Information Sheet No. 2

UNDCP

United Nations General Assembly
Special Session on the World Drug Problem

New York, 8-10 June 1998


KEY STATISTICS:  ILLICIT DRUG PRODUCTION, TRAFFICKING AND CONSUMPTION

A. Production

Opiates
Global cultivation estimates of opium poppy and production estimates of opium *

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Cultivation in hectares 267,754 286,368 265,216 289,355 283,049 266,478 271,999 265,741
Production in tons 3,830 4,314 4,140 4,693 5,519 4,486 4,389 4,861

Sources: UNDCP, Annual Reports Questionnaires; UNDCP estimates.

Coca
Global cultivation estimates of coca bush and production estimates of coca leaf *

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Cultivation in hectares 288,400 234,700 190,600 203,900 189,600 194,000 178,300 179,200
Production in tons 363,981 386,228 377,114 368,833 315,420 322,042 311,420 302,523

Sources: UNDCP, Annual Reports Questionnaires; UNDCP estimates.


B. Distribution and Illicit Trafficking

Heroin

Global seizures of heroin

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
Tons 23.4 21.4 25.0 26.7 29.1 31.1 28.2
Index (1985 = 100) 165 151 176 188 206 219 199

Source: UNDCP, Annual Reports Questionnaires.

Cocaine

Global seizures of cocaine

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
Tons 288.9 322.7 274.6 268.6 319.4 288.8 315.5
Index (1985 = 100) 534 596 507 496 590 534 583

Source: UNDCP, Annual Reports Questionnaires.

Global seizures of cannabis

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996*
Marijuana in tons 2,422 1,800 2,330 3,408 2,206 3,044 2,524
Marijuana (Index 1985=100) 52 39 50 74 48 66 55
Hashish in tons 641 890 662 848 977 1,060 813
Hashish (Index 1985=100) 177 246 183 234 270 293 225

Source: UNDCP, Annual Reports Questionnaires (* preliminary figures).

Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS)

The main trafficking areas are Europe, the Far East region and North America. Trafficking in ATS takes place mainly within the same region. However, trafficking of ATS precursors (diversions) tends to be inter-regional.

Global seizures of ATS (excluding ecstasy)

  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
In kilograms 1,380 3,457 3,383 5,124 5,517 5,474 14,566
Index: (1985 = 100) 39 99 96 146 157 156 415

Source: UNDCP, Annual Reports Questionnaires.

C. Consumption

Overview:  Estimated total number of drug abusers* in the 1990s
                     (annual prevalence, i.e. use at least once in the last twelve months)
  Estimated total (million people) in per cent of total population
Heroin and other opiate-type substances 8.0 0.14 per cent
Cocaine 13.3 0.23 per cent
Cannabis 141.2 2.45 per cent
Hallucinogens 25.5 0.44 per cent
Amphetamine-type stimulants 30.2 0.52 per cent
Sedative type substances** 227.4 3.92 per cent

* Figures cannot be added to arrive at a total number of drug abusers. Poly-drug abuse has become a common phenomenon in almost all countries. In several countries, total illicit drug consumption is
   estimated to be about one third higher than total cannabis consumption.


** This figure may be an overestimate. The total number has been extrapolated from a small number of countries reporting to UNDCP.

Sources: UNDCP, Annual Reports Questionnaires; UNDCP mission reports, UNDCP Country Profiles, UNDCP country Programme Frameworks; United States Department of State, International Narcotics Control Strategy Reports.

Heroin

Cocaine

Cannabis

Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS)

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* Note on Sources

This Information Sheet compiles globally aggregated data on production, trafficking and abuse of illicit drugs, on the basis of information provided to UNDCP by governments. It is complemented by data published by other international organizations, such as Interpol; regional organizations, such as the European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction, national agencies, such as the United States Department of State, International Narcotics Control Strategy Reports; information published in scientific literature and, whenever necessary for the construction of global aggregates, by UNDCP estimates to fill data gaps. Resulting aggregates are unlikely to be precise, but do serve the purpose of illustrating likely magnitudes involved. It goes without saying that knowledge on any clandestine activity is always preliminary in nature and figures have to be constantly adapted as new information becomes available.