22 July 2005

High-level Plenary Meeting of the General Assembly
14-16 September 2005

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I. Values and principles

1. We, Heads of State and Government, have gathered at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 14 to 16 September 2005.

2. We recognize the valuable role of all major United Nations conferences and summits in the economic, social and related fields, including the Millennium Summit, in mobilizing the international community at the local, national, regional and global levels and in guiding the work of the United Nations, and we reaffirm their outcomes and renew our commitment to fully implement them in an integrated and coordinated manner.

3. We recall the United Nations Millennium Declaration we adopted at the dawn of the twenty-first century and reaffirm our faith in the Organization and our commitment to the Principles and Purposes of the United Nations Charter, and the respect for international law. We further reaffirm that core values and principles, such as respect for human rights and human dignity, freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, respect for nature, the rule of law, shared responsibility, multilateralism, and non resort to the threat or use of force are essential for peaceful coexistence and cooperation among States.

4. We rededicate ourselves to support all efforts to uphold the sovereign equality of all States, respect for their territorial integrity and political independence, non interference in the internal affairs of states, resolution of disputes by peaceful means, and the right of self-determination of peoples, including those that remain under colonial domination and foreign occupation.

5. We reaffirm the vital importance of an effective multilateral system, with a strong United Nations at its core, in order to better address the multifaceted and interconnected challenges and threats confronting our world and achieve progress in the areas of development, security and human rights, and commit to spare no efforts in promoting and strengthening the effectiveness of the organization and implementation of its decisions.

6. We believe that today, more than ever before, we live in a global and interdependent world. No State can stand wholly alone. We acknowledge that collective security depends on effective cooperation against transnational threats. We recognize that we all share responsibility for each otherís security.

7. We agree that current developments and circumstances require that we urgently build consensus on major threats and challenges. We commit to translate that consensus into concrete action, including addressing the root causes of those threats and challenges.

8. We acknowledge that development, security and human rights form the indispensable foundations for collective security and well-being and that they are the pillars of the United Nations system. We reaffirm that development is a central goal by itself, and reaffirm that sustainable development constitutes a key element of the overarching framework of United Nations activities, and commit ourselves to fully implement the outcomes of all major United Nations conferences and summits in the economic, social, human rights, environmental and related fields, including the Millennium Development Goals.

9. We also acknowledge that good governance and the rule of law at the national and international levels are essential for sustained economic growth, sustainable development and eradication of poverty and hunger.

10. We reaffirm that gender equality and the promotion and protection of the full enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for women are essential to advance development, security and human rights.

11. We recognize that our nations and peoples will not enjoy development without security, nor will they enjoy security without development, and that they will not enjoy either without respect for human rights.

12. We reaffirm the universality and indivisibility of all human rights, We recognize that all cultures and civilizations can contribute to the enrichment of humankind. We acknowledge the importance of respect and understanding of religious and cultural diversity throughout the world, especially through dialogue and cooperation, to promote international peace and security and enhance human welfare, freedom and progress everywhere as well as the need to encourage dialogue, understanding, tolerance and respect among different cultures, civilizations and peoples as a means to promote, inter alia, international peace and security.

13. We pledge to make the United Nations more effective, more efficient, more accountable and more credible and to provide the Organization with the resources needed to fully implement its mandates. This is our shared responsibility and our common interest.

14. We therefore resolve to take concrete measures with a view to ensuring effective follow up to the outcome of the Millennium Summit and the other major UN conferences and summits in the four following areas:

II. Development

15. We emphasize the critical role played by the major United Nations conferences and summits in the economic, social and related fields, in shaping a broad development vision and in identifying commonly agreed objectives, which contributed to improving human life in different parts of the world.

16. We remain however concerned by the slow and uneven implementation of the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium development Goals and reaffirm our commitment to eradicate poverty and promote sustained economic growth, sustainable development and global prosperity for all. To this end we commit to promote the development of the productive sectors of developing countries in order to enable them to participate effectively in the increasingly open trading environment and thereby to take full advantage of the process of globalization.

Global partnership for development

17. We strongly reiterate our determination to ensure timely and full realization of the development goals and objectives that emerged from the major United Nations Conferences and Summits, including the Millennium Development Goals that have galvanized unprecedented efforts towards meeting the needs of the worldís poorest.

18. We reaffirm our commitment to the global partnership for achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration, based on mutual responsibility and accountability as agreed in Millennium Declaration and in 2002 at the International Conference on Financing for Development and the World Summit on Sustainable Development.

19. We further reaffirm our commitment to sound policies, good governance at all levels and the rule of law; and to mobilizing domestic resources, attracting international flows, promoting international trade as an engine for development, increasing international financial and technical cooperation for development, sustainable debt financing and external debt relief, and enhancing the coherence and consistency of the international monetary, financial and trading systems.

20. We reaffirm that each country must take primary responsibility for its own economic and social development, and that the role of national policies and development strategies cannot be overemphasized. To this end, we resolve to:

21. We recognize also that national efforts should be complemented by supportive global programmes, measures and policies aimed at maximizing the development opportunities of developing countries. To these ends, we resolve to:

Financing for development

22. We reaffirm the Monterrey Consensus and recognize that mobilizing financial resources for development and effective use of these resources in recipient countries are central to a global partnership for development in support of the achievement of the internationally agreed development goals, including those in the Millennium Declaration. In this regard:


23. We emphasize the urgent need for an effective, comprehensive, durable and development-oriented solution to the debt problems of developing countries. To this end we:


24. We recommit to promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system, recognizing the major role that trade can play in promoting economic growth, employment and development for all, and undertake to:

Quick Wins

25. We agree to support the establishment and implementation of country led ďquick winĒ initiatives consistent with long-term national development strategies so as to realize major immediate progress towards the development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals through such measures as the free distribution of malaria bed nets and effective anti-malaria medicines, the expansion of home-grown school meals programmes using locally produced foods and the elimination of user fees for primary education and health services.

Global Governance and Systemic Issues

26. We reaffirm the commitment contained in the Monterrey Consensus to broaden and strengthen the voice and participation of developing countries and countries with economies in transition in international economic decision-making and norm-setting, and to this end undertake to find pragmatic and innovative ways to enhance the effective participation of those countries therein, particularly in the Bretton Woods institutions.

27. We further recognize the urgent need to enhance the coherence, governance and consistency of the international monetary, financial and trading systems.

28. We further reaffirm the need for the United Nations to play a more decisive and central role in international development policy and in ensuring coherence, coordination and implementation of development goals and actions agreed by the international community.

South-South Cooperation

29. We recognize the achievements and potential of South-South Cooperation, and encourage the promotion of such cooperation, which complements North-South cooperation as an effective contribution to development and as a means to share and transfer best practices and appropriate technologies. In this context, we welcome the recent decision of the leaders of the South to intensify their efforts at South-South Cooperation and reiterate the need for the international community, including the international financial institutions, to support the efforts of developing countries, inter alia, through the provision of the necessary resources, as well as through triangular cooperation.


30. We emphasize the critical role of both formal and informal education, in particular basic education and training for eradicating illiteracy, and strive for expanded secondary and higher education as well as vocational education and technical training, especially for girls and women, creating human resources and infrastructure capabilities and in empowering those living in poverty. In this context, we reaffirm the Dakar framework for Action adopted at the World Education Forum and recognize the importance of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) strategy for the eradication of poverty, especially extreme poverty, in supporting the Education for All Programmes as a tool to achieve the Millennium Development Goal on universal primary education by 2015.

Rural and Agricultural Development

31. We reaffirm that food security, rural and agricultural development must be adequately addressed in the context of national development and response strategies. We are convinced that eradication of poverty and hunger is crucial for the achievement of the MDGs. Rural development should be an integral part of national and international development policies. We deem it necessary to increase productive investment in rural and agricultural development to achieve food security. We commit ourselves to increase ODA to agriculture and trade opportunities for developing countries.


32. We strongly support a fair globalization and resolve to make the goal of productive employment and decent work for all, including for young people, a central objective of our national and international macro-economic policies as well as poverty reduction strategies. These measures should also encompass the elimination of child labor. We resolve to protect the human rights of workers.

Sustainable development

33. We reaffirm our commitment to achieve the goal of sustainable development including through the implementation of Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. We also re-commit to undertake concrete actions and measures at all levels, including integrating sustainable development in national development strategies, and enhancing international cooperation, taking into account the Rio principles, inter alia the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. We recognize that climate change is a serious and long-term challenge that has the potential to affect every part of the world. We call for further technological and financial international cooperation for the sustainable use and management of natural resources in order to promote sustainable production and consumption patterns as a means of keeping the balance between the conservation of natural resources and the furtherance of social and economic objectives. We therefore resolve to:

HIV/AIDS and other health issues

34. We recognize that HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis and other infectious diseases pose severe risks for the entire world and serious challenges to the achievement of development goals. These diseases and other emerging health challenges require a concerted international response. To this end, we commit ourselves to:

Gender equality and empowerment of women

35. We reaffirm that the full and effective implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action is essential to achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration; and resolve to promote gender equality and to eliminate pervasive gender discrimination by:

36. We recognize the importance of gender mainstreaming as a tool for achieving gender equality. To this end, we undertake to actively promote mainstreaming of a gender perspective in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and social spheres and we further undertake to strengthen the UN systemís capabilities in the area of gender.

Science and technology for development

37. We recognize that science and technology play a critical role in the achievement of the development goals and that international support is essential for enabling developing countries to benefit from the technological advancements. We therefore commit to:


38. We acknowledge the important nexus between international migration and development and the need to deal with this issue in a coordinated and coherent manner with a view to addressing the challenges and opportunities that migration presents to countries of origin, destination and transit. We recognize that international migration brings benefits as well as challenges to the global community. We further recognize the need to enhance international cooperation on migration issues to ensure that the movement of people across borders is managed in a more effective and humane manner. In this regard, we resolve to ensure the success of the General Assembly high-level dialogue on international migration and development in 2006 which will offer an opportunity to discuss the multidimensional aspects of international migration and development in order to identify appropriate ways and means to maximize its development benefits and minimize its negative impacts.

Countries with special needs

39. We reaffirm our commitment to address the special needs of LDCs, and urge developed countries, and developing countries in a position to do so as well as all relevant organizations of the UN system, including the Bretton Woods Institutions to make concerted efforts and adopt speedy measures for meeting in timely manner the goals and targets of the Brussels Programme of Action for the LDCs for the decade 2001-2010.

40. We recognize the special needs of and challenges faced by LLDCs and therefore reaffirm our commitment to urgently address those needs and challenges through the full, timely and effective implementation of the Almaty Programme of Action and the Sao Paulo Consensus adopted at UNCTAD XI. Such implementation should be quantified with a time bound set of indicators to measure the progress.

41. We recognize the special needs and vulnerabilities of SIDS and reaffirm our commitment to take urgent and concrete actions to address these needs and vulnerabilities through the full and effective implementation of the Mauritius Strategy adopted by the United Nations International Meeting, the Barbados Programme of Action and the outcome of the 22nd Special Session of the General Assembly. We further undertake, starting in 2006, to promote greater international cooperation for the implementation of the Mauritius Strategy through the mobilization of financial resources on a more predictable basis.

42. We also emphasize the need for continued, coordinated and effective international support for achieving the development goals in countries emerging from conflict and recovering from disasters, in particular through the UN Peace building Commission.

Meeting the special needs of Africa

43. Welcoming the substantial progress Africa has made in recent years in addressing its challenges and realizing its opportunities, and also the recent decisions taken by African partners, including the G8 and the European Union, in support of Africaís development efforts, we reaffirm our commitment to urgently meet the special needs of Africa, which is the only continent not on track to meet any of the goals of the Millennium Declaration by 2015, to enable it to enter the mainstream of the world economy, we resolve to:

III. Peace and collective security

44. We recognize that we are facing a whole range of threats, including armed conflicts between and within States, the spread of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, terrorism and organized crime, poverty and the rapid spread of highly infectious diseases and severe environmental degradation that require our urgent, collective and more determined response.

45. We recognize that, in accordance with the United Nations Charter, addressing these threats requires a comprehensive approach and cooperation among all principal organs of the United Nations within their respective competence.

46. We acknowledge that we are living in an interdependent and global world and that todayís threats recognize no national boundaries, are interlinked and must be tackled at the global, regional and national levels.

47. We therefore reaffirm our commitment to implement a security consensus based on the recognition that many threats are interlinked, that development, security and human rights are mutually reinforcing, that no State can best protect itself by acting entirely alone and that all States need an effective, equitable and efficient collective security system, in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations Charter.

48. We resolve to take concerted action, through such a system of collective security, based on the United Nations Charter and respect for international law, so as to prevent, mitigate and remove threats to international peace and security, respond effectively to natural disasters, ensure economic development and the full enjoyment of human rights for all States and peoples.

Protecting children in armed conflicts

49. We reaffirm our commitment to promote and protect the right and welfare of children in armed conflicts. We call upon Sates, as appropriate, to become a party and implement the optional protocol to the Convention on the rights of the child on the participation of children in armed conflicts and to take effective measures to prevent the recruitment and use of children by armed forces and groups and to prohibit and criminalize such practices.

50. We also reaffirm our commitment to ensure that children in armed conflicts receive timely and effective humanitarian assistance, including education, and to take effective measures for their rehabilitation and reintegration into society.

Pacific settlement of disputes

51. We call upon States to refrain from all threats and uses of force contrary to the Charter, and to settle their disputes by peaceful means in accordance with Chapter VI of the United Nations Charter , including, when appropriate, by the most effective use of the International Court of Justice. All States shall also act in accordance with the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in accordance with the United Nations Charter.

52. We stress the importance of conflict prevention in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations Charter and solemnly renew our commitment to promote a culture of prevention as a means of effectively addressing the interconnected security and development challenges faced by peoples throughout the world, as well as to strengthen the capacity of the United Nations for conflict prevention and to ensure that conflict prevention is a centerpiece of effective multilateralism and United Nations reform.

53. We further stress the importance of a coherent and comprehensive approach to the prevention of armed conflicts and dispute settlements and the need for the Security Council, the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and the Secretary-General to coordinate their activities within their respective Charter mandates.

54. Recognizing the important role of the Secretary-Generalís good offices, including the mediation of disputes, we support the Secretary-Generalís efforts to strengthen his capacity in this area.

Women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts

55. We stress the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and in peacebuilding. We also underline the importance of the integration of gender perspective and womenís equal participation and full involvement in all efforts to maintain and promote peace and security, as well as the need to increase their role in decision-making at all levels. We strongly condemn all violations of human rights of women and girls in situations of armed conflicts and the use of sexual exploitations, and violence and abuse, and commit to elaborating and implementing strategies to prevent and report on gender-base violence.


56. Recognizing that peacekeeping plays a vital role in helping parties to conflict end hostilities, noting improvements made in recent years to United Nations peacekeeping and stressing the need to mount operations with adequate capacity to counter hostilities and fulfill effectively their mandates, we urge further consideration of the proposal for the establishment of a strategic military reserve capacity to reinforce UN peacekeeping missions in times of crises and the creation of a standing capacity for rapid deployment of United Nations civilian police in peacekeeping.

57. Recognizing the vital contribution to peace and security being made by regional organizations and the importance of forging predictable partnerships between the United Nations and regional organizations, and noting in particular, given the special needs of Africa, the importance of a strong African Union, we agree to:

58. We insist on the highest standards of behavior from all personnel deployed in peacekeeping operations, and we urge the full and vigorous implementation of the Secretary-Generalīs zero tolerance policy regarding sexual exploitation and abuse in all UN activities. We commit to ensure that there will be no impunity for those who have committed crimes, and will undertake to institute appropriate disciplinary action in cases where an individual has been found to have committed wrongdoing.


59. Emphasizing the need for a coordinated, coherent, comprehensive and integrated approach to conflict resolution and post-conflict peacebuilding with a view to achieving sustainable peace, and recognizing the need for a dedicated institutional mechanism to address the special need of countries emerging from conflicts towards recovering, reintegration and development, and recognizing further the vital role of the United Nations in this regard, we hereby establish a Peacebuilding Commission as an intergovernmental advisory body to assist and mobilize support to countries emerging from conflict.

60. Its main purpose is to bring together all relevant actors to marshal resources and advise on and propose comprehensive strategies for peacebuilding and post-conflict recovery. To that end, it will provide necessary information in the immediate aftermath of war and focus attention on development and institution-building efforts necessary for recovery as well as provide recommendation and information to improve coordination of all stakeholders in and outside the United Nations, develop best practices, help to ensure predictable financing for early recovery activities and extend the period of attention by the international community to post-conflict recovery.

61. The Peacebuilding Commission will consider any matter brought before it by the Security Council. Any Member State of the United Nations in an exceptionally difficult situation on the verge of relapsing into conflict should be able to request through ECOSOC the advice of the Peacebuilding Commission, if the Security Council is not seized of the situation in question. The Peacebuilding Commissionís Organizational Committee should consider the relevance of the request.

62. The Peacebuilding Commission should make the outcome of its discussions available to all relevant bodies and actors of the United Nations including the international financial institutions.

63. The Peacebuilding Commission should provide advice on Peacebuilding strategies for countries emerging from conflict to such bodies as are actively seized of the issue, in accordance with the Charter. In the initial stages of conflict recovery, and for as long as the Security Council is actively seized with the situation, the Peacebuilding Commission should provide advice to that body. Thereafter, the Peacebuilding Commission should provide advice to the ECOSOC.

64. The Peacebuilding Commission shall submit an annual report to the General Assembly. 65. The composition of the PBC will vary according to the case at hand, and will include:

  1. Members of an organizational committee responsible for developing its procedures and for organizational matters, which should be comprised of:
    1. The five permanent members of the Security Council;
    2. Five members of the Economic and Social Council, to be selected by ECOSOC on an annual basis;
    3. The five top contributors, assessed (to the United Nations regular budget) and voluntary (to the United Nationsí funds, programmes and agencies) to be determined annually on the basis of a list to be provided by the SG;
    4. The five top troop contributors to the United Nations, to be determined annually on the basis of a list to be provided by the SG;
    5. Members would be selected in the order indicated above. There will be no double representation of states. Attention will be paid to geographical representation.

  2. Additional members, invited to participate when the PBC discusses a country-specific matter, namely:
    1. national authorities of the country under consideration, as appropriate;
    2. countries in the region as well as relevant regional and sub-regional organizations;
    3. the major financial and troop contributors involved in the recovery effort;
    4. the senior UN representative in the field, and other relevant UN-representatives;
    5. regional financial institutions as may be relevant;
    6. other parties directly relevant for the country under consideration.

66. Representatives from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund should be invited to participate in all meetings of the Peacebuilding Commission in a manner suitable to their governing arrangements, as well as a representative from the Secretary-General.

67. We request the Secretary-General to establish a multi-year standing fund for post-conflict peacebuilding, funded by voluntary contributions, and taking due account of existing instruments.

68. We request the Secretary-General to establish within the Secretariat and within existing resources a small Peacebuilding Support Office to assist and support the PBC.

69. We request the President of the General Assembly, assisted by the Secretary-General, to conduct consultations with Member States in order to develop the necessary modalities for the effective operation of the Peacebuilding Commission including its rules of procedure, financial arrangements for its functioning, and selection of the Chairs, so that the body can begin operations no later than 31 December 2005.

70. The arrangements set out above will be kept under review, with a view to ensuring they are appropriate to delivering the agreed functions of the PBC. Future proposals to change the arrangements, hereby agreed, should be forwarded jointly by the Security Council and the ECOSOC for approval by the General Assembly.


71. We agree that sanctions remain an important tool under the United Nations Charter in our efforts to maintain international peace and security without recourse to the use of force, and resolve to ensure that sanctions are carefully targeted in support of clear objectives, subject to time limits, where appropriate, and are implemented and monitored effectively with clear benchmarks and accountability, to comply with sanctions established by the Security Council, and to ensure that sanctions are implemented in ways that mitigate the adverse consequences, including socio-economic and humanitarian, for populations and third States.

72. We call upon the Security Council, with the support of the Secretary-General, to improve its monitoring of the implementation and effects of sanctions, to ensure that sanctions are implemented in an accountable manner and to review regularly the results of such monitoring, and to develop a mechanism to address special economic problems arising from carrying out sanctions, in accordance with the United Nations Charter. We also call upon the Security Council and the Secretary-General to ensure that fair and transparent procedures, in accordance with international standards of due process, exist for placing individuals and entities on sanctions lists and for removing them, as well as for granting humanitarian exemptions.

73. We agree to support efforts through United Nations agencies to strengthen State capacity to implement sanctions provisions.

Use of force

74. We reiterate our commitment to refrain from the threats or use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations. We reaffirm that one of the Purposes and Principles guiding the United Nations is to maintain international peace and security, and to that end to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace.

75. We also reaffirm that the relevant provisions of the Charter of the United Nations regarding the use of force are sufficient to address the full range of security threats and agree that the use of force should be considered as an instrument of last resort. We further reaffirm the authority of the Security Council to take action to maintain and restore international peace and security, in accordance with the pertinent provisions of the Charter.

76. We recognize the need to continue discussing principles for the use of force, as identified by the Secretary-General.

Disarmament and non-proliferation

77. We appeal to all States to pursue and intensify negotiations with a view to advancing disarmament and strengthening the international non-proliferation regime.

78. We urge all States to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and we pledge to comply fully with all the articles of those conventions, in order to strengthen the multilateral framework for non-proliferation and disarmament and to achieve full adherence to these instruments.

79. We reiterate our firm commitment to the NPT and its three pillars: disarmament, non-proliferation, and the peaceful use of nuclear energy. We look forward to strengthening the NPTís implementation, including through future Review Conferences.

80. We resolve to:

81. We agree to adopt and implement international instruments to regulate the marking, tracing, illicit brokering and transfer of small arms and light weapons.

82. We agree to ensure the effective monitoring and enforcement of United Nations arms embargos.

83. We urge States parties to fully implement their obligations under the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention and Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, and we encourage those States that have not yet done to promptly accede to the Convention. We also call upon States in a position to do so to provide greater technical assistance to mine-affected States.

84. We invite all States to take and implement confidence-building and disarmament measures, with a view to promoting and strengthening regional and international security environment.


85. We strongly condemn terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, as it constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security. We welcome the Secretary-Generalís counter-terrorism strategy and will consider it in the General Assembly with a view to adopting it. We affirm that the targeting and deliberate killing of civilians and non- combatants cannot be justified or legitimized by any cause or grievance, and we declare that any action intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants, when the purpose of such an act, by its nature or context, is to intimidate a population or to compel a Government or an international organization to carry out or to abstain from any act cannot be justified on any grounds and constitutes an act of terrorism.

86. We resolve to conclude a comprehensive convention on international terrorism, including a legal definition of terrorism, during the sixtieth session of the General Assembly.

87. We recognize that international cooperation to fight terrorism should be conducted in conformity with international law, including the United Nations Charter and relevant international conventions and protocols. States should adhere to the principles of good governance, respect for human rights, and the rule of law in the fight against terrorism.

88. We acknowledge the important role played by the United Nations in combating terrorism and also stress the vital contribution of regional and bilateral cooperation, particularly at the practical level of law enforcement cooperation and technical exchange.

89. We urge the international community, including the United Nations to assist States in building regional and national capacity to fight terrorism. We further invite the Secretary-General to strengthen continuously, in consultation with the General Assembly and the Security Council, the capacities of the United Nations, its relevant funds, programmes and specialized and related agencies, to assist States in these endeavours.

90. We commit to assist victims of terrorism around the world and to provide them and their families with support to cope with their loss and their grief.

91. We call on the Security Council to consider ways to strengthen the verification, monitoring and enforcement by the Council in its role in counter-terrorism, and streamline its counter-terrorism subsidiary bodies, including by consolidating Statesí reporting requirements.

92. We support the early entry into force of the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, and strongly encourage States which have not yet become a party to it, do so and to accede to the 12 other international conventions and protocols against terrorism without further delay and fully implement them.

Transnational crime

93. We express our grave concern at the negative effects on development, peace and security and human rights posed by transnational crime, including smuggling and trafficking of human beings, narcotic drugs, and small arms and light weapons, and at the increasing vulnerability of States to such crime. We reaffirm the need to work collectively to combat transnational crime.

94. We recognize that trafficking in persons continues to pose a serious challenge to humanity and requires a concerted international response. To this end, we urge all States to devise, enforce, and strengthen effective measures to combat and eliminate all forms of trafficking in persons.

95. We urge all States which have not yet done so to accede to the relevant international conventions on organized crime and corruption and to implement them effectively, including by incorporating the provisions of those conventions into national legislation and by strengthening criminal justice systems.

96. We decide to strengthen the capacity of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to provide assistance to Member States in those tasks upon request.

IV. Human rights and the rule of law

97. We recommit ourselves to protect and promote human rights, the rule of law and democracy, and recognize that they constitute together universal and indivisible core values and principles of the United Nations and that no security agenda or drive for development will be successful unless they are based on respect for human dignity, and call upon all parts of the United Nations system to promote human rights and fundamental freedoms.

98. We recommit ourselves to universal adherence to human rights as enshrined in the United Nations Charter and to the full implementation of the human rights standards contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other human rights instruments.

Human rights

99. We emphasize the responsibilities of all States, in conformity with the United Nations Charter, to respect human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.

100. We resolve further to strengthen the United Nations human rights machinery with the aim of ensuring effective enjoyment by all of all human rights - civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to development. We commit ourselves to promote human rights education and learning at all levels, including through the implementation of the World Programme for Human Rights Education, and we encourage all States to develop initiatives in this regard.

101. We resolve to strengthen the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and its field offices, noting the High Commissionerís Plan of Action, to enable it to effectively carry out its mandate so as to respond to the broad range of human rights challenges facing the international community, particularly in the areas of technical assistance and capacity-building, through doubling its regular budget resources, over the next five years, and recruitment of highly competent staff, on a broad geographical basis and gender balance, provided under the regular budget, and we support its closer cooperation with all relevant United Nations bodies, including the Security Council.

102. We resolve to improve the effectiveness of the human rights treaty bodies, including through more timely reporting, improved and streamlined reporting procedures, aimed at enabling the treaty bodies to function as a unified system, additional resources, and to promote the implementation of their recommendations.

103. We support the further mainstreaming of human rights throughout the United Nations system.

104. We recognize the need for special attention to human rights of women and children and undertake to advance them in every possible way, including by bringing gender and child protection perspectives in the human rights agenda.

105. We note that the private sector also has an important responsibility and role in the advancement of human rights in a significant way, and encourage them to contribute to that end.

Internally Displaced Persons

106. Recognize the importance of Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement as the minimum international standard for the protection of internally displaced persons and commit ourselves to promote the implementation of those principles through national legislation and practices.

Refugee protection and assistance

107. We commit ourselves to safeguard the principle of refugee protection and to uphold our responsibility in resolving the plight of refugees, through efforts aimed at addressing the causes of displacement, bringing about the safe and sustainable return of these populations, finding durable solutions for refugees in protracted situations and preventing refugee movement from becoming a source of tension among States. We agree to support nations in assisting refugee populations and their host communities.

Rule of law

108. Recognizing the need for universal adherence to and implementation of the rule of law at both the national and international levels, we:


109. We reaffirm that democracy is a universal value, implying the will of the peoples to express and decide freely their own political system, and does not belong to any country or region and that education in human rights and democracy is essential for participation in the democratic process and governance. We stress that democracy, development and respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms are interdependent and mutually reinforcing.

110. We renew our commitment to support democracy at national, regional and international levels by strengthening countriesí capacities to implement the principles and practices of democracy at national, regional and international levels and resolve to strengthen the capacity of the United Nations to assist Member States upon their request. We therefore welcome the establishment of a Democracy Fund at the United Nations and invite the Secretary-General to establish an advisory board to provide policy guidance.

111. We invite Member States to contribute to the Democracy Fund.


112. Recognizing that justice is a vital component of the rule of law, we commit to end impunity for the most serious crimes of concern to the international community, such as crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, by cooperating with the International Criminal Court, the existing ad hoc and mixed criminal tribunals and other mechanisms for international justice.

Responsibility to protect

113. We agree that the responsibility to protect civilian populations lies first and foremost with each individual State and we accept that responsibility and agree to act in accordance with it. The international community should, as appropriate, encourage and help States to exercise this responsibility. The international community, through the United Nations, also has the responsibility to use diplomatic, humanitarian and other peaceful means, including under Chapters VI and VIII of the Charter to help protect civilian populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. In this context, we recognize our shared responsibility to take collective action, through the Security Council and, as appropriate, in cooperation with relevant regional arrangements, under Chapter VII of the Charter, should peaceful means proved insufficient and national authorities be unwilling or unable to protect their populations. We stress the need to continue consideration of the concept of the responsibility to protect within the sixtieth session of the General Assembly.

114. We support the implementation of the United Nations Action Plan to Prevent Genocide and the work of the Secretariat to this end.

Human security

115. We stress the right of people to live in freedom and dignity. We recognize that human security is a guiding principle of the vital need to protect civilian populations from the insecurities generated by current threats and challenges affecting peopleís lives. We therefore commit to promote human security as a means to empower people and address effectively those insecurities.

Culture of peace and initiatives on dialogue among cultures and civilizations

116. Recognizing the Declaration on Culture of Peace and the Programme of Action, as well as the Global Agenda for Dialogue Among Civilizations and its Programme of Action, adopted by the General Assembly and the value of different initiatives on dialogue among cultures and civilizations, we commit to take action to promote a culture of peace and dialogue at the national level, as well as at the regional and international levels, and request the Secretary-General to explore enhancing implementation mechanisms and to follow-up on those initiatives.

V. Strengthening the United Nations

117. We reaffirm our commitment to strengthen the United Nations with a view to enhancing its authority and efficiency as well as its capacity to address effectively the full range of the challenges of our time. We are determined to reinvigorate the intergovernmental organs of the United Nations and to adapt them to the needs of the twenty-first century.

118. We stress that, in order to efficiently perform their respective mandates as provided under the Charter, all United Nations bodies should not duplicate their work but should rather develop good cooperation and coordination in the common endeavour of building a more effective United Nations.

119. We emphasize the need to provide the United Nations with sufficient and predictable resources with a view to enabling it to carry out its mandate in the fast changing and complex and challenging world.

120. We emphasize the importance of establishing real, effective and efficient mechanisms for responsibility and accountability in the Secretariat.

General Assembly

121. We reaffirm the central position of the General Assembly as the most representative deliberative, policymaking and decision-making organ of the United Nations as well as the role of the Assembly in the process of the codification of international law.

122. We welcome the measures adopted by the General Assembly with a view to strengthening its role and authority and enabling the President of the General Assembly to play a leadership role and, to that end, we call for their full and speedy implementation.

123. We call for the strengthening of the relationship between the General Assembly and the other principal organs to ensure better coordination on topical issues that require coordinated action by the United Nations.

124. We stress the need to demonstrate the political will to effectively implement the resolutions adopted by the General Assembly.

Security Council

125. We reaffirm that Member States have conferred on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, acting on their behalf, as provided by the Charter.

126. We support comprehensive reform of the Security Council to make it more broadly representative, more efficient and transparent so as to enhance the legitimacy of its decisions and its effectiveness.

127. We recommend that the Security Council adapt its working methods so as to increase the involvement of States not members of the Security Council in its work, enhance its accountability to the membership and increase the transparency of its work.

Economic and Social Council

128. We reaffirm the role the Charter and General Assembly have vested in ECOSOC and recognize the need for a more effective ECOSOC as a principal body for coordination, policy review, policy dialogue and recommendation on issues of economic and social development as well as for implementing the international development goals agreed at major summits and conferences. To achieve these objectives, the ECOSOC should perform the following functions:

129. We stress that in order to fully perform the aforementioned functions, the organization of work, the agenda and reporting requirements of ECOSOC should be adapted.

Human Rights Council

130. Pursuant to our commitment to give greater priority to human rights in the work of the UN and to strengthen the human rights machinery of the organization, we decide to establish a standing Human Rights Council, as a subsidiary organ of the General Assembly to be based in Geneva, in replacement of the Commission on Human Rights. The General Assembly shall review within 5 years whether the Council should be transformed into a principal organ.

131. The Human Rights Council will have the following mandates, size and composition:

  1. It will be the organ primarily responsible for promoting the universal respect for and, observance and protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction of any kind and in a fair and equal manner, recognizing their indivisible, inalienable and interrelated character. To carry out this mandate the Council shall assume and review all the functions of the Commission on Human Rights and preserve its strengths, including the system of special procedures. In particular it will:
    1. Serve as a forum for dialogue for thematic issues on all human rights and fundamental freedoms and make recommendations to the General Assembly for the further development of international law in the field of human rights.

    2. Promote international cooperation to enhance the abilities of Member States to implement human rights commitments, including international norms and standards and the provision of assistance by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to Member States, at their request through programmes of advisory services, technical cooperation and capacity building.

    3. Promote effective coordination and the mainstreaming of human rights within the United Nations System, including by making policy recommendations to the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and other UN bodies. The Council should also work in close cooperation with regional organizations in the field of human rights.

    4. Evaluate the fulfillment by all States of all their human rights obligations, in particular under the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This procedure will not duplicate the reporting procedures being carried out under the human rights treaties.

    5. Address any matters or situations related to the promotion and protection of human rights, including urgent human rights situations, and make recommendations thereon to the member States of the UN and provide policy recommendations to the UN system.

  2. The Council shall comprise between 30 to 50 members, each serving for a period of three years, to be elected directly by the General Assembly, by a two thirds majority. In establishing the membership of the Council, due regard shall be given to the principle of equitable geographical distribution and the contribution of member States to the promotion and protection of human rights.

  3. Those elected to the Council should undertake to abide by human rights standard in their respect, protection and promotion of human rights, and will be evaluated during their term of membership under the review mechanism, unless they have been recently evaluated before the start of their term in the Council.

  4. The arrangements made by the Economic and Social Council for consultations with non-governmental organizations under article 71 of the charter shall apply to the Council.

  5. The Council shall provide an annual report to the UN General Assembly.

132. We request the President of the General Assembly to conduct consultations with Members States in order to adopt during its sixtieth session, before 31 December 2005, the modalities, functions, procedures and working methods of the Human Rights Council, and transitional arrangements from the Commission to the Council.


133. Recognizing that a capable and effective Secretariat is indispensable to the work of the United Nations in a rapidly changing world, we urge the Secretary-General to ensure the highest standards of efficiency, competence, integrity as well as ethical behaviour, transparency and accountability of the Secretariat, with due regard paid to the importance of recruiting the staff on as wide and equitable geographical basis as possible, in particular in the senior and policy- making levels; and commend the Secretary-Generalís efforts to further enhance the effective management of the United Nations and for his commitment to modernize the United Nations, in particular the Headquarters.

Management reform

134. We welcome the reforms initiated by the Secretary-General, including new senior management committees and actions to strengthen oversight and accountability, reinforce ethical conduct, enhance transparency and improve management performance, and invite him to report to the General Assembly on the progress made in implementing all such measures.

135. We recognize the role of the Secretary-General as the chief administrative officer of the United Nations, encourage him to exercise his responsibilities in accordance with the principles of the Charter, and pledge to assist him to do so.

136. We commit to ensure that the Secretary-General has sufficient authority and flexibility to carry out his managerial responsibility and leadership; we support granting broad authority to the Secretary-General to redeploy posts and resources from lower to higher priority areas, under relevant rules and regulations established by the General Assembly, and invite him to report to the General Assembly each year on outcomes.

137. We emphasize that, in order to facilitate management, the Secretary-General should conduct and submit to the General Assembly for early action a full review of the budgetary and human-resources rules under which the Organization operates, with a view to modernising and streamlining them and improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the UN Secretariat.

138. We invite the Secretary-General to submit to the General Assembly, for discussion and decision, an overview of all mandates, originating from existing resolutions of the General Assembly, older than five years, taking into account the Organization continuing functions and priorities, and with an indication of programmatic changes as well as resources which could be shifted, in accordance with rules and regulations on programme planning, in order to strengthen and up-date the programme of work of the Organization. We pledge our governments to act expeditiously on the Secretary-Generalís recommendations thereon.

139. We decide that internal oversight shall be strengthened by focusing the expertise and resources of the OIOS, and by increasing the capacity of the Office to carry out its functions. We invite the Secretary-General to separate core oversight functions of OIOS from management, to consolidate management consulting and evaluation functions and to use the capacity thereby created to increase productivity throughout the Secretariat, including by modernising working methods and streamlining systems and processes.

140. We emphasize the need to build a culture of accountability and integrity in the Organization and resolve to strengthen oversight by ensuring the independence of the OIOS through the creation of an Independent Audit Advisory Committee. This Committee would have the authority to make recommendations through the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions to the General Assembly on the resource requirements for OIOS. It would also be responsible for assessing the efforts of OIOS and the Board of Audit to strengthen the Organizationís internal controls and identifying possible gaps in UN oversight coverage.

141. We agree that OIOS should provide internal oversight services for small UN agencies with insufficient current oversight capacity.

142. We request the Secretary-General to prepare a comprehensive proposal on the framework for a one-time staff buy-out to modernize and improve personnel structure and quality, including an indication of costs involved and mechanisms to ensure that it achieves its intended purpose, and to submit it to the General Assembly for its decision at the sixtieth session.

143. We emphasize that ongoing management reform in the UN should make full use of information and communication technologies, helping to give greater efficiency in the use of resources and enhancing organizational capability throughout the UN system.

144. We welcome the Secretary-Generalís efforts to ensure ethical conduct, more extensive financial disclosure for UN officials and enhanced protection for whistleblowers, and propose the creation of an independent Ethics Office to provide the necessary capacity and advice on all ethics-related matters.

145. We call on the Secretary-General to fully implement the zero tolerance policy regarding sexual exploitation and abuse by UN personnel, both in headquarters and in the field. We urge the Secretary-General to finalize the modalities on victim assistance by 31 December 2005.

146. We request the Secretary-General to prepare an implementation plan for all of the above-mentioned reforms, in concert with an external, expert team and to submit it to a high-level meeting of the General Assembly in the first quarter of 2006, for consideration by a special, plenary meeting of the General Assembly during the 60th session.

147. In order to strengthen the General Assembly's ability to ensure effective, timely, and strategic-level oversight of the Secretariat, we request the President of the General Assembly to convene as necessary a geographically representative group of Permanent Representatives to serve as the interface with senior management of the Secretariat and to recommend any necessary corrective actions on management and oversight to the General Assembly.

148. We welcome the commitment of the Secretary-General to secure a just gender balance in the staffing of the Organization, including at the senior-level. We encourage the Secretary-General and all decision-making bodies to take further steps in mainstreaming a gender perspective in the policies and decisions of the Organization.

149. We strongly condemn all attacks against the safety and security of the personnel engaged in all United Nations activities. We urge states to consider becoming party to the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel and to conclude negotiations on a protocol expanding the scope of legal protection during the 60th session of the General Assembly.

System-wide coherence

150. We recognize that the United Nations brings together a unique wealth of expertise and resources on global issues. We commend the extensive experience and expertise of the various development-related organizations, agencies, funds and programmes of the United Nations System in their diverse and complementary fields of activity, and their important contributions to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and the other development objectives established by various United Nations conferences.

151. We agree to ensure stronger system-wide coherence by implementing the following measures at the policy, operational and humanitarian as well as international environmental governance, levels:


Operational and humanitarian system

International environmental governance

Regional organizations

152. We support a stronger relationship between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations pursuant to Chapter VIII of the Charter as well as in the areas of economic, social and human rights, and therefore resolve to:

Cooperation between the United Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union

153. Recognizing the important role played by the Inter-Parliamentary Union in international affairs, we call for closer cooperation between the United Nations and national parliaments through their world organization with a view to furthering the Millennium Development Goals and ensuring the effective implementation of United Nations reform.

Participation of non-governmental organizations, civil society and the private sector

154. We welcome the positive contribution of non-governmental organizations, civil society and the private sector in the promotion and implementation of development, security and human rights programmes, and stress the importance of their continued engagement with Governments, the United Nations and other international organizations in these key areas, and encourage responsible business practices such as those promoted by the United Nations Fund for International Partnerships and the Global Compact initiatives in order to ensure private sectorís contributions to the MDGs.

155. We also welcome the dialogue between these organizations and Member States as reflected by the first informal interactive hearings of the General Assembly with representatives of non-governmental organizations, civil society and the private sector.

Charter of the United Nations

156. Considering that the Trusteeship Council no longer meets and that its remaining functions are carried out by other bodies of the United Nations, in particular the General Assembly, we agree to delete Chapter XIII of the Charter and references to the Council in Chapter XII.

157. We agree to eliminate references to ďenemy StatesĒ in Articles 53, 77 and 107 of the Charter.

158. We request the Security Council to consider the composition, mandate and working methods of the Military Staff Committee and to submit a recommendation for further action to the General Assembly.

Millennium + 5 Summit | Timeline | GA President | 59th Session of the UN General Assembly