This overview highlights segments of the World Drug Report which may be of particular interest to the international media community and encourages readers to refer directly to the actual Report. This overview contains excerpts from Parts 1-7 of the World Drug Report. Excerpts have been arranged in the order of their appearance in the Report. Selected excerpts are of two kinds: first, quotes from the Report which capture the essence of the Report's main narrative, and second, useful facts and figures.
Part 1: Recent trends and developments in cultivation, production, trafficking and consumption -an overview.
On economic and political factors:
"Despite the positive implications which the increase in world trade has for prosperity and efficiency, sustained growth in international trade can complicate efforts to control the illicit drug problem." Page 17.
"In situations of armed conflict, illicit drug revenues -or the drugs themselves -are regularly exchanged for arms." Page 17.
On illicit opium poppy cultivation and heroin production:
"The production of opium poppy has more than tripled since 1985. Global hectarage devoted to illicit opium poppy cultivation expanded to about 280,000 hectares by 1996." Page 17.
"Almost 90% of the world´s illicitly produced opiates originate in the two main production areas -the Golden Crescent (Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan) and the Golden Triangle (Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand). Afghanistan and Myanmar are the two main countries of illicit opium poppy cultivation." Page 18.
"The illicit production of opium gum (worldwide) was thought to have reached 5,000 tonnes in 1996. About a third of the total is believed to be consumed as opium. More than 300 tonnes of heroin are thought to have been produced annually in the 1990s, mostly for export." Page 18.
On illicit coca leaf cultivation and cocaine production:
"Most of the world´s coca is grown in the Andean countries -Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia, which together account for more than 98% of world cocaine supplies. Half the global cultivation of approximately 220,000 hectares takes place in Peru, while Bolivia and Colombia each account for nearly one quarter of the total. Estimates of global illicit production of coca leaves suggest a doubling of production over the 1985 to 1994 period, although production seems to be down from the 1991/1992 peak level. About 1,000 tonnes of cocaine could have been manufactured from the 300,000 tonnes of coca leaf produced in 1996." Page 18.
On synthetic drugs:
"Since the mid-1980s the world has faced a wave of synthetic stimulant abuse with approximately nine times the quantity seized in 1993 than in 1978, equivalent to an average annual increase of 16%. The principal synthetic drugs manufactured clandestinely are the amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS)." Page 19.
"In contrast to the localized outbreaks of abuse in distinct countries in the past, amphetamine-type stimulants are now consumed in practically every region of the world." Page 19.
On drug trafficking:
"Throughout the past decade, seizures of most major drugs have risen. In terms of volume, the most heavily trafficked drug in the world is cannabis. In 1995, 3,000 tonnes of herbal cannabis and 1,000 tonnes of cannabis resin were seized globally. Worldwide cocaine seizures amounted to 251 tonnes in the same year. Global heroin and morphine seizures amounted to 31 tonnes and 13 tonnes respectively in 1995." Page 24.
"Using various routes which traverse Europe and Asia and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, criminal groups operating in South-West Asia supply the bulk of the European heroin market, while those operating out of South-East Asia supply the market in North America. Global seizures of opium are believed to account for a mere 10-15% of the total destined for the production of heroin." Page 25.
"The bulk of chemical substances seized globally are intended for the clandestine manufacture of cocaine. During 1990-1994, three-quarters of global precursor seizures took place in Colombia. In 1990-1994, around four billion 'potential dosage units' of precursors -or the amount of precursors needed to produce as many -were seized annually. The most significant trend in the 1990-1994 period was the growth in ephedrine seizures which ran parallel to the massive growth in the consumption of methamphetamine. In this period the seizure of ephedrine grew from 13% of global precursor seizures to 46%." Page 29.
On drug abuse:
"In recent years, illicit drug consumption has increased throughout the world. Various indicators -emergency room visits, substance abuse related mortality cases, arrests of drug abusers, number of countries reporting rising consumption levels -make clear that consumption has become a truly global phenomenon." Page 29.
"It should be emphasized that authorities in many countries still have only a vague conception of the extent of local drug abuse. In many cases, there are few, if any quantitative estimates available." Page 30.
"Less than 10% of the global population illicitly consumes drugs. Based on unofficial UNDCP estimates, the annual global prevalence rate of illicit drug consumption is likely to be in the range of 3.3% to 4.1% of the total population. The drug most widely abused is cannabis, which is consumed by about 2.5% of the global population. This equals about 140 million people worldwide." Page 31.
"From a health perspective, it can be argued that the most serious drug of abuse is heroin. In terms of actual prevalence, abuse of heroin and other opiates, however, appears to be relatively small. Statistics suggest that about 8 million people or 0.14% of the global population is taking this substance (on an annual basis)." Page 31.
"The abuse of cocaine is more widespread in terms of the total number of consumers, though more countries are affected by heroin abuse. Statistics suggest that at least 13 million people (0.23% of the global population) abuse cocaine (on an annual basis)." Page 31.
"In recent years, the most pronounced increase in drug abuse has been reported for synthetic drugs. This rise includes the abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS). Some 30 million people (0.5% of global population), more than heroin and probably more than cocaine, consume ATS worldwide." Page 31.
"Drug injecting has been identified in more than 100 countries, of which 80 report HIV infection among injecting drug users. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, UNAIDS, estimates that the global proportion of HIV infections due to contaminated injection equipment was 5 -10% in 1996." Page 32.
Part 2: Theories and interpretations of illicit drug use.
On theories of illicit drug use:
"Psychoactive substances have been used since antiquity within well-defined and socially integrated practices of medicine, religion and ceremony. These traditional patterns have largely broken down in the course of the last century and, stimulated by profit-seeking criminal organizations, have been replaced by unassimilated, culturally degenerate forms of use. Powerful though such influences have been, most people nonetheless manage to cope with economic and personal hardship, boredom and depression without recourse to illicit drugs. The question is therefore, not just why certain groups or individuals are drawn into illicit drug use, but why other, apparently similar individuals or groups, are not." Page 45.
"Theories put forward for illicit drug use are found in widely diverse disciplines from genetics through neurobiology to Freudian psychoanalysis and Marxism. Reality may be more banal." Page 45.
"Evidence is rarely, if ever, presented to substantiate theories that certain factors cause drug abuse." Page 45.
"The decision to consume drugs illicitly depends on their availability but may be facilitated by contributory risk factors which increase the likelihood of use." Page 45.
On personal factors that influence drug abuse:
"The impact of heredity is considered to be a possible risk factor that may predispose an individual to problematic drug use. Genetic predisposition does seem to have been proved for alcoholism." Page 46.
"The drug of choice may not necessarily be the drug always used -there are other important variables such as availability and price, and the fact that some individuals use the contrasting effects of one drug to offset the extreme highs or lows of another." Page 48.
On interpersonal factors:
"Research shows that the onset of drug abuse often occurs during adolescence or young adulthood, a period of transition commonly characterized by stress and anxiety." Page 49.
"Links are sometimes made between drug use and children who have grown up in homes affected by divorce, separation or bereavement. On the whole, research does not substantiate a causal effect." Page 51.
On age and socioeconomic factors:
"Most research into drug use prevalence suggests that illicit consumption declines from the late 20s onwards." Page 54.
"(In the US a study found that) the period of highest risk for initiation into marijuana was generally over by age 20, with a peak at 18. The risk for cocaine initiation appeared to peak at ages 21-24 and taper off by 30. Patterns were similar for men and women." Page 55.
Part 3: The health and social consequences of drug abuse.
On gender issues:
"Women use tranquillizers twice as much as men. One of the clearest correlations between gender and drug abuse is the recourse, especially by women in their middle or elder years, to sedatives and tranquillizers. The trend is worldwide, and seems to be growing." Page 81.
On drugs and young people:
"Most studies of drug dependence suggest that there is a correlation between problematic or dependent drug use and age of initiation: the earlier illicit drug use of any kind begins, the more likely it is that the individual will take other types of drug and will consume them more frequently." Page 83.
"In Pakistan it is reported that the share of those who started heroin use at 15-20 years has doubled to almost 24% of those surveyed; in China drug use is going up while the age of new users is going down. Page 86.
In the USA use of marijuana and cocaine among eighth grade students doubled between 1991 and 1994, with average age of initiation into marijuana use at 13.9 years." Page 86.
On the health risks of injecting drugs:
"As Asia entered the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the course of the 1980s, (intravenous drug users) became a frequent source of infection, and injecting drug use is now the second most frequent type of exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus." Page 90.
"At the global level, some 22% of the world's HIV/AIDS population inject drugs." Page 91.
On illicit drug use and crime:
"Researchers in Italy have elaborated on a possible 'environmental' link between cocaine use and crime, whereby the relationship is symbiotic or mutually reinforcing rather than one of cause and effect." Page 97.
"On the basis of all the research done in the USA and the UK, the proportion of illicit drug use which is financed by crime is thought to be between one fifth and one half." Page 98.
On drugs and work:
"Stimulants can enhance performance on simple tasks if consumers do not overestimate what they can do, but regular or intensive use is almost certain to lead to reduced performance." Page 101.
"Given that illicit drug use occurs more frequently in young people than in other age groups, it is generally assumed that the 18 -34 year-old group will have the highest prevalence within the working population." Page 102.
Part 4: The Illicit Drug Industry: production, trafficking and distribution.
On the concept of an illicit drug industry:
"The justification for calling illicit drugs an industry is firstly, that there is a great demand for the product in question, therefore a market for illicit drugs exists, and secondly, meeting this demand involves an extensive and complex process of production, manufacture , distribution and investment." Page 123.
On the structure of drug trafficking organizations:
"The most prominent trafficking organizations appear to be characterized by highly centralized management control at the upper echelons, with compartmentalization of functions and task specialization at the lower levels. A seemingly endless stream of willing recruits for the most menial tasks provides the industry with a key input for its near constant growth -inexpensive labour . In addition, the industry requires a wide range of specialized personnel including chemists, chemical engineers, pilots, communication specialists, money launderers, accountants, lawyers, security guards and 'hit men'." Page 123.
On profits in the illicit drug industry:
"The profits to be made in the illicit drugs industry are such that they are barely dented by large scale seizures of the product on its way to market. In the course of the 1990's, it is thought that about one third of all the cocaine trafficked has been intercepted, yet the industry has continued to expand. Traffickers have ample incentive to bear the risks and costs of interception, since profits on a mere fraction of the drugs successfully trafficked can cover the costs of the lost cargo." Page 123.
"Many estimates have been made of the total revenue accruing to the illicit drug industry -most range from US$300bn to US$500bn. However a growing body of evidence suggests that the true figure lies somewhere around the US$400bn level. A US$400bn turnover would be equivalent to approximately 8 per cent of total international trade. In 1994 this figure would have been larger than the international trade in iron and steel and motor vehicles and about the same size as the total international trade in textiles." Page 124.
"(One study) estimates gross profit margins at retail level of methamphetamine, crack cocaine and heroin at 240%, 300% and 100% of wholesale prices, respectively." Page 124.
On the production stage of the illicit drug industry:
"In Peru there is evidence that trafficking organizations have formed 'strategic alliances' with guerrilla groups to ensure the supply of coca leaves to Colombian manufacturing sites." Page 128.
"Unlike drugs with a botanical starting point, synthetic drugs can be manufactured from chemicals which can be found or produced almost anywhere in the world; this means that they do not need to be trafficked over the distances required in the production of plant-based drugs. Not only does this reduce risk but reduces trafficking and input costs as well, allowing for much larger gross profit margins." Page 129.
"In the case of illicit drugs, it is assumed that the highest proportion of costs associated with the industry are transaction costs rather than those of 'factor inputs' such as land, labour, or capital." Page 130.
On organized crime and the illicit drug industry:
"The most important role of organized crime in this sector is to provide and invest capital -for example the accumulation of profits from the smuggling of cigarettes and of emeralds enabled the Sicilian Mafia and the Colombian Medellin cartel respectively to make sizeable investments in the drugs trade." Page 133.
"The cartels finance the cultivation of coca plants in the Andes by Peruvian, Colombian and Bolivian peasants. Under cartel supervision, peasants process dried leaves into a masticated sticky mass called cocaine base. Pilots fly the cocaine base to clandestine airstrips in Colombia's vast central forests. There, in laboratories -often crude thatched huts -the cocaine base is washed with ether and acetone to become pure cocaine. The cocaine, now a white powder, is packaged and then smuggled to the retail markets. The cartel delivers the product to its wholesale distributors abroad, who in turn sell to a variety of independent local gangs and individual retailers." Page 133.
On money laundering:
"The need to legitimize ill-gotten gains has grown in proportion to the expansion of the illicit drug industry and to the propensity of criminals to operate in the legitimate business world." Page 137.
"It would be wrong to assume that offshore centres are peripheral markets and are used only for specialized and sometimes illegitimate services. By some estimates, more than half the world's stock of money transits through offshore centres, about US$ 2 trillion of private wealth (20% of total private wealth) is invested in these centres and around 75% of the captive insurance industry is located offshore. In 1993, banks had US$1.5 trillion of external assets invested offshore, representing about 30% of those in industrial countries, while offshore-based investment funds had around US$1 trillion of assets under management." Page 141.
"Two trends have characterized money laundering in recent years. The first of these is the increasing professionalization of the function. The internationalization of money laundering is the second major trend, and has been brought about by two factors -first, the integration of financial markets into a complex, global entity; and, second, the effort by traffickers to avoid detection by concentrating operations in countries where enforcement is weak and legislation absent or embryonic." Page 141.
"Overall, perhaps the single most significant impact of money laundering on the legitimate economy is that it undermines the integrity of the financial system and this, depending on the extent and the rapidity of the loss of confidence, can have devastating consequences at national and international level." Page 142.
On the environmental effects of illicit crop cultivation:
"Each year, using unsafe and illegal methods, cocaine and heroin processors dump vast quantities of toxic chemical substances and waste by-products of the extraction process into countless small streams, rivers and water courses, poured into local sewage systems or septic tanks, or buried underground." Page 147.
"The destruction of Amazonian forests for coca cultivation contributes to the loss of rare plant species from which future pharmaceutical drugs and other human benefits may be developed. One in six prescription drugs has a tropical plant source as its active chemical." Page 148.
"The intensification of coca cultivation in the Huallaga flood plain and adjacent low hills, as well as vigorous expansion into highland forest environments, is responsible for the annihilation of nearly one million hectares of tropical forest resources." Page 148.
Part 5: Drugs and public policy.
On drug laws:
"Like any legislation that touches on the domain of personal behaviour, drug control laws are problematic and often controversial. The three principal areas of controversy can be summarized as follows: the relationship of morality to the role and function of law; the boundary between the private and the public domain; and the attempt to universalize drug control legislation." Page 155.
On drug policy:
"Overall, there is growing consensus that more should be done to understand and reduce the demand for drugs and that new principles of demand reduction be elaborated. The blurring of former distinctions between so-called 'producer' and 'consumer' countries has prompted a policy shift in many countries away from a polarized view of the drug addict as either helpless victim or as wanton criminal, and towards a fusion of criminal law with social and welfare concerns that restores both individual and collective responsibility, whilst increasing the repression of trafficking organizations." Page 161.
On the legalization debate:
"Amidst perceptions of an impasse in the drug policy field, numerous pressure groups have emerged, calling for changes to international drug control through the relaxation of prohibition -for example, through modifications to the existing drug control Conventions - and through a new emphasis on measures to reduce the harm associated with illicit drug use." Page 184.
"Despite major law enforcement expenditures, which ranged in the USA from US$ 4.7 billion in 1988 to US$ 12.3 billion in 1993, the street price of both cocaine and heroin decreased, indicating an increased availability. Nevertheless, prohibitionists believe that the absence of prohibition would have created problems even worse than its presence, perhaps analogous to the health consequences of the abuse of the legal drugs, alcohol and tobacco." Page 189.
"A striking aspect of the legalization debate is that it takes place almost exclusively in and about western industrialized nations, and the availability of literature on the subject reflects this." Page 190.
"Making powerful and relatively untried mind-altering drugs of dependence widely available would be a high risk venture. In contrast to heroin, which can be substituted by methadone in dependency treatment, there is no such thing as a maintenance dose for cocaine or crack cocaine, nor have substitute substances had proven efficacy in detoxification therapy." Page 196.
"Legalization would not necessarily end the narcotics black market." Page 197.
"Carried to its ultimate conclusion, insistence on the right to take drugs could be interpreted such that the community is absolved of responsibility for those who knowingly damage their own welfare. The result could be even greater devastation of many sectors of the world's population." Page 198.
"Regarding legalization, there seems to be little call so far for such a radical overturn of the current system. Where surveys or opinion polls have been carried out -in the USA and Italy for example -legalization has been rejected by the overwhelming majority of those questioned." Page 199.
Part 6: Strategies and Programmes
"Supply reduction strategies concentrate on measures to break the cycle of drug production from source to consumer; they include crop eradication, substitution and alternative development, the detection of illicit laboratories, the interdiction of drug consignments and of chemicals used in their manufacture within and across air, sea and land borders; market disruption strategies aimed at dismantling criminal organizations; and financial strategies such as asset-tracing and confiscation measures aimed at depriving the criminal of ill-gotten gains. Far more than demand-side interventions, which tend to be implemented at local or national level, the efficacy of supply reduction measures is critically dependent upon international cooperation." Page 203.
On drug abuse prevention campaigns:
"Exaggerating the dangerous qualities of drugs undermines the credibility both of the message and of the message giver, such that any other information on the same subject or from the same source may be disregarded if the recipient learns that he or she has been misled. Access to a set of accurate and objective drug facts should prevent the recourse to alternative sources of information and, if correctly delivered, can provide the basis on which a refusal to take drugs can be justified." Page 204.
"Many young people know from direct experience or from their circle of acquaintances that drugs are not always incompatible with success and vitality, and may see illegality as superficially attractive." Page 205.
On treatment and rehabilitation:
"Treating drug abuse goes far beyond the provision of a medical remedy for a physiological malfunction: in most cases, the drug ostensibly causing the problem is only one element of a complex array of problems needing attention. Amongst these is the ambiguity inherent in dependency: the patient desires the cure but may resist the treatment, and needs different kinds of help to live without drugs." Page 213.
On needle exchange programmes:
"Needle/syringe exchange services have increasingly gained acceptability in prevention programmes in the attempt to stem the spread of blood-borne diseases among injecting drug users and through them to their sexual partners, and also because they reduce the number of discarded needles in places where they may cause harm. (This practice is now a criminal offence in several countries). Objections have been raised on the grounds that syringe/needle exchanges may actively encourage drug users to inject or to inject more frequently, or that, at the very least, they do not discourage injection." Page 215
On methadone treatment:
"There have been many evaluations of methadone maintenance programmes in the USA, Australia and Europe. One of the most significant outcomes is a drop in criminality. An evaluation of US programmes showed a drop in the mean number of crime days per non-incarcerated year from a range of 96-131 to that of 24-70 between the period of dependence prior to admission and the period of treatment." Page 219.
On eradication, substitution and alternative development:
"Supply reduction strategies focus on the connections between supplier and consumer and between the criminal and illicit profits. The types of measure used depend upon the precise purpose of the strategy and point in the supply chain at which it is aimed. Three basic types of intervention employed to restrict the supply of plant-based drugs at source are eradication, substitution and alternative development." Page 220.
"Eradication of illicitly cultivated crops can be done by mechanical destruction (slashing or uprooting); by burning; by applying chemical herbicides or by biological (including genetic) elimination. It can be either forced, or through compensatory schemes developed on the basis of payments per hectare eradicated." Page 221.
"The international community has a key responsibility to ensure the necessary pre-conditions for successful alternative development. External support through coordinated and directed programming of development aid is of course a key factor that can establish a local market environment that is conducive to successful alternative development." Page 224.
"The crucial lesson learned thus far is that inasmuch as there may be an imminent need to reduce illicit crop cultivation, the alternatives require time and patience." Page 227.
On anti-trafficking measures:
"The interdiction of drug consignments as they are smuggled within and across borders is a formidable task; interception rates vary widely between regions and for different drugs; however estimated global interception rates are around 10-15% for heroin and 30% for cocaine in recent years." page 230.
"Detecting illicit cargo is almost impossible without prior intelligence." Page 231.
On supply reduction strategies:
"Ultimately, supply reduction strategies must be judged by how they affect consumer demand, through the decreased availability of drugs, through an increase in price or through the deterrent effect of the criminal law." Page 237.
Part 7: Country Profiles.
On countries selected:
"The purpose of the country profiles is to give a more complete picture of the drug situation in eight selected countries. The choice of 'core countries' had to be restricted for reasons of space, was made on the basis of geographical variation, differences in drug problems and policies, and because the countries concerned regularly collect and publish data on illicit drugs." Page 243.
"The practices and methods of the government agencies and survey researchers vary. As a consequence, the quality and accuracy of the indicators are not identical between countries." Page 244.
"Because the set of countries is small and is not a random sample, the results of these summary charts cannot be generalized to the global level." Page 247
On data on illicit drugs:
"The clandestine nature of the activities at hand further complicate a rigorous assessment. Estimations of global trends in illicit drug use inevitably involve a certain amount of simplification. The closer one looks into these issues, the more apparent is the need to improve data quality." Page 33
"The illicit drug-related hospitalization data from the most populous state of New South Wales show that the 15 -34 age group requires the highest level of treatment. By the end of 1991, injecting drug users, either homo-or heterosexual, accounted only for 3.6% of all notified AIDS deaths. " Page 254.
"Cannabis was the drug most frequently mentioned in drug law offences, accounting for 82-85% of the total of cannabis, cocaine, heroin, amphetamine and LSD-related offences during 1990-1994. Amphetamine and heroin offences represented 8-10% and 6-8%, respectively, of the total during the same period. Cocaine and LSD offences were each 1% or less of the total." Page 256.
"According to government sources, the detected area under cultivation rose from 12,000 -13,000 hectares in early 1990s to 39,800 hectares in 1994 and 45,000 hectares in 1995." Page 264.
"One indicator of the extent of the manufacturing (and of control activities) in Colombia is that during the 1990-1994 period, Colombia seized more precursors per capita of the population than any other country in the world." Page 264.
"More and more dependent users are requesting treatment in government treatment agencies -the numbers more than doubled in four years, reaching 72,000 in June 1995. Heroin causes the majority of treatment requests, although its share was smaller in 1994 than in the previous years (88%)." Page 271.
"Personal drug use and possession of small amounts of any drug were decriminalized as a result of a 1993 referendum...It seems that the 1993 referendum has resulted in a more permissive control policy concerning drug-dependent individuals, but not in the case of traffickers." Page 277.
"In 1993 the Pakistan government conducted the most recent national survey on drug abuse. On the basis of interviews with drug consumers and community leaders it was estimated that there were 3 million drug abusers in Pakistan, of whom 51% were taking heroin." Page 284.
"Pakistan is a significant producer and transit country for opiates and cannabis products. There is evidence that considerable amounts of Afghan opiates and cannabis are either consumed in Pakistan by a significant drug-user population, or transit the country on their way to world markets." Page 286.
"In 1992, illicit drug export revenues were estimated to be US$1.5 billion, of which heroin is considered to account for US$1.3 billion."Page 287.
"During the 1990s, 250 -380 new seropositive persons have been detected annually, 10% of whom are injecting drug users (IDUs). In the 1980s IDUs represented 23% of all seropositive cases." Page 296.
"The Netherlands is the main source of amphetamines for Swedish trafficking, but an increasing amount is being supplied by Poland. Around half the amphetamine seized in 1994 was of Polish origin. Since 1993, ATS seizures have outnumbered those of cannabis. In 1993 and 1994, Sweden ranked second out of all European countries in terms of total quantity of ATS seized." Page 298.
"About 45,000 new illicit drug consumers are reported each year, and tend to be 20 to 35 years old." Page 305.
"Illicit drug manufacturing and trafficking organizations operate actively in the border regions between the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Thailand, an area known as the Golden Triangle." Page 307.
"The street value of all drugs seized in 1994 was around US$ 20-24 million, and that of heroin was US$ 6.5-8.7 million." Page 307.
On the United Kingdom:
"The share of 16-29 year-old males who took illicit drugs in 1991 is almost double that of females. Registered drug abusers are also predominantly male, e.g. 75%, in 1994. Males are also more often offered drugs than females." Page 313.
"Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. According to the BCS study, 14% of 12-59 year-olds had tried it at least once and 5% had used it in 1991. Of the 16-29 year-olds, about a quarter had tried cannabis and half of them had used in it 1991." Page 313.
"The number of drug addicts notified to the Home Office has steadily increased for several years. It almost doubled between 1990 -1994. Page 314.
"Between 1990 and 1994 there was an eight-fold increase in the number of ecstasy and a substantial increase in the number of other ATS seizures, which may reflect their growing popularity as 'dance drugs'." Page 316.
On the United States of America:
"In terms of drug seizures, drug interdiction efforts seem to be most successful in tracking down cocaine - 84% of the drug seizures converted into dosage units were those of cocaine in 1994. The other drugs seized in considerable amounts were cannabis (10,6% of seizures), heroin (3,5%) and stimulants (1,6%). The interception rate of cocaine is thought to range from 20 - 30%." Page 329.
"The balance between federal demand reduction and supply reduction activities has shifted over the years: in 1981, 46% was spent on demand reduction, compared to 38% in 1994. It has been suggested that when state funds are taken into consideration, supply reduction measures may account for at least 80% of the expenditure. Federal drug control spending soared between 1981 and 1994. In 1995 and 1996, the federal drug control budget surpassed US$ 13 billion. In 1995, this figure amounted to 0.9% of the estimated US government budget expenditure." Page 331.
"The US National Drug Control Strategy distinguishes 'casual' or occasional drug users from 'hard-core' drug users....Treatment and rehabilitation, as well as law enforcement measures, are considered more important in dealing with the hard-core drug users. The first Clinton administration increased efforts to provide treatment services to those in need, recognizing that in many cases several courses of treatment are necessary before full recovery. More attention has also been given to the recent growth of drug abuse among adolescents." Page 331.