This Manual is addressed mainly to population analysts possessing limited technical means especially with a view to its uses in less developed countries. While it does not rely on computer technology, the suggested methods may be applied using simple software. The projections of urban and rural population are explained on the assumption that methods of projection of a country's total population, or its total population by groups of sex and age, are already known, and that such projections have in fact already been implemented. Those methods have been dealt with in Manual III. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the appraisal of accuracy in basic statistics, a subject elaborated in Manual II. Manual VIII is also related to Projection Methods for Integrating Population Variables into Development Planning.