Adobe Photoshop Basics
    + Type and Color Tools
Type Tools
To insert text into your document, simply click on the Type tool icon on your toolbox and click on the area of your document where you want to insert text.

The cursor will highlight and will prompt you to start typing. To change the character font, size and style you can use the top Menu (shown below)or the Character palette (shown on the right).

To edit an existing block of text, select the Type tool from the toolbox, and position the cursor on the text, it will identify the text and allow you to edit it.

You can apply different styles and formats within one text layer, to do this, you need to select the text with the cursor and apply the changes. If you need to apply one formatting style to ALL the text in the layer, than simply select the layer from the layer window, and make the choices you need.
Character Palette
To Display: Choose Window > Show Character

NOTE: Bitmap Type
Paint and image-editing programs such as Photoshop create bitmap type composed of pixels. The sharpness of bitmap type depends on the type size and the resolution of the image. For example, type that has been scaled up may show jagged edges.

NOTE: Photoshop disables many features of its interface while the type tool is selected, for example, if you want to Save or use another command like Zoom in or out, it will not allow you to do it unless you de-select the type tool!

Color Tools and Palettes
A. Foreground color B. Default Colors C. Switch Colors D. Background color

There are several ways to change color. To use the toolbox, just click on either the foreground or background square (See image above), the following Color Picker will appear:

Select the desired color with the cursor. Move the Color Slide up and down to view the range of color levels available for the selected color component.
You can see the color values in various color modes: HSB, RGB, LAB, CMYK (percentages) and Hexadecimal (Web values).

TIP: You have the option to only display Web Colors, click on the Only Web Colors checkbox on the lower left side of the Color Picker

Color Palette

Choose Windows > Show Color

Click on the palette options arrow on the top right side of the window and choose a color mode set of Sliders..
There is another tool to help you choose colors from, this is the Swatches palette. Most of the time it shows within the color palette, as a tab. The swatches palette is a quick access to pick colors, this way you avoid having to click on the color toolbox, open the color picker to change the color.

As any other palette, you can click on the palette option arrow to see more options. For example, you can select "Web Safe" from the drop-down menu in order to see the so called Browser Safe colors, see graphic on the right.
About Browser Safe Colors
Web browsers software is based on an 8-bit, 216-color palette. This palette was originally created by Netscape to solve the problem of displaying color graphics in a similar way on different operating systems (such as Macintosh, Windows, and UNIX). Because a majority of the Web audience years ago had 8-bit display screens, 256 colors was the upper limit for the color palette. The 216 colors chosen by Netscape are identical in both the Macintosh and Windows system palettes.

Most Web users nowadays have computers and monitors set to "thousands" or "millions" of colors, so the importance of the so-called Web-safe palette has sharply diminished in the past few years, so there is no longer any need to restrict your color choices to the 216 Web-safe colors.
Paint Bucket
The Paint Bucket tool allows you to fill similarly colored areas with the foreground color.
Just click inside the selected area. The foreground color you
chose will fill the selected area.
It's hidden tool within the Toolbox is the Gradient tool.