary study of recent

social developments on St. Nicholas (a medium-size, central island

in the Cape Verdian archipelago) contains extensive references to the

features of socio-demographic development, as well as to the linkages

between the traditional smallholders' agriculture and the very harsh

natural environment. As part of the socio-cultural interpretation of

the extended family formation and structures, specific references are

provided on the situation of rural women, stressing their profoundly

subordinate status in the context of the dominant patriarchal system

and paternalistic values. It is argued that, at present, this

situation largely represents an extension of rural women's racial,

class-wise and sexual discrimination from the colonial period.

Praising women exclusively as spouses and mothers remains strong in

all forms of popular cultural expression.



     The second volume is mostly devoted to migratory patterns,

especially international emigration. It is emphasized that the

overpopulation of the island has been the key push-factor in

emigration to USA, Brazil and Argentina, Europe (mostly to Portugal),

and to African countries (mostly to Senegal, Sao Tome e Principe, and

Angola). The emigrants' families tend to maintain the traditional

gender- and age-division of labour and social relations in the

countries of destination, and women tend to be confined to domestic

tasks. They only rarely get remunerated jobs (most usually work as

low-paid servants). The other part of this volume covers issues

related to the development of the island's agriculture, as well as

to the modern socio-cultural paradigms, characterized by the profound

gender-inequalities, particularly as regards the lower educational

attainment of girls than boys.





                            18

RASETH, Antonio Jose Ferreira (1988). Contributo para a Compreensao

     da Sociedade Cabo-verdiana. Seminario de Investigacao: 4ž ano

     da Licenciatura em Antropologia, Faculdade de Ciencias Sociais

     e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, pp. 141. (mimeo.)



A Contribution to the Understanding of the Cape Verdian Society



     This is a study of the Cape Verdian family structures and

dynamics, with special emphasis on the context of socio-demographic

change and national population policy. After a historical overview

of political, social and economic circumstances in the country, major

aspects of contemporary rural family life are analyzed such as, for

example, the life-cycle of family members, gender and age-related

relations, moral values and reproductive behavior, including the

practice of family planning. It is illustrated how, though men are

still formally accepted as dominant decision-makers, daily management

of family resources has increasingly become women's task, -

especially as regards the allocation of money.





                            19

VARGAS, Flor Maria (1988). Situacao Demografica e Situacao da Familia

     em Cabo Verde. Integracao das Variaveis Demograficas na

     Planificacao. Simposio Nacional. Praia: Ministerio do Plano e

     da Cooperacao, Unidade de Populacao, pp. 87-101.



Demographic and Family Situation in Cape Verde



     Based on statistical evidence, it is demonstrated in this study

that women's low educational attainment and unequal legal status, as

well as their low economic power, are the key factors determining

high fertility rates. One major problem women face is the lack of

responsibility among husbands and fathers, who are often long-term

migrants, so that women are left alone to manage the household

resources. In the poorest rural areas, women have as many as eight

or nine children.



=====================================================================

               WOMEN'S AND CHILDREN'S LIVELIHOODS



                            20

CARDOSO, Margarida (1988). Papel da Mulher no Desenvolvimento

     Economico e Social do Pais. Integracao das Variaveis

     Demograficas na Planificacao. Simposio Nacional. Praia;

     Ministerio do Plano e da Cooperacao, Unidade de Populacao,

     pp. 32-38.



Role of Women in Economic and Social Development of the Country



     Lower rates of school enrollment, higher rates of school

dropouts and lower level of overall educational attainment of women

than of men are reviewed in this paper. Some major underlying causes

are outlined, such as early pregnancy, traditional cultural

attitudes, etc. One third of rural households in Cape Verde are

headed by women. Yet, only 16 % of women are owners of the land.

Women engaged in the commercialization of fish are, on average, 29

years old.  Over 71% of women are not literate; and, each woman has

4.3 persons to care for in the household. Polygamy is widespread,

although men are obliged by law to marry only once. The emigration

of males has caused a significant increase in women's

responsibilities, especially as regards the bringing up of children,

and the burden of physical labour.





                            21

DUPRET, Alice (1988). Proteccao da Mae e da Crianca: Planeamento

     Familiar em Cabo Verde. Integracao das Variaveis Demograficas

     na Planificacao. Simposio Nacional. Praia: Ministerio do Plano

     e da Cooperacao, Unidade de Populacao, pp. 70-78.



Mother and Child Protection: Family Planning in Cape Verde



     The paper describes the state of health of mothers in Cape

Verde, and stresses the major issues related to the risks of their

vulnerability, such as anemia, early pregnancy, STDs, etc., as well

as to the risks faced by children, such as infections, and other

causes of mortality. Health problems related to malnutrition are also

highlighted. The experience with family planning services are

described in detail, presenting both successes and failures in urban

and rural areas. Policy recommendations advocate the integration of

MCH/FP with the system of health services and with socio-economic

development programmes.



=====================================================================



                  WOMEN AND MIGRATION



                            22

MEINTEL, Deirdre (1984). Emigracao em Cabo Verde:  Solucao ou

     Problema?  Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos, nž 3,

     pp. 121-161.



Cape Verdian Emigration:  Solution or Problem?



     In this study of the pre- and post-independence periods of

emigration from Cape Verde to other African countries, to Portugal,

USA and elsewhere, the major argument is that emigration has caused

negative social and other consequences, which now impede the

country's development. For example, new marriage and household

patterns were introduced, especially marriages by proxy, arranged by

correspondence. The preponderance of able-bodied males among the

emigrants has resulted in a new type of household, matrifocal in

composition, yet patriarchal in its structure of authority.



                            23

SAUDE, Olga Guilhermina de Almeida (1994). A Mulher Cabo-verdiana e

     o Trabalho Domestico: Saberes e Poderes. Seminario de

     Investigacao: 4ž Ano da Licenciatura em Antropologia, Faculdade

     de Ciencias Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa,

     pp. 83. (mimeo.)



The Cape Verdian Woman and Domestic Work: Know-How and Power



     This is an analysis of the life histories of, and coping

strategies adopted/practiced in household resource management among,

the Cape Verdian women living in the shanty-towns of Lisbon. Most of

them had first emigrated with their husbands to Sao Tome e Principe,

and then, after living there alone (as their husbands left for

Portugal), moved to Lisbon. Despite the dramatic change in the socio-

cultural and other aspects of their lives, many Cape Verdian women

have shown a great creativity in adjusting to a new situation.

Nevertheless, the asymmetrical pattern of sexual division of tasks

and powers at the expense of women remains strong, and reflects the

relationships that prevail in their country of origin.



=====================================================================



            WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT POLICIES AND PROJECTS



                            24

DUARTE, Cristina; NEVES, Iria (1988). Crescimento Demografico e

     Desenvolvimento Rural. Integracao das Variaveis Demograficas na

     Planificacao. Simposio Nacional. Praia: Ministerio do Plano e

     da Cooperacao, Unidade de Populacao, pp. 87-101.



Demographic Growth and Rural Development



     The paper provides an analysis of potentials for food and

agricultural production in the context of needs and productive

capacities in Cape Verde. The continuously high demographic growth

is explained by the need for labour force as a cheap and easily

accessible means of production in family run agriculture and in the

informal sector of the economy, as well as for the smooth functioning

of the system of inter-family assistance in the provision of labour.

Problems related to the fragmentation of land and ecological

consequences of population pressure are also discussed.



                            25

GERWECK, Uta (1981). Mulheres da Ilha do Maio. Relatorio Final dos

     Trabalhos com Mulheres e Raparigas da Ilha do Maio. (Cabo

     Verde): Projecto Integrado do Maio nos Sectores Educacao e

     Assuntos Sociais, pp. 30. (mimeo.)



Women on the Island of Maio. Final Report from Working with Women and

Girls on the Island of Maio.



     This project was carried out over three years in the villages

of the Cape Verdian island of Maio. Target beneficiaries were women-

single heads of households, and young girls. Their education and

sensibilization covered a wide variety of areas, ranging from sexual

education to a more rational use of scarce natural resources. A very

strong project component was the attempt at preserving their

communities socio-cultural strength and authenticity in the process

of modernization.



                            26

MDR (1981). Segundo Seminario Nacional Sobre Reforma Agraria.

     Documentos de Apoio. Praia: Ministerio do Desenvolvimento Rural

     (MDR), pp. 268.



Second National Seminar on the Agrarian Reform



     This is a compendium of technical papers on various aspects of

the agrarian reform in Cape Verde. It also contains a study by a

French sociologist Richard Jacques entitled "Some Aspects of

Emigration and Land Property on the Island of Santiago". The paper

provides many details on the situation with land ownership as regards

gender-asymmetrical patterns in emigration, labour requirements and

availability, right of ownership, management responsibilities in the

family households - all in the context of the agricultural production

in the late seventies.





                            27

MPC (1988). Integracao das Variaveis Demograficas na Planificacao.

     Documentos do Simposio Nacional. Praia: Ministerio do Plano e

     da Cooperacao, Unidade de Populacao, pp. 125.



Integration of Demographic Variables in Planning



     This book of proceedings from the First National Seminar on the

topic, contains over twenty technical papers and other conference

documents on all major issues related to the integration of

population issues in the planning of socio-economic development in

Cape Verde, ranging from MCH/FP and education, to rural development

and investment dilemmas. Gender-related issues are highlighted in

papers dealing with social development issues, particularly with

consequences of international emigration. Policy recommendations

refer, inter alia, to the need to reduce significantly infant

mortality, and to promote equality of women with men in education and

employment. The need for introduction of social protection programmes

aimed at reduction of fertility is also highlighted, as well as the

importance of sensitizing the general public on population issues.





                            28

OMCV (1990). Promocao da Mulher, um Desafio a Vencer: Investir na

     Promocao da Mulher - Opcao para o Desenvolvimento. Praia:

     Organizacao das Mulheres do Cabo Verde (OMCV), pp. 31.



Promoting Women, a Challenge to Win: To Invest in the Promotion of

Women - an Option for the Development.



     This technical booklet contains statistical data and other

information on the role of women in agriculture, in migration and in

the management of family households. It also refers to some important

cultural-behavioural issues (e.g., the traditional mentality,

prostitution) that shape the existing status of women in society.

Women's full emancipation through better organization and political

action is advocated.



=====================================================================



                        MISCELLANIES



                            29

MDRP (1989). Estatisticas Agricolas. Praia: Ministerio do

     Desenvolvimento Rural e Pescas (MDRP), Gabinete de Estudos e

     Planeamento.



Agricultural Statistics



     This annual statistical report issued by the Ministry of Rural

Development and Fishery of Cape Verde contains, inter alia, a chapter

entitled "Agricultural production, Population, Activities" in which

a considerable part of data are gender-differentiated. For example,

it is specified whether men or women are heads of household, and who

works as farmers in irrigated, rain-fed or mixed farming systems

across the entire Cape Verdian archipelago, as well as their

educational attainment, and age. In 1988, the median size of rural

families was 5.4, and 34% of the heads of households were women.



=====================================================================



                     G U I N E A    B I S S A U



                   GENDER RELATIONS IN AGRICULTURE



                            30

COSTA, Carlos; RESENDE, Mauro (1994). Guine-Bissau: O Ambiente

     Agricola, o Homem e o Uso da Terra. Lisboa: Classica Editora.

     Lisboa. pp. 290



Guinea Bissau: Agricultural Environment, Men and Land Use



     In this monograph on the overall situation in agriculture and

food production in Guinea-Bissau, the gender division of labour in

farming and other activities is given prominent place. Women's hard

work as planters and harvesters, normally with very primitive tools,

are presented both in the text and on the accompanying photos. Policy

suggestions on the improvement of conditions for a faster

agricultural development refer mostly to the fragility of the eco-

system, the need for human capital formation, and more advanced

technology.





                            31

CTNP (1995). Relatorio Nacional sobre a Situacao Socioeconomica e

     Politica da Mulher Guineense. Bissau: Comite Tecnico Nacional

     Preparatorio (CTNP) para a Conferencia Mundial sobre a Mulher,

     pp. 30. (mimeo)



National Report on the Socio-Economic and Political Situation of

Guinean Women



     It is highlighted in this report that, inter alia, women (and

men) in Guinea-Bissau prefer large family because of the need for

farm labour and as security in the old age. The number of children

"...depends on God, the religious leader, and the father". The ample

statistical and qualitative information illustrate precarious living

conditions of rural girls and women. The division of family labour

often implies harder physical effort for women than for men. Various

projects on rural credit and technology have been carried out, often

with success, aimed at improving the social and economic status and

productivity of women. Nevertheless, it is still common in all ethnic

communities, that only men own the land. The farming tools are

usually shared, while women can own only utensils needed for food

transformation.



                            32

HANDEM, Lima; FERNANDES, Raul Mendes (1988). O Papel da Mulher na

     Reproducao da Forca de Trabalho. Boletim de Informacao Socio-

     economica, nž. 4. Bissau: Centro de Estudos Socio-economicos

     do Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa (INEP), pp. 27-40.



Role of Women in the Reproduction of Labour Force



     This article brings about explanations on the linkages between

the biological and socio-economic roles of women in general terms,

but also concentrates on the specific issues related to urban and

rural women in the developing world, especially in Africa. The

section on rural women is based on field research on the psycho-

sociological aspects of reproductive behaviour, which was carried out

among the Muslim polygamous households in the area of Gabu, and in

a number of other regions of  Guinea-Bissau. The interpretation of

the 1979 Population Census in Guinea Bissau is also offered, with a

typology of family sizes and structures. The importance of productive

roles of women is stressed throughout the article and supported with

empirical evidence from Guinea-Bissau and other African countries.

Description of gender relations in farming and other tasks is

combined with the presentation of cultural and economic importance

of age-relations.





                            33

MARTINS, Eduardo Costa Dias (1993). O Sistema Agrario Mandinga -

     Producao, Reproducao Social e Perversidades. Comunicacoes:

     Serie de Ciencias Agrarias, nž 13. Lisboa: Instituto de

     Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, pp. 335-339.



The Agrarian System of Mandingas - Production, Social Reproduction

and Distortions



     This paper deals with the effects of monetization of the rural

economy and emigration from Guinea-Bissau to Senegal and other

countries on intra-family relations. It had not yet been asserted as

common in the entire country, but there is strong evidence in the

Eastern province that families tend to desegregate when the labour

needs in agriculture can not be secured through family labour

exchanges anymore. Traditionally, desegregation would occur only

after the death of the father, and the fracture lines would be

defined only by  a combination of biological and cultural criteria.

Nowadays, the fracture lines ever more depend on the economic

situation of the individuals, and the traditional family values give

way to the modern forms of economic reasoning. Also, the sex and age

imbalances provoked by the emigration and reduced availability of

shared labour have caused changes in power relations between the

traditional groups of villagers - i.e., the women, the young and the

Homens Grandes (Great Men), the latter one increasingly loosing his

power of influence.





                            34

OLIVEIRA, Olavo Borges de; HAVIK, Philip J.; SCHIEFER, Ulrich (1996).

     Armazenamento Tradicional na Guine-Bissau: Produtos, Sementes

     e Celeiros Utilizados pelas Etnias na Guine Bissau. Muster:

     Aktuelle Beitraege zur Soziologie, Institut fur Soziologie,

     Universitaet Munster, pp. 350.



Traditional Storage in Guinea Bissau: Products, Seeds and Cellars

Used by the Ethnic Groups in Guinea Bissau



     This monograph provides a detailed presentation of traditional

ways and means of storing agricultural products (cereals, vegetables,

fruits, etc.) as it was recorded in an in-depth field study among

different ethnic groups in Guinea-Bissau. The gender division of

tasks, and especially women's know-how and power of control, is

described by individual products that are typical in the tradition

of all ethnic groups. Furthermore, explanations are given on the

materials and technologies used, as well as on related cultural

values and ritual ceremonies that accompany the storing of each

product. Intra- and inter-community relations as regards storage of

food and other agro-products are also presented, always depicting

specific gender-related distinctions.





                            35

SARDINHA, Raul Manuel de Albuquerque (1987). Actividades Florestais

     e Desflorestacao na Guine-Bissau. Planificacao, Utilizacao e

     Gestao de Recursos Naturais. 2.as Jornadas de Engenharia Dos

     Paises de Lingua Oficial Portuguesa. Rio de Janeiro.



Forestry Activities and Deforestation in Guinea-Bissau



     This paper provides a socio-ecological interpretation of

environmental problems related to smallholders farming and forestry

activities. Complex linkages are identified between, inter-alia,

growing family labour requirements (with both age- and sex-wise

distinctions), growing needs for new land for cultivation, increasing

deforestation, use of primitive technology, and the prevailing pro-

natalist attitudes, all in the context of problems related to the

incorporation of agriculture in the market economy (under

unfavourable terms of trade). Description of the variety of farming

systems practiced by different ethnic groups is presented. The

importance of sons is stressed, as well as how  women in some areas

hold complete control over certain stages, or over the entire rice

production.





                            36

SIDERSKY, Pablo (1987). As Relacoes de Trabalho numa Sociedade de

     Cultivadores de Arroz: o Caso dos Balantas da Regiao de

     Tombali. Soronda - Revista de Estudos Guineenses, nž 3, pp. 21-

     38.



Work Relations in a Society of Rice Cultivators: the Case of Balantas

in the Tombali Region



     This article provides an analysis of the farming system among

the Balanta people in two villages in the Tombali region (the extreme

South-East of Mozambique) from the point of view of time requirements

for different activities, and of division of labour by age and sex.

It explains the prime importance of family labour and the system of

using external labour. Detailed analysis of family labour inputs

(specifically by men, women and children, by age groups, and

throughout the farming calendar) in the production of rice is

accompanied with the description of arrangements among family members

and other workers in terms of their responsibilities and

remuneration.





                            37

SCHIEFER, Ulrich; HAVIK, Philip J. (1991). Associacoes e Cooperativas

     na Guine-Bissau: um Estudo Socio-Economico e Cultural. Estudo

     para o Programa das Nacoes Unidas para o Desenvolvimento.

     Bissau: COPIN, pp. 66. (mimeo.)



Associations and Co-operatives in Guinea Bissau



     This is an in-depth review of rural associations and co-

operatives in Guinea-Bissau. The types of associations presented

relate to: empowerment of women, access to credit, inter-village

exchanges, access to technical innovations, co-operation among

agricultural producers. Women tend to belong to associations composed

of members of the same ethnic group, as this enables them to have

better access to external assistance in materials, credit and

financing. Women's associations are generally very well integrated

in traditional social structures through representatives who hold

important places in these structures. These associations also have

very close ties with the Union of Women of Guinea-Bissau. It is

explained in the study how, thanks to their associations, many women

have succeeded to improve and diversify food production as well non-

agricultural activities and are gaining other benefits for themselves

and their families. Policy suggestions are provided on how to further

improve the functions of the associations.





                            38

SCHIEFER, Ulrich; HAVIK, Philip J. (1991). Recenseamento Industrial

     da Guine-Bissau 1990. II Volume: Inquerito Sociologico. Bissau:

     COPIN, pp. 68. (mimeo.)



Industrial Census of Guinea Bissau 1990. II Volume: Sociological

Survey



     This study, carried out for the Ministry of Industry of Guinea-

Bissau, presents the sociological profiles of ethnic groups engaged

in different artisanal industrial production. One such activity is

the extraction of oil palm, which is the major women' activity of the

Beafada and Manjaca peoples. The analysis of this activity includes

the early introduction of girls to their mothers' skill, their

apprenticeship (as early as in the age of 15) as an integral part of

the ■female domestic work■, specific economic and calendar-wise

aspects of the oil-production and exchange for other products (mainly

for rice), exchanges of labour, commercialization, supply of

production materials, management of stocks, equipment, transport,

etc.



=====================================================================



                    GENDER AND FAMILY RELATIONS



                            39

     ACHINGER, Gertrud (1986). A Familia Guineense: Estabilidade e

Transformacao. Soronda - Revista de Estudos Guineenses, nž 1,

pp. 68-90.



The Guinean Family: Stability and Transformation



     The article presents a comparative analysis of the economic and

socio-cultural characteristics of different types of families in

Guinea-Bissau: the extended family of the smallholder agricultural

producers and the urban family in the fifties, and in the late

seventies. In addition, two different ethnic rural families in the

mid eighties are analyzed. As regards rural families in the period

1950-1979, major changes noted  are: a slow but evident process of

nuclearization (family size was reduced from 8,2 to 6,2), and a

decrease in the number of women in polygamous unions (the share of

monogamous unions increased from 59% to 64%). However it is

demonstrated in this study that the family in Guinea-Bissau has not

undergone linear transformations towards the urban nuclear family as

a final reference point, but rather that there is a wide variety of

new rural family types, depending on socio-economic, environmental

(including distance) and cultural-institutional circumstances.





                            40

FERNANDES, Raul Mendes (1988). Dinamica Social dos Bijagos. Boletim

     de Informacao Socio-economica, nž. 4. Bissau: Centro de Estudos

     Socio-economicos, Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa

     (INEP), pp. 7-12.



Social Dynamics of the Bijago People



     This study presents a critical review of the kusina, the

fundamental social relation among the Bijagos, based on the

antagonisms between men and women. It describes how these relations

function in the areas of decision-making and responsibility to render

various services, including labour and loans. Description is also

given of how age and class intersect with gender in these complex

relations. The conflicting situations are solved through an elaborate

system of establishing the dominant power of the Otobango-ocanto and

Otobango-anto, i.e., the alliance of the elderly who can control,

respectively, mostly women, and mostly men.





                            41

HAVIK, Philip J. (1995). Relacoes de Genero e Comercio: Estrategias

     Inovadoras de Mulheres na Guine-Bissau. Soronda - Revista de

     Estudos Guineenses, nž.19, pp. 25-36.



Gender Relations and Commerce: Innovative Strategies Among Women in

Guinea Bissau



     It is argued in this article that women in Guinea Bissau, as

in Africa generally, are not any more the mere suppliers of non-

remunerated services for social reproduction, but rather ever more

the consumers "around fireplace". Specifically, women take advantage

of the strict gender divisions in the allocation of expenses and

revenues in family households to the benefit of their own personal

and collective livelihood strategies. In order to participate in

local commercial activities, it is crucial for women to break the

barriers to their access to traditional institutions whose mode of

functioning has been dominated by men and conditioned by age, lineage

and ethnic relations. It is argued in the article that in the periods

of transition and crisis women have demonstrated their autonomy in

creating new alliances and patterns of social interaction in order

to ensure new or reinforce the already created maneuvering space in

the society. Empirical evidence is provided regarding such women's

in the transformation and commercialization of cashew nuts and rice.





                            42

MOEIRA, Margarida Mira (1993). O Casamento na Etnia Papel da Guine-

     Bissau. Seminario de Investigacao: 4ž Ano da Licenciatura em

     Antropologia, Faculdade de Ciencias Sociais e Humanas,

     Universidade Nova de Lisboa, pp. 88. (mimeo.)



Marriage among the Papel People in Guinea-Bissau



     It is argued in this study that, despite the fact that the

Papel people have been ever more integrated in the country's new

socio-political order and market-oriented economy, the marriage

rituals continue being practiced entirely in accordance with the

traditional norms. The strictly codified female versus male social

status and roles are reflected in the marriage rituals which, in

turn, reinforce the traditional gender-relations characterized by

men's economic and social dominance over women who are considered as

minors. The preferred type of marriage is with the daughter of the

father's sister. Polygamic family is frequent. Women sometimes earn

some money on their own through commercialization of domestic

products, but most often the largest part of money at their disposal

depends on the remittances from their sons working in Bissau.





                            43

SCANTAMBURLO, Luigi (1991). Etnologia dos Bijagos da Ilha de Bubaque.

     Lisboa: Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical; Bissau:

     Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa.



Ethnology of the Bijagos on the Island of Bubaque



     Role of women in collecting crabs and shells, transforming and

commercializing fish and caring for daily diet is described in

parallel with men' tasks. Similarly, sharp division between men's and

women's daily use of objects, realization of duties, occupation of

space and maintenance of traditional habits are presented in detail.

On all islands, families believe to belong to one of the four initial

ancestors. The kinship system is matrilineal, but residence is always

established at the husband's house which enables reinforcement of the

de facto men's economic and social power. Initiation rites and

religious ceremonies depict deeply rooted traditional culture,

including the glorification of fertility.



=====================================================================



             WOMEN'S AND CHILDREN'S LIVELIHOODS



                            44

FRIJ, Lennart (1984). Saude e Nutricao Infantis na Guine-Bissau.

     Bissau: Ministerio da Saude da Guine-Bissau; Estocolmo: Swedish

     Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries

     (SAREC), pp. 72. (mimeo.)



Child Health and Nutrition in Guinea Bissau



     This report contains the results of a research project on

social and economic problems linked with the serious state of

children' malnutrition in Guinea-Bissau, especially in the rural

areas. One major conclusion is that an important decisive factor

causing this situation is that the social system is controlled by

men, while women are subordinate and actually suffer together with

their children. Due to their overburden with productive and

reproductive roles, low educational status, and absence of social and

health infrastructure and services, women are not able to take an

adequate care of children's health and nutrition. The report presents

empirical evidence related to these linkages, as well as

recommendations for policy-makers and future research.





                            45

INEP/UNICEF (1992). A Analise da Situacao das Criancas e das Mulheres

     na Guine-Bissau. Bissau: Instituto Nacional de Estudos e

     Pesquisa (INEP); Escritorio do UNICEF, pp. 115.



Analysis of the Situation of Children and Women in Guinea Bissau



     This is the First Part of a comprehensive report on the

livelihood conditions of women and children in Guinea-Bissau. It

offers a global vision of the environmental and population situation,

and presents numerous indicators of social development, economic

development issues, as well as an outline of political processes. In

the chapter ■Interface Mother-Child■ it is reported that women are

under high pressure to have many children. Many women themselves are

in favour of large family: a survey revealed that 50% of rural women

wish to have ten and more children. High infant mortality, need for

labour on the farm and at home, and security in the old age are major

underlying reasons for highly pro-natalist behaviour in rural areas.

The presentation of the productive role of rural women focuses on

various specific cultural, environmental, economic, and other

situations. (As announced in this volume, the Second Part contains

the results of the survey in 300 family households, carried out by

the Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa - INEP, in Bissau.)





                            46

MINSAP (1989). Acta dos Trabalhos da 1Ž Assembleia Nacional do

     MINSAP/Curandeiros. Bula: Ministerio da Saude Publica (MINSAP),

     Direccao dos Cuidados Primarios de Saude.



Proceedings from the First National Assembly of the MINSAP/Medicine

Men



     Confronted with an alarming health situation, which has been

worsened by the high and growing incidence of HIV/AIDS infections,

the Ministry of Public Health has organized this conference

(assistance was provided by the WHO) in order to reconcile the

capacities of modern medicine, which was introduced by the

colonizers, with the know-how of traditional folk medicine provided

by the curandeiros (medicine men) whose activities have been

oppressed till recently. This entire volume represents, in fact, a

detailed roster of names of the most famous curandeiros in all

regions of Guinea-Bissau, with Latin and folk names of medicinal

plants and ways of their use for specific diseases - among which

sexual impotence, sterility, retention of urinary tract, abortion and

venereal diseases are prominently represented.





                            47

NDJAI, Iancuba (1991). Pobreza e Sociedade na Guine-Bissau.

     Conferencia Nacional sobre Ambiente e Pobreza: Praticas,

     Realidades e Alternativas. Bula: Centro Olof Palme, pp. 12.



Poverty and Society in Guinea-Bissau



     This conference paper contains an overview of linkages between

rural poverty, population growth and environmental degradation,

focusing on smallholder agricultural producers practices and their

family households needs. Gender-related asymmetries at the expense

of women are highlighted, in particular as regards the educational

attainment. Women's responsibilities in managing scarce and fragile

natural resource base are also stressed.



======================================================================



           WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT POLICIES AND PROJECTS



                            48

ABRANTES, Manuel C; TOPSOE-JENSEN, Bente (1987). Avaliacao do Impacto

     de Algumas Actividades Realizadas pelas Mulheres. Bula:

     Programa de Desenvolvimento Rural Integrado da Zona I. Gabinete

     de Planeamento e Avaliacao (mimeo.)



Evaluation of the Impact of Some Activities Realized by Women



     This study presents (in a very succinct form) the results of

an assessment of the effects of projects with women as main

beneficiaries in over 25 villages in various areas of the Northern

parts of Guinea-Bissau. These projects were realized in the following

areas: training and use of community leaders, integration of women

in rural associations, provision of agricultural credit,

establishment of child day-care centres, and use of improved stoves.

Most of the projects faced shortcomings in their realization, and

recommendations are given about concrete steps to improve the

situation.





                            49

ACHINGER, Gertrud (1992). Efeitos do Programa de Ajustamento

     Estrutural sobre as Condicoes Economicas e Sociais das Mulheres

     da Zona Rural. Soronda - Revista de Estudos Guineenses, nž14,

     pp. 65-82.



Effects of the Structural Adjustment Programme on Economic and Social

Conditions of Women in Rural Area



     This article offers empirical evidence which supports the

thesis that the structural adjustment programme in Guinea-Bissau

(introduced in 1986 by the International Monetary Fund and the World

Bank) has had mainly negative effects on rural women. The following

are some major features of this situation: as subsistence agriculture

deteriorates, men normally hand over to women most of the farming

responsibilities; the government has favoured ever greater exclusion

of males from agriculture, but men and boys who are not active in

agriculture represent an additional heavy cost for the household; it

has become virtually impossible for most of rural women to break away

from poverty; international projects tend to disfavour solidarity

among sexes; etc.





                            50

BULL, Marianne (1987). Situacao das Mulheres Manjacas e Mandingas:

     Relatorio de um Pequeno Estudo de Campo Realizado em Duas

     Tabancas da Guine-Bissau. Instituto de Antropologia Social.

     Seccao de Estudos do Desenvolvimento, Universidade de

     Estocolmo, pp. 60. (mimeo.)



Situation of the Manjaca and Mandinga Women: Report from a Small

Field Study Realized in Two Tabancas in Guinea Bissau.



     This is a comparative analysis of women's lives in two

agriculturally and socially different regions in which development

projects have been realized (both regions are included in a programme

for integrated development, financed by the Swedish International

Development Agency, and are carried out by the University of

Stockholm). It was recorded that development projects often mean a

growing labour burden on women and children. On the other side, there

have been no projects that would alleviate traditional burden of

collecting wood, water, pilling the rice, etc. The status and roles

of women are presented in the context of specific farming systems.

The study also presents women's status in relation to land-tenure in

the context of socio-cultural and economic conditions governing the

family life-cycle. The text is accompanied with graphic presentations

of various quantitative and qualitative data gathered in the field.





                            51

GALLI, Rosemary E.; FUNK, Ursula (1994). O Ajustamento Estrutural e

     Genero na Guine-Bissau. Revista Internacional de Estudos

     Africanos, nž 16-17, pp. 235-254



Structural Adjustment and Gender in Guinea Bissau



     The emigration from rural areas to the cities, and other facets

of the survival strategies adopted by rural women at the end of the

eighties - i.e., years marked by programmes for macro-economic

stabilization and structural adjustment - is in the focus of this

article. Despite a considerable number of projects directed to

improve women's status and productivity, policy-makers continue to

consider only men as heads of households which means leaving a

majority of women without technology, credit and extension services

they actually need as major food producers. Various social and

economic pressures have contributed to an increase in hours of

women's work. Subnutrition and other aspects of poverty make them

vulnerable to many illnesses including the sexually transmitted

diseases (nearly 50% of all women in Guinea Bissau). Infant mortality

rates are still as high as 175 per thousand, and children's

subnutrition is on increase.





                            52

INEP (1992). Inquerito Ligeiro Junto as Familias. Resultados.

     Secretaria de Estado do Plano. Bissau: Instituto Nacional de

     Estatistica e Pesquisa - INEP. pp. 156. (mimeo.)



Priority Survey of Families. Results



     This field study was carried out as an integral part of the

World Bank's Social Dimension of the Adjustment Programme. It was

based on the sample of 1630 family households. The goal was to define

policy priorities for the protection of the socio-economic groups

which are most affected by the macro-economic adjustment programme.

The results obtained refer to the socio-demographic context (e.g.,

significant female surplus in rural areas), provision of education

and health services, employment, housing, labour migration

(especially its seasonality, related to cash crops), agricultural

production trends and structures (subsistence versus commercial), and

family purchasing power and expenditures (food is often obtained as

barter exchange within and between households).





                            53

MONTEIRO, Isaac; PADOVANI, Fernando (1992). Ajustamento Estrutural na

     Guine-Bissau: Contexto e Consequencias para o CECI - Bissau.

     Bissau: Gabinete Estudos e Consultoria, Instituto Nacional de

     Estatistica e Pesquisa (INEP), pp. 54. (mimeo.)



Structural Adjustment in Guinea Bissau: Context and Consequences for

CECI - Bissau



     This study was commissioned by the Canadian Centre for Studies

and International Co-operation (CECI) in Bissau. An overview of the

concept and the realization of the structural adjustment policy is

provided. Effects on agricultural production and food security are

described, such as conflicts among big and small agricultural

producers, changing consumption patterns (marked by deteriorating

nutrition), etc. The increase in the commercial production of cashew

nuts has provoked the decline in the subsistence food production

(mainly rice), and has made local population, especially women and

children, increasingly dependent on rendering their labour to the

plantations in order to receive food as payment. Negative effects on

the provision of education and health services are also reviewed.





                            54

TANNER, Christopher (1990). O Impacto do Ajustamento Estrutural e as

     Politicas Alternativas para a Promocao do Bem Estar das

     Criancas na Guine-Bissau. Bissau: UNICEF, pp. 82. (mimeo.)



Impact of Structural Adjustment and Alternative Policies for the

Promotion of the Welfare of Children in Guinea Bissau



     It is argued in this report that very high infant mortality

rates and high incidence of malnutrition are largely attributable to

the long-term effects of the exogenous factors of development, such

as the macro-economic adjustment programmes and projects introduced

by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. This situation

of high rates of pregnancies and short child-spacing intervals, high

prices of food and low overall living standards, as well as the

absence of programmes which would offset negative social consequences

of the structural adjustment, are highlighted in this report.





                            55

UDMU (1988). A Mulher na Luta para o Desenvolvimento. Bissau: Uniao

     Democratica das Mulheres da Guine Bissau (UDMU, pp. 42.



Women in the Struggle for Development



     The main part of this technical booklet is devoted to the

importance of women in agricultural development, and it presents the

facts regarding their lower social and economic status. It is argued

that education and appropriate technologies are needed to relieve

women from physical burden and low economic status, as well as to

assure their equal rights with men in decision-making at all levels.

It is also argued against early marriages and pregnancies, as well

as for the need for the introduction of family planning as an

integral part of health services available to all. Female genital

circumcision is vigorously condemned.



=====================================================================



                        MISCELLANIES



                            56

KASPER, Josef E. (1994). Levantamento Cartografico da Guine-Bissau.

     Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos, nž 16-17, pp. 335-

     292



The Cartographic Survey of the Guinea Bissau



     This review of maps and charts, which are mostly from the late

colonial and early independence periods, refers to, inter alia,

various socio-anthropologic and socio-demographic themes ranging from

population distribution, densities and migration patterns of various

ethnic groups, to the areas of Guinea-Bissau marked by the ritual

infanticide.





                            57

RIBEIRO, Carlos Rui (1986). Os Censos e as Sociedades Camponesas na

     Guine-Bissau. Soronda - Revista de Estudos Guineenses, nž1,

     pp. 109-124.



Censuses and Peasant Societies in Guinea Bissau



     This is a methodological study devoted to the necessity for

reformulating national population census according to the true needs

of Guinea-Bissau as an independent country. In particular, it is

argued that an entirely new methodology should be pursued regarding

peasant population, rather then applying the same one for both urban

and rural. An overview is provided of the population censuses held

in the colonial period, and of many shortcomings of the same

methodology used for the first post-colonial census (1979) are

singled out. Examples given refer to socio-cultural and legal

problems related to the detection of the real age of the peasant

population, especially of women, as well as of women's (especially

widows') true civil status.





                            58

SILVA, Helia Lains e (1990). Contribuicao para uma Bibliografia sobre

     Agricultura, Silvicultura, Pecuaria e Pesca da Guine-Bissau.

     Comunicacoes - Series de Ciencias Agrarias, nž 4. Lisboa:

     Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, pp. 61.



Contribution to a Bibliography on Agriculture, Forestry, Animal

Husbandry and Fishery in Guinea-Bissau



     This bibliography of international literature on the

agricultural sector in Guinea-Bissau is structured, around topics

which, inter alia, bear direct relevance to the socio-economic and

other aspects of rural development, such as Social Change, Human

Resources, Land Occupation, Population, Settlements, Farming Systems,

and Quality of Life.



=====================================================================



                     M O Z A M B I Q U E



                 GENDER RELATIONS IN AGRICULTURE



                            59

ARAUJO, Manuel G. M. de (1988). O Sistema das Aldeias Comunais em

     Mocambique - Transformacoes na Organizacao do Espaco

     Residencial e Produtivo. Dissertacao de Doutoramento em

     Geografia Humana. Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa,

     pp. 479. (mimeo.)



The System of Communal Villages in Mozambique - Transformations in

the Organization of Residential and Productive Space



     This doctoral thesis offers an in-depth analysis of

geographical (i.e., spatial, temporal, and socio-ecological) aspects

of the organization and problems of life in communal villages, and

social and economic issues in the family and co-operative sector of

agriculture production. The demo-geographic component of the analysis

bears extensive references to the rural population structures, family

size, spatial mobility (war-induced, organized and spontaneous), and

to the process of the settlement of communal villages. It is

highlighted how  crucial is women's contribution in both family and

co-operative agriculture and social reproduction in conditions of

physical and economic uncertainty and overall scarcity of services.

Suggestions are put forward regarding more efficient functioning of

the family sector agriculture.





                            60

CASAL, Adolfo Yanez (1988). A Crise da Producao Familiar e as Aldeias

     Comunais em Mocambique. Revista Internacional de Estudos

     Africanos, nž 9, pp. 157-191.



Collectivized Villages and Crisis in Family Production in Mozambique



     The economic fragility of family production depends on the

precarious natural base, on rudimentary tools of production, and on

deficient productive capacity at crucial seasonal points in the

farming cycle. The implantation of collectivized villages provoked

a profound disequilibrium among different components of the agrarian

system, causing risks of agricultural production failures, and social

and economic destabilization among villagers. With the annual

population growth of at least 2.5% there is all probability that

these imbalances will intensify, threatening the entire system of

social reproduction among peasants. The reduction of the natural

resource equilibrium is also imminent due to population pressure over

large spaces. The dispersed settlements, together with other factors

(such as war, emigration of men to South Africa, etc.) has induced

the process of nuclearization of family households and loss of

solidarity. In the studied area, around one quarter of households

were composed only of old, ill, widowed, divorced and separated

women.





                            61

CROSS, Michael (1994). O Capitalismo Colonial e a Forca de Trabalho:

     A Economia Politica nas Plantacoes de Cha do Norte de

     Mocambique 1930-1975. Revista Internacional de Estudos

     Africanos, nž 16 - 17, pp. 131-154.



Colonial Capitalism and Labour Force: Political Economy on Tea

Plantations in Northern Mozambique



     It was only in 1962 that forced labour was formally abolished

in Mozambique by the Portuguese colonial authorities, but in the

Northern areas it existed de facto until the end of the colonial era.

This article sheds the light on the dreadful conditions under which

men, women, and children had to work on plantations of tea and in the

production of cotton, and also describes the survival strategies

local families had to adopt in their farming and at home. Women had

a prominent task in the domestic economy: they were in full control

of the family budget and of a significant part of their husbands

salaries. Families devised a number of local-community mutual self-

help schemes to be able to produce at least some food for themselves

in spite of the drudgery of forced labour on colonial plantations.

It is also elaborated how insufficient food, absence of sanitation

and medical care affected peasant population, particularly children

and women.





                            62

SANTOS, Jose Hipolito dos (1874). Cooperativizacao e Desenvolvimento

     Rural em Mocambique. Lisboa: Ed. SEIES - Sociedade de Estudos

     e Intervencao em Engenharia Social, pp. 95.





     The Co-operativism and Rural Development in Mozambique



     This study of the role of co-operativism in the Mozambican

rural development, inspired by the experience from a FAO/IFAD

project, presents a wide range of positive effects gained by the

strengthening of the family sector agricultural production through

training, people's participation, introduction of agro-industrial and

non-agricultural activities in rural areas, etc. It is described how

gender-related inequities at the expense of women regarding the

access to land, agro-inputs, division of labour, etc. are still

largely present, and it is argued that women, especially the young

ones, through their active membership in co-operatives are able to

better satisfy their needs. Men's resistance to women's active

participation in co-operatives is also described, as well as the fact

that women show a greater interest in learning. One major problem

that was not solved by the FAO/IFAD project is child-care during

women's activities in co-operatives.



=====================================================================



                    GENDER AND FAMILY RELATIONS



                            63

AMARAL, Manuel Gama (1990). O Povo Yao: Subsidios para o Estudo de um

     Povo do Noroeste de Mocambique. Lisboa: Instituto de

     Investigacao Cientifica e Tropical, pp. 493.



The Yao People: Contributions to the Study of a People in the

Northeast Mozambique



     This anthropological study of the Yao people, whose major

characteristic is the matrilineal kinship system, largely

concentrates on all agricultural activities (i.e., farming, fishery,

animal husbandry, and forestry), especially in the context of food

production and nutritional standards (including food taboos for girls

and pregnant women). Gender-division in farming and other

agricultural activities are described in great detail, emphasizing

the persistence of labour-intensive, primitive technology. The

traditional large-family formation norms and related pro-natalist

values and sexual practices still prevail. Age at marriage for girls

is 15-16 years and for boys 18-19 years.





                            64

ENOQUE, Angelina D. (1994). Mulheres Manyika Contam...: Sexualidade

     e Familia - Micro-estudo Exploratorio. Cadernos de Pesquisa, nž

     4. Maputo: Instituto Nacional do Desenvolvimento da Educacao

     (INDE), pp. 63.



Women of Manyika Talk...: Sexuality and Family - Exploratory Micro-

Study



     This base-line study, carried out with financial assistance

provided by UNFPA and technical assistance by UNESCO, represents an

attempt to assess some decisive issues in women's life-cycle, such

as early and/or non-wanted pregnancy, clandestine and unsafe

abortion, early marriage, and physical overburden - all in the

context of deteriorating environment and rapid population growth in

urban and rural parts of the Manyika region (Western Mozambique). The

socio-cultural, economic, legal (including inheritance rules, and the

access to agricultural land) and technological aspects of the status

of women in the family are analyzed. Methodological problems related

to such research are highlighted, and the questionnaire is annexed.

One major conclusion is that the patrilineal society still controls

the entire women's life-cycle, i.e., from the childhood, marriage,

and reproductive behaviour, to the widowhood and old age.





                            65

MACHEL, Graca (1990). Situacao da Mulher em Mocambique. In: Dinamica

     Demografica e Processos Economicos, Sociais e Culturais. Serie

     Populacao e Desenvolvimento. Documento nž 2, Projecto

     MOZ/86/PO5-OIT/FNUAP. Maputo: Comissao Nacional do Plano;

     Direccao Nacional de Estatistica, pp. 114-127.



Women's Situation in Mozambique



     This paper contains a review of the diversity and complexity

of cultural situations across Mozambique. It is argued that such

diversity should be understood in all efforts to promote integration

of women in development. Specific attention is given to religious

factors, linkages between community norms, family relations, and

women's rights (or, in fact, women's duties), as well as to the role

of education, and the productive roles of women. In particular, the

low status of women in subsistence agricultural production is

stressed, pointing to the fact that they are not covered by official

statistics, and have not been given adequate assistance from the

state, banks, and others.





                            66

MARTINEZ, Francisco Lerma (1989). O Povo Macua e a Sua Cultura.

     Lisboa: Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, pp. 320.



The Macua People and its Culture



     This monograph presents the results of a socio-anthropological

field research project on the characteristics of the Macua people in

Northern Mozambique. The second and largest section is devoted to the

Macuas' entire vital cycle, from birth, initiation of the young (with

a special chapter on girls), to marriage, illnesses, cure and death.

The description of each of these events refers explicitly to the

status and role of female members of the family and community.

Agricultural and other economic activities of the Macuas are

discussed in a separate section of the monograph. The annex contains

questionnaires applied in this research.





                            67

MEDEIROS, Eduardo (1985). Mocambique: Evolucao de Algumas

     Instituicoes Socio-familiares. Coleccao Documentos de Trabalho,

     nž 4. Centro de Estudos sobre Africa e do Desenvolvimento,

     Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao (ISEG), Universidade

     Tecnica de Lisboa, pp. 30.



Mozambique: Evolution of Some Socio-Familiar Institutions



     Continuity, adaptation and transformation of family

institutions and norms in different socio-cultural settings in

Mozambique are outlined in this study. It is explained why a faster

women's social emancipation has not been possible despite the

introduction of new state laws (e.g. The Family Law), and the pro-

equity ideology and country's political organization. It is argued

that the practice of polygamy, as well as the persistence of

traditional institutions such as lobolo, petti, tchamanahula,

chimalo, xuma, etc., must be taken into a due consideration if any

comprehensive effort is to be planned to improve the situation of

women in agriculture. These women represent 90% of the labour force

in the family sector of food and agriculture production in

Mozambique.





                            68

OLIVEIRA, Angela Maria Teixeira Rebelo de (1985). Analise das

     Relacoes Sociais de Producao na Sociedade Maconde (Periodo

     1850-1984). Dissertacao de Licenciatura em Antropologia.

     Faculdade de Ciencias Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de

     Lisboa, pp. 100. (mimeo.)



Analysis of Social Production Relations in the Society of the Maconde

People (in the Period 1850-1984)



     This study offers, inter alia, a typology of gender-relations

that are present in the hierarchy of the evolving groups of producers

and consumers among the Macondes. The socio-cultural norms and

attitudes as part of the cycle of agricultural production are also

presented. Linkages are elaborated, on one side, between men,

marketable goods, control of matrimonial alliances and intra-family

power, and , on the other hand, the role of older women, food

products, and procreation decision-making. Changes occurring in

family production patterns in the post-colonial period are analyzed

as well.

=====================================================================





             WOMEN'S AND CHILDREN'S LIVELIHOODS



                            69

AFONSO, Ana Elisa de Santana (1994). Contribuicao para uma Reflexao

     Sobre a Valorizacao da Mulher e da Rapariga em Mocambique. In:

     Eu Mulher em Mocambique. Maputo: Comissao Nacional para a

     UNESCO em Mocambique (CNUM), pp. 173-187.



A Contribution to the Concept of the Valorization of Women and Girls

in Mozambique



     The article brings about statistical evidence of the lower

educational attainment of girls than of boys, and describes the

endogenous and exogenous factors contributing to the unfavourable

situation in the schooling of girls, particularly in the rural areas.

The argument is that the prevailing socio-cultural environment, in

fact, does not allow the emergence of ducated women. The author

sarcastically affirms that in Mozambique ■... an educated women can

signify an agent who is active in the destruction of the society...■.





                            70

ARAUJO, Manuel (1983). A Crianca e a Mae: Analise da Situacao.

     Maputo: Departamento de Geografia da Universidade Eduardo

     Mondlaine; Secretaria de Estado da Cooperacao Internacional.

     (mimeo.)



Child and Mother: An Analysis of the Situation



     This first comprehensive analysis (financed by UNICEF) of the

state of the well-being of women an children was carried out eight

years after Mozambique gained its independence. The linkages between

health, nutritional status and socio-demographic indicators are

explained from the point of view of different (under)development

issues. The particularly grave situation faced by young pregnant

women is stressed in the context of the non-existent or poor MCH/FP

services.





                            71

PALME, Mikael (1992). O Significado da Escola - Repetencia e

     Desistencia na Escola Primaria Mocambicana. Cadernos de

     Pesquisa, nž 2. Maputo: Instituto Nacional do Desenvolvimento

     e da Educacao (INDE), pp. 145.



The Significance of the School-Repetitions and Drop-outs in Primary

Schools in Mozambique



     This study shows how profound are gender-related asymmetries

as regards problems with school enrollment, especially the drop-outs

in rural areas of Mozambique. Ample statistical evidence is provided

about the greater refusal to enroll and higher incidence of leaving

the school by girls and young women than by boys and young men. The

major reasons for not enrolling the children in rural areas, or

taking them out of school, are family labour requirements, mobility

patterns, poverty, early marriage and pregnancy, as well as the war

situation. Recommendations specifically address, inter alia, ways of

improving the rates of school enrollment and educational attainment

of girls in rural areas.





                            72

ZUCULA, Carmen Medeiros (1994). Aspectos Socio-Culturais Relacionados

     com a Frequencia Escolar das Raparigas em Mocambique. In: Eu

     Mulher em Mocambique. Maputo: Comissao Nacional para a UNESCO

     em Mocambique (CNUM), pp. 189-217.



Socio-Cultural Aspects Related to School Attendance by Girls in

Mozambique



     A major part of this article is devoted to the schooling

problems faced by girls in the rural setting. Empirical evidence from

the case-studies demonstrates that the schooling of boys and girls

is still largely conditioned by their unequal gender roles at home

and on the farm. Inadequacies of the school system for the rural

population are also analyzed, as well as the gap between education

and employment opportunities. Socio-cultural traditions such as the

observance of religious calendars, patterns of power relations and

decision-making in the family, as well as the monetary and other

costs incurred for schooling, are also important for understanding

low educational attainment of girls.



=====================================================================



            WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT POLICIES AND PROJECTS



                            73

CARDOSO, Fernando Jorge (1993). Gestao e Desenvolvimento Rural:

     Mocambique no Contexto da Africa Sub-Sahariana. Lisboa. Fim de

     Seculo Edicoes, Lda., pp. 359.



Management and Rural Development: Mozambique in the Context of Sub-

Saharan Africa



     This monograph provides an in-depth economic and political

analysis of major strategic issues in rural development faced by

governments in Africa, focusing especially on the situation in

Mozambique. A prominent place in the study is given to the role of

family sector agricultural production for food subsistence and

market, with explicit references to the distinctions in the status

and roles between men and women. It is explained how forced labour

(till the end of the colonial period), migration, market, technology,

and government administration, have had specific effects on social

differentiation, including the maintenance of the low status of

women.





                            74

CASIMIRO, Isabel: ANDRADE, Ximena (1994). Construindo uma Teoria de

     Genero em Mocambique. Estudos Mocambicanos, nž 11/12,

     pp. 93-110.



Constructing a Theory of Gender in Mozambique



     This is an overview of the evolution of scientific thought on

women and gender from the perspective of the recent political and

developmental experience gained in Mozambique. It is argued that the

initial feminist studies and activities were inspired by the fact

that the first Population Census asserted that women represent 85%

of the agricultural producers, both in family subsistence production

and for export. After a period of concentration on the analysis of

the productive role of women and of the traditional obstacles women

have to face, the concept of ■gender-relations■ was introduced which

finally enabled the breakaway, first, from the reductionistic,

economistic approach, and, second, from the cultural relativism. It

is also outlined in this article that the following four areas of

work are been realized at the Department for the Study of Women and

Gender (DEMG) at the University Eduardo Modlaine, Maputo: Women and

Law, Women and Labour force, Women and Environment, and Women and

Reproductive Behaviour.





                            75

CNP/DNE (1990). Dinamica Demografica e Processos Economicos, Sociais

     e Culturais. Serie Populacao e Desenvolvimento. Documento nž

     2, Projecto MOZ/86/PO5-OIT/FNUAP. MaPUTO: Comissao Nacional do

     Plano (CNP); Direccao Nacional de Estatistica (DNE), pp. 130.



Demographic Dynamics and Economic, Social and Cultural Processes



     This is a compendium of technical papers submitted at the

National Seminar on the topic, held in Maputo in July, 1990. The  key

aspects of complex linkages between population and development are

approached. Issues related to rural women and population are covered

in the papers grouped in one separate chapter, while various aspects

of gender-relations and of rural population generally are referred

to in other chapters, such as those on population dynamics and socio-

economic development; mortality; spatial distribution, urbanization

and migration; development planning, poverty and population policy.

The last chapter is devoted specifically to women and population.





                            76

LOPES, Leonel Leite; GASPAR, Manuel da Costa (1994). Reflexoes sobre

     a Dinamica Populacional de Mocambique: a Mulher e a Crianca,

     Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente. Estudos Mocambicanos, nž . 11-

     12, pp. 65-76.



Thoughts about Population Dynamics in Mozambique: Women and Child,

Development and Environment



     This article contains a review of main features of the

demographic change, the reproductive/productive roles of women, and

the environmental situation - especially as a result of the war in

Mozambique. The lack of access to land, absence of infrastructure,

socio-economic and physical insecurity, and unsafe water and lack of

sanitation, are but the most evident unfavourable conditions with

which women and their families have to cope in their daily struggle

for survival. The main argument is that high fertility among the poor

strata of the population has resulted in the reproduction of inter-

generational poverty. In this context, the environmental policy

should not be contemplated separately from the population issues, and

in particular from the role of women in the family and society.





                            77

SERRA, A.M. de Almeida (1993). Mocambique: da Independencia a

     Actualidade - Evolucao Economica e Social, 1975-1990. Coleccao

     "Estudos de Desenvolvimento", nž 1. Centro de Estudos sobre

     Africa e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto Superior de Economia e

     Gestao (ISEG), Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, pp. 187



Mozambique: from Independence to the Present - The Economic and

Social Evolution 1975-1990.



     This study of the development dilemmas, successes and failures

during the first 15 years of independence of Mozambique mostly

addresses the system of collectivized villages and co-operatives, and

the effects this system has had on social transformation. Many

explicit references refer to the continuation of the inferior status

of women in the family and local community. The bureaucratized state

and its ideology, and the planned economic and social system could

not replace the deeply rooted gender-asymmetrical cultural-social

system and power-relations governing individual and group exchanges.

The author also argues that the system of collectivized villages has,

in fact, contributed to the growing burden of non-remunerated, or

very badly paid, women's work.



=====================================================================



                     WOMEN AND ENVIRONMENT



                            78

ANDRADE, Ximena; et al. (1994). A Mulher e o Meio Ambiente. Estudos

     Mocambicanos, no. 11-12, pp. 111-143.



Women and Environment



     This article reviews the environmental context of domestic,

agricultural, and other productive activities of women in Mozambique.

A list of indicators of women's participation in sustainable

development is proposed at the following six levels: woman and

family; territorial location; subsistence and artisanal agricultural

production; educational levels and gender; health and nutritional

status; and, the role of the informal sector and production in small

enterprises. The use and management of natural resources and the

livelihood situation of families, as well as of different categories

of women in rural and urban areas are presented by means of a variety

of statistical records.



=====================================================================



                       MISCELLANIES



                            79

MAMAN, Maria Amida (1994). Informacao Bibliografica. Estudos

     Mocambicanos,. nž 11-12, pp. 211-224.



Bibliographical Information



     This bibliography of titles available at the Documentation

Centre of the Department for the Study of Women and Gender (DEMG) of

the Centre for African Studies at the University Eduardo Modlaine,

Maputo, contains references grouped around key-words such as the

following: bibliographies; women and work; women and gender; women

in difficult situation; women, health and reproductive rights; legal

situation of women; women and emancipation; and, general issues.

Rural women's issues are mostly, though not exclusively, represented

in references cited in the section on women and work.





                            80

MPF (1995). Mocambique: Panorama Demografico e Socio-Economico.

     Serie: Inquerito Demografico Nacional, Documento Nž 5. Maputo:

     Ministerio do Plano e Financas (MPF), Direccao de Gabinete

     Central do Recenseamento Estatistica, pp. 150.



Mozambique: Demographic and Socio-Economic Overview



     This document contains the results of the analyses of data from

the 1991 National Demographic Survey. Apart from a separate chapter

on women, data on gender-related specificities and on rural versus

urban differences are presented in cross-tabulations and related

analyses in other sections, such as those on family size and

structure (in 1991, 24% of rural families were women-headed),

educational attainment, civil status, economic activities, etc.

Methodological notes accompany every analysis. In the chapter on

demographic dynamics and prospects for population growth, one major

finding is that fertility rates decreased abruptly for women in the

age group 20-35, since 1980. It is assumed that these women are

mostly those who were separated from their husbands because of the

war. The total fertility rate, however, is still very high: 6.2 in

1991.





                            81

SILVA, Helia Lains e (1990). Contribuicao para uma Bibliografia Agro-

     Silvo-Pastoril de Mocambique. Comunicacoes - Series de Ciencias

     Agrarias, nž 3. Lisboa: Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica

     Tropical, pp. 135.



Contribution to a Agro-Silvo-Pastoral Bibliography of Mozambique



     This bibliography of international literature on the

agricultural sector in Mozambique is structured, inter alia, around

a number of topics which bea  direct relevance to the socio-economic

and other aspects of rural development, such as the following: Social

Change, Human Resources, Land Occupation, Population, Settlements,

Farming Systems, and Quality of Life.



=====================================================================





            S A O    T O M E    A N D    P R I N C I P E



                            82

THIRION, Samuel (1990). As Pequenas Exploracoes Agricolas Alimentares

     em Sao Tome e Principe. Analise do Sector e Propostas. Tomo 1:

     Texto Principal. Paris: Institut de Recherches et d'

     Application de Methodes de Developpement (IRAM), pp. 67.

     (mimeo.)



The Smallholder Food Production in Sao Tome and Principe. Sector

Analysis and Proposals.



     This field research was conducted for the Ministry of

Agriculture and Fisheries and it was financed by IFAD as part of a

project on the revitalization and strengthening of family food

production in Sao Tome e Principe (in efforts to offset the negative

effects of the dominant export oriented large-scale production on

national food security). The results reveal the gender specific

micro-economic and cultural aspects of intra-family/household

relations in small scale farming, forestry and fisheries, as well as

in family consumption patterns, and the division of responsibilities

in transformation and marketing of produce. Gender roles are also

described in the spheres of decision-making and household resources

management. Social, physical and cultural factors governing different

agricultural production systems are  described as well.



======================================================================

                         P A L O P s



                            83

ANDRADE, Elisa (1987). As Mulheres: Pilares das Sociedades Africanas.

     Terra Solidaria, nž 5. pp. 1-4.



Women: Pillars of African Societies



     This is the first article ever published in Portugal on the

need to understand the productive role of African women. Empirical

evidence, drawn from the PALOPs, is presented about the negative

impacts of the colonial administration and economy on reinforcing the

old, and establishing new forms of women's inferior social and

economic position in the society, as well as on the forms of

contemporary discrimination of women. One major argument is that it

is crucial to fully understand the status and roles of women as

economic and social actors at all levels - and not only the ethnic

and socio-anthropological context of their livelihoods at the micro-

level, and in isolation from social processes at macro level -  as

this should represent an important part of all efforts aimed at

achieving socio-political emancipation and economic development of

these countries.





                            84

BARATA, Oscar Soares de (1994). As Bases Demograficas da Lusofonia.

     In: O Mundo Lusofono. Lisboa: Sociedade de Geografia de Lisboa,

     pp. 9-33.



Demographic Foundations of "Lusophonia"



     This is a comparative analysis of main socio-demographic

features in "Lusophone countries", namely Portugal, Brazil, and the

PALOPs, in the period between 1950 and 1990. It is shown how these

countries are in different stages of the demographic transition. The

fertility and mortality rates in PALOPs are also compared with those

in other African countries. The median age in PALOPs ranges between

15.8 in Sao Tome and Principe, and 19 in Angola, and there is all

reason to believe that the population growth will continue very high

for quite some time to come. Rural exodus to cities, poverty and

marginalization have become common features in these countries.





                            85

CIDAC (1996). Projectos de Desenvolvimento. Lisboa: Centro de

     Informacao e Documentacao Amilcar Cabral - CIDAC. (mimeo.)



Development Projects in Africa



     CIDAC, a Portuguese NGO devoted to socio-economic development

in the developing countries, has been carrying out various field

projects in the PALOPs (financially supported by the European

Commission and/or by the Portuguese Government). Rural women have

been the immediate beneficiaries in two major on-going CIDAC■s

projects in Guinea Bissau. The main objective of the project in Zona

Verde de S. Joao de Bolama is to ensure greater food security at

community level through the establishment of the ■banks of cereals■,

run by women. The project in the area of Tombali aims at diminishing

the rural exodus by strengthening the local associations of

producers, especially the young and women farmers. In a major CIDAC■s

project in Cape Verde (Concelho de Tarrafal, Ilha de Santiago)

conditions are being created for an increase in income-generating

activities for women-heads of households. Examples of other CIDAC

projects with rural women as beneficiaries are: assistance in

commercialization of products (opening of small shops) in Bolama,

Guinea Bissau; day-care centres for children in Sta. Cruz, Cape

Verde; rehabilitation of small-scale agricultural production in Zona

Verde da Beira, and training for entrepreneurship and resource

management in Mozambique.





                            86

CORREIA, Augusto Manuel Nogueira Gomes (1994). A Agricultura

     Itinerante versus Agricultura Sedentaria: As Respostas que

     Tardam. In: European Science in the Development of Tropical

     Regions. Lisboa: Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical,

     pp. 141-145.



Shifting Agriculture versus Sedentary Agriculture. Lagging Responses



     Largely based on the experience from the PALOPs, this paper

discusses the adverse environmental and other effects of shifting

agriculture in the light of the demographic explosion,

commercialization, changes in consumption patterns, external

pressures, etc. The main argument is that sedentary agricultural

production should be ever more encouraged. The need to provide

assistance to women food producers is highlighted as decisive in

strengthening the food production sector. Discussion also relates to

the issues of land ownership, integration of animal husbandry with

farming, linkages between traditional and political power, need for

training and technology, and for concerted international assistance.







                            87

DIAS, Jill R. (1990). Bibliografia das Publicacoes Recentes sobre a

     Africa de Lingua Oficial Portuguesa. Revista Internacional de

     Estudos Africanos, nž 12-13, pp. 501-524.



Bibliography of Recent Publications on Africa with Portuguese as the

Official Language



     This is a bibliography of monographs, articles, papers and

other documents from the international scientific literature on

Africa, specifically the PALOPs. References are presented by

countries and by disciplines/themes such as Anthropology, Sociology

and History, Economy and Development, and Politics. Although a great

number of references cover the pre-independence period, a significant

number of references explicitly or implicitly cover the contemporary

issues of gender-relations, rural women and development, population

dynamics and agricultural development.





                            88

FARIA, Maria Teresa Cruz Guerra (1994). Gestao dos Recursos Naturais

     para um Desenvolvimento Sustentavel. Mudanca dos Consumos

     Alimentares em Africa. Africana, nž 14, pp. 137-154.



Management of Natural Resources for a Sustainable Development.

Changes in Food Consumption in Africa



     The paper provides a discussion on the management of natural

resources with reference to the role of women in Africa, based

specifically on the experience from Mozambique and other PALOPs. It

is stressed that colonization induced the change from the matrilineal

structures into the patrilineal ones in many societies. The

description is provided of how these changes have influenced the use

of natural resources, and altered food consumption patterns, as well

as how the need was created to increase food production in order to

offset the dependency on imports. In conclusion, it is proposed that

Portugal should provide assistance to African women to become

economically empowered as an important  means of motivating them

towards lowering fertility.





                            89

FERRAO, J. E. Mendes, ed. (1992). Agricultura e Desertificacao.

     Lisboa: Associacao Internacional das Jornadas de Engenharia dos

     Paises de Lingua Oficial Portuguesa, pp. 201.



Agriculture and Desertification



     This reader contains fifteen articles on desertification in

tropical regions, ranging from natural erosion to deforestation, as

well as on measures to combat desertification as part of sustainable

agricultural development. The negative impact of pro-natalist

attitudes, population pressure and use of inadequate farming

technologies in the ecologically fragile systems are stressed in most

articles. Possible positive effects of a more rational use of the

abundant labour force and introduction of more adequate techniques

are also discussed. Policy-oriented proposals and recommendations

refer, inter alia, to the need for equality in the access to land and

in the property rights for all members of rural society, as well as

the need for human resource development in the use of ecologically

sound agro-techniques. The need for significant improvements in

nutritional habits and standards for all is also highlighted.





                            90

HEIMER, Franz-Wilhelm (1994). Bibliografia sobre Crise, Ajustamento

     Estrutural e Democratizacao em Africa, com Atencao Especial a

     Africa de Lingua Oficial Portuguesa. Revista Internacional de

     Estudos Africanos, nž 16/17, pp. 315-334.



Bibliography on Crisis, Structural Adjustment and Democratization in

Africa, with Special Attention to the Parts of Africa with Portuguese

as the Official Language.



     This bibliography of international scientific literature offers

a basis for an interdisciplinary study of issues related to the

structural adjustment programmes stimulated by the World Bank and the

International Monetary Fund, as well as to the democratization of

political life in Africa. These are the two major processes that have

recently occurred in many African countries, especially in the

PALOPs. This bibliography demonstrates that a vast and profound

debate has taken place on these issues.





                            91

RIBEIRO, Sergio (1988). Recursos Humanos e Estrategia de

     Desenvolvimento. Lisboa: 34 /Coleccao Unversitaria - Editorial

     Caminho, pp. 347.



Human Resources and Development Strategy



     This book is a contribution to the theoretical thought on the

relationships between labour and development. Largely based on the

pre- and post-colonial experience from Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and

Mozambique, the conceptual framework for understanding and solving

the problem of labour surpluses due to high population growth and

poverty corresponds to the Marxist-socialist interpretation of the

political economy of underdevelopment. The argument is that the

demographic component of development policy must focus on the

following three issues: natural renewal of generations (i.e.,

fertility, mortality, structures...); social mobility; and migration.

The need for age and sex-specific approaches is stressed, especially

in sections on dilemmas regarding classification of active population

and of economic activities. In conclusion, the "planning of human

resources" is proposed in order to satisfy human needs, including the

need for a full social recognition of work.





                            92

RODRIGUES, Rui Eduardo Silva (1987). Contributo para o Estudo da

     Familia e do Parentesco na Sociedade Humana. Analise

     Comparativa de Sistemas Africanos de Angola e Mocambique. Tese

     do Doutoramento. Departamento de Antropologia, Faculdade de

     Ciencias Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa,

     pp. 521.



A Contribution to the Study of Family and Kinship in Human Society:

Comparative Analysis of African Systems in Angola and Mozambique



     This monograph contains a socio-anthropological interpretation

of the dynamics of family systems and of the structural consequences

related to the adoption of specific strategies in developing kinship

relations among, on one side, the Makonde people in Northeast and

Central and the Tsonga people in South-Eastern Mozambique, and, on

the other, the Kyaka people in Central-West Angola. It is explained

how values and behaviour related to gender, class and age, determine

the established male-dominated hierarchies as the basic principle in

all family relations. Makonde, characterized by matrilineal kinship,

and often living in polygamous family households, tend to have

equally distributed farming tasks between men and women. The Tsonga

maintain all farming tasks exclusively confined to women, and animal

husbandry to men. Men own the animals which enable them to dominate

the economics of the matrimony and family formation. The Kyakas of

Angola, organized as a feudal society, known in the past as hunters

and warriors, nowadays are cultivators and traders of corn and manioc

(mostly women's tasks) in the slash-and-burn farming system. Their

kinship system is patrilineal, and the preferred choice of the bride

is among the matrilineal cousins.





                          93

SAINT-MAURICE, Ana; PIRES, Rui (1989). Descolonizacao e Migracoes -

     Os Imigrantes dos PALOP em Portugal. Revista Internacional de

     Estudos Africanos, nž 10-11, pp. 203-226.



Decolonization and Migration - Immigrants from PALOPs in Portugal



     This is a study on "push" and "pull" factors in migration

streams from the PALOPs to Portugal in the post-colonial period, as

well as on the social and economic integration of migrants in

Portugal. The profiles of migrants are presented. For example, from

Mozambique, the majority are students, both single and married. From

Cape Verde, a larger portion are married men with low levels of

qualifications. Statistical data on marital status and on the

motherhood of female immigrants from the PALOPs are also provided.





                          94

SOARES, Horacio (1994). Desenvolvimento Sustentavel nos Paises de

     Fracos Recursos. Aspectos Sociais e Economicos da Intervencao.

     In: European Science in the Development of Tropical Regions.

     Lisboa: Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical,

     pp. 57- 63.



Sustainable Development in Countries with Poor Resources. Social and

Economic Aspects of Intervention



     This paper discusses the environmental and development problems

and prospects in the countries in the Sahel, among which are Cape

Verde and Guinea-Bissau. It is stressed that population pressure,

together with technological, institutional and other issues, are the

major cause of desertification. Proposals are put forward regarding

future inter-governmental activities at the sub-regional level. It

is elaborated how vital is the role of women in environmental

management, as well as in animal husbandry and marketing of

agricultural produce, and yet how women face serious obstacles to the

realization of their economic and social roles.



 ====================================================================



                ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY - PART TWO





                            I N D E X



     age at marriage

         55,  63,  64,  71



         division of labour

         2,  17,  33,  35,  36,  38,  40



         and social relations

         18,  29,  31,  33,  38,  40,  41,  45,  64,  84



     animal husbandry

         14,  63,  86,  92,  94



     artisanal fisheries

         1,  3,  6,  14,  20,  29,  43,  58,  63,  82



     colonial rule

         and gender-relations

         7,  73,  83,  88



         and smallholder agriculture

         4,  61,  68



         and socio-economic conditions

         46,  56,  91



     culture

         context of

         1,  3,  17,  23,  25,  32,  39,  45,  50,  57,  64,  65,

         67,  69,  74,  75



         traditional norms and values

         1,  2,  6,  20,  28,  33,  34,  43,  66,  69,  72,  77,

         82



         religion

         1,  2,  31,  43,  65,  72



     commercialization of agriculture

         1,  20,  38,  41,  42,  43,  52,  53,  85,  86



     community relations

         development initiatives

         8,  15,  16,  34,  48,  61,  65,  66,  77,  85



         co-operatives

         37,  59,  62,  77



         associations

         10,  37,  48,  85







     education

         attainment

         12,  17,  19,  20,  29,  44,  47,  69,  71,  78,  80



         access to

         6,  9,  1125,  27,  52,  53,  55,  65,  72



     environment

         conditions of

         9,  4,  17,  25,  30,  39,  45,  50,  74,  76,  77,  78,

         80



         degradation

         34,  35,  47,  64,  86,  88,  89,  94



     fertility

         determinants of

         1,  19,  27,  43,  76,  80,  84,  88,  91



         KAP

         18,  32,  35,  45,  63,  64,  6874,  79,  89



         pro-natalist attitudes

         35,  45,  63,  89



     forestry

         6,  14,  34,  58,  63,  82



     girls    discrimination of

         6,  17,  23,  31,  38,  63,  66,  69,  71



     labour    needs for

         1,  9,  12,  15,  16,  24,  31,  32,  33,  40,  45,  53,

         61,  63,  67,  71,

         73,  89,  91



         division of

         1,  2,  4,  12,  15,  16,  17,  20,  30,  31,  35,  36,

         50,  62,  63,  67



         exchange-systems

         15,  16,  24,  33,  36,  38,  53



     land     access to

         4,  7,  14,  17,  20,  26,  31,  50,  62,  64,  76,  86,

         89



         use of

         7,  24,  30,  35,  58,  81



     legal status and rights

         4,  6,  9,  19,  26,  55,  57,  64,  65,  79,  89



     market

         4,  35,  42,  68,  73,  82,  94



     matrilineality

         7,  2,  44,  63,  88,  92



     marriage patterns

         22,  42,  55,  63,  64,  6,  68,  71,  93



     migration

         internal

         16,  51,  52,  56,  73,  75,  91



         international

         16,  17,  18,  20,  22,  23,  26,  28,  33,  51,  60,  93



     money

         allocation by women

         3,  8,  33,  42,  72



     nutrition

         5,  6,  9,  12,  21,  44,  51,  53,  54,  63,  70,  78,

         89,



     polygamy

         6,  20,  32,  39,  42,  67,  92



     poverty

         8,  9,  47,  49,  51,  71,  75,  76,  84,  91



     patrilineality

         7,  17,  22,  64,  88,  92



     smallholder farming

         by women

         3,  4,  5,  9,  10,  12,  29,  30,  32,  49,  61,  63,

         72,  92



         systems

         9,  5,  12,  14,  15,  29,  30,  31,  35,  36,  50,  58,

         60,  63,  81,

         82,  86,  89,  92



     technology

         access to improved

         5,  9,  30,  31,  51,  55,  86



         traditional

         4,  14,  30,  31,  34,  35,  60,  63,  73,  89,  91,  94





     war 5,  8,  59,  60,  71,  76,  80



     woman-heads of household

         5,  8,  20,  25,  29,  80,  85



 ====================================================================





                    CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS



                                Themes



     Issues related to population dynamics and to the status and

roles of women in the context of agriculture and rural development

are not always in the main focus of the literature presented in this

Bibliography. However, these topics figure prominently as integral

part of broader elaborations on agriculture and rural development in

the PALOPs. It can thus be claimed that literature in Portuguese on

these issues does merit interest on the part of all who wish to

provide assistance in the development of the PALOPs.



     As regards social science periodicals in Portuguese, most of

them are devoted to socio-political and cultural-anthropological

issues in the PALOPs. The WPD-related issues are best covered, though

infrequently, in few journals in the PALOPs, such as Soronda and

Estudos Mocambicanos, as well as in Revista Internacional de Estudos

Africanos, issued in Lisbon.



     Themes that dominate in the literature presented in this

Bibliography, are the following:



     - needs for, and availability of, family labour in the

       realization of smallholder subsistence strategies;



     - negative effects of structural adjustment programmes on the

       social sphere of development, and especially on women and

       children; and



     - linkages between deeply rooted cultural traditions (often

       ethnically bound), family formation, and social relations.



Other themes that prevail in the presented references are the

following:



     - economic and social effects of the colonial rule on micro-

       level livelihoods and national economies today;



     - socio-political and institutional aspects of community

       development (co-operatives, associations, etc.); and



     - effects of migration on the areas of origin, especially on the

       burden of work and responsibilities left to women.



     There are themes that are only rarely touched upon, or are

totally absent from literature presented in this Bibliography (which

reflects the economic and social situation in the PALOPs), such as:



     - income generation incentives;



     - diversification of farm and off-farm production, and

       entrepreneurship;



     - technological modernization;



     - promotion of gender equality in extension training and

       services;



     - encouragement of rational use of natural resources; and



     - mainstreaming of gender and population in development

       policies, programmes and projects.



     The only PALOP on which WPD-related literature has not been

identified and is practically totally missing is Sao Tome e

Principe.



                            Authors



     The majority of authors presented in this Bibliography are from

the PALOPs. Most of them pursue academic careers. Many have devoted

their Master theses and Doctoral dissertations at Portuguese

Universities to agriculture and rural development issues in their

countries. Other authors are mostly Portuguese scholars, and also,

rarely, of other nationalities (e.g., German, French, Swedish).



     None of the presented authors is a Population Studies

specialist, and only few are specialists in gender-related rural

development. They are all mostly rural sociologists, cultural-

anthropologists, agricultural economists and geographers. Almost all

of them have had personal experience in field research and/or

agriculture and rural development projects among the smallholder

producers in the PALOPs, which probably explains their high

sensibility for social and gender-asymmetries against women, and

their appreciation of the socio-demographic dimension of development.



                      Institutions



     Most PALOPs have their University, research, or

information/documentation institutions which have already been, or

could easily become, solid partners in population projects. Such

institutions are, for example, Accao para o Desenvolvimento Rural e

Ambiente (ADRA) in Luanda, Centro de Estudos Socio-economicos,

Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa (INEP) in Bissau, and

Departamento para Estudos da Mulher e do Genero (DEMG) at the

University Eduardo Modlaine in Maputo.



     Among institutions identified in Lisbon as sources of

literature for this Bibliography, some are qualified for various WPD-

related activities in the PALOPs. As regards

information/documentation, education, training and public

sensitization, the best equipped and most experienced in Lisbon are

CIDAC - Centro de Informacao e Documentacao Amilcar Cabral, and OIKOS

(both are NGOs). In the area of population and gender studies,

highest qualifications and significant experience have INDE -

Intercooperacao e Desenvolvimento (development consultants' NGO),

Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical (a government

institutute with tradition in overseas studies), and Centro de

Estudos Africanos, Instituto Superior de Ciencias do Trabalho e da

Empresa - ISCTE (which also offers post-graduate studies).



=====================================================================



                  Suggestions for FAO/UNFPA TSS



     In the context of the above comments on authors and

institutions, on the dominant themes and, especially, on the missing

in this Bibliography, it is suggested here that FAO and UNFPA could

improve the implementation of the TSS in the PALOPs, for example, by:





     -  re-assessing thematic coverage, priorities, and objectives in

        the existing and planned WPD projects;



     -  mainstreaming population and gender concerns in agricultural

        and rural development projects;



     -  selecting authors from the PALOPs who could be engaged as

        experts in projects in their countries, as well as in

        other PALOPs;



     -  establishing co-operation with NGOs and other institutions as

        partners in project design, realization and evaluation;



     -  promoting transfer of experiences and know-how among the

        PALOPs in the WPD-related research, production of

        technical materials, etc.;



     -  encouraging students and scholars from the PALOPs to do the

        research on WPD, and to integrate WPD in other research;



     -  stimulating publications in the PALOPs, including translations

        of at least summaries of national research into English

        or French, as well as translations of foreign research

        results into Portuguese.





     The Bibliography presented here is by no means a comprehensive

state-of-art report on WPD-related issues in the PALOPs. To this

effect, sources in the PALOPs themselves should also have been

consulted. Hopefully, however, this Bibliography represents a

pertinent contribution to the removal of communication barriers to

a better understanding of these countries' reality, and could serve

as an inspiration to FAO and UNFPA for intensifying their technical

assistance to Lusophone Africa.

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